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Adani Institute of Infrastructure Management

Urban Planning & Management


Term Paper on Mumbai
4/19/2013

Kumar Abhishek PGPIM-12-13

Table of Contents
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Economy .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Socio-Economic Features ................................................................................................................................. 3 Demographic Features ..................................................................................................................................... 4 Occupations ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 Urban Governance ............................................................................................................................................... 5 Municipal corporation of Greater Mumbai ....................................................................................................... 5 Organizational Framework ............................................................................................................................... 5 Legal Framework:............................................................................................................................................. 5 Administration at BMC Mumbai ....................................................................................................................... 5 Key Parastatal Agencies ................................................................................................................................... 6 Urban Planning & Development ........................................................................................................................... 6 Urban Service Delivery ....................................................................................................................................... 10 Solid Waste Management .............................................................................................................................. 10 Critic on Sanitation facilities ........................................................................................................................... 12 Maharashtra Water Supply and Sewerage Board ............................................................................................... 12 Future Development Perspective ....................................................................................................................... 15 Bibliography:...................................................................................................................................................... 19

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Introduction
Mumbai, formerly Bombay, is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra is the commercial and financial capital of India. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million. Along with the neighboring urban areas, including the cities of Navi Mumbai and Thane, it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world. Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbor. In 2009, Mumbai was named an Alpha world city. It is also the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, West or Central Asia.

Economy
Mumbai accounts for slightly more than 6% of India's economy contributing 10% of factory employment, 30% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of foreign trade and rupees 40,000 crores (US $10 billion) in corporate taxes to the Indian economy. Headquarters of a number of Indian financial institutions such as the Bombay Stock Exchange, Reserve Bank of India, National Stock Exchange, the Mint, as well as numerous Indian companies such as the Tata Group, Essel Group and Reliance Industries are located in Mumbai.

Socio-Economic Features
During last 35 years there has been a continuing shift of population from Mumbai city District to Mumbai Suburban District and now further to part of Thane District.

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Demographic Features
According to the 1991 census, the demographic features observed in Greater Mumbai are as follows: Total number of households Total Population Total Male Population Total Female Population Sex Ratio Urban Population Population density Literacy Rate Male Literacy rate Female Literacy rate : 2,051,000 : 9,926,000 : 5,460,000 : 4,466,000 : 818 : 9,926,000 : 16,461 : 82.50 % : 87.87 % : 75.80 %

Occupations
Mumbai has traditionally owed its prosperity largely to its textile mills and its seaport till the 1980s. These are now increasingly being replaced by industries employing more skilled labour such as engineering, diamond polishing, healthcare and information technology. Mumbai is also the primary financial centre for India, hosting both the major Indian stock exchanges (BSE and NSE), brokerages, asset management companies (including majority of the mutual fund companies), headquarters of most Indian state-owned and commercial banks, as well as the financial & monetary regulatory authorities of India (SEBI and RBI among other institutions). Below is a list of major industries located in Mumbai: Hindi film industry Automotive parts Utensils Biscuits (Cookies) Clothing Textile mills Pencils Tractors Pharmaceuticals Import & Export IT Health Care Mumbai and its hinterland have developed at a fast pace and contributed substantially to the both national and states economy. There is however a downturn in its economy and decline in the quality of life, owing to unplanned immigration, decline of manufacturing base, shifting of business to more competing cities, and unemployment, slums and a host of environmental and health problems. Greater Mumbai holds 12 million people with urban poor comprising around 50%, while Mumbai Metropolitan Region has a population of 19 million.

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Urban Governance
Municipal corporation of Greater Mumbai
The primary agency responsible for urban governance in Greater Mumbai is the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) or Brihan Mumbai Mahanagar Palika (BMC). MCGM is the most affluent and the most efficient local body in the country and one of the biggest local governments in the Asian continent. It is responsible for provision of municipal services, provision of infrastructure including public transport and supply of electricity. Its planning department is responsible for the Development Plan of the City and enforcement of the Development Control Regulations. It is not directly involved in public housing; however, it is responsible for providing basic amenities to slums, which are encroaching on its own lands or other lands within its jurisdiction.

Organizational Framework
Two key positions within the MCGM hold prestige and power are the Mayor of Mumbai and the Commissioner. The Mayor heads the electoral wing while the Commissioner heads the executive wing. The Mayor of Mumbai has a functional role of chairing the Corporations meetings as well as the ceremonial role. Besides the Mayor, a Deputy Mayor is appointed by the Corporation. The Mayor and Deputy Mayor positions are co terminus with the term of the office of the elected councilors. The electoral wing comprises of the councilors and the Committees where the elected councilors exercise their general authority through budgetary and financial controls by determining taxes and allocating expenditure, approving contracts and other financial proposals and approving appointments to senior posts. The Corporation has a total strength of 227 Corporators, in which women have 30 % reservation.

Legal Framework:
MCGM is governed by the Mumbai Municipal Corporation (MMC) Act, which enshrines the role and responsibilities/duties of the Corporation and functions of the statutory and other posts in delivering the duties.

Administration at BMC Mumbai


Municipal Commissioner: is appointed by the State Government under BMC Act 54 and heads MCGM. He is responsible for forming and implementing the various schemes planned by the State Government. Additional Municipal Commissioner: is appointed under Section 54 by the State Government. He is responsible to look after the departments assigned to him the Municipal Commissioner. Deputy Municipal Commissioner: A number of Deputy Municipal Commissioners assists Municipal Commissioner / Additional Municipal Commissioners in their work. They are selected by the MCGM under various sections of BMC Act after getting approval from the state government. Assistant Commissioner: Assistant commissioners head local wards and assist in smoothly running day-to-day activities. There are 24 wards in Mumbai city, each is headed by an Assistant commissioner (earlier known as ward officers.) The appointments of Assistant commissioners are based upon the recommendations of Maharashtra Public Services. MCGM has an employee strength of 1,40,000 and an annual budget of Rs.26,581 crores.

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Key Parastatal Agencies

Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA) Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA)

Urban Planning & Development


MMRDA was set up on the 26th January, 1975 under the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority Act, 1974 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region comprising of Mumbai and its influence area. Its activities are: Development planning for the region Provision of regional infrastructure Promotion of growth centres Provision of development finance Development Co Ordination The MMRDA prepares plans; formulates policies and programmes; implements projects and helps in directing investments in the region. In particular, it conceives, promotes and monitors the key projects for developing new growth centres and brings about improvement in sectors like transport, housing, water supply and environment in the Region. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR)/ Mumbai Metropolitan Area is the metropolitan area consisting of the metropolis of Mumbai and its hinterland, it consists of seventeen municipal corporations and a thousand villages. The region has an area of 4,355 km and a population of 1.9 crores in 2001. It is linked with Mumbai through the Mumbai Suburban Railway system and a large network of roads.

Basic information on MMR

Greater Mumbai

Rest of MMR

AREA (Sq. Km.) Population (in millions) (Census 2001 Provisional ) Villages (1991) Municipal Corporations (December 2010) Municipal Councils (December 2010)

468 11.91 Nil 1 Nil

3,887 5.90 982 6

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Map of Mumbai Metropolitan Region

Organization Chart

Projects undertaken by MMRDA


Mumbai Urban Transport Project: The first Bombay Urban Transport Project (BUTP) commenced in

March 1977 and was completed in June, 1984. The total cost of BUTP was Rs.391.4 million including a US $ 25 million loan from the World Bank. Mumbai Urban Development Project in collaboration with SN Construction Corp .: The World Bank assisted Mumbai Urban Development Project (MUDP) was successfully implemented during 1985-94. Shifting of Wholesale Markets: With a view to reducing congestion in South Mumbai, the State Government and the MMRDA decided to shift the wholesale markets located therein. In pursuance of this policy decision, onion and potato wholesale market, the wholesale markets of sugar, spices condiments, dry fruits and Iron & Steel markets have already been shifted to Navi Mumbai. Shifting of wholesale textile markets from South Mumbai to Bandra-Kurla Complex is under consideration. Wadala Truck Terminal: The Truck Terminal currently under development by the MMRDA at Wadala, Mumbai will have for the first time a centralized facility for the transport of goods by road. Designed for a peak capacity of 3,000 trucks at a time, the truck terminal will have offices and godowns of transport companies, easy loading and unloading facilities, large parking areas for idle trucks and other related

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facilities like banks, restaurants, dormitories for essential staff, dispensaries, motor spare part shops, petrol / HSD pumps, repair garages, workshops, etc.

(Existing Wadala Truck Depo) (Proposed Depo)

Mono-Rail Map

Mumbai Monorail: With the objective, to support public rapid transit system such as suburban rail system

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and metro rail system and where public rapid transit system is not available or impossible to provide such system and where widening of roads is not possible due to structures on either sides, Mono Rail system is proposed to be implemented by MMRDA/GOM. Mahim Nature Park: When people come today to the MNP they find it difficult to believe that, the forest they see before their very eyes was once a city garbage dump. Today experts from around the world visit the MNP to study how so many trees could grow on a dumping ground used for decades by the Municipal Corporation of Mumbai. Mumbai Urban Transport Project: MMRDA has formulated a multi modal project viz Mumbai Urban Transport Project (MUTP) to bring about improvement in traffic and transportation situation in the MMR with the World Bank assistance. Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project: MMRDA initiated the process for an ambitious project known as Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project (MUIP) with the main objective of road network improvements and efficient traffic dispersal system in Greater Mumbai. Niramal MMR Abhiyan: The Central Government has decided to eradicate the practice of open defecation. It is decided to construct about 24,000 Toilet seats at the estimated cost of approximately Rs. 250 crores in the jurisdiction of 5 Municipal corporations and 13 Municipal Councils falling in jurisdiction of Metropolitan Region. Mumbai Skywalks: MMRDA has already planned construction of 36 nos. of Skywalks in and around Mumbai Metropolitan Region. SATIS: MUTP Project Appraisal Document included 6 Station Area Traffic Improvement Scheme (SATIS) under road compound. The SATIS include improved commuter and pedestrian dispersal facilities, transport integration, parking management, intersection improvements, and traffic circulation and management in the suburban station area. The objective is to provide well planned traffic integration and dispersal system in and around suburban station area including inter model interchange. The SATIS would also address the issues

such as parking management, traffic movement around the station and general improvement to the environment. Mumbai Metro Rail Project: The Government of Maharashtra (GOM) through MMRDA, in order to improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai and to cater to the future travel needs in the next 2-3 decades has been exploring the viability of various alternative Mass Transit systems which are efficient, economically viable, environment friendly etc. In this context, a detailed feasibility study was carried out under the IndoGerman Technical Co-operation by entrusting the consultancy work to TEWET in association with DE-Consult & TCS, during 1997-2000. The study recommended a mass transit corridor from Andheri to Ghatkopar as potentially bankable and economically viable, after examining a number of alternative corridors and alignments. This study was updated by MMRDA in May 2004. In the mean time, DMRC (Delhi Metro Rail Corporation) prepared the master plan for Mumbai metro, wherein they have recommended to extend Andheri-Ghatkopar section to Versova as part of the master plan and identified as priority corridor for implementation. The GOM declared the project as public vital infrastructure project and designated MMRDA as Project Implementation Agency (PIA).

Mahim Nature Park

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Urban Service Delivery


Solid Waste Management
The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) is formally responsible for the management of waste in the city. The prevailing approach has been one of collection and disposal that is, garbage is collected from communities by the municipal authorities and disposed off at the three main dumping sites that are currently servicing the city. Mumbai has garbage (MSW) production to the tune of 6500 Tons per day. It also produces nearly 2500 Tons of construction and demolition (C&D) waste per day.

Recycling
Generation and Collection and Transportation

Storage

Treatment and Disposal

Residences Services and Roads Commercials Hotels and Restaurants Slums Construction Activities

House to House Collection Street Sweeping Beach Cleaning Community Basis Municipal and Private Vehicles 3 Transfer Stations (Kurla, Versova & Mahalaxmi)

Dumping of Waste at 3 Landfill sites

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The collection and transportation of the huge amount of waste is a matter of concern for any Corporation. MCGM operates a huge fleet of 983 Municipal and private vehicles for collection of waste making 1396 number of trips each day. The three transfer stations at Mahalaxmi, Kurla and Versova support intermediate transfer of waste from the surrounding areas upto the dumping grounds. Transportation Vehicles Deployed:

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Type Compactor (Big) Compactor (Small) Small Tipper (1 Tonner) Dumper Placers (Skip Vehicles) Tippers (8 Tons) Stationary Compactors
Source: MCGM

Municipal Outsourced Total 117 89 90 10 313 258 106 430 258 106 89 90 10

Total Manpower Deployed Sweepers and Motor Loaders Supervisory and Admin Staff 28,821 Nos 1592 Nos.
Source: MCGM

Initiatives taken by MCGM in sectors of Collection and Transportation Purchase of standardized community bins 6000 Wheeled bins with lid 1.1m3 capacity Bins of uniform design amenable to mechanical loading and unloading 20000 nos. of dual litter-bins of 50 liters capacity

120 ltr, 240 ltr, 360 ltr capacity wheeled bins

50 ltr capacity Pole-Mounted litter bin

Mechanized beach cleaning machine

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Mechanized sweeping of highways and beaches Cleaning of all major beaches is outsourced on BOOT basis Use of beach cleaning machines is mandatory

Critic on Sanitation facilities


Sanitation infrastructure at places of mass congregation Although there has been no serious outbreak of any epidemic in the city during the last thirty years, and there has been a daily quality monitoring of water supply, sanitation facilities are inadequate. It is estimated that more than 40,000 toilets are required to achieve a ratio of 1:25 families. The Slum Sanitation Programme of the BMC may provide some relief, but is has serious limitations to reach out to all the population. Innovative and non-conventional approach to sanitation is required with sufficient financial allocations and political back-up. Sewer treatment and disposal facilities proposed under Bombay III BSDP at Lovegrove, Bandra, Ghatkopar, Bhandup, Malad and Versova need to be put on high priority and the bottlenecks need to be sorted out at the earliest. Mumbai attracts large domestic tourist traffic. Also it has a number of locations of mass congregation. It is essential that these tourist and mass congregation locations are provided with adequate water and sanitation infrastructure. Mobile sanitation facilities can be one of the options. Alternatively, permanent sanitation infrastructure needs to be made available at these locations for the visitors to ensure health safety for the local residents. For example Shivaji Park, Girgaum, Dadar and Juhu Chowpatty, Mahalaxmi, Haji Ali etc. Nallah Cleaning and De-silting The settlements along the nallahs are vulnerable to floods. Also, in the absence of training, soling and regular de-silting (cleaning), most of these nallahs have a tendency of flooding and choking. It is necessary that a programme of nallah training, soling and cleaning is undertaken rigorously through the Storm-water drainage department of the BMC. This may require shifting of some of the settlements along the nallahs. Increasing the capacity of Storm Water Drainage The present capacity of the storm-water drains needs to be augmented to a higher capacity which is under serious consideration with the Government of Maharashtra/BMC. In keeping with this present concern, care should be taken to ensure that no natural storm-water holding ponds are allowed to be encroached upon and reclaimed. The proposal of delinking sewer and storm water drainage system would further increase the capacity of storm water drainage and reduce the coastal pollution. The twin goals of the delinking need to be re-enforced through early implementation of these projects. Upgrading Emergency Service The response operations of the emergency services of police, fire brigade and hospitals are often hampered due to inadequate equipments and facilities. These departments are currently engaged in identifying specific items which will help them in their response operations. Helping these services to obtain such identified items would be a part of the mitigation strategy.

The Maharashtra Water Supply and Sewerage Board was constituted on the 1st January, 1997 under the Maharashtra Water Supply and Sewerage Board Ac, 1976 for rapid development and proper regulation of Water Supply and Sewerage service in the State of Maharashtra. The name of the Board was changed as Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran with effect from 10-3-1997.

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Maharashtra Water Supply and Sewerage Board

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Objectives The primary objective of the Pradhikaran is to promote potable Water Supply and satisfactory sanitation facilities so as to achieve and maintain clean environment. Briefly the Pradhikaran's activities cover the following aspects:

Planning, investigation, designing, executive and maintaining Water Supply and Sewerage Schemes for the Pradhikaran. Planning, Investigation, Designing, Execution of all the Municipal Water Supply and Sewerage Schemes. Planning, Designing and Execution of Rural piped Water Supply Schemes sponsored by the Government of India and Government of Maharashtra costing more than Rs. 5.00 lakh Execution of Water Supply and Sewerage Schemes on behalf of the Government of India for departments like Defense and State Government Departments.

Organization of the Pradhikaran The Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran with Central Office in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai has field offices in the entire State. In order to enable the Pradhikaran to perform its duties and functions, the Member Secretary who is the Chief Executive officer of the Pradhikaran has the status of Secretary to Government. He is assisted in the Central Office by one Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer, One Superintending Engineer each in charge of C.P.D.M., Quality Control, H.Q.'s and Co-ordination and other Officers and Staff. Sources of Water Supply for Mumbai Vaitarna Upper Vaitarna Lower Vaitarna Middle Vaitarna Pinjal Gargai Bhatsa Ulhas Kalu Shai

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Composition of Pradhikaran Chairman Minister of Water Supply & Sanitation Dept.

Co Chairman Hon. Minister for U.D Dept.

Co Chairman Hon. Minister for R.D Dept.

Vice Chairman Hon. Minister for W.S & Sanitation Dept.

Members Pricipal Secretary (Finance, U.D, R.D, Energy, Public Health) Tech. Member

(6 Members)

Information of targets and Service Level Benchmarking to be achieved by 2013 under JNNURM BSUP Reforms Sr. Service Level Benchmarking Expected Present Status Target for March Efficiency 2013 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Coverage of Water Connections Per Capita supply of Water Supply 100% 135 Ltrs per day per person 100% 20% 24*7 100% 100% 135 Ltrs per day per person 81% 20% 2 to 6 Hours 99% Within 24 hours 100% 90% 97% 80% 100% 82% 100% 150 Ltrs per day per person 85% 18% 4 hours on an average 99%

Extent of Metering of Water Connections Extent of Non-Revenue Water Continuity of Water Supply Quality of Water Supply Efficiency in Redressal of customer complaints Cost of Recovery in water supply services Efficiency in Collection of Water Supply related charge

Revenue Generation Annual Revenue Demand: 917.39 crores Annual Revenue recovery: 885.16 crores Cost of Production of water: Rs. 11.15/kl

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Quantity Issue: Does Mumbai have enough water? Mumbais current population is approximately 12.5 million; its water supply is 3350MLD. Domestic per capita water availability is more than 180Lpcd, excluding 25% leakage. The average hours of water supply is 1.5 to 4 hours. The per capita water availability in some of developed cities is in the range of 120-160 Lpcd. London : 150 lpcd Singapore : 160 lpcd Kuala Lumpur : 120 lpcd Paris : 150 lpcd Thus Mumbai has enough water to switch over from the present intermittent to continuous water supply provided non revenue water is reduced considerably.

Future Development Perspective


Vision Statement: Transforming Mumbai into a City of the Millennium
As per MCGM Mumbai City development plan 2005-25, Mumbais aspiration is to become a world-class city in the next 10-15years. In order to achieve this, it needs to be distinctive on the dimension of economic growth and above average on quality of life. It will, therefore, need to step up economic growth to 8-10 percent by becoming one of Asias leading services hubs, with a fast-growing manufacturing base in the hinterland. On the quality of life dimension, comparing it to the benchmark cities revealed that it needed to move from average to above average on mass transport, from poor to above average on private transport, housing, safely/ environment, financing and governance. It will also need to make improvements in the remaining areas, i.e., go from being average to above average in water/sanitation and education and from above average to world-class in healthcare.

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The quantitative aspirations across six core areas as recommended in the McKinsey study include: Economic growth: To illustrate, real growth needs to jump from the 2.4 percent that it was between 1997-98 and 2001-02 to 8-10 percent over the next decade, thus creating more than 0.5million additional jobs. Transportation: Significant improvement is required to both mass and private transportation, it is imperative to ensure that the traveling population per rail car is kept down to 220 people and there is at least one bus for every thousand people. At present suburban rail congestion is such that during peak hours there are more than 570 people per rail car in certain sectors. For private transportation, increasing the average speed of travel, tripling the freeways/expressways and increasing the number of public parking spaces by order of magnitude is essential. Housing: Bringing down the number of people living in the slums from the current 50- 60 percent. Mumbai also needs to increase housing affordability by, for instance, bringing down housing rental costs from their current 140percent of per capita income to about 50percent. Other infrastructure (safety, environment, water, sanitation, education and healthcare) : Mumbai needs to upgrade its performance in all these area. For example, despite the healthy statistics on crime, it needs to further improve the law and order environment. Also, it must drastically reduce air pollution from the unsafe 1,000 micrograms per cubic meter (mcm) that it currently is to 50-100 mcm. Financing: Reaching one of the benchmarks would involve reducing the percentage of administrative expenditure from its current 50 to less than 25, thereby enabling increased fund availability for development and maintenance. Governance: An immense improvement is needed in governance. For instance, the time required for the key process of building approvals should be reduced from 90- 180days to less than 45 days.

Launching 8 high priorities will help in achieving Vision Mumbai In order to achieve Vision Mumbai, there is a need for expeditious implementation of eight high priority initiatives listed below. A. Boost Economic Growth to 8-10% per annum: For the past several years Mumbai has been growing on an average of 4-5% per annum, which should be increased to 8-9% in order to increase job opportunities and decrease unemployment. B. Improve and expand mass and private transport infrastructure: To improve the road network, the Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project (MUTP) is being launched. This project will focus on building flyovers/elevated roads, road over bridges (ROBs) subways, bus corridors and new bus terminals/depots on key north-south and eastwest links. It will also focus on improving the station areas. All these projects are crucial for the improvement of Mumbais transportation network and need to be expedited. To truly solve Mumbais congestion and connectivity problem, what is needed is a) systematically developing 4-5 emerging Central Business District (CBDs) Bandra-Kurla, Andheri Kurla, Vashi/ Belapur and Dronagiri and improving their connectivity with each other and with key residential areas. This will reduce the current north south pressure to and from the Nariman Point CBD; and b) Providing end-to-end north-south and eastwest rail and road connectivity in the form of ring rails and ring freeways. All world-class cities have express ring freeways (6-8 lane roads with no signals) around the city such that a freeway can be accessed from any point in the city in less than ten minutes.

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C. Increase Housing Availability: The current Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) initiatives will create a supply of less than 150,000 units over the next ten years, leaving huge shortfall of 950,000 low-income housing units over the next decade, which will result in a further increase in slums. Increase land availability by 50-70 percent by increasing FSI; rescind the Urban Land ceiling Act (ULCA) which today results in unclear land titles, effectively phase out the Rent Control Act, relax CRZ II & CRZ III and create low-income houses to rehabilitate existing slum-dwellers by redesigning the Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) process. Although investment trend has increased considerably after JNNURM, but implementation has not kept pace with the required development due to the time consumed in multiple clearance processes, and thus a single window clearance is the need of the hour.

D. Upgrade other Infrastructure: E. Raise adequate financing F. Generate momentum through Quick wins: G. Enable Implementation through PPP:
Boost Economic Growth to 8-10% per annum Make governance more effective, efficient & responsive Expand Mass & Private transport infrastructure

Raise adequate financing

Towards a World-Class Mumbai

Increase Housing availability and affordability

Upgrade Other Infrastructure Generate Momentum through Quick Wins Enable implementation through PPP

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Bibliography:
1. http://www.mmrda.maharashtra.gov.in 2. http://www.mcgm.gov.in 3. http://www.bmcmumbai.in/ 4. http://www.mjp.gov.in 5. http://mahaurban.org/ 6. http://www.cidco.maharashtra.gov.in/ 7. http://www.urbanindia.nic.in/ 8. http://jnnurm.nic.in/ 9. http://www.urbanindia.nic.in/programme/uwss/SWM_PPP_Tookit-Volume-II.pdf 10. http://www.undp.org.in/Programme/GEF/march00/page9-11.html. 11. http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/history/slums.html

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