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Bennetts latin Series

The

Latin Language
A HISTORICAL OUTLINE
OF ITS

SOUNDS, INFLECTIONS, AND SYNTAX

BY

CHARLES

E.

BENNETT
IN

GOLDWIN SMITH PROFESSOR OF LATIN

CORNELL UNIVERSITY

BOSTON UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS
LIBRARY

Allyn and
Boston
Neto gorfc

Bacon
Chicago

BENNETT. ADO . 1907. BY CHARLES E.V-\ v vV o t u x k^ 4 COPYRIGHT.

of the University of Pennsylvania. which was in reality written long in advance of the publication of my and Latin Grammar and title is entirely without reference to that work." however. B. This book is a revision of in my Appendix to Bennetts Latin originally pre- Grammar. 1907. published 1895. That book was pared as a series of lectures to advanced students on subjects not covered in any Latin \ Grammar published in America. E. March. while nearly forty pages of 1( new matter have been intro- duced . the facts brought out hence the change. was misleading and gave many a wrong impression of the purpose and scope of the book. I am indebted to Professor J. and to Professor Charles L. In the revision some dozen pages of old matter have been omitted. to The title "Appendix. Ithaca. C. to the views discussed The new more appropriate . Durham. of Cornell University. for valuable suggestions made while the book was passing through the press. 111 . C.PA FoU PREFACE. but the general plan and scope of the book are un- changed. Rolfe.

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries http://www.org/details/latinlanguagehisOObenn .archive.

.. . . THE ALPHABET.. ......... • • .... Origin of the Latin Alphabet Changes in the Form of the Letters Later Additions to the Alphabet New Characters proposed by Claudius .. ..... 4 6 6 6 • for u ... . . ... ... .. ... .. CHAPTER II.. . .... . .. ...... .. .. ..... PRONUNCIATION..11 Ir J v • 12 18 The Liquids / 18 r v 18 .. .............TABLE OF CONTENTS............. 8 9 10 10 10 The Consonants..... The Semivowels . PAGE I I 2 2 Sources of Information The Vowels a e * i • .. .... 7 7 8 u 8 y The Diphthongs ae oe 8 8 au eu w? . . . to* CHAPTER I.................

. ... . . ...29 30 30 x 2 30 . .. Methods of Determining Hidden Quantity General Principles of Hidden Quantity Vowels before ns..... HIDDEN QUANTITY.adulter inum .. . .42 -43 46 49 50 Numerals .. .. ... .. ch. ..q . • 23 23 23 c 24 k.. . . ph.. ... .40 40 . . . PAGE The Nasals 18 18 m n nf.. Fontem. . d g Distinction between Guttural and Palatal .. ... .... th . Frondem Hidden Quantity in Declension . . . . . Doubled Consonants Division of ... 20 20 20 2I gn The Spirants . Frontem. ..... .. .....25 26 26 p The Voiced Mutes b 26 26 26 .. . ns n.22 22 22 23 / s h The Mutes The Voiceless Mutes t . .... 27 27 The Aspirates.. .. . .. . • . 31 Words into Syllables 31 CHAPTER III. .. ... ss Pontem.. nf Vowels before gn... gm Vowels before nt.. . . . Development of ph to/ The Double Consonants .. ... nd. . 36 40 . . . Montem. Superlatives . ... . . .. .vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. .. ..

... . a Long Vowel . . etc.90 90 91 ^-Series a-Series d-Series 5-Series ... before Two Consonants . ... .. ... ... . ........ . . . ... Root Forms ... .. . .. . Standard of Spelling Quom. . . .... .. .. .. Pronouns Conjugation vii PAGE ..... ... ... . 54 54 55 Irregular Verbs . . . Accent Defined Character of the Latin Accent Changes in the Latin Special Peculiarities ... IV. .. volnus. ..... .... • . . .. ........ ... .. ... . . c . The Vowels Ablaut Ablaut-Series ^-Series - .. ..... .. . . 92 93 93 94 94 ^-Series 94 ... .. ..... .. • Words containing Disputed Words . . .. 56 66 CHAPTER ACCENT. • Word Formation List of Chief List of . . .... 77 .. .. Accent 73 74 74 76 CHAPTER V. . .... Compounds . .50 ... .TABLE OF CONTENTS. .... ... ...78 ... co c? ca Verbal Endings Compounds Inchoatives . .. .... ...... ORTHOGRAPHY...... ... . 79 82 83 or Varied Spelling CHAPTER VI. Assimilation of the Final Consonant of Prepositions in Compounds oi jacio List of Words of Doubtful ....... . THE LATIN SOUNDS. ... volt...

. . . .. 107 bh 107 „ dh 107 gh .. . ... .. .. .... . .. . . ... ... . .. .. .. .... ...... 98 98 99 100 100 au eu. .. .111 ..... .. . Parasitic Vowels Syncope Apocope The Consonants The Mutes The Gutturals and Palatals The Dentals The Labials The Indo-European Aspirates in Latin .. .... ... ...111 . .. 108 108 109 109 The Spirants The Liquids As Consonants As Sonants The Nasals As Consonants As Sonants ... 100 101 101 ou Shortening of Long Diphthongs Re-composition and De-composition Shortening of Long Vowels Compensatory Lengthening Assimilation of Vowels ......... .... . .. ..... . . . ..104 104 104 104 105 105 105 106 106 . .... . J..... The Semivowels.. ... ... . PAGE Vowel Changes a 94 94 95 a e 96 e 96 i h o o 97 97 98 u u at oi ei 98 ui .. .. . ...110 in . .. .. .....112 . v . . . .viii TABLE OF CONTENTS. .. . . . . ... 102 102 103 . . .. . .

ix PAGE .. . .... .. . VII. . . . . .. 144 145 . .... .. ...... 146 146 147 147 149 Hie Is Iste.. .. .131 133 Consonant Stems that have Partially adapted themselves £/-Stems /- to 2 -stems 134 " and £/-Stems 136 7?-Stems Stems ending in a Diphthong Formation of the Comparative and Superlative Numerals Cardinals . . .. . . • 113 113 . INFLECTIONS. .. . .130 . ... . . ..... .. 0-Stems Consonant Stems /-Stems . ... . . .. Die.. . . 136 138 139 140 140 143 143 Ordinals Distributives Multiplicatives ... . .. . .. .. .. . . . . ... . . .. 120 . 114 . . . 117 118 At the End of Words Disappearance of Syllables by Dissimilation . . .. Consonant Changes ..119 CHAPTER Declension of Nouns and Adjectives ^-Sterns . 150 The and Indefinite Pronouns .... . . . . .116 1 Metathesis 16 Other Changes . .. . . . .... . Ipse Relative.. . . Initial Combinations In the Interior of Words Assimilation . .TABLE OF CONTENTS..... .. .... . 144 144 Pronouns First Person Reflexive Second Person The Possessives Demonstratives . .. . 151 Pronominal Adjectives 152 .. .. ..120 124 128 Stem Formation of Consonant Stems .. ... . . Interrogative. . ... ... 115 Partial Assimilation .. . ... . . .

. . . . . . . .. 171 I .. .. . Active Passive . . . . . . .169 . . . . .. . . . . . . .152 . . . .. . Perfect in . .. Present Aorist .166 167 167 The Imperative Active Passive . . . The Subjunctive ^f-Subjunctives . . .. . . .156 156 N-Class . . . . . . . . Unthematic Presents . . 153 153 I Thematic Presents Root-Class . . PAGE Conjugation Introductory . .. . . . . . . . .156 157 Tense Formation in the Indicative . 152 ..170 . . .X TABLE OF CONTENTS. . . 164 164 164 165 The Optative .. . . • 55 .. . . . . . . . . . • 7I The Participles . . 157 158 158 159 159 The Imperfect The Future The Perfect Reduplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .168 168 The Personal Endings Active Passive .172 • Gerund and Supine .161 . .162 162 Inflection of the Perfect The Pluperfect The Future Perfect 164 » . . .. . . . 156 . . . . . . .. NO-Class SCO-Class JO-Class .. . . . . .. . . . . The Infinitive .166 . . 155 Reduplicating Class T-Class . .. . . .. ^-Subjunctives .. . . . . . . . 159 Stem Formation . . Formation of Present Stem . . . .. 161 Perfect in -vl Perfect in -ui . . . . . 168 . 166 . . . .160 .. *73 . .. . . . .160 . . The Primitive Perfect -si .. . .

184 184 .. . - .. . . . . . . . .185 . ... . 174 .188 188 .. 175 176 CHAPTER SYNTAX. . . . . .. . . . .. .TABLE OF CONTENTS.. . . 185 The Accusative 186 With Passives Used as Middles Produced Of Result 187 Of Person Affected. .. . . and of Result Produced Dependent upon . .' etc . ... 183 183 . muliebre seats. . Origin of Prepositions List of Prepositions . . . . . . . . . Synecdochical or Greek Accusative 187 . . IX.174 . ... . ... . 175 175 . . 181 Review of Case Theories The Localistic Theory The Logical Theory The Grammatical Theory Subsequent Views . . . . . . . . . .' 'help. . 'favor. . . . .187 the Same Verb . . CHAPTER VIII. . . .174 175 Locatives . .. . .. .191 191 191 Dative of Indirect Object With Verbs Signifying With Compounds Dative of Reference Ethical Dative 192 192 193 193 193 „ Dative of Agency Dative of Purpose „ 193 . . . ... .. PAGE Adverbs Accusatives Ablatives . xi ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS. . .. • • .188 189 Original Force of the Accusative The Dative Original Force . . As Subject of the Infinitive Id genus. . . The Cases Names 181 of the Cases . . . Instrumentals Prepositions . etc. . ... . In Exclamations .. . .

199 199 Accompaniment Association 200 200 200 201 201 . PAGE The Genitive . 194 Original Force 194 194 195 195 195 With Nouns Genitive of Quality Genitive with Adjectives Genitive with Verbs The Ablative . 206 206 207 208 Place Relations Refert and Interest Time Relations Locative of the Goal Surviving Locative 208 208 209 Forms The Moods The Subjunctive Original Force of the Subjunctive 210 211 Original Force of the Optative Classification of Subjunctive 212 2I 5 Uses Subjunctive in Principal Clauses Original Uses Volitive Subjunctive 215 215 215 Optative Subjunctive 217 . 197 Syncretism in the Ablative 198 198 198 198 199 Genuine Ablative Uses Separation Source Comparison Instrumental Uses .Xll TABLE OF CONTENTS. Attendant Circumstance Manner Accordance Means Way by Which 202 203 Cause Degree of Difference Price 203 203 Quality Specification 204 205 205 Ablative Absolute Locative Uses .

227 Causal Clauses . Indirect Questions . .. the Subjunctive of Conti ngent . Developed from the Volitive Developed from the Optative . . Conditional Sentences Clauses with quamvis Provisos .. Of Result . 223 225 • . 222 223 223 Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses Parataxis . .. .. Extensions of the Jussive and Prohibitive Extensions of the Deliberative .. Subjunctive of Purpose Clauses of Characteristic Clauses of Result . . . and Hypotaxis .TABLE OF CONTENTS.. . Extensions of the Optative Extensions of Futurity . Subjunctive of Contingent Futurity Xlll PAGE Derived Uses . . 218 218 218 220 221 .. 243 243 • . 228 228 229 229 240 241 241 241 Temporal Clauses Substantive Clauses .. . ..

Gr. Keil = Grajnmatici Latini.-XV. 1888 ff.LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS. E. 1855 ff. Berlin. 1901. 1901. ed. e) Vowels printed without the macron are short . References by § are to the Latin Language itself. Wbrterbztch Leipzig. = CIL. Words marked with a star are hypothetical forms. Strassburg. 2d edition. e). for greater precision these are sometimes printed with a breve {e. = CIA. Korting. a. the author's Latin New York. = Lewis. or Corpus Inscriptiotium Atticarum. L. 1 Vols. a. xiv . Berlin. Leipzig. 1895. ff. Archiv = Wolfflin's Archiv fur Lateinische Lexikographie und Grammatik. D. Paderborn. 1884-1907. Elementary Latin Dictionary. Marx = Marx. Boston.g. Grober's Grundriss = Grober's Grundriss der Romanischen Philologie. 873 ff. Grammar = Grammar. Keil. {e. Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. 1863 ff. 1895.g. = Korting. 1828 Berlin. Berlin. Lateinisch-Romanisches Wbrterbuch. Hulfsbuchlein fur die Ausspr ache der Vokale in positions langen Silben. 3d edition. = CIG. Corpus Inscriptiotium Latinarum. I.

CHAPTER I. . In the widest sense 1. ?. Of these characters. The Latin alphabet is a development of that type of the Greek alphabet known as the Chalcidian. \i subsequently became L. antedate the eighth century It was probably from the Camthat sometime in the sixth panian colonies of century B. in a narrower sense designates the special alphabet of the Chalcidian colonies of lower Italy and Sicily. Karthagd. For Rho. C in course in of time came : to be used for K. X was used as was C. Cumae and Neapolis the Chalcidian alphabet was introduced into Latium. P. THE ALPHABET. which then disappeared except a few words new C. But most of the Chalcidian settlements do not B. Kalendae.C.c. character. R was employed as well as of that letter. x. by appending a tag to the older But permanent traces of the original value of C as g.C. Kaeso. Special peculiarities of this alphabet are the following 2. in fact. DEFI(Z)HIKIfMNOr?R^TVX. For the ^-sound a was invented. viz. another character for the £-sound existed. Lambda. date from very early times. G. The character H was lacking. called Koppa. in Ionic had the form (Attic l~) A. is said to have been founded as far back as 1050 b. and Y (v) as ch. settled originally These from Chalcis in Euboea. the term bets . Cumae. ' Chalcidian ' is applied to it all the non-Ionic Greek alphacolonies. took in Chal- cidian the form while Gamma Besides K. i. which ]/. the ordinary Attic form In conformity with its Chalcidian origin the earliest Latin alpha: bet consisted of the following twenty-one characters A B C (=£) 3.

as. a change facilitated probably by association with the initial letter of nulle. 3 (Antisigma) for ps. to Appius Claudius. but subsequently became P. represented sounds which did not originally exist in intro- the Latin language. v. The Greek alphabet had no character to represent the sound of/. This last form resulted initial letter of perhaps from associating the character with the centum. and later M. being aspirates. 5. quently O as 100. some inscriptions of These characters were employed in Claudius's reign. Ann. CIL. The new character G took the place hitherto occupied by I. recognition. 4. but the Greek Digamma (F) represented a closely related sound. which now disappeared. but gained no further xi. in the An example is FHEFHAKED alone. of /. with some degree of probability. This F. and became first 01. as opposed to that of the Greek Digamma). In Cicero's day Y and Z were introduced tion of for the translitera- Greek words containing u. sona and £ by s (initial). and L. These characters were accordingly duced as numerals. The Emperor Claudius proposed characters. been transliterated by Olumpio. was used to designate 500. the letters H was discarded and F used (0).e.e. The Greek O © (<£). V as 50. as 1000. xiv. and (- to represent the etc. V (50) became successively ^. P was at first open as in Greek. in the abbreviations C. the introduction of three new our w). D. J to represent v {i.2 THE ALPHABET.C. These changes are ascribed. was introduced designate (=fefaced. See Tacitus. and Y V (X). for remained Gains and Cn. _L. middle sound between u and as seen in optumus. Later. earliest extant Latin inscription. The half of viz. for Gnaeus. the i. i. Previously Greek v had ss (medial). 4123. . Censor 312 B. atticisso (olttlkl^o)). Subse- O became G. 14. (luvrj). optimns. combined with H (apparently to indicate the voiceless character of the sound. into the early Italian alphabets to sound fecit). v or £. finally C.

8. 2. p. absolutely essential to enable the pupil to i is tell them Where written for both sounds there is nothing to . by writing u are and v Zusatz for the latter. I ff.und Eormenlehre. show the student Gaius is Ga-i-its. that iam is jam. Latin Language. Article Alphabet.. Johnson's Encyclopaedia. reference has been ations. Clarendon Press. 1887. Studien zur Oxford. Handbuch der Lateinischen Laut.THE ALPHABET. 4th ed. Griechischen Alphabets. tween the vowel and consonant u. Lindsay. Sommer. On the alphabet in general. Erlauterungen zur lateinischen Schulgrammatik. . that etiam is et-i-am or that Moreover. The two cases perfectly parallel. p. Berlin. had mainly to practical consider- Typographical distinction of the vowel and consonant i is sounds of apart. In writing j in the Grammar to represent the Latin i-cdn- sonans. Article Alphabet. p. 25 ff. it is still usual to distinguish befor the former. 2. See Deecke. see 3 Geschichte des Kirchhoff. 1894. Encyclopaedia Britamiica.

Metris Marius cen- (fl. Quintilian in his Institutio Oratoria. a. may be 350 cited: Terentianus Maurus Litteris. 1855-1880) fill eight large quarto volumes. PRONUNCIATION.) . These writers cover the less entire field of grammar. These inscriptions dis- many peculiarities of orthography which are exceedingly spellings as vrps. — Our sources of knowledge con- cerning the ancient pronunciation of Latin are the following — Much has been by the Roman grammarians on the subject pronunciation. The total body of these is very great. consists already of fifteen large folio volumes. some them in several parts. of .d. left of commonly supposed. close and is not yet completed. in process of publication since 1863. fifth not in Keil's collection) Priscian (fl. and most of them devote more or space to a systematic consider- ation of the sounds of the letters. instructive for the pronunciation. is A second important source of evidence found in inscrip- tions.). Cicero in his rhetorical works. Even the classical writers have often contributed valuable bits of infor- mation. notably Varro in his de Lingua Latina. author the Institutionum Grammaticamim Libri xviii.CHAPTER II. The of Co?'pus Ifiscriptionum Latinarum. and Aulus Gellius in his b) Nodes Atticae. author of a work entitled dc Victorinus tury a.).d. 4 Thus such . Sources of Information. 3. . — far more a) Statements of Roman writers.d. Syllabis. The remains of the grammatical writers as collected and edited by Keil under the title in fact than is Gra?nmatici Latini (Leipzig. Martianus Capella (fourth or . 185 a. this subject As representative writers on (fl.d. 500 a.

(Cicero) Atoviia Thus the Greek Kt/cepwv furnishes support for the /£-sound of Latin c\ while and OuaAevna bear similarly upon the w-sound of Latin v. 2d ed. afford us abundant evidence of this kind. Sprachen. 1897. for example. Kurze Vergleichende Grammatik der Indogermanischen Muller's Handbuch der Klassischen Strassburg. Grundriss der Vergleichenden Grammatik der IndogermaVol. by the side of vrbs. within limits. Leipzig. writers (especially the Roman but also Greek inscriptions. otherwise we could not account for its confusion with §3 J c) - Greek transliterations of Latin words constitute a third source of knowledge. 5 pleps. plebs. clearly indicate the assimilation of b to p before s. may be uti- lized in determining the riss sounds of Latin. Vol. I. nischen Sprachen. d) The Romance Languages also. 1888 . Munich. for we can never in the be certain that the Mss. F. Iatei?iische Grammatik Vol. have not undergone alterations process of transmission to modern times. 1902. K. have done much to promote the scientific study of Latin sounds and forms. as. Vol. Meyer-Liibke. I. der Roma7iischen Philologie. . in Altertumszvissenschaft. historians of Not only Greek affairs). while much remains to be done. See Grober's GrundStrassburg. II. and. Strassburg. by etymologi- Modern scholars. W. particularly in the last fifty years. the spelling for acletarvm See athletarvm. which shows that the th was practically a / c. 1900. The inscriptions are naturally much more trustworthy guides in this matter than our texts of the Greek authors. Stolz. Brugmann.SOURCES OF INFORMATION. K. : Brugmann. 1890. as analyzed The sound-changes of Latin itself. As representative works in this field may be cited cal investigation.. Even the blunders of the stone-cutters often give us valuable clues. e) Grammatik der Romaiiischen Sprachen. the ultimate solution of many problems has already been reached... L. 3d ed.

Long e was probably close. et et du Latin. Vol. Handbuch der Lateinischen Laut.. we safely may in believe had the same sound less prolonged. Oxford. E. 5th ed. i. London. The consensus of the Romance languages indicates clearly that a was pronounced substantially as that a it in English father. qualitatively. of course.und Formenlehre. A. V. H. quantity. Servius (Keil. 1874. 1897. 1881. Roby. 1885./ Latin Grammar. PR ON UN CIA TION. 1894. Goelzer. Lindsay. A F. on the other rela~e hand. Lautlehre der Lateinischen Sprache. SUMMARY OF THE EVIDENCE. Paris. was E. In the absence of any specific evidence to the contrary. Marius Victorinus (Keil. though they have lost the original quantitative distinctions of . 4. 1894. 102. The Quantitative Pronunciation of Latin.e. iv. W. O. 421. <?. Henry. v. The Romance languages also. 5. 1894. London. Sommer. As special works on pronunciation alone may be Seelmann. Gramtnaire Comparee du Grec Heidel- berg. 1902. Riemann. H. 6 Stolz. Short Manual of Comparative 2d ed. e.g. 33.. Grammaire Comparee du Grec et Latin. Vol I. F. was open. of the grammarians. The Latin Language.J. These differences in the pronunciation of and e are confirmed by the testimony vi. 17) Pompeius (Keil. Giles. spoken with the vocal Short organs (more particularly the tongue and hard palate) nearer together than in the utterance of short e. Leipzig. A discussion of special problems. 4).: .e. Ellis. THE VOWELS. . cited Die Aussprache des Latein. i. London. pp. ' See also the chapter on Pronunciation' in the work of Lindsay above cited. Paris. Philology for Classical Students. 1901. The most important work on the subject yet published. Alexander. I. spoken with the tongue and hard palate tively further apart. M. 4th ed. Heilbronn. xxx-xc. P. 3) .

in fatal. have preserved with great fidelity the qualitative distinctions of the close and open e. m. 7. by the occasional occurrence tempestatebvs in Latin inscriptions. e. etc. Quintilian. We regularly add an etc. contybernalis the sound of it. e. This y had See below under y. 5. b. an earlier u changed to Republican period. recupero lubldo Examples are recipero libido pontufex pontifex lacruma maxunius. 1 Before the labials p. lacrima maximus. occasional employment of y for i in words CIL. 4. character endeavored (h) to to recognition a special represent intermediate of sound. paper. Long i was relatively closer than short in /. . 21. which probably This view was approximately that gains support from the French u. In Greek It it was the long ual <?-sound (rj) that was open . e close. category under discussion. i. it In i. 1. of the ix. 7 the Latin. u. optimus. 8 Quintilian further states that the sound i was intermediate bewill and u. z-sound and pronounce a diphthong.g. German e.g. in many words is at about the close of the This : confined regularly to unaccented syllables. The Emperor secure this Claudius. It is to be noted that the relation between Latin and e stands in marked contrast rj with the relation existing between Greek and was e. I.g. optumus. 1 i 1 Romance words descended e. for be remembered. while open character of of e for 2.THE VOWELS. (= ibus). as shown by the fact that 1 appears unchanged from the Latin. 6. /. ~e See § 36. tells us that Julius Caesar was said to have been the tween first to introduce the new orthography. should unus- further be observed that in our normal English speech it is and difficult to pronounce a pure e*~. regularly appears as This relatively is also indicated e. 2608 illacrymant. .

THE DIPHTHONGS. See Blass. 9). when he says (Keil. at in 32. Terentianus Maurus (Keil.g. 16. vi. as Italian sovra {super) ove (ubi). Long o was close. 3~8) 5 Servius (Keil. Pronunciation of Greek. Short top. while they have See § 36. 2>2>- vi. in native Latin words. u. etc. aidilis. a spelling which prevailed in the about 100 i. that is. as eroditvs. The Romance languages . 421. . English o in these words really has a short English obey and tf-sound. 17-19) . 5. 0. nearer the tf-sound. AE. The sound was genuine diphthong (that of English Cf. Latin o was a genuine #-sound. French German Cf.g. Scaurus (first half of second century a. the use of at in Greek Kataap. grammarians. rock. PR ON UNCIA TION. served the qualitative character of Latin o and lost the original quantitative distinction. it is further confirmed by the testimony of the e (see Romance languages. as is shown by also the frequency with which Latin inscriptions show o for u. 130-134). hot. The original till form of this diphthong was at. Y. diphthongal character of the sound. B. 329. e. aisle). should never be pronounced like English o in not. transliteration of Latin words. 27.5) had the sound xii. and continued Terentius such throughout the classical period. qvairatis a Scipio inscriptions (CIL. secondvs. which. who mentions the sound as different from any existent § 12. y (= Greek il. TJ.) bears testimony to the vii.8 7. This is cated by the descriptions of the sound as given by the Roman vi. 1. Latin u.d. have faithfully preo. v.e. 10. irpatrop. etc. e.g. nomero. have o for Latin 9.C.. In conformity with of its origin. short o was clearly indi- relatively open. it. nearer the ^-sound . Quintilian. Short u was relatively more open than u. melody well exemplify 8. as in case of above). see §1. i. Marius Victorinus (Keil. 34). e. 10.

' the common meal ' . 224 f. By the fourth century a. often written nae. e.. similar in sound. vat ' stance of Greek influence. unus for oinos. etc. oe. p.' Other instances of . later oe. a propos of the orthography. This change had originated begun general is in the first century a. is 9 a more accurate designation d'-sound. however.d.d. is ' i. The and e in the late centuries which gives us the key Mss. tie.THE DIPHTHONGS. a change which ultimately evidence tends to show that ae. probably another inCf. that ae than ai. This difference between ai and ae. change and became moenia (yet munio). probably in the rustic and provincial speech. but did not become till late. verily. a spelling its doubtless suggested in part by fancied derivation from the Greek and koiAos ' ' . The sound was a genuine diphthong throughout the classical period. though a real and perceptible one. traces of a In the vulgar language we find in the third monophthongal pronunciation and fourth centuries a. the asseverative particle. was probably not very great. qvestor. Conclusive evidence of the new pronunciation found in the frequent occurrence in inscriptions of such spell- hec (= haec). the latter spelling being perhaps a result of association ' with Greek koivos common..' appears variously as caena coena. OE.d. sound was diphthongal.d. became prevalent.g. foedus. But oi regularly de- veloped to u. ae had It altered its character and had become a monophthong.e. But a.g. this orthography See Seelmann. cena. a fact to the hopeless confusion of spelling in our mediaeval Thus we hollow find caelum written as coelum. Aus sprache 11. does not become frequent till after 300 ings as Cesar. of the became extremely Latin writers. ' dinner. utilis for earlier oitilis . In a few words oi resisted this etc.e. as the second element is an He thus clearly i. or even earlier. The earlier form of oe was oi. des Latein. indicates that there that the was a second element in the combination. 2. e.

if we may credit is Quintilian. Quintilian us (i. confusion are cerimonia for caerimonia terium (Gr. . viz. coelebs for caelebs coecus for caecus. 13. huic. still printed in our texts of the classical writers. when resolved into two syllables in verse by metrical be an iambus (y _). eu early became : ou. and in these Primitive Latin is of secondary origin.d. neu. moestusiox maestus .) quoi was still in use.d. On the other hand. The combination appears also in numerous proper e. foe?nina for femina koX erepoi) caeteri for ceteri (probably owing to the influence of Gr. UI appears to have been a genuine diphthong in In the first cut. But if the facts were thus. . The chief Latin words that have eu are ceu. heu. 14. Troades . i. and mark the i long. ow in as how. EU u. pronounced Eng. whence seu. and that. Consistently with this view they regard the u in cui as = v.g. and that its pronunciation was substantially identical with that of qui (the Norn. names borrowed from the Greek. Some scholars have accordingly inferred that qui and cut distinct. we find it appearing as a pyrrhic (w w). Apparently the earliest instance of the resolution mentioned in Seneca. Some of these false forms are unfortunately 12.O I PR ON UN CIA TJON. Such is not the case. Europa. like AU Cf. ^aoo-rivos (Fausfinus). viz. . cui. Teucer. at just about the time when. appears in Latin in only a few words. cetrieferium for coerrie. Koi/jLrjTrjptov) . soon after 50 a. we should expect cut. both being uttered under one stress. and hut in his (the interjection). cui began to supersede quoi. In all these the sound was that of a genuine diphthong. two of these words ui was tells certainly of secondary origin. to too.). Greek transliterations of Latin proper names such IlaovAAu/77 (Paulina).e. an <?-sound quickly followed by an ^-sound. was a true diphthong. were simply graphically being alike in pronunciation. 7. license. 27) that boyhood (about 50 a.

Venantius Fortunatus. but cui (with diphthongal ui) as the descendant of Latin cui. But if it begins with hv-. .d. Very late writers it Prudentius. (I) Aussprache des Latein. 3d ed.) was our y in yes. Another argument may be found and cui is in the verse treatment of huic. : p. That being the case and the word i being monosyllabic. ui goes together to form a diphthong. as in all diphthongs ending in to i. The to i of huic and cui would therefore seem have been short.must stand for since the word is a monosyllable. must. See Neue.). 400 a. J (Seelmann. II Subsequently. There- fore huic begins with hu-. 15. THE CONSONANTS. be con- ceded that the pronunciation of cui could not have been widely different from qui .).THE CONSONANTS.d.g. ii. The Semivowels. a view which receives the very strongest confirmation in the fact that the modern Italian has chi as the descendant of Latin qui. v. would not permit elision of a preced- ing vowel in poetry. yet it must have been sufficiently so to keep the two words distinctly separate in Roman speech. sometimes have cui in verse. 454. Formenlehre der Lateinischen Sprache. (e. } for example. The id in both huic obviously of the same nature. Evidences a) A single character i sufficed with the Romans to indicate both the vowel and the consonant / (i consonans). 1. 600 a. p. But elision does occur before huic. such resolutions are frequent.d. hv-. C/. is true. and those who write cut also write huic. but there is apparently no trace of any such resolution in the early centuries of the Empire.. /. 231 fT.. 852 cuicumque (about 55 a. the being short. and It have blended with the u to produce a diphthong. like J. then hu. it But if huic were huic. in Martial and Juvenal. a proximity if manifestly existing Latin j was English y. This would indicate a close proximity in sound between i and/. of course.

par. 'IouAios In the last centuries of the Empire. compounded as the of et and jam. except upon the assumption that the sound of j was very close to that of i. In these cases the consonant sound can have been of the of none other than that (trisyllabic). ariete become abjetis. etiam. also nunciam compounded nunc and jam. arjete. 4. corresponds to the vowel u just as/ corresponds to the vowel . 1 . On is the other hand. p. Thus Nigidius Figulus 6) as is cited by Gellius {Nodes conception that I Atticae. in Iam. semivowel y. Quintilian. 14. sustus {= Justus). warning against the a vowel. Cf. i. i. at least in the vulgar speech. often becomes consonantal. (=Julius). parieie?n.e. 1. Fis a labial semivowel. i. English New York with a hypothetical i New I-07'k. 10. uniting with the preceding consonant to make position e. jetem. the grammarians repeatedly suggest a close proximity in the pronunciation of i and /. xix. zunior (= junior). 1 d) Greek transliterations of Latin words employ nearest equivalent of Latin/. In the poets. to a genuine spirant. e.2 1 PR ON UN CIA TION.g. Thus in late inscriptions (from the third century on) we find such spellings as Zksu (= fesu). when followed by another vowel. Aussprache des Latein. was the semivowel y. j seems to have progressed. c) Cf. abietis.g. V. It (z=zJove). In any English word the vowel may easily be made to pass into the semivowel y by energetically stressing either the preceding or the following vowel. Seelmann. b) The Roman grammarians nowhere suggest any essential difference in sound between the vowel and consonant functions of the character. probably similar in sound to that of z in the English word azure. Giove 16. as they almost certainly would have done. Iecvr. Cf. with the } sound of English w. 2. 239. Iocvs Such a warning can have no meaning whatever. had the consonant been other than the corresponding semivowel.

10. For the vowel u naturally passes into w before a vowel whenever is either the preceding or following syllable energetically stressed. had been that of w. no more than in the case of the analogous I. and must repeatedly to the close of the in verse. xix. same words. e) £7 and v often interchange in the (e. OvoXctkol (Volsci).pvella. 10 gives.g. .) nowhere suggest any essential difference in sound between the vowel and consonant functions of the character V. 598) appears later as a dis- syllable. 75. 4) says that in pronouncing vos we thrust out the edges of our lips. d) The Greek ordinarily transliterates Latin v by means of ov. e. Volvsivs. also Velius Longus (close of the century a. In verse.) in Keil. v. (at least The Roman grammarians down century a. The evidence a) 1 A single character (V) sufficed with the Romans to indi- cate the vowel u (u vocalis) and the consonant u (u consonans). observes in the (Gellius. that the vowel and consonant sounds were closely first Cf. puella. tenuis. an observation which would be pointless unless the sound of v had been closely similar to that of u> i. not a vowel. The same Nigidius Figulus (Gellius. i. AtovCa {Livid). etc. 14. 23. a similar warning. 4. Quintilian in c) 4. cited above in con- Thus Nigidius nection with the discussion of j. as OwXeptos {Valerius). larva. 4. vii.d. On etc. just as in the case of v were very similar. x.e.. This indicates a close proximity in sound between u and proximity which manifestly existed.d. the other hand.: 3 THE CONSONANTS. tenuia easily becomes be so read b) first tenvia. This interchange is conceivable only upon the supposition akin. Horace. Odes. On the other hand. i. Similarly mi-lu-os appears later as milvus. I. often appear as tenvis. For example. they repeatedly suggest that u and Figulus. Captivi. if —a Latin v was English w.g. 6) that initial V in same passage is Valerivs. silva occurs repeatedly as si-lu-a. Thus early Latin la-ru-a Plautus. which conforms physiologically to the pronunciation of v as English w.

' and aquam. resenting ten-vis). of course. audisti for audwisti.e. when Marcus Crassus . was such immediately anterior to that period. only for the . Latin te-nu-is) and tenve (representing a Latin Italian soave points to the existence of a Latin su-a-vis (i. between vowels an unstressed Cf English Hawarden. ' to the effect that a-cu-am. for example. Caesellius (see Seelmann. g) The contracted verb-forms. would naturally have Cf. either labioit dental. or bilabial. . such as amasti for amavisti. f) The phonetic changes incident point in the direction of the w-sound (root fav-) to word-formation also of . become/before tin the foregoing examples. p. since this sound syllable. like our English v. one with u vocalis. tord. is were liable to confusion in his day. by the side of sua- sva-) vis. The evidence given under f) roborative testimony. Had v been a spirant. all point to a semi-vocalic easily disappears sound for in v. rally In such cases the semivowel v natu- becomes the vowel u and combines with the preceding vowel to form a diphthong. 'water (where qu is simply the traditional inconsistent spelling for qv). 234) cannot say whether tenuis while in the a dis- syllable or a trisyllable Romance languages we Old French teneve (rep- sometimes find doublets pointing to parallel Latin forms. ii. com??iossem for co77uno- vissem. Anssprache des Latein. formative period of the language but is it is valuable as cor- For Latin v all the more if it likely to have been a semivowel in the historical period. delesti for de/evistz. 234. 84) relates that. pronounced Harde7i . Cf. I shall sharpen. p. get lau-tus (for */av-tus).g. we getfau-tor (for *fav-tor) Thus from faved from lavd (root lav-) we v. Thus Cicero (de Divinatione. our English haf to (colloquial) for hav(e) to.4 ' 1 PR ON UNCIA TION. toward. another with u consonans. Seelmann. holds. pronounced h) Several anecdotes found among ancient writers give fur- ther confirmation of the similarity in sound of u and v. a e.

While the above evidence may be accepted as fairly con- clusive for the pronunciation of Lat. Favio {= Fabio). century we note that v is b.d. Kovfievros {conventus) fiipva (vernd) . 3. {i.) had become a bilabial spirant. BeVov? ov. The earliest testimony on this point first is that of Velius of v as vii. KaA/8eivos (Calvinus)..g.e. wards) in the use of Greek /3 as a transliteration of Latin ft Beginning with about 100 a. This reference to its asplrdtio hints at the development of earlier value as a bilabial spirant. primifwo (Keil.d.e. in valente.). How- .5 THE CONSONANTS. its This confusion. Pro- nunciation of Greek. = Venus) it is where earlier (cf. . ft Similarly our text of Plutarch (about 100 a. labio-dental produced by the teeth and lower confused with This view is confirmed by the fact that.g. really the name of a variety of figs. which increases as time goes on.d. beginning with the second a. except that our v lip). a bilabial spirant at this period. who speaks having a certain v irom e. was preparing to set sail 1 from Brundisium on figs his ill-fated expedi- tion to the East. 2.d. inscriptions in place of earlier ov for such transliterations.g. don't go. similar to our English v. p. v as w in the best period. he heard a vender of on the street cry out Cauneas. but which Cicero viz.d. 17). BaXepios. Examples are : biginti (= vigintt) vene (=bene) . Longus (close of the asfiirdtio. century a. produced by the two lips) semivowel to a bilabial is somewhat {i. we find frequently employed in Greek e.) usually has in Latin words (e. suggests was intended by the gods as a warning to Crassus. and afterv. Some scholars have sought further confirmation of the spirant character for the period referred to (100 a.d. 58. Greek writers mostly employed Now believed (3 Blass.d. 109) that of the Greek at this time (beginning second century a. to indications are not wanting that v had begun change to a spirant sound before the period of the decline. reaches height in the third century . cavie) n(e) eds. which had also become a.

. little support fact for the pronunciation of Latin For while it is true that the a. as already indicated.d. The evidence it of the Greek. ever this be. same in- Moreover.C. prove anything for the pronunciation of Latin spirant is For the bilabial very easily confused with the semivowel. is w is pronounced. B.d. f3 gives 234 instances of ov as against 100 of in Greek inscriptions of the second century a. was not adequately represented by that Latin at a time consequently no permanent equivalent was ever is. which resulted in writing b for v. It therefore. fact. yet the use of (3 assumes great frequency from ioo still earlier spelling ov remains the predominant one.. and produces the impression that an English therefore. Even (as it if Greek (3 had by 100 a. whom this sound is not familiar. that Latin v at about the beginning of the second century a. The two phenomena connection suggested coincide so accurately in time that the becomes extremely probable. would be gained from that v. adopted. Winter with an initial bilabial spirant easily deceives to American and English travellers. it is quite possible that the confusion in Latin itself. Griechischen Inschriften. had begun to become a bilabial spirant. Eckinger. Orthographie Lateinischer W'orter in p.d. Thus the dialectal pronunciation of German Wein. Eckinger. The facts seem to indicate that the Latin sound ft . purely negative.d. while often the inscription exhibits both spellings. yet this would not necessarily v. this .. and while seems probable. 87. 87. v should have been transliterated by Greek the latter sound even when In had not progressed to its spirant stage.d. cites five examples from the century and twenty one from the either ov or first century a. become a bilabial spirant certainly did ultimately). p.6 1 PR may for v NUNCIA TION. may have contributed to the increas(3 ing frequency in the employment of as against earlier ov in Greek transliterations of Latin words. occasional last years of the first stances of (3 =v occur as early as the Republic. perfectly conceivable (3.

at for u cdnsonans new character to i. sonans (/). 'town' (Lat. but without reason. -wic. Hence v. 'wine' (Lat. could have been nothing less than But these conclusions would be valid only upon the Neither of these is assumption that Claudius was a competent phonetic observer. Gothic could hardly have borrowed from the Latin before the fourth century. vallum). It may be added in conclusion that the development of Latin v was not complete even when the sound had passed from Later still that of a semivowel to that of a bilabial spirant. there its no other indi- had progressed beyond value as a semivowel as early as Claudius's day. claimed. it is claimed that the relation of v to different must have been from that of/ As/ was a semivowel. wein.THE CONSONANTS. as early as Claudius's stage. and it has been shown above that at bilabial spirant. and was not acting from mere caprice. 4.). Anglo- Saxon not before the this period Latin v 5. 6.d. it is an indication that v. true. Anglo-Saxon weall. evangeliutri)\. 'gospel' (Lat. . vinuni) . representative of v in words borrowed from the Latin. had already become a Others have cited Claudius's attempted introduction of J for v as a. while suggesting the employment of a (z') t new character for i conu. fifth. appears regularly as the e. But here again it is not only possible but extremely probable that the Gothic and Anglo-Saxon gave only an approxi- mate representation of the Latin sound. it is Gothic and Anglo-Saxon w. (fifth century a. day (50 Claudius.g. and with that value passed into the Romance. Gothic and Anglo-Saxon loan-words have been thought by- some to confirm the Z£/-sound of Latin v. this time. v). a spirant. I? conclusion rests upon other grounds than the evidence of Greek transliterations. ?) it became a labio-dental spirant (Eng. Gothic aiwaggeli. vicus). cation that v Moreover.d. 'wall' (Lat. assumptions would be safe. had progressed beyond the semivocalic did not suggest a it is urged.

Just what the differences were which were involved in these three modes of articulation cannot now be determined. 1) an exilis sonus. as in the second / of ilk. as cited by Priscian (Keil. Cf. as in clarus. sol. /. began with a vowel. sonus. as is clearly f. according to position in a word. consisted itself. The name letter. 9). Liquids. autre. 4. ii. (ix. e. M. exilis Lindsay {Latin Language. silva . though it is only slightly uttered. 2) a pinguis sonus. after a consonant or at the end of a word or syllable. M. sonus and medius sonus were our normal English as is the case in the Italian descendants of the Latin words cited by Pliny.) described by Terentianus Maurus 15). ix. 238 and Marius Victorinus (Keil. when inital. Nasals. m.g. Metellus .). Initial and medial final m probably had the sound of normal m. as in . agrees excellently with the enunciation attributed to the The 19. . yet it is can pass over to the latter. n. vi. vi. its r. given to r as early as Lucilius 29.8 1 P£ NUNCIA TION. No fewer than three different sounds of the letter were recognized by Pliny the Elder. Lindsay suggests. final ' m was only imperfectly is final 40 : When m and comes it in contact with the initial vowel of the following word so that written. 332. 90) thinks that Pliny's /. As regards ably never be satisfactorily determined. 3) a medius sonus. l in an /-glide pre- ceding or following the / a lter cParus. becomes Italian chiaro . p. (Keil.g. 29. Quintilian. as in lectus. viz. The basis for I view he finds in the Romance development of this clarus pingue. the true pronunciation can prob- English m. L seems to have been pronounced differently. viz. The pinguis this e. fiunien becomes fiume alter becomes French 18. The 17. 34. R was trilled with the tip of the tongue. littera canina. When the following word uttered.

as abundantly shown in poetry by the frequency ff. who lived under Augustus. 356). viz. he was pro- nounced quoruppars. 1 quantum For it erat. vii. 4. but of the classical period final . quorum pars. tion of Latin final m. 65) .. The same In case this maintains that every final initial m was inaudible. show in m omitted before consonants as well as before vowels.'' This seems a just statement. W of final p.) that Verrius Flaccus. 55. proposed a mutilated M. its based on the improbable assumption that the Italian with mai). also Lindsay. gia??imai (for gia gives the clue to the pronunciait is Latin inscriptions. irrespective initial sound of the following word. is does not absolutely vanish. of elision.' ix. in question as a ' Seelmann {Aussprdche des Latein. 62.9 . in the earliest times show that final m was frequently omitted in writing. however. defines the sound spirant with partial closure. 65) interprets the testimony of Quintilian above cited to final mean that m was not omitted {iieque eximitur). sound was a consonant. is in pronunciation etc. This view.g. to indicate the m before an initial vowel. true. good inscriptions this source.C. 80. but was inaudible scholar also of the (obscuratur) before an initial vowel. doubled holds that the consonant was thinks. THE CONSONANTS. m was not omitted with any frequency hence no argument can be drawn from . p. Evidently the sound must did not interfere with the initial have been quite inconsiderable. following the above statement bilabial nasal Cf. etc. Latin Language. multum as it ille. Thus the Scipio inscriptions. p... e. Ellis (pp. of Quintilian. as slurring of final syllables in is it -m with a following vowel. and In a sort of sign that the two vowels do not become merged. Velius Longus sound also tells us (Keil. were. 39 Quintilian tells us that Cato the Elder wrote diee for diem. ovvero (for o vero). but obscured. 12 ff. 60 especially p. the earliest of which may antedate 250 B. Ellis (Quantitative Pronicnciation of Lati?i. evidently in recognition of the vanishing value of the final nasal. so as to give the sound of a new is letter.

g. uncus n here became the guttural nasal. iVwas the dental nasal.77/A77? and Megalensia while in adjectives in -osus the n was permanently Greek vo. trasitv. lost. When n could hardly have differed materially from English n in situation. words also frequently show K^o-wpivos. e. I. n) or a Before the gutturals. as m was the labial. that a nasal vowel was pronounced such cases. and used g (= y nasal) for the n-adultei'mw?!. in calling 7). See Some have assumed. 14. e. But all this s evidence may indicate nothing more than that n before was unstable and inclined to disappear. as is well known. PRONUNCIATION. and quite as much it entitled to representation by a separate character. Nigidius Figulus recogn-adulterinum nized the individuality of the sound (Gellius.g. from Gamma). Whatever conclusion be drawn with regard to the nasalization of the vowel before ns would seem to hold also for the vowel before n when followed by other dentals. n took on the sound of ng in sing. followed the analogy of the Greek. 30. ii.(vs). particularly Johannes Schmidt {Zur Geschichte des Indogermanischen Vokalismtis. s. The Greek phoneticians gave y in such situations the name Agma sound.e. in ango. in consequence. 78-79) tells us that Cicero as Megalesia.g. a- pronounced forensia as transliterations of Latin e. when followed by . the same The same is true also of n in the interior of t. p. aggulus. The chief basis of this hypothesis was found e. was regularly in long in Latin. (as distinguished Agckises. KA. i. nf. xix. 13). Certain Roman writers. -ies.20 20. e. ns. and their Roman successors sometimes employed the same designation for the Priscian in the passage just cited. vlcies or viciens. foresia. a sound is as different from dental n as m.). 2. Adjectives in -ensimus and adverbs in -tens were also often written -esimus. i. N. other dental sounds (as d. for (Clemens) . . cosol (for consul)^ cesor. Velius Longus (Keil. 98 ff.g. according to Priscian (Keil. eg. The vowel before § 37. agceps. viclsimus or vicensimus vii.g. in the omission of n before s in inscriptions. a word vowel. initial. .

No instance of the disappearance of n before /occurs prior to the fourth century a. Many scholars hold that -f- gn was pronounced for this as ngn. e. hence the inference that gn I in such cases was p. pp. GN. tingd for *tengo (§73) . 122 p. (guttural). Handbuch der the as ngn. exhibit a tendency to disappear before respectively.d. Aussprache des Latein. Lateinische7i Laut- und Formenlehre. all of which are in the word inferus. Now it is a reg- change takes place before See Brugmann. view lies mainly i. a nasals The phenomenon under discusgeneral one. secvdo ( we may judge by the testimony of = secundo) testameto ( = testa. 283-290. and np. 21 before nt and nd. The evidence . n (dental). as iquirant (= inqui- pricipis (= principis). 270) recognizes midway in sound between m and n. if too. the n shows quite as strong a tendency to disappear.g. as n-adulterinum n. See the discussion of Seelmann. inscriptions. pronounced ngn. sion is. digmts for *deg-nus (from % dec-nus ular law that this 73).g. 3. Capanum (= Campamtin)\ case of n-adulterinum rant) . is and even then the phenomenon of extremely rare occurrence. and may be stated thus : The Latin m (labial). dental. accordingly. being confined to four instances.. another. The evidence .g. Sommer. as so also in Decebris (= Decembris). For here. Besides the three nasals already considered (m.THE CONSONANTS. 2 . it But Roman grammarians nowhere and in attest this pronunciation of is gn view of their silence doubtful whether the are sufficiently considerations urged by Brugmann and Sommer weighty to warrant the adoption of their view. 241. 5.e. and guttural sounds 4. mento). . Grundriss. in the fact that e before gn not infrequently changes see § to e. ng. It should be added that the omission of the nasal occurs sporadically in case of m when followed by labial sounds. e. i. and n-adulterinum labial. Seelmann {Aussprache des Latein. n.. before gutturals. adultermum). viz.

j- more than a single sound The Gothic s. The 21.) Marius Victorinus (Keil. s. of this sound he vi. semtentiam on the one hand. senper. This theory accords with the is which most cases the descendant of an origi- nal bh . The Gothic possessed also a character for the voiced vf-sound . he observes. agrees also with such spellings as comflvont. 4 to the effect that 11) such in an intermediate sound (neither antiquity. sounded like English s in these). is Subsequently f became a labio-dental spirant as in Eng- and in most modern European languages.). It was complete by from the the close of the second century a. 22. e. nor do the hint at Roman grammarians anywhere for the letter. F. like English s in sin. by which repre- Kaisar (Lat. neither nunciation. 199 it (122 B. however. and Decenbris. in question with the sound of the Greek nasal in likewise. S was a voiceless dental spirant. 227).d.C. 16. is At just what time this change took place uncertain. m nor was recognized where Marius Victorinus compares the sound adfx(3v£. it F it is the labial spirant.e. com- vallem lish of the Minucii inscription. In the earlier period is probable that origin of /. as appears vi. ponpa. CIL. Some Latin scholars have thought that intervocalic s was voiced in (i. f was in bilabial. damdvm.. in loan-words transliterates intervocalic Latin sented a voiceless sound in Gothic. /. h. do not seem sufficiently clear to warrant a posi- tive conclusion in this matter. as v nor fi accurately designates the pro- Seelmann suggests that such inscriptional forms qvamta. Caesar). finds in the statement of ff. testimony of Terentianus Maurus (Keil. The facts. i. support by their vacillating spelling the theory propounded.g. but there is no valid support for this view. 332. S. tamta.22 for the existence PR ON UN CIA TION. Spirants. inconparabilis on the other.

such Greek transliterations as OvaXevria Valentid). haruspex. 23 of it. quently pronounced arena. A On case in point anser. in his 84th poem humorously refers to one Arrius. which comes from an Indo- Eur. for example. fully conscious of their defects in humerus. hirundo. {i. firendd for prehe?ido praeda for *prae-heda etc. c. but these were frequently supplanted by herns. . i. Intervocalic h easily vanished between like vowels. and appear repeatedly Occasionally form in our Mss. as is shown by such contractions as liemo for *ne-hemo . the other hand erus. and Hio?iios for Ionios. 23. unior. in that etc. who said hinsidias for msidias.e. THE MUTES. / Voiceless Mutes. The 24. H. humor. . ( Cf. words etymologically entitled to initial h frequently dropped in the to speech of the less cultivated. q. represent the correct Thus harena. as. ' acquires an . word with initial gh. In English. of the classical authors. and would undoubtedly have made use had the Latin intervocalic s been voiced. H was As a guttural spirant and was voiceless itself in like Eng- The same uncertainty manifested is the employ- ment of initial h. i T was pronounced as English is satin. 3). a result of this uncertainty. as noticeable among it the lower classes in England. but Latin / was always a pure / in the classical period. The Romans were and Catullus this particular. In late imperial .e.r/z-sound. holus.. while other words acquired an h which they were not historically entitled. lish h. aruspex. spelling but these same words were fre. its initial is a word permanently lost h even in the speech of the educated. iwierus are the cor- rect forms.p. z). in /. k. before followed by another vowel regularly assibilated. THE CONSONANTS. in the word rational . T. and should appear in Latin as hanser (§97.

and uses C but S f S) . Caelius. d) Gothic and German loan-words borrowed from Latin (probably in the early centuries of the Christian era) show k for Latin c in all situations. 7. This is abun- dantly proved by the evidence. ti times (not before the fourth century) when followed by a vowel begins to show traces of assibilation. C was always pronounced like k. was rather that of our English sh but the Latin had no more : accurate designation. Katonp. i. and d sound developed from is c before e and The New Umbrian of the for c. Inscriptions of this period . career) .e. e. same tables (or written in Latin characters. The phonetics of the change are as follows An original Vocontius.g.g. the Vocont-chus. karkara (= Lat. o. y. c) In Greek transliterations of Latin words we always have a. exhibit such forms as Voconsivs (for Vocontius) septus) . German palatal ch. for example. Carthago. k. liicerna) German Keller . it of Quintilian (i. a) Thus : C and k interchange in certain words. C. In the next became a sound represented by this. ' Some write before but c has the same sound before all vowels. it who says a.24 PR ONUNCIA TION. Kaisar (= Caesar) cistd). as the sound . where if anywhere we should have expected the >r-sound of are : c to have arisen. Examples VLtKepwi/. As regards should not be used. 1. v. Gothic lukarn . i became first Vocontyus. sepsies (for Probably this orthography was not exact. From the transition to the assibilated pronunciation was easy and natural. b) We : ' have the express testimony k. 10). e. not only before but also before e. ( = Lat. (= cella- riuni) e) Kiste (= The Old Umbrian >l of the Iguvine Tables uses in for c (an j-like its en- choric alphabet for c /). i. . viz. 25. the vowel (very likely under the influence of extra stress upon the preceding syllable) stage this semivowel become the semivowel spirant. Calendae.

4. In the case of some of these words. as 2. This development of ti and ci (before vowels) to the same sibilant sound led naturally in mediaeval times to the greatest confusion of orthography in our Mss. phonetics of the change are precisely analogous to those already described under e. See Jones. /) for c. exactly as explained above in the case of /. g) tions) Pulcher (originally pulcer.d. the false forms have not yet been entirely elimi- nated from our texts of the classic writers.. but they can hardly have been the beginning of the Christian era.e. suspicio as suspitio nego- tinm as negociu?7i t \ convicium as convitium. c The s. eh) that e must have been 'hard. Later still. before i followed by a vowel becomes assibilated. Thus . 3. Umbrian would not have resorted to the use and i of a special character (S' or S) to designate 1893.r-like it 25' sound represented in Old Umbrian by d. this sound.d. every before e or i became paze (for pace) in an inscription of the seventh century a. and often so written in inscrip- shows by its aspirated c (i. forms as felissiosa (=feliciosa) Marziae (= Marciae). Classical Review. shows that c could not have had the sound of not have become guttural. c Beginning with the fourth or century a. Otherwise the nasal would it we are assured fifth did. No as Latin grammarian ever mentions more than one sound certainly some one i. of the Latin writers. This makes clear that at the time the New Umbrian tablets were written. would have done had c had an j-sound the change of before e and In paradigms like died. Inscriptions of this period exhibit such . The exact date of the New written Umbrian many years before tablets is not certain. 1. sound. Latin c before e Otherwise the New had not yet become assibilated. had it occurred. K and Q are simply superfluous duplicates of c. No. as was . /. condicio appears frequently as conditio .THE CONSONANTS.g. for the . with its s.' Similarly anceps. dicit. d'teis. n-adulterinam. would have been too striking to escape comment.

That before e and a) i it did not have the sound of g in gem. D was like English d. at. 7.g. pleps. quid. sound somewhat peculiarity. Romans f. 7) prescribes the use of b: 'When I pronounce obtinuit our rule of writing requires that the second letter be b . b. but the ear catches p. iegum. g. B was like English b except before s and t. PR ONUNCIA TION.: 26 recognized by the (Keil. also exhibit the same G. became (through the medium The Romance languages our/. e. giorno. Terentianus Maurus 331.g. would not have b) failed elicit comment. In the Greek transliteration of Latin words . haud. 27. Inscriptions show that final d had a tendency to become t. from Latin diurnus. . Had g before in a i been pronounced our j.g. show repeated instances of the phonetic spelling. quit. and were written with tilian (i. P was apparently a plain English p and presents no peculiarities. or leges. ad. b. for apud. where it had the sound of p. themselves. optinvit. P. 204 26. vi. 1 D. haut. Italian of a retain this French journee. G had the sound of English g in get. 28. apsens. This was simply the result of the natural Inscriptions e. but ordinarily such words made a Quin- concession to the etymology. Late in imperial times di. like e. aput. the altera- tion of sounds paradigm to like lego. when dy-) followed by a vowel. spelling. The Voiced Mutes. opsides. seems clear from the following evidence The Roman grammarians give but a single sound for the like letter.). d. tegis. g is always rep- resented by y e.g. B. 29. Mss. TeXVios (Geilius). Cf. assimilation of the voiced sound to the voiceless.

while Palatal ' applies to those pro- duced against the hard guttural palate. . Romans began c. 30. 1. . ' 2J Distinction between 'Guttural' and 'Palatal. Beginning. §2. and was not concerned with the representation the of these sounds until <j>. Aspirates. Strictly speaking. . ph. e. pot. Latin k (used only before a . 1 not surx> prising. in English are also uttered with aspiration. ^. Aciles. though lock. t respectively. or / with a following /z-sound.THE CONSONANTS. accordingly. c. a. that at first the Romans rendered <£. to borrow Greek words containing explained in the %. 1 Initial and final/. The guttural or palatal character depends upon the following vowel. In the Captivi of . This is regular in early inscriptions (down to about 100 b. pun on Thalem. c. the evident that the th little 2. The Latin originally had no aspirates of own. we do not indicate this in writing. see §1. tale?ito. and by Cicero's day had become the standard orthography.3) were It is equivalent to /. These Greek letters (as Grammar. by /. ch. however. a /. shows can be was felt as substantially t is and in fact there doubt that w hat Plautus T actually wrote. its The 31. with about 100 c. Corintvs. . c and g varied in character according to the following ch. or 6. ^•-sound is .g. o. Before a. in stressed syllables. Plautus. therefore. naturally led to this striving for greater exactness. before e or i it is palatal. Cf. th. Examples are: top. Guttural applies to the c (k) ' and g sounds produced in the throat. b. along with the constantly increasing attention paid by educated Romans to the Greek language and to Greek culture generally. Greek in <f>. and /. always guttural the same was the case with while vowel. th.' ' — Guttural and ' ' Palatal ' are ' not interchangeable terms. The multitude of Greek words employed in Latin at that time. Delpis.c). verse 274. gall. English gill with call. 9 came to be represented with increasing frequency this Latin by ph. or u the c or kill.3) was.

either . (after pulcher. 48. rhythm (Greek with which rime was associated in the tells folk consciousness. For the confusion and the occasional English pronunciation of at least as is ac least. 160) how he him- in deference to popular usage. and the variant Chyesten This orthography that th of c is for Thyesten in Horace.' The spelling rhyme is due to the influence of pvQp. = thermas) Huebner. Cetegus. viii. Odes. in origi- nally Cetegus. self. Kartagd. c. i42. 5352. (Wilmanns. and aclheticvm for athleticu7?i. Gracchus Bacchus = BctK^o?). tain genuine Latin words. Romans introduced an aspirate yet the spelling Bosporits also occurs. was forced to abandon the pronunciation pulcer. corona. ' Rhyme comes from Anglo-Saxon rim. in an inscription of about 360 ( a. But he adds that he refused to pronounce an aspirate in sepulcrum.g. was introduced at a comparatively recent isle date as a result of associating insula). 17. still cf. originally Graccus . Middle English Hand.aetereas = aethereas)'. A is proof that th was an aspirate in the time of the Empire seen in the spelling acletarvm for athletaru??i. triumpds. t. originally pulcer. where apparently a popular tendency existed in favor of ch. lacrima. No. Cethegus. etc. and some other words. of ph the Latin aspirates retained their With the exception still original character throughout the history of the language.28 3. An English The s analogy is seen such words as island. capable of explanation only on the ground / {viz. also CIL. rhyme. Cf. There not the slightest indication that Latin th. in favor of the aspirated forms. PR ON UN CIA TION. Hand with French (from Latin rime. 16. Middle English number.d.6i) . very close to h). Catullus. In Bosphorus (BoWopos) the for a tenuis 4. in the epigram already cited (Carmen 84). as against the genuine Latin p. pulcher. . . th. termas Inscriptiones Hispaniae Chris tianae. ( \. humorously alludes to Arrius's pronunciation of conwioda as chonunoda. Island comes from the Anglo-Saxon igland. ph. As a result we notice the aspirates gaining a foothold in cere. Cicero {Orator. 2639). t -+- was t. triumphds.

. lated / (i. Some have thought that this change occurred <f>.e.) to have developed into the spirant /. become the equivalent of/ before the tions of this third century a.g. 28).d. charta). 5. in the flourishing period of the 29 its language or in decline. The § latter sound. languages regularly have the descendant of Latin Italian teatro (Latin theatruni) cattolico (catho/icus). ph seems to have followed the history of $ in Greek. chorus). Filippus. by his account of the Greek witness mentioned by Cicero who could not pronounce This seems to show that the Greeks. . Cf. the labial mute a guttural spirant secondly. e. which is then simplified to/ Thus an nal Philippus becomes successively Pfilippus. we have/ + h. As regards ph. much earlier. basing their opinion upon the fact that Greek larly represented in Latin literate which was reguto trans- by ph. pf) the p is assimiorigi- to/ giving^". was always employed for representing/. a view substantiated for Latin by the interchange and the following : centuries.THE CONSONANTS. very much as Slavs and Lithuanians to-day reproduce the / of modern languages by pn In the speech of the educated classes at Rome. the aspirate seems in late imperial times (not before the fourth century a. German Pfah (the name of the district about Heidelberg). . Greek alphabet possessed 14) shows that the two sounds were quite the Latin word Fundanius. as shown by the Italian in such words as carta (Lat. 4. is . Latin/ But <f> was simply the nearest equivalent that the Quintilian (i. different. coro (Lat. th in this or thin.e. Similarly ch else the sim- must have always been either a genuine aspirate or ple mute c. Ffilippus. change are as follows -f First. The Romance th.d. not having the sound of Latin /(a bilabial spirant). the h assimilated from the finally. of/ and ph in inscripThe phonetics of the i. did not according to Blass (Pronunciation of Greek. had a spirant sound like our English t as . guttural spirant to the labial. chose <j> (a bilabial aspirate) as the nearest equivalent.

X. See Blass.. it was early dropped (see 1. 33.30 PRONUNCIA TION. its place being taken by g. The character confined exclusively to foreign words. Cf. a more accurate designation of the sound was felt to be necessary.C. by s. explain z as equivalent to sd or statements are probably It but the echo of Greek discussions concerning the sound of is worthy of note that one Roman grammarian. For while certain ds. as it some- times is in English.) it had become a simple though probably somewhat proz sound (as in English gaze). X is always equivalent to cs. x. century that — longed. The pronunciation ciation of of z in Latin must have followed the pronun- Greek £ for the corresponding period. a . s. bly attached to The same sound proba- Roman z. and accordingly the Greek character itself was introduced. is The value of z is somewhat uncertain. . This conclusion follows from the voiceless before which a guttural was necessarily character of Latin assimilated. and by ss in the interior of words. As regards £. when of initial . their Roman grammarians z.g. Velius Longus. 31.' as § though a double consonant. but dialectically Falz. never to gz. the care exercised at the same period in Greek at designating the aspirate in Greek loan-words. German Pfalz. chiefly Greek. z. — — ap£ it was again introduced for the more accurate transcription Greek.C. Pronunciation of Greek. Z. whence often pronounced The Double Consonants. The mediaeval Latin designation of this was Phalatium. while fifth it almost certainly had the sound of zd in the Attic of the B. sona (== &0V9) atticissd (= olttlkl^o)) But with the increasing use Rome. Long afterwards. 32. it is likely by the beginning of the Macedonian period (approximately 300 B.3). of £ in words borrowed from the Prior to this time the Latin had transliterated Greek e. Palatiiun. parently about Cicero's time. first Though introduced in the § Latin alphabet. for it still 'made position.

effort. is probably to be assumed in case nri). not a double (Keil. with the organs in the position.g. cc. up(p)er. pp. etc. doubled consonants do not occur in English. The of principles given in the Grammar (§ 4) for the division . etc. When the mutes were doubled (//. dd. though it is some words where these combinations followed a long vowel they merely indicated a liquid or spirant that was prolonged in utterance. — particularly of the principle of consonants as embodied under 3 ' : Such combinations can begin a word are joined port of this principle to the following vowel. See Seelmann.. the first was uttered with a muscular . and some of in prescribing the rule given whom even include such combinations of . ss). p. that z is 3 specifically denies it is the equivalent of sd. uttus. 50.' In sup- may be cited the testimony of the Roman grammarians. 9. 34.1 DIVISION OF WORDS INTO SYILABLES. these doubled consonants are frequent. vallum. cappello. or ut(f)er. for example.g. Anssprache des Latein. Division of 35. Italian bocca. but pronounce only a single p. most competent witness on phonetic questions. consonant at vii. definite Thus in initio. doubled nasals (mm. who practically agree above. gg) there were two / distinct consonant articulations. to question. no. pp. e. The same double of doubled liquids articulation rr). We often write c. (//. of Words into Syllables. t. possible that in and doubled spirants (ff. and asserts that all. involving closure of the organs in the /-position then after a momentary pause a same Such tt.) Doubled Consonants. second muscular effort followed. But in Italian and several other modern languages e. as. cc. conobbi. words into syllables are the traditional ones yet the validity of some them is open § 4. bb . but has the same quality throughout.

we find Quintilian of division. When we come lowed to examine the mode of dividing words fol- in our best Latin inscriptions. for instance Caesellius. Anecdota Graeca. There question. eges-tas. 63. Theodosius (ed. the evidence is strikingly at variance with the traditional rule which prescribes joining as many consonants 80 per cent of of a line. p. 205. cited bd. p. 0. see Dennison. I. where the same laws for syllable division may be found. we get pre- . Bekker. 7. pt.e.g. rule.g. hospes. all as possible with the following vowel. for by Greek scholars for their iii. also evidence of a phonetic nature bearing upon this A is syllable containing a short vowel followed by two But in such consonants phonetically long. 47 is f. example. 1127. those words which exhibit interpunctuation in inscriptions. as recognized by all our gram- mars and demonstrated words as in every line of Latin poetry. 879). and if we divide according to the grammarians' rule do-etus. For a full presentation of the epigraphic evidence bearing upon this point. ct. open syllables containing a short vowel are short doctus. vic-to-ri. pronunciation of (i. In about the cases in which words are divided at the end is one of the consonants joined with the preceding vowel. vii. such irresponsible borrowing We have already seen indications of in the case of the testimony of the grammarians concerning the Moreover. e.. 1) Terentianus Maurus (Keil. See § ^^.32 PR ONUN CIA TION. own p. See . 'TVS. ho-spes). minister. by Cassiodorus 351.e. . consonants as can begin a word in Greek. Cf. abs-temius.g. minister. Gottling). separation of the syllables by dots. On the other hand it may be urged that the is principle laid down by the Roman grammarians merely an echo of rules maintained language. (Keil. op «ta Vol. 9) advocating an etymological principle haru-spex. e. in Classical Philology. — evidently Even greater a systematic violation of the grammarians' is the proportion of violations of the rule in i. e. {i. vi.

See especially Hale.e. may be either long or short. tr . for example. Hence it is Romans {i. short syllables. This gives a closed syllable a syllable ending in a consonant).e.g. These principles also throw light on the nature of comis mon syllables. cisely these syllables.of do-cet. d. pr.). A common syllable / or one containing a short t/. Evidence contradicting the grammarians' rule the division of words in examples cited is by ancient writers on Latin prosody. the / was joined with the r (pd-trem). VII. this utterance. thus found also in leaving the syllable open. these writers separate a verse of poetry component they divide the syllables not according grammarians' rule. etc. or the of minister any more than the clear that the ni. Vol. into its to the When feet. therefore.of dd-ctus should be long than the do.e. 33 i. but according to the principle exconsiderations. 268. In a word like patron. and by syllabification followed . cr. there is short For with no more reason why ?ii- the do. thus closing the syllable but when the syllable was used as short. and is it is a fundamental phonetic principle that a closed syllable long. The rule of the It is grammarians. In both cases we i. But natuthis rally a difference of pronunciation must have accompanied variation of quantity. Har~oai'd Studies. by considerations of phonetics. open syllables containing a short vowel. when / the first syllable was used as long the .of mim-mus. seems thoroughly contradicted by the testimony of inscriptions. was joined with the a first {pdt-reni). Conticu ere que ora nebant Turnus ut infractos ad verso Marte Latinos Ut bel li sig num Lau renti Turnus ab arce. have open syllables containing a short vowel. discredited. vowel followed by a mute with In verse such a syllable r {pi. in actual utterance must have joined one of a group of consonants to a preceding short vowel. p. te plained above as demanded by phonetic om nes in tenti e.: DIVISION OF WORDS INTO SYLLABLES.

_ : :: : :i: etfett thttrtepisitiiiiil ::=it:-tis : set i met . wht^: member ends the mute 5 and whose t tnd begins with /or / . pounds. mi*i$-&iy m^-M*ss M?M-sfr*m. is is joined to the folk except cas e when a long is syllable needed.-i.~" T. is always joined to the pre:./or . tei . . also. the a*-gt>. which were Latin. . Thus £x& mist have been ~v T pro- nounced m .: the J re 2 r . no more like Greek that their pti Very . unpetent phonetic rather set -. :~xms as Igf-sms. ^ . In prepositional comin a mute. .: <mjv. consonants are involved s may be formulated as In case »ch combinations of consonants. is is : : t'. - tit. so." for their the way. ^httiii he This principle . i..Il_ T ..i. med .-.. ere s • copyists rules intended to furnish stands S] practical use sionof Abies where two folio r s . in which latu the mute joined to the precee ing . thrush i is :rvi. It should res .• : : : : if~ : 1 1 ns tie it: nen : e~ ten .-but / eL Thus regularly Jw~iris« poetry the - rv/a- -hen in - "able is first used as long. as a/.^s thai I. kns-fes. very likely after a .i £: sitt is :: t.r s . : r. b] the ancients them3 selves more probable ths it : . - wnsb] the writers on is prosody.c - = : t - - :he zexi Letter £ . a mute 4. consonant is joined to the preceding vowel..:'. jSc-^ms.e in • .. : : . the t tetei " ^ it Le is t ys . - .:. :: 1 the ttziptiztiii t lltS :: : :1 : .:::i was undoubtedly the case.fits.ririr As regards 1 die rule of the ancient grammarians laid _ down in -..us hett-iris thi: i:~ie-d in tt: it t::i. also. r « .. speed] rules upon the up tra- ditional which t\ die es Greek grammarians . In all other combinations of consonants. .

--"7 : :t ::r ill =.~trt - -.- c iiiii._- _ : .uz. :e : '-.-^T ^ = :i : :f ±ii izr.: _l: ±t ^ . .i =: -: -i. zyzza^ies - : -.:: 2 —^ i.ir: . r.: - -- .i= :i :.-' rxs..:m: - :. :.—----. rz:t~T i= iIjti: - ~i: ------ - -•.

their eviearlier usage. dramatists. is The quantity of a vowel before a it mute with /or r in verse used hidden unless the syllable containing appear as short. 36 . (see § 37) xii. iv. Nodes Atti- 17. 6. before a mute followed by a liquid. especially liquid never 'Plautus and Terence.g. 39. as distinguished from the quantity the metrical vowel before a single consonant. Orator. 3. being the same as the quantity of the syllable. the quantity of the vowel always appears in these writers. of determining The methods ing i.: CHAPTER A III. just as in case of a vowel followed by a single consonant. where of the employment word at once indicates whether the vowel is long or short. 36. cited below. Such a quantity of a called hidden. Cicero. where the principle for the length of vowels before cae. e. ii. dence often preserves the tradition of entitled to weight. is Roman . with whom is mute before a lengthens a syllable whose vowel Hence. / 2. Aulus Gellius. HIDDEN QUANTITY. and though some of them belong to a comparatively late period. nf. p. 17. Nearly every Roman gram- marian furnishes some little testimony of this kind. and hence is The versification of the earlier Roman a short. x hidden quantity are the follow- Express testimony of ancient 159. Plautus and Terence not infrequently employ as short 1 many syllables which in classical poetry is would be invariably The material here presented based chiefly upon Marx's Hulfsbiichlein. 48. ns laid down ix. writers. hidden quantity is the quantity of a vowel before two is consonants. Furthermore.

vi. a great e. 551 peqvlatvv. — Since the middle of the century e. A thoroughly consistent use of these methods of designating is the vowel quantities inscriptions. . Curculio 38. B. dicate their length. 10006. latter. CIL. or by the iambic nature of the \yx>rds. 294 Stichus 59 dolus 537 . Examples are traxi. fecei.C. paastores. § 87. among number of correct markings. voluntas. contains also some false ones. i. Before the employment of the apex the length of the vowel in case of a. svmma. any single inscrip- Certain the late republican and early this. u was indicated by doubling the vowel. truo 939. CIL. CIL. and exhibit very full and the speech of the p. xi. .' In some instances. Trinummus 1166 PseuAmphivoliiptas. priscvs. the apex (or point) appears added to the vowels a. i. But these cases are of a the examples cited. containing the Res Gestae Dlvl August!. CIL. Plautus. bonis Plautus. 551. Mostettaria 30. took the apex. it must be admitted. e. in in but few Of the vowels contained marked. 1940. . e. olla. Emperor Claudius (Bois- sieu. CIL. imperial period form an exception to reliable markings. first '$. long by position. e. found.C.g. vi. Inscriptions. clvpei. Mostettaria 249.g. Monumentum Ancyranum. 368. 3. 0. quInqve. e. . mIllia. 16 . Such errors also occur occasionally elsewhere. . x. pultabo.g. and elsewhere. i. CIL. 3539. i. Inscriptions de Lyon. 202 . 136) and the Monumentum This Ancyra- num. it must be confessed. This peculiarity belongs to the period from 130 to 70 B. as a official inscriptions of in syllables long by posi- tion only a portion are tion. later. above the other 1 letters longa) and by 2311 .METHODS OF DETERMINING HIDDEN QUANTITY. : 37 Examples are the following juvenilis. u to in- Long i was designated and hence called i originally by / (rising ei . rule. fact that the to ' These cases are to be explained by the vowel was short and the following consonants failed make position. as in Cf. o is never doubled manner. Trinummus 822. even long vowels are mis.g. in this CIL. used as short. forts peculiar sort and may be explained on metrical grounds.

dilxl. Vesontio. -dussi. ductus. treated e. mese (with close onesto (with e). Examples Italian. not preserved the original quantity of Latin vowels for both the long and the short . . i. Latin e and o Now the Romance languages have . than are our texts of the Greek writers. is most fruitfully applied in case of the and The employment of the Latin of Greek e or rj. and Spanish . mensis. Thus we may . open e) monstrare. Latin o appears as a close o in Italian and Spanish Latin o as an open or as uo (ue). = Vipsanius . 0. 237 OveaovTLCDv. honestus. wherever faith may be reposed in the accuracy of the transcription. Greek 1 points to e. Latin e as e or as ie. but 1 became : a close e Latin u remained u. much greater weight in such mat- Inscriptions are naturally of ters 5. -dotto (with close 0). Romance languages. as a close e in Italian Romance but they Thus Latin e appears an open . Greek transcriptions of Latin words. Strabo. CIG. — These languages. Latin Latin J. (with open 6). Vergilius. ' mostrare (with close dotto dissi.g. vowels e — This method 0. . after OvepyiAios lxviii. write Esquiliae in view of 'HctkvAivos. became 0. v. vowels of the Latin have become half-long in have very faithfully preserved their quality. z. e. detto (with close e). The quantity of i may also often be determined by Greek transThus et before two consonants regularly points to literations. . HIDDEN QUANTITY. dictus. Similarly Latin ~i remained close /. o or w makes the quantity vowel certain. Beaj/avios. doctus. 234. c). dixT. "larpos = Ister. 38 4.. 24. Italian. Cf § 3. The vocalism of the particularly the Spanish and be remembered that Latin open. but u Latin. after Dio Cassius. 5709.g. 0). ~~e and o were close . u with great It will regularity according to the natural length of the vowel.

des latein. series of articles in Wolfflin's Archiv fur Lateinische lexikographie. cibo. until they are proved to be long. Heilbronn. 133 Grundriss der Romanischen Philologie. Lateinisch-Romanisches Worterbuch. Leipzig. Strassburg. authorize conclusions only with reference to the popular language as opposed to that of the better educated classes. The following are the most important works of reference on this subject Marx. 1890. on if other hand. as Italian rigido. 69 ff. arna. Grammaiik der Romanischen Sprachen. p. p. lubrico. 1901. pustula. The latin Language. Vulg'drlateinische Substrata Romanischer Worter. a 2d ed. in Grober's 1888. this testimony is not necessarily conclusive. A work valuable its for its collection of evidence. it is such words decide retain the Latin vocalism. In some cases difficult to whether a word has descended by the popular or the learned channel. Paderborn. vols. 497 ff. . ff.g. 1885. die Aussprache lateinischer Vokale in PositionsBerlin. p. It is customary to regard all such vowels as short. that the vowel safe to assume the was long in the literary language. Again.: METHODS OF DETERMINING HIDDEN QUANTITY. the Romance languages point to a short vowel. there nevertheless remain some words whose vowel With all the assistance furnished quantity cannot be determined. Hulfsbuchlein fur langen Silben. however. by the methods above enumerated. tenebre. d'Ovidio. Lindsay. 3d ed. Meyer-Lubke. Oxford. particularly other facts point clearly in the opposite direction. 1894. 1 90 1. Seelmann. When. e. Die Aussprache Grober. i. metro. Many Romance words All represent mediaeval borrowing by the learned class. but frequently untrustworthy in conclusions. luxus. Korting. In the popular speech the tendency was rather toward the shortening of long vowels than toward the lengthening of short ones. The Romance 39 languages. the Romance languages authorize conclusions only in case of words inherited from the Latin. i-vi. Hence where the Romance languages it is point to a long vowel in the popular language.

CIL. before both ns and nf. o) Before ns the vowel xii. pp. nf e. 393 ff. 1891. I showed that this general principle was altogether too sweeping and that at most we could go no farther than to recognize with Priscian the length of the vowel before the suffixes -gnus. II/ooi. e. as Kprjo-K^vs (= Crescens) . Eckinger. 67 Inspexi . -gna. Vowels before 37.Sr. et Christiansen. 1738 Infanti 4294 Inferri.. Husum. ervnt.g. consul. 40 HIDDEN QUANTITY. -gnum and in such other individual words as may be sup- . gn. expressly states that in con compounds of and in. 4510 Inferioris CIL. ns. . p. /or s. Orthographie Lateinischer Worter in Griechischen Inschriften. Greek transliterations x. apex. xiv f. G ENTERAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF HIDDEN QUANTITY. Beitr'dge zur Bestimmung der Qtmntitat in Positionslangen Silben xiv. as CIL. vi. But iii. In the Appendix to my Latin Gram- mar.vs = Prudens) Vowels before 38. 1527 d. c) ii. xi. the vowel was pronounced long when followed by an . in Wolfflin's Archiv fur lateinische Lexikographie. Orator. 64 consto CIL. CIL.. gm. 159. CIL. xiv. all Until recently the doctrine was current that vowels are long in Latin before gn.g. CIL. Heraeus. i longa occurs repeatedly . A vowel is always long before ns and nf. e. in: felix. Munich. 1889. CIL. Vol.g. 3102 Censor. De Apicibus I longis. xi. 1 1 18 mensvm 1 1 the apex occurs less frequently before nf. 18 conficivnt. is often marked in inscriptions with vi. Further literature up to 190 1 is cited by Marx. 449 ff. of Latin words often indicate a long vowel before ( ns. 647 Instrvx. This principle rests upon the following evidence a) Cicero.

p.) correctness. p. some of them. ut " regnum. 1) that the vowel long before gn in gignd. igndrb. agnatus. is tenable. ignarus. has discussed the question here at issue with great thoroughness and candor. of the passage. 1) to the fact that Plautus always uses the gn as long. 470). 312) against the long vowel before -gnus." sfagnum" "privignus" " Pelignus-. xv. -gna. except words with an original long vowel. impugn ff. since we should ' naturally expect larly gn to make position in Latin just as yv regu- does in Greek. I showed that there was certainly no evidence to support the is doctrine of Marx (see his Hulfsbilchlein. -GN. Vol. (2) the fact that the Celtic and Germanic words borrowed from Latin signum vowel . 4 Admitting the validity of Priscian's testimony for the length of the vowel before -gnus. -gnum in : " (1) the fact that. Others. this magnus. Vol. regard this statement as an interpolation. an anapaest by Diomedes (Keil. and urges (p. ii. 311. -GM. p. Buck Vol. Keil. absence can hardly be accidental (4) the citation of dignitas as i. in these latter etc. cogndscd for *con-gnosco. Marx holds that the vowel forms was long as the result of compensatory lengthening. in recent years to re- But there has been a growing tendency ject even Priscian's testimony in favor of the length of the vowel before the suffixes -gnus. 82 : " Gnus" quoque mallgnus" while gna' 1 1 ' vel "gnum " terminantia " longam habent vocalem paenultimam." " benignus" " " abiegnus. cognbsco. as Havet. cognatus. ignavus.1 VOWELS BEFORE ported by specific evidence. ' is of no weight. also point to a short (3) the total absence on inscriptions of the apex or Ilonga in the case of the great majority of like words with gn. who has in mind only vowel . of so frequent occurrence that . agnbscd." Some scholars. the Romance languages point to a short vowel before gn . The passage vel " is found in p. -gnum. ignarus being for *in-gnarus. -gna. its admitting the genuineness (Classical Review. But no such theory of compensatory lengthening Marx's appeal syllable before (p. ignoscb. -gnum. -gna.

amandus. Before gm the vowel is long in fiigmentum (see CIL. we have already seen that the case for vowel length before gn is of the weakest possible kind. abiegnus. xi. viii. seen in sIgnum. stagnum.g. should be noted. j~entatid (for *Jejuntatio). sIgnificabo. vi. ft) vowel is long in the following contracted words : contio (for coventio). and his conIt clusions deserve at least provisional acceptance. Vowels before 40. e. vi. montis. 16664 826. pIgmen[t) and in segmentiMn Greek or^y/xcVra). as or in special social strata) to have had a long vowel before gn. 5676 . But these Buck regards as abnormal and exceptional pro. 1). dIgni. vi. j'entacuhim (for *jyuntaculuni). 4270. 39. there is that. not syllabic quantity. Selinuntis (Greek. nuntius (for *noventius). " of this class seem occasionally (in special perhaps. as is done by Marx (p. regnum.xiv. Gen. were legitimately entitled to their long quantity and always retained it. so the analogy. ^eAivowros). amant. . being derived from stems with a long vowel.g. Marx appeals to the analogy of gn in support of his attitude. nunciations. {cf. nt. quantity. Buck's argument is a very strong one. e. privIgno. but there is no evidence warranting the formulation of a broad rule all embracing vowels before gm. SEiGNVM. even if we admit the validity of nothing to indicate regular vowel length before gm. 10234.42 HIDDEN QUANTITY. ss. 1. . x. 1344. All vowels are regularly short before nt and nd. but apart from the dangers of this kind of reasoning. y) Greek proper names in -us. monent. however. 3541 Ignis. Se/mus.CIL. -untis. Nevertheless certain words localities. Exceptions: a) Before nt the a) quintus. that three words. 2. nd.

e. Gen. Hevo^wvros) b) Before nd the vowel is long in a) the following contracts and compounds : prendo (for prehendo). Kp-rjcrKrjvs. Ilpatcr^s (i.g. For the vowel before nd the evidence the is not so full. or by a long in Greek and (i. . 3175. Nominatives of such words as cl~eniens. in the oblique cases the apex is lacking. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique. 1. Addenda. 3757 . naturally long. vi. 1094. quindecim (qidnque). A slight uncertainty exists as to the quantity of the vowel before nt in the oblique cases oi/ons. pons. .g. according to the i. but Upataevrt. 57 <£ovSavtos (i. transcriptions. 3991. Lydus. 6012. -otitis. 8695. praesens. from . iv. -ND. Greek proper names in -an. ix. CIG.. CIL. f. PONTEM. CIG. Upaicrrjvs. is short. 7. crescens. while in the cliens. iii. 439. the long quantity of the is vowel vowel assured either by the presence of the apex. Xeno- phon. mons. in linteum from linum Greek Xivnov. Fundanius). MONTEM. but KprjaKevTL. 41. 43 e. CIG. FONTEM. ft) dies). p. Xenophontis (Greek. 1994. Charondas. K\rj/ir)s in Greek transcriptions the vowel CIA. fons. CIA. FRONTEM. But see § 47. Even where a vowel is CIG. 4030. CIL.). parens. VOWELS BEFORE 8) -NT. it sometimes becomes . 1 147. Upataevra. 53.e. FRONDEM. unde- some Greek names. express testimony of Quintilian. cf. shortened before nt. pons.e. CIG. crescens. Vowels are also regularly short before ss. xii. KXrj/xevros. We find . nondum {71011 -f- duni) . c. 1829 c. 20. nundinus (noveni cini {Tunis). (-covSas). vendo (venumd~o). Greek transcriptions KaAeVSais. e. but .g. de Mens. Ep annuo nd as lies in 3. Addenda. KXtJ/jlcvti. K\r}/jL7]vs). but crescenti. CIG. 9059. 4. The evidence for the short vowel before nt the fact that. e. iii. gens.g.e.

/. Archiv.-Romanisches Wdrter- The Romance languages ii. The Romance languages seem to point to an antecedent Thus the Italian fonte has close o so the Profo?itis. : This as fol- lows for the different words under discussion fons. We find it to be a regular law (i. A glance at certain facts. fonte. however. See § a short vowel before nt in the oblique cases. ii. fuente. pointing p. Archiv. all agree in pointing frondem (Grober. HIDDEN QUANTITY. short o. p. Spanish. so the other Romance languages. Archiv. pointing to pontem. Korting. Lat. becomes close. Wdrterbuch^) point unanimously to montem mons. is The testimony of the Romance languages. b) 40. Three sets of facts are to be considered a) The analogy of other words in -ns (Gen. so far as they are genuine Latin words. The Romance languages ii. (Grober. alone with its fuente points to fbntem (Grober. Korting. vencal fon. in these languages that an original open Latin § 36. point to Provencal pon and Italian potite with close pontem . 426 . 426 . 426 . see when followed by m. becomes Italian . p.44 (frontis) . to p.e. Korting. Provencal fro?i and Italian fronte. Wdrterbuch). pons. without exception. and before nd : in frons (frondis). Thus Latin tondet with open 0. . n. buch). Wdrterbuch).fonti. puente (which should be fronte. which has puente. Spanish ii. or -f another consonant. -ntis). we might at once conclude that these words went back to Latin forms with o in the oblique cases. 0. suggests another conclusion. frons (-ntis). in Italian and Provengal. with close point to frontem. Such words. frons (-ndis). 5). If mere numerical preponderance were all decisive. etc. to represent Latin o) as exceptions to the prevailing law of development. (Grober. Korting. ponte. except Spanish. So the other Romance languages. which has fruente. except to frontem. have. 426 . and might explain Spanish fruente. Archiv.

these to be the original forms) regularly in Italian : fonte. c) The third bit of evidence comes from Greek transliterations in of Latin words as found Greek inscriptions and Greek authors. in these words. Spanish regularly developed the open (viz. . with close o. Grober's Grundriss der Rotnanischen Philologie. fruente. ponte. 45 risponde . 36. then. frondem. had dee. it which point seems more reasonable to regard Spanish monte and fronde (which point to 0) as the exceptions. not necessary in order to account for Italian and Provencal close o in their Romance descendants. mo litem. with close exactly as we find them. it inherited from Latin fuente. in which close § veloped regularly from an earlier u (see . 522. puente. The words admission of a long is. with close Just what has brought about this change in is not certain. while fuente fruente . pontem. Similarly respondet becomes all rhombus becomes rombo . suggests that Spanish monte. 389) expresses himself in favor of assuming an original etc. whose operation is certain. and ol-\- consonant. in the oblique cases of these Latin therefore. fronde. .VOWELS BEFORE tonde. -ND. thinks was the analogy of words in on + consonant. it p. monte. vi.fruente. puente) while Spanish monte and fronde are probably loan-words from Italian. are loan-words. In accordance with this principle. fontem. who {Archiv. -NT. Latin fontem. 5). Romance lan- guages from the Latin with a (short) open Provencal this open that in Italian and subsequently became close in accordance with a regular law of wide operation. onda {= undo) dolce (= dulcis). p. when to we consider Spanish fuente. fronde. Briefly. would (assuming become o. fronte.. puente represent an original inheritance. In all of fact. D'Ovidio i. om ( + consonant. pol(y)pus becomes polpo. Latin o. Grober. a fair interpretation to of the evidence of the Romance languages seems warrant the belief that the oblique cases of the words under discussion came into the . rompe = rumpii) . frontem. 0. in to ue in those words which .g.

Addenda. b (59 . an inscription. as the context of the stone- shows).g. CIA. Nnma. iii. -ntis) view the Romance languages favor it. et . cites Christiansen. all of which point to Latin Fran to. frondis. as exhibited both in texts in inscriptions.) . and the testi. favors this The analogy of other words in -ns (Gen. 21. in is Front frontem. dress. 4805 b passim 9 . 7tovti<£i£ (= pontifex). iii. 1113. de Mens. FTulfs- buchlein. p. either in inscriptions or Mss. is 11. 3). 57. a. CIG. 12. in Lydus. (= Latin pdnteni) the text in Plutarch. and Fronfinus.d. in Declension. The isolated v. 888 any The Gieek is never shows an w in of these words. as is often the case in other words. 1177 1 154 (between 150 and 200 a. CIA. even in carefully cut Apicibus et inscriptions (see § 36. We thus have the strongest possible grounds for writing fontis. CIA.d. iii. certainly a mere blunder cutter. 2 Lane. favors In fact.). Qpoi/Ttlvos. De I Longis. Ptol. iii. As the annexed dates show. and Zosimus 7rovri<£e|. mony and of Latin words apex 2915. CIL. etc. a. irovTifyiKa. find (bovrrjios ( = iii. 1.46 Thus we in HIDDEN QUANTITY. and an inscription in a. Dio Cassius. in Dionysius. p. wovtl- in Plutarch. 26 (before 161 . Latin Montanus appears .d. in 9 .d. Harvard Studies. and in texts.) QpovTw. p. and we find rpi^ovriov.) (about 220 a. Addenda. 5837. they belong to the good period of the language. <f>u<es. 89) that the ending -nm in the Genitive Plural of nouns of the First and Second . as MovTavos. Kaibel's Sylloge Epigrammatum. (e. It is . in 21 . Fonteius) in Plutarch and Appian . Nor can all recognition be refused the inscriptions above cited on the ground that they are late. thirteen such instances for vowels before nt Hidden Quantity 42. the evidence (for is complete. CIG. irovrep. maintained by some scholars Marx. and indirectly to front-em. in Greek it. Numa. also iii. The evidence furnished by that language therefore unanimous in favor of o for the Latin. <£poimvos. i. .

remains to be shown that the . which Schmitz (Rheinisches Museum. sometimes omitted. Again. x. m of the Nominative or Accusative Singular. The coins represent no dialect . propom i. hypothesis con- cerning the coins b) is correct. (= probuni). also in nostrum and vestrum. e. Coins of the same date regularly retain e. inscriptions. An inscription i. Volcanom. be long. But the material with which Mommsen deals is tremely scanty. the oldest of In the Scipio which may date within a quarter of a find final century of these coins. facts in evidence are the following d) On final early Latin coins prior to the First Punic War. dud) was long.g. The natural inference must be that tive . This has led Mommsen (CIL. was a difference in the quantity of the the two As the o of the Nominative and Accusative Singular was short. Mommsen thought that in the Genitive Plural it must ex. therefore. there was no system in the omission of final m on these coins. Corano. .: -UM IN DEUM. extremely unlikely that Mommsen 's x.g. of p. propom. Genitive Plural forms occur in some number but only a few Nominative and Accusative forms are found. in fact they represent widely if separated localities hence it is no wonder the final m (always weak) was sometimes written. The ETC. 1081) has dvvmviratvs. 1) and Aeserninom (i. Volcanom. deum. Mommsen attempts to solve this difficulty by taking Romanom and Aeserninom as the Nominative Singular Neuter of the Adjecbut that is awkward. 20) show that Genitives sometimes retained the m. Romanom (CIL. we final find the m of many Genitives Plural omitted. i. 47 Declensions has u in such forms as Aeneadum. But even conceding the correctness of the it apex in this isolated instance. Studies. p. 89) regard as evidence no) and Lane {Harvard that the // of duum (Gen. PI. 9) to infer in that there instances. viz. Romano. NUMMUM. nummum . we m freely omitted in the It is. of Nuceria (CIL. Accusative and Nominative Singular just as elsewhere.

tenacis fax. The evidence in favor of -um in these Genitives must. have in oblique cases the same quantity dgri . also. of the vowel . became transferred etc. comix).fellis. duumvir and duumviratus is in origin a Genitive. Accusative Singular. and words of the Third Declension in -er and -x. Thus sometimes the Nomi- native gives the clue to the hidden quantity in the oblique cases (as dger. triumviri. altogether probable. cornicis. 3. comix. in the Nominative.of the Genitive Plural. acris pax. frater. singular especially such forms as duovir. the u tilian (i. plebis. calix.g. e. 90). Greek words in -as (Gen.48 duumof HIDDEN QUANTITY. tresvir would have been it seems probable that the singular duumNucerian inscription. shows that to his ear nummum.d. is Such an assumption likely that extremely improbable. as already explained in § 40. Aias. The apex in the if this etymol- ogy be as is correct. plebs. 18). nix. e. 2. 6. contracted . after the analogy of centumvir. gigantis. fel. duumvirum. and vir. regis. Atavros . ossis . os. triumvir were. sometimes the oblique cases give the clue to the hidden quantity of the Nominative (as cornicis. facts . gigas. replacing duo in earlier duoviri. dgri) . It is much more duumvir In the and triumvir are formed extremely awkward. rex. for that reason historically anterior to duumviri. dger. fratris acer. . So. For Quinas noted by Lane (p. -antis). have the original same quantity as in the (Aids. Such an etymology would involve the assumption that the duum. especially in view of the regular shortening of vowels before Certainly if final -m in Latin.g. Genitive Plural. would then be simply a blunder of the engraver. calicis . nivis . pads tenax. to the other cases. Words in -er of the Second Declension. ytyavTos). therefore. 3. yiyas. -um did by any possibility exist in the days of Augustus. Words of the Third Declension ending in -ns (Gen. be regarded as of no weight. Aiantis . . as . was nowise different from nummum. had become shortened by 90 a. -ntis) uniformly have a short vowel in the oblique cases.

43. the similar longa in words like PompeIivs. Selinuntis . in view of the absolute silence of the grammarians. Selinus. e.5325.£•.ADJECTIVES. In the terminations -issimus. but also the/ which developed /'s. As regards the frequent occurrence of piIssimae. fortIssimo. § 6. drx. dvlcIssimo. <?. vi. vi. deunx\ deuncis is . 405) urges the occur- rence of late spellings like merentessemo. as longa had become an extremely may be seen by palpable errors.g. in the absence of the apex in these superlatives. p. acerrimus.g. ix. But many of these inscriptions belong to the i last centuries of the Empire. these may perhaps be explained on used to indicate not the theory that i longa was here in merely 1.g. . e. longa.e. sometimes short. Comparison of Adjectives. ii. eg. is -illimus. Be- fore -x the vowel sometimes long. Against i.g. 1132. quincuncis. facillimus. -errimus. as already explained in 2. e. Greek names of cities in -ovs. Exceptions to this principle are plebs and compounds of uncia ending in -unx. Apparent traces of a long in the / termination -issimus are found in inscrip- tional forms with is . NUMERALS. i carissimus. when the use of untrustworthy guide.vi. In all words of the Third Declension ending -ns in more consonants (excepting and is -x preceded by a vowel). CIL. CIL. -wv. quincunx. the hidden vowel short. e. the hidden vowel before the ending short. sors. piIssimus besides this The word of most frequent occurrence we find a few other words. Cf. 3748. CIL. karessemo. carIssimo. 16926. At and all events. i. and proper names in Xenophon. to attach great weight to the occurrence of it seems unwise i the longa alone. 49 . pronunciation between the two use of i pijissimo. -ovvtos. piIssimo. Lindsay {Latin Language. 1. Cf. 4. urbs. -wvtos. above. Xe7iophontis Acheron two or (not a contract form) has Acheruntis. 2997.

as quin- decim. e. vos . . cujusque. drno. serpd. millia.g. all of which have 1. 45. pi'endd. narrd. d) milk. disco. ordior. necto. n becomes m. Ille. posed. Before a labial.50 HIDDEN QUANTITY. As separate words are to be noted : a) b) quattuor. In most Presents the hidden vowel is short. ipse. : verfo. Presents formed by means of the infix n have a short vowel. runipo (root rup-) lambo (root ative Care should be taken not like to confuse deriv- and contract Presents v~endo. all verbs in -sco (r). vestri. undeviginti. 2. iste The suffix -cunque has u. 1. Nos. quintus. e. 1. purgo. jingo (for jurigo). vester . /tf£-). Compounds retain the quantity of the elements of which they are compounded. and millesimus. Root Forms. 46. 5. but noster. etc. except compesco. but quartus (see § 53 under area). have z. . But the following exceptions are to be noted : a) First conjugation tracto. 2. 3. qiiinquaginta. jug-). 4. quingenti. /undo (root fud-) . nostri. d) Fourth Conjugation : nutrio. vescor. Hunc and hanc have a short vowel. qifinque and its derivatives. with genuine nasal formations. Numerals. Pronouns. c) the derivatives of unus : undecim.g. 44. b) c) Second Conjugation Third Conjugation : : ardeo. frdngo (root frag-) e.g. CONJUGATION. as qiiisquis. etc. jungo (root .

entire con- jugation of the verb. scrIptvm. (See is § 52. 6) and by the testimony b) of the Romance languages. assured by the statement of Aulus Gellius {Nodes Atticae. 3.g. vIxit. ardeo ardere gerere scribere arsi gessT scrlpsi ar suras gestus scriptus victiirus gero scribo vivo vivere vixl ftgo figere fixT fix us Thus veixit.vv. s. 51 The quantity of the vowel in the Present regularly remains it unchanged (when becomes hidden) throughout the e.: : : CONJUGATION. conscreiptvm. in the following Indicative and Perfect Participle. But the following exceptions to noted a) dico this general principle are to be dicere diicere dlxT dihxT cessi d ictus ductus cessurus is duco cedo cedere The short vowel of the Perfect Participles dictus and ductus ix. inscriptions give fIxa. if verbs ago cingo agere cingere egi actus cinctus delictus cinxT deliqui distlnxi delinquo distinguo delinquere distinguere distlnctus emo exstinguo fingo emere exstinguere eml exstlnxT emptus exstlnctus fingere finxi fregi flctus frango ftingor fr angere fungi jungere legere frdctus functus sum jilnxi legi jungo lego junctus lectus pango pingo pangere pingere pepigl pdctus piclus pinxl BOSTON UNIVERSITY cou jJBRARY .) The short vowel of the Present lengthened in the Perfect hidden.

tions de 1377 p. compounds and list is derivatives of these verbs. redacta vi. ix. l888 . . relictus. 6) to the quantity of the vowels of actus. . tactus. delictus. ix. 1826 25617. short a would have become example in confeclus for e in an original * confactus . ranum v. 14. In the retention of a in compounds of . e. IVNCTA X. 136 vi. . INFRACTA recte xii. 2681 c) Oscan saa(n)htom (= sanctoni). pactus. unctus. coemto Monumentum Ancy5205 certain) CIL. cInctvs CIL. defvnctis CIL.: : 52 pungo rego HIDDEN QUANTITY. acceptus *e~raptus. ereptus for d) For cinctus.fitto. for an original *accdptus . the long fictus. relitto. iii. sancta actus. . distinctus. vi. SEIVNCTVM vi. Actis CIL. pictus. exactvs Boissieu. dIlectvs 6319 lectvs xi. attactus. tector vi. e.fractus. n 2494 tra[cta (not . etc. coaches. Romance. 60 .). who testifies {Nodes Atticae. pungere regere pupugT rexT ptinctus 7'ectus r din quo sancio struo relinquere sancire struere r ellqui relictus sdnxi striixi tetigi sanctus structus tdctus tectus tango tego tangere tegere texi tinguo traho tinguere trahere finxi finctus trdxi trdctus ungo ungere in iinxl unctus So also 4. 4 to that of structus.g. lectus. 3. refractus. exstinctus. x. The evidence for the quantity of the vowel in the Perfects of the foregoing list is found . tractus that the a tion. 701 . Lyon. delitto. Italian cinto. which show the following vi. pTinctus. Inscripv. : b) In the testimony of inscriptions. vi. and in xii. The evidence for the long vowel in the Perfect Participles of the foregoing found a) In the statements of Gellius. tinctus. . 1326. vowel is assured by the evidence of the 5. which shows this situa- was long. Unto. 1527 38. 1527 e.g. 4104 exstInctos . as for {e. .

Romance languages. Inscript.. but may first perhaps be safely inferred after the analogy of sanctus. but by such metrical usage as Plautus. Marx lays down net. dedisse. struxi. scidl. x. lanx. Verbal Endings. Each long vowel must be supported by In the 3d edition of his Hulfsbilchlein the principle that all (p.g. first laid merge?-e. or phalanx. Menaechmi. finx'i. This principle was i. origin of these formations. 875). tinxi. ftiisfi. but this position is now abandoned. In Priscian's statement (Keil. According to theory we should have e. Until recently the principle was maintained edition) that all by Marx in his b. d) The long a in sanxi rests upon no specific evidence. texit (CIL. unx'i. vowels are long in Latin before nx and These combinations occur almost exclusively on pp. (e. 231 1. traxi (CIL. rexit (CIL. 687. d. This is shown not only by the historical dedisfi. scissus .g. 4) and st in the terminations of the verb. as 53 C0NivNXiT(Wilmanns. down by apply to entirely specific Lachmann (on Lucretius. v. we have no definite evidence in favor of the long vowel before nx in anxius. 761. seindo. evidence. 1793). dist'inx'i.g. Amphitruo. which point to chixl. For example. e. amaz'isse .CONJUGATION. may be 51. fiiistis. 466) that rexi and text have c) In the testimony of the exstmxl. ii. niersus. mersi. fuissem. The hidden vowel is short before ss (§ 40. plnxl. scindere. x. where iss and ist are treated as short . 805) for Perfect Participles alone. niergd. ~e. 1 . 47. to and was subsequently assumed by other scholars the Perfect Indicative as well. monosyllabic stems ending in or g had this the hidden vowel long in the Perfect Indicative and Perfect Participle wherever euphonic changes occurred. 52. Latinae 104). questioned. 1). a) In inscriptional markings. b) 18). in the verbs given Whether the general principle is sound.

-. 50. Andria. long in composition when the preposition loses a final consonant. of in eo. com:~\ 2. floresco. accestis (for ac- . • . Aeneid. syllable of ascendd (for di-stinguo (*dis-stingud^ : suspicw (for *sub-spicio). amasfi. Compounds. 2. dixit \ioi dixisft). etc. :~:sse. if hidden. have the same quantity. as amassc.g. ddipiscor. S) holds that the is vowel of a monosyllabic prepo- sition.' has a long e in the forms Is. sun . 49. : Formations of the type . essem. nitesce. Marx (p. -scor e. Marx yj>. est. 9) lays ii down the principle that in i compounds st. e. Atticde. nestis. But this principle rests : upon an unS9. 1. * ' y lables by neglect of position (see § 36. treniisco. est estis. is short under all circumstances. '.54 HIDDEX QUANTITY. forms containing have the second long before as e. Inchoatives in -see.. of course. 2).as the regular forms. Donatus on Terence. trajre. Edd. tenable theory of compensator}.. vL 15^ mentions a number of words of ing a long vowel. disco. Cf. audlsset. estur.lengthening see § Inchoatives. -. estis. But the hidden vowel short in compesco.g. and implies that this was generally true of The Romance languages show and : : that -see is and -iseo (-iscor) had e 1. Contracted forms are. labdsco. have a long vowel before -sc. eat.- jusfi [for jussisti). posed. esfo. 7S5. 81.-. Gellius [Nodes this class as havall. v. Irregular Verbs.g. an exception to the above principle. . 48. esse. The i root vowel of esse essem. Thus he maintains a long vowel for the initial *dd-scdnde~) . Servius on Virgil. essetur.

larly and /. have ~ 2. lavacrum. httle chain/ angulfla. Formation. -es:~ :mm). stiBa. -undo. domesticus. . aratrum. pare>~teis '= parentis). verbs. -estris. :-. The vowel short in the endings -estus cus. -atrum. -e minus). catella. -urn'inu: :r : nus. In vernus m t :he r is is not a part of the suffix. reguwis.jelestis. . r: This theory rests solely upon the occurrence of este- rieisti in CIL. the long vowel belongs to the stem. i. incorrectly written for eg. In compounds. um). CIL. -urnus (-umius. WORD FORMA TIGX. -ust. (-ester. e um\ 3 -Ulus (a. venustus. ftdbrum. -useulus.g. ovillus. It is altogether another instance of the same sort Word 51. : The vowel is short in the endings -unculus. 6. i. ratiuncula. lectisternium. In semestris. 1202. interiisti. paterculus. 3. e. hillae. but the following have a long vowel. capistrum. Substantives in -abrum. The have ' derivative endings -ettus (a.: . -estz- 4. -ercuiks. taberna. -atrum. suillus. The vowel : is short in -em: ::us. Justus. pTus- eulus (from plus) naturally has u. derived from . maiusculus. 1. eg. L 1009 probable that esteri- f aceivndae kcstti is | = fanundae). . homuncib . nari- fragus. villa. Saturnus. BoriUae. the connecting vowel i is short. But ei occurs ( elsewhere in inscriptions. - pesfas.

Africa. &). to the list : Romance. 'AXtj/ctc^. Gr. bimestris bovillus : from mensis. to the Romance. ambus tus : see uro. d) <?) Some rare Greek loan-words and proper names. C. has dspemor dthla : : from d and spemor. Aquillius : AqvIllivs CIL. r calillus from catinus. Plutarch. ademptus afficto : like emo. axilla 1 : : like dter. The following classes of words are omitted from this — a) Most derivatives and compounds. biibrestis (3ov(3pr]<TTis. HIDDEN QUANTITY. dter . : see forma. 446 36. 10025. 2. "AXurjcms. vi. catalectus catella : e. ago. bilibris : like libra. -ere. Ale do : Gr. KardXr]KTos. Amphitruo. from Priscian. Cicero. : see § 61. b) c) All words containing ns or nf. Nouns and adjectives in -x. is Gr. see § 36. to the Romance . cicatrix : Gr. ademptio see adimo. to the Romance. ciccus. iii. 11. acatalectus Gr. 1 B. . x €lP 0V py^a in Plautus. Amsdnctus : see sdnctus. JSrjTpiaKov. List of the Most Important Words containing a Long Vowel before Two Consonants. like jllctus. 3 mance would point to biformis 3. Bedriacum Otho. athletes Gr. cf. : Marius. affkov. . Plutarch. ad\y]T qs. chirurgtis also : dtramentum atrium CIL. actus Alcestis : see § 46. actio. . : from bovinus. 2) shows the preceding vowel to be long. ( drdus. agere. combiistus and ustus. : : Gr. 'ApyivovaaaL.56 52. actor: see ago. : aliorsum allptes : for *alio-vorsum. I. 8. : the Ro- e. Gr. vi. . ace. : bellua bestia. catella. -esco.' Arginussae : Gr. adz mo. arsi. abiegnus : see § 38. Inchoatives in -dsco. aXeiTTTrjs. : drdeo. angullla : I ace. egl. actutum : like actus. end. : Bestia : Brjcrrias . : 1 -um ace. : Gr. : burrus : Amazon Gr. ' stupid : ' : from bard. : bardus. whose Genitive (ace. 9 . dctito. Afri from Afer. aKardXriKTOS. : cetra : better orthography caetra . ' bustum : u u ace. from catena bitch. arstlrus: like aridus. ATRIVM. : for bes-lua. ardtrum : see § 51. to § 42. Afxafav. 12264. -iscd. Biithrotum : BovOpurov.

fect. 384). vi. ditto. CIL. i.' cldtra. dempsi. combiiro as for co-amburo. 1 Cressa : have simto cribrum 55 . Marx mance. 175 . vi. com: : compingo. dictus : § 40. see § 46. delegi. clNClA. 4342. cingo.) Old Ital. other with u see Grober (Archiv. nXr/dpa. d'Ovidio (Grower's tum and with u. u in Plautus. : vowel of the Present and the Perx. cucullus. cinctus : The Romance would but see § 36. i. delinquo. . from de dixi. Romance. 60. contio : : : u. crusta. comptus to the ace. -otitis : Gr. edgo. edo . pdctus conjiinx see § 46. CIL. Poenulus. demptus . : from de and : iincia. to the Romance. v. cbmo. contigT. 2. point to a collateral dictus. coegl. Kprjaa-a. Korting ( Worteri. crdstinus cresco : : from eras. passim. xii. iv. CONIVNX. 2. CIL. crdbro guages etc. i passim. cogere. to the also ace. compsi. 2. ix. : see § 36. dit . CIL. form 384) . u ace. combussi. Amphitruo. -ere. Addenda. -Qjv. positus from pond. -Covtos. and com- paring cogito (for co-agito). see Korting cInctvs. which Osthoff {Morphologische Un- crescens. clnxT. but conjux has tango. to the Ro- see tiro and bustum. corolla from corona. contdctus like deunx died. + sextans. longed to the colloquial language. : contingo. compegT. de Magis- combiiro. KprjtrKrjvs 4030 et tersuchungen. vi.WORD. 555. compingere. -ere. codctus see ago. cf. 2. ' hood ' : the po-sino) hence secretly put aside. 385). the Romance : . like emo.' has u. dextdns for co-ventio . See Grober {Archiv.LIST. cbmere. a). 46 .vwcrcros. delictus: face. to ' {Wbrierbucli). point fin. combiistus : tratibus. 3514. a). (cf. demere. cucullus. a in Plautus. 74) thinks be- passim. I in Plautus. regarding Gr. 6592 et demo. from desino i. 5 T in the to . ply adapted the Participle the see § 36. 3. comestus : D. i. 14817 et Kpeicrireivov. d. -ere. CIL. 707. vi. clandestlnus : from cla??i and des{i)tus x. delectus : like lego. comedo. Grober (Arckiv. . . KvkX&iJ/. Lydus. Gr.e. 2. cingere. : deligo. dellquT. combitrere. vi. 4104 see § 53 s. 3. one with u. 501 f. ^. 1199. crisp us Creispinvs. : ciinctus : CVNCTI. see § 36. ciistos : KovcrribdTjs. Cincius : 57 CIG. Cnbssus : Gr. antwo forms. . dicere. Certain of the Romance lan(Fr. 4.). Gr. CIL. see § 50. crustum : v in CIL. cldtri ' : Gr. — Romance points Clytemestra : bucJi) . Cyclops : also marks the long. Perfect to and Perfect Participle ace. ' cuckoo. Korting Ctesiphon. . delilbrum 1 Romance. : But possibly those Romance languages which point to Mostellaria. b). K\vTcu/xri<TTpa. also to a collateral p. the Romance points both to crus- {Worterbucli) Grundriss.

to -ere. Esquilinus : Gr. fixT. edo. = *fes-iae). FESTVS in Korting doldbra Wbrterbuch) 3. 234. vi. E. v. fre- § 51. 1 I. CIL. b. CIA. to effringo. directus like rego. effregl. Jldbrum fiTgo. : cf. fingo. : dilemma : Gr. CIL. finger e. emo. : Trinummus. Romance see § 53 s. from ex and aestimo STIMAVERVNT. xii. exstinctus : and pater. to the : dijXvs. -ere. also esca : e ace. effr actus like frango. CIL. Festus: Festvs. in Strabo. ductus 3. 'HctkvXIvos. . distinxT. Gr. also 3143. exsfinxT. T festlvus : from festus. mentum Ancyrantim. firmus : fIrmvm. see § 46. et t. iii. ex- CIL. fiuxus : u ace. 2. : : like rego. like lego. the Romance Esquiliae. erexT. 502) cf. i. vi. for dis + gradior . 5- had become reduced. emptus : see § 46. ' : e/cXei'/'ts. -ere. 175 passim . it Etruscus : existimo : cf. <?jj<?. T of the classical pe- emuncttis . 'ErpoOcr/cos. Gr. cf. like from same root as femina . Festae. dilectus favilla : favIlla. 75 . 1 T. holiday Romance ( . : pensatory lengthening digredior : see § 89. : um . e. pensatory lengthening see § 89. -ere. CIL. 25th. -fiixz.g. ace. ducere. StA^^ct. I. Gr. to the Romance. period ultimately became reduced in . duxt. The Romance points to indicating that e of the classical . to the . CIL. diligd. -ere.. perdvxit. -fiictus AFLEICTA. 505O. by comby com- distinguo . duco. iii. Etruria . fictus : T ace. 5. v. emere. V. So also proper name 3179. distinguo. see § 36. 2346 et 3>77<rros. Gr. CIL. 515). cf. 5353. deiKrrjpiov. . -ere. See § : to the Romance. : see § the Romance see i.fiuxi is probably long in fluxi in view oifiuxzts. 635 and passim. to the Romance. diremptus . . . EXl. figere. : + gladior . : il ace. a) . ^^. 25617 3. the Romance points to the . diremi. The f. see § 46. ace. d'Ovidio (Grober's Grundriss. Festi. 2627. fluctus : u Romance. fdstus. dlrigd. v. Fasti Praenestini for April in the stingud . see § 46. p. ebrius : quently.: 58 dicterium Diespiter digladior : : HIDDEN QUANTITY. Romance fello : seems to point to dirimo. see d'Ovidio i. for dies for dis exstinguo. <?j/. 50. erigo. finxT. i. e regularly Plautus. fixus fIxa. 3. dilexi.find. 3. e. eml. extraordindrius from Jr^. emo. direxi. erectus p. 2. iv. -ere. showing that -. Monu1 Gr. 18. *) emungo. 812 eclipsis : see § 36. festus ( : from the same root asferiae ' ' (Grower's Grundriss. -ere. points to fidsculus : from fids. disfinctus ace. . riod 36. 237. exordium : from ordior. : xii. fas. . see § 51. v. -ere. ' eat ^j^w. extInctos. figo. CIL. -ere. a.

CIL. H. Gr. CIL. 1357 . to the Romance. : Gr. 'EWtjo-ttovtos. in introrsum .7) on in Terence. : : frustrd FRYSTRA. . Ignis. FVNCTO.3. hor nus : from hora ? : u ace. hdctenus : jentdculum jentdtio : : : see § 40.WORD-LIST. fungi. xii. manifestus. hibisctim ace. to the Romance. : involucrum from Gr. to the §46. . yX&aaa. vi. : impingo infestus impegT. intervdllum from vdllus. CIA. jungo. Greek in.*. //?. 'I«\k6s. -ere. furtim : from fur. § 42. 'TfMijTTos. see § 46. jugldns from /iw. 3. to the Romance. InstTnctus : see distinguo. ace. 28. p. to Hypermestra 'T-rreppiTia-Tpa. 267 Iolcus . Justus.hillae : from hira. Romance. ace. forma : 59 : 1 see Donatus (pwpp. Hymettus Gr. Plautus. Captivi. frui. to the Ro- 3. hydropis. : fruor. sum : DE- illorsum illustris : for *illo-vorsum. 227. Romance also scriptions the HTrtius and hirtus : T formula : from forma. Tgnis : frustum u ace. Gr. 2. 1197. #). : xi. Phormio. : fngeo. 523. junctus. ace. Teupyios. CIL. CIL. islorsum for *isto-vorsum. Et'<r7r^X\oi'. Hercvlaniae. : ii § 49. -ere. CIL. to the HTspellum v. 3.*)• hisco : see § 49. from fur. 'HpKovXdveov. fnxi : § 46. HTspulla : like Hispellum. CIL. hirsutus : like hlrtus. Gr. fructus see Osthoff. V. I326. shows 0. 2. 2 . intellego. Perfects. : from jus.and gldns. Romance. Herciddnum xii. glossarium glossema gryllus : § 36. tus : like lego. grypis . junxi. frictus : fructus Hispo.: furtum fustis : : infesti. p. J. fungor. geographia Georgius georgicus gtisco : : : : Gr. 2. frango. : y Romance.*)• sius. 2627 . 2. cf. to the : Gr. yXwaarj/xa. § 42. : : see § 40. Dio 23. from -ere. 20370. frixT. gryps : like Gen. -ere. intellexT. : from Gr. Jiistinidnus ixova. Strabo. fructus the sum : ii ace. intellec- G. for *intro-vorsum. cf. 2. Old French froit points to a collateral horsum : for * ho-vorsum. frigo. 77. . 826. Geschichte des hydrops : like : Gen. jurgo : for jurigo. Casiii. intellegere. impdetus see from fur. a). i* 3176 et passim. T ace. fractus : see § 46. v. u Romance. yewypacpia. furtivus : Illyria : Eillvrico. mance. lxvi. futictus FVNCTIS. -ere. fregl. like hdc. Hellesponttis Gr.^). 'RpK\av6s. yewpyiubs.

Mars. T ace. . la- labrum. Idtrina : for lavdtrina . CIL. 5. : Mdrlidlis like Mars. 2. ' ' : lvstrvm. I. § 51. to the 3. liixT : see § 46. x. labrusca * has umentum Ancyranum. larva : like larua. : luceo. 8 . lego. Idbi. Romance. de Lyon. CIL. ' 3123. Mdrcella from Marcus lemma : Gr. 337 x 4041. : Glo- from jus v. 2802 libra : t in Plautus. Mdrcius : from Marcus . Aijfivos. . : Mars. also L. i. Monumeniv. Mdrcellus. lycurgus Latin : Gr. CIG. -ere. mdlrimonium from mater. lectus : see § 46. 1527 - 66 2. e. juxtim from jugis ' joined lucta : ii ace. CIL. haunt. v. 1006. 580 latro. . : ace. . 1. Miles Gloriosus. § 36. lavabrum : see lavderum : see ix. 2. [mani] festvm.. Amphitruo. : Men. CIL. from vi. riosus. CIL. v. 319.oi>. lugeo.' 5919. MArcella. linxi. lvctvm. lustrum. ere. Monii. 2.a£a. CIG. MdrsT : mass a : like : limpidus : 1 ace. xii. xiv. liictor liictus : : like lucta. : lingo. . CIL. to the Romance. MARCI. Manliae. to the Gr. Plautus. \9iwxa. i. v. 6o justitium Justus : HIDDEN QUANTITY. to the Romance. 777. 544. CIL. Eckinger tum Ancyranum. in Griechischen Inschriften. jiixtd. Manlio. ~M. 6. with. Mdrtis 809 Martis. Idrtis : 633. bowl lip. lustro : like lustrum. ii. x. Xei'/crwp. also IVSTO. lamna : syncopated for lamina. . lardum : syncopated for Idridum. 21 . . -ere. 1 Lemnos : lentlscus : Gr. CIL. Plautus. CIL. cf. very uncertain. 3942.' has laevorsum for *laevo-vorsum. Miles § 36. Plautus. lavabrum lustrum. 598. lugeo e. in manifestus p. p. ( 51 . p. the early form. 699 and Ephemeris Epivi. : manilpretium u in Plaut. to the Romance. mdlle : for *mag(e) {magis) : + velle. 3. expiation 3 . u. lvctv. to the 555 137. 10 . XthivLgkos. ii. : from jus. : lemniscus Gr. u ace. 3. Pseudolus. Marcivs. § 36. Idrs. Captivi. . graphica. linclus T ace. legl. bark' : d oblatrdtricem. § 51. 615 . 681 . Mdnlius : from Mdnius Manlia. Plautus. lapsus sum xi. ' § 36. CIL. 3188. : see § 46. 3. 887 et passim. Marcus: Maarco. 816 . Boissieu. Curculio. : . M. Orthographie Lateinischer Worter p. Romance. l brum. et passim . AvKovpyos. 2. Inscriptions MdapKos. lugere.' ii : ' : for a. v.dapia. dIlatsam. : lubricus : u in 853 . 143 llctor lIctor. CIL. LArt-. CIL. 43). luxl see § 46. 210. Romance. labor. 3. : luxuria luxus : see lux us. often LICTOR. libro : : like libra. et passim.g.

3650. . : xii. nundinae. neglexT. : NON- nongenti for *no(v)engenti. : "OyxW" *- Ancyranum. 656 715 . /xafa. ace. ace. Aneciii. CIL. : from Abl. ace. Mycalessus : nutrlcatus. ace. Curculio. nudiustertius. bvs. nondum MATRONA. orchestra Gr. iii. noundinae in early Latin : as in the early Latin miluos. Olvwrpia. matrona : from CIL. for '). to the : Romance. from ndn and nullus. *novelle passim. MTjrpodtopos. see § 49. 136. 4787. to the Romance. OBLlvIsCEMVR. mustela : from mils. § 36. mils. nonnulll See Cramer. Miles O. . milvus miicro 1 16 . Romance. : mlsquam niitrio : : like itsquam. N. i. orno : 3312 ornare. : Ancyranum. -ere. Monumentum mIlliens. fxrjTpbiro\LS. from from mics. nltor. : from ndn and dum dvm. : Nvndinvs. Boissieu. Nascenti- Opus. the Romance. 3. millia mIllia. niipta : Gr. bringer niintio : : Ribbeck) miilleus : ii § 36. maza : Gr. maxilla : mater . p. see § 46. to the dota Oxoniensia. niipsi.( = a). - nasturciwn tiefastus : from ndsus. . : nullus : from x. 4041. muscus : u ace. neglego. 5249. Miles niitricant. 4333 et mxus sum : nolle: (for by contraction from *ne-velle . 3702. : see § 46. nequidquam (nequicquani) quid. WORD-LIST. Gr. according to Priscian. § 73.z<? and z7//«. Mu/caX^ao-os. CIL. (Keil). x. Inscriptions Lyon. xii. 2. -imtis ore a : Gr. Monumenii. ace. ix. ii musculus nutrlx in Plautus. xii. xii. InscripLyon. vi. 2. nuptiae like niipta. § 49 . v. 'Ottovvtos. nanciscor : obliviscor : see § 49 . Nwp/3?/. *nove-ntius? ('news- in Atta. matrix : 61 . niindinum for *no(v)en. Frag. Boissieu. Onchestus : Gr. narrem. : 6250. etc. . 1 0006 tions de . from mater. CIL. 3). to the Romance.. 6. see § 86. nascerer. like nuntius. CIL. to the mullus: u ace. Gr. 3. ordo de : ordinis. nilbo. Romance. dinae .y / NVLLVM. CIL. olla vi. : 44 . orno. et passim. CIL. to miiscerda : : Romance. Gloriosus. CIL. Gloriosus. cf. 643 . neglectus . 6pxv a"rP a from nefds. ordior see : like ordd. nitT. -ere. CIL. 3203 et passim . . Mdstelldria : ii from monstrum. to the 136. 293. CIL. 34 . ornamentum ornamentis. nonne : from ndn. like niitrix. nuntius : xii. iii. Norba : w^y^J : <? Gr. Oenotria : for aulula olla. 5177. Ndrnia narro nascor ttim : : Umbrian Nahar. Gr. 13 (ed. mille. : 36. : mercennarius Metrodorus metropolis : : for *merced-ndrius. quartus. p.

porrigo. 4333. CIL. Tra. r). from : os. Uo\vfj. 330 ostivm. -untis : Gr. Polla : = Paulla .. 827. from /^r. v. 551 pastoris. vi. llnxl. perlclitor like perTculum. iii. Monumen- conflicting. porrexT. pdscere. from palus. plstor. for person(u)la. Pollio. -ere. but favorable to T. : from : pingo. prisons and Prlscus xi. : from (repd). 4354. paclscl. 36. os.plnxi. pirtus Jingo. compdrttcs. pdstio : . Praxiteles: Gr. po stria. partus sum : see § 49. see § 46. which is see under osculor from from os. 4494 et passim. : : palimpsestus paluster : : Gr. . point to d paradFgmd : Gr. -is : Gr. : Gr. Polymestor : Gr. peremT. pastor i. porrectus rego. linctus : like lingo. : primordium : from ordior. CIL. Gr. . CIL. and elsewhere.padet. : Phoenissa pictor : : like Phoenix. Oxus: Pistdria : like plstor. pistus (from pinso). ostium ^ . CIL. 62 oscen : HIDDEN QUANTITY. 3471 . and better Gr. to Priscian. r<?//<? prlnceps : from primus and capio. like from peremptus (emo). is Aristophanes. . Plulus. 4. -uxi : § 46. Permessus perrepto persolla. polluceo. xii. PoLLA.pergere. in Strabo. to the Romance. 6797 : xii. face.prmcipdtus : from prlnceps. : Upd^LTiXrjs (7rpa£is). : plostellum from plaustrum. cf. CIL. principalis from prlnceps. perimo. . : prdgmaticus : Gr. iraXlpj^-qiiTos. tum Ancyranum. pdvT. : from ovlnus.. ix. Priscvs. TrXrJKrpov. 3. CIL. scholion to . oscillum oscito : from osculum. nAetcrflei^s. x. 7rpay/j. like pirtus (pingo) : 1940 pictura like pictus. pigmentum: 1344 . patiscor. so written. IIa>\AiW in Plutarch. . pollingJ. : pIstvs. pingere. CIL. emo. PLEPS. TiepfxTjaa-ds. : : 7rr)yfj. partus the plusculum : from plus. PrIscvs. principium : from prlnceps. like pdscd. precisely parallel. -ere. pere??iptus like prendo : for pre-hendo. Ostia : from : os .r]<rTU)p. wtjria.d\ov. pollinctor Pollio : : like pollinctus. like pdsttis . from prlscus. : like genitive plebis . : pentdthlum peremptd/is Gr. TroiTjTpls. pegma : Gr. ovillus : vi. pepigT. The Romance evidence is CIL. : pergo. 14. 4710 . a. perrectus rego.o. like praelustris : like lux. CIL.a. PAASTORES. plebs v. c . pIgment-. pdstus pdstillus : : see § 49. *fi£os. viii. from Paullus . PlTsthenes Gr. Ilpei<rKOS CIG. Ilecro'iJ'oOi'Tos. perrexl. pangere. pistillum. TroirjTpia. plebisatum — plebl scltum.yfAa. -ere. plectrum Gr. Frlscidnus : Pessinus. CIL. Yike pdstus.TiK6s. pango. 22840 et passim . Dio Cassius. compounds impdrtus. pistrlnum. 6998. pdxillus : ace. -ere. plstrilla v. P. ostio. 'ft<m'a. pdscd. Pollio.

to the Romance. Nodes redimo. Publicola. vi. for rdr{ii)lus : from rdrus. quintus. tos. : redigo. pulvillus from pulvimis . CIL. redemi. quartvs. from rddo. from quintus. pvblic<5r[vm. pustula R. pungo. 2 . 'people. Afiles Gloriosus. prorsum. Publicius. . 102. redddus : like quartdrius quiesco : like quartus. HpoKpoti<TT7]s. Atticae. : Gloriosus. of iii. Koetv- to the : Romance. redpse : for re edpse (Abl. ace. prompsi. § 36. like piiblicus. et passim. Gellius. cally invariably e before sc quievi and quietus also point to quiesco . qviescere is found CIL. Monumentum Ancyranum. to ago. . rector : like rectus. early Gr. from 1377 quinquennium quinquies quintana : : from quinque. from pus Q.' piiblicus : quinqudgintd piibes . redegi. : quorsum. : other formations have practi: procrdstino Procrustes : from eras. 15. vi. vi. promptus : see quincunx : from quinque and uncia. 334 passim . viz. CIG. Miles from quinque. 25531. . 9811 nounced quiesco in his day but DEMPTA. purgamentum purgatio : from purgo. 691 2. {purus) : purgo : u also quippe : ace. poplus. -ere. § 36. Quintus. ipsa). ace. u in Plautus. i ace. piinctus i. : : from quinque. Quintilius LIO. pvlvIllvs. from piiblicus. . 103 et Captivi. quingenT. punctus I. the Romance. CIL. see pungo. §46. rdstrum iii. CIL. Publilius Pfiblius : : : from quintus. 1 ace. rectus : see rego.) and -pe. 22251. a. for -ere. from quintus iii. 3539 et form of populus. : TVM. prostibulum : from pro and stabulum. pristinus : 63 -sco like priscus. quingentl. 'PedijvrrTa. from quinque : QVlNQVE. 297. like . 4959 . -ere. u ace. for *purigo 2003 . ralius : : il Romance. CIL. *quid (Abl. quinque. to the from purgo. to the Romance. to Quintilidnus Quintilis : from quintus. ilonga occurs repeatedly. QvlNCTlqvIniii. vi. u also ace. qtidrtanus : like quartus. profestus : from festus. : for *quo-vorsum.WORD-LIST. : like Publius.3face. vii. . quorsus *qud-vorsus. passim . d in ing to expectation'). 22 rede. quindecim : from quinque and decern .. to the Romance. CIG. . to the Romance. prorsus : for *pro-vorsum. CIL. Fasti Cap. promo. Monumentum Ancyranum. quingenties : from -sus. quartus . prosperus : from pro *spere ? (' accordQuTnqudtrils : from quinque . RE- . Poplicola is another word. -ere. Plautus. 384. Quinctius : CIL. redemptus : some persons proemo . puptigi.

CIA. see distinguo. for sesqui- "Puxtkios. 3. vi. : n. . 201 con- Sdphron : Gr. 4270 sIgna. screiptvm. by vowel assimila- §46. rehquT. regnatrix rego. •3- seligere. from regno. v. . for semi + caput. 606 see § ^S. seligo.64 redemptio. -ere. 4012 from rus . scriptor. -ere. : Pompey. 87 x. scriptus see § 46. § 46. . pQarpov. u ace. rlxa : face. riiscum rusticus ix. *ses-mestris. . ructus : like ructo. CIL. . CIL. signum and signtcm xiv. 28. CIL. : regndtor. CIL. Sestos. Miles Gloriosus. to the Romance. reptum : see § 46. rilcto : ace. CIL. Sassinas in an inscription. 2. : Socrates Gr. sesqui- : = : semisque-. restinctus : lego. sescuncia and uncia. iii. *re-vorsus. 1450. Romance u. Boissieu. . CONSCRiPTis. : remimscor. -ere. segnis in a Herculanean selectus repere. : : semestris : for *sexmes- rqscidus from rar. : Sesostris : Secrwa-rpts. 3.3. semuncia septunx : : from semi. b). Cicero.*). 3 . Monumentum Ancyranum. : : Stgnia : Seig[nia. Sestii Gr. papyrus. S^crrtoi. : sdrio. creiaTpov. sescuphis : and from rostrum. reslinxi. 370). i. 15. aKijirrpov. adAtt. d [esc] Iscentem. ^eKivovvTos.e. in Cic. 3903 . (Grober. sinistrorsus for *sinistro-vorsus. Plutarch. repsT. see § 49 : 812 . p. from uncia. . scriptito. rehctus : see segmen segnis : like : segmentwn. : rursum. sinci- sdnxi. CIL. : scrtdo. selegl. sancire. see § 39. Rvsticvs. scrlptio. adxppuv. 109 . r<?^0. rectus: see 46. . scriptura : see scribo. § 36. sestertius Archiv. relinquo. S^crros. to the Romance. vi. : like restinguo. to the Romance. sarculum : like Sdrsina sceptrum seised : : : see § 90. screih- rexT. like regnum. 17. sinciput sancio. tions de slgjiifico. to the i. Htjcttios. Selinus. 1 . InscripLyon. -ere. sobrius : o in Plautus. sdnctus : see put tion for *senciput. i. *) -T : segmentum see § 49. from redimo. 1irj<TTia. 'ZtoKpdrrjs. sistrum : Gr. signo : : like signum. redemptor : HIDDEN QUANTITY. i ace. seignvm. form with vii. 5 . Rostra : He- sescuplex. -plex. Plu. . u ace. solstitium from sol. 206. 5 3 . nlrsus : for *re-vorsum.and uncia. tris . Gr. Roxdna Gr. Roscius Roscio. scrIptvm. 2 et passim . for semis tertius. regnum regno : : see § 38. to the p. 2060. sychius.). 'Pw^dj'Tj. also to a v. for sesqui- rostrum: from rodo . end. CIL. scrips!. § tor = scrlptos Romance Umbrian (Nom. see § 89. which points Sestius : Gr. -iintis : Gr.

ic sump si. 6268 i also sugo. CIG. CIL. ussi. sublustris triform is trilibris tristis : . to the : Romance. strVctok. 708 . see § 53 like usque. 2. also ace. vi. iindeviginfi. like trdctus. from surus. suTllus from suinus. -ere. like stilla. surrectus : U. ii. *). structus 3. 3- tinctus Romance. sumptus surculus surgo. Romance. 3 . to the : : also points to u. trulla : for truella. like iinctus (ungo). «r^. thedtrum Thressa Tillius : : : stilla : i ace. like lux. uncia like iinus. Casina. 3. tinxi. iinctus 3- see § 46. : ii Siitrium in Plautus. to the cf. surrexl. stdgnum see § 38. traclim trdcto : like tractus. : Gr. iistus . : fro m forma. syllepsis : undid : Gr. CIL. : teruncius : from uncia. Trapezius. 3. xii. sospito : Temnos like sospes. 1473 : : vlli. to Gellius. 2cD(T7rij. : stillicidium. striixi. WORD-LIST. 324 . : Tecmessa tectum : Gr. -ere. sump/us : see § Romance. like : icntis. from iinus and T. CIL. Participle 36. tango. T^K/xrjacra. -ere. -ere. ii tdctio : like tdctus. suetus. d:\4vrj. b) usque : ace. CIL. &0 J. as in suevT. -ere. end. Te\/xr)<T<r6s. : like libra. sospita. to the : tubilustrium like lustrtim. 3 ace. suetus ii see § 46. for the in the Perfect Tartessus tdxillus : : Gr. u V.. structiira like structus. 7'ermessus Gr. -ere. VLLA. : : : -untis : Gr. b) . trilcta : ii silmo. -ere. *). : etc. ace. passim. 46. from sumo. to the : Romance. <rvX\r}\f/is. tectus : iisquam see § 46. tinxi. tractus : striictor like structus . to Priscian. CIA. The Romance Romance. : like iinus. ace. stillo tIllivs. iindecimus decern. : *) : struo. : trIstior. . -ere. -ere. vi. Tapr77(7(r6s. like usque. from /^». /&w. sldgno : like stdgnum. to the Romance./ij'6s. rego. strictus ace. 1161 el Telmessus Gr. trdxi.r)<T<r6s. : 2043. -oOl'TOS. from Gr. 3-4- x. -<?r<f. Gr. iii. tetigl. see § 46. stringo. Tepfj. . traho. dearpov. strinxi. to the Romance. iii. : T?. ungo. to the strinxi tingo. substructio suesco : like structus. Qpy<r<ra. *). suxi. -ere. like iillus : . u ace. to the Romance s. sospes : 65 : Gr. Gr. 3- see § 46. : § 36. iiligo. ulna iilva : : like sutor. ace. 10230. silrsum sutrlna for *su-vorsum. iispiam : : ii in ussi. u : also ace. : tdctus see § 46. Tpa7ref"o0y. . see § 46. ace. itndecim.

stibulum. Vallia. the Perfect long pellexl . Priscian. the Teutonic languages point and frequently 5837. a Marx see vowel before the x only when the vowel is §38. conspexT. see vendo : : by Eckinger Worter in (Ortkograp/iie lat. Perfects in have a long state that agndtus. lends the weight of This marking rests upon a ix. vallum. vIctvro. : Vallari. CIL. 4872. CIL.66 ustnna usiirpo : : HIDDEN QUANTITY. pext. CIL. valid : see vallum. vexi. -ere. originally § 51. : long root vowel. vestibulum ve -f stabulum ? Cf. f3eii. Vipsdnius vIpsanI. etc. Inschrif- from venum and do. to this testimony for in the para- and likewise in -spexT graph immediately preceding 27) Priscian his authority to {aspexT. he does not to ace. every e e is long before -xi. 621. 8877 . Byzantine Gr. victum xiv. xii. 4039. More- some scholars mark the allexT. Griech. also Vallivs. Ovei\pTavov iii. X. CIL. like ustus. which certainly had a Priscian in this passage simply says long vowel in the best period. vdllus . vdlldris see vallum. little weight is . vi. 53. b. such forms as traxi. viscus : . i. 36. shows i. of over. . 12782 . vermis from ver. vi. : CIG. ^evocpQv. pro- CIL. statement of Priscian in 28. vegrandis : from ve. also ace. CIL. illexT. Gr. be attached (ix. pftiWa . vasculum vastus to a : like vds. usii victus also villa : : from vivo. . 4483. 2485 .. rapid? V. CIA. Z.562. 5709. see § 38. : Vopiscus : Gr. : that . VEIXIT. duxT. -xi agmen a Marx . . see § 39. agnus : a allicio : e . ov7)£i\\aTi(Cb)<TLv to zoster . cited ii. 2039 CIG. ten. 3167.}. x. 3449 see § 46. facrTtip. : vexillum vexillo. vi. CIL. points to : 9834 the Ro- mance CIL. Veldbrum: a in Plautus. . in 12. 2. Gr. CIL. to many in . JlexT. Qvo7T€?<tkos . iii. 43). Isle of Wight grandis. agnotus. Ve stint : Gr. : vIpsania. ii. 483 § 36. -Qvtos. vi. 3 vIxiT. Ovtjktls. CIL. etc. Vectis. Curculio. vlndeniia from vinum and demo. Romance . But mansi. p. vopIsco. : 4509 xix.iT an inscription Vendfrum: the suffix is the same as -dbrum . Xenophon. vIlla. vi. CIG. CIL.and vivo. vestigium : ve + steigh-? Ovrjcrrlvot. The vi. vixT. -ontis : Gr. . Words whose Hidden Quantities are : in Dispute. VTpstanus : vIpstanvs. ' ' : vIsceris. 1975. I. BeL^dvios. CIL.

5. DISPUTED WORDS. §48. root arc-. in arvali. : A arvum. see § 89. 20) that ss was not CIL. p. . : single instance justi- aspicid. short a. 353 bone.. ten- §38. . without warrant i. Marx . ascendd. p. CIL. sulted in + a con- risius (Keil. corvinvs. see : § 88. . 2041 vi. 913 . to many. confine. I. 2150. Arriins A Marx. but in view of Quintilian's state- CIL. written after a long vowel in the . for the classical speech to area. -exT. alliu??i : a Marx. isted in certain localities to lengthen axis : ii Marx. originally a short vowel. and others . libertus. Appulus. end. vi. 428) both testify to a see § 88.g. 91. Grober (Arc/ziv. . bessis : dency. vi. see 38. ectus . {Geschichte des Perfects. Sommer. . 11. 6/ vi. arvum. for The hold. as had assus : a Marx and Lewis. it Inscriptions is Asclepiades A Marx. 22) and Diome- In some words this repermanent lengthening of des (Keil. eg. benignus : i Marx and others in ordior. drvalis. Narbonensis. " these ings sporadic inscriptional Yet mark- hardly our assuming servus. Cordiae. . see § 46. Aussprache des Latein. vi. Cha- the short vowel before r sonant. astutus : see § 72. see § 88. : Apulia are the better spelling. -ere. ascribo. arvalis : see area. anxius : a Marx. p. aprugnus : ii ace. see manifestations the vi. ascia : this word occurs with the apex in a Marx : . COHORTxii. vtrgo. would have retained the a . 3523 vIrgo. 7. as shown *drsus. balbuttio : ii i. benignitas : words local we simply meet of isolated i Marx and others. etc. . but this doubtful Asculum Lewis : A Marx. exi de Lyon. Apulus. HGRT[0S. and the same applies p. ii. dence does not warrant a positive conclusion in their favor. (arcae) whether fies Boissieu. 22. which is improbable. I. comparative grammar but the evi- vi - 9493 fortvnata. orfito. e.' is . amygdalum y Marx. Marx. without citation 240) etc. i. See and Korting (Worterbuch) give_y. ment (i. XII. Appalia : Seelmann. ' see above under allicio. bes. vIrtvtis.barritus : a Marx. forma. . I. vi. 279. SERVILIO. 3163. etc. 9493.. and probably in or do. I. 6490. as if for *ax- tus. [is. . in com- 545astus. 227) and Brugmann (Grundriss der Vergleichenden Grammatik. CIL. tuor). Marx and if our recognizing the a as long. Brugmann. In case of other §38. of evidence. short vowels in the classical speech. quat. see § 88. vi. orca. Nevertheless undeniable that a tendency ex- a Marx. e in oblique cases Marx Henzen. *arceo Osthoff. LIBERTIS. 1 1 82) support e in Perfects of 3203 . 2993 . see orno. justify 7527. see § 89. vi. Osthoff p. See by coerced position it is (for * co-arced} Geschichte des Perfects. 449.915 Nar- this type by arguments drawn from . qudrtus (cf. Fort [is Fortvnae. X. see § area : a Marx .

Dyrrhachium : y Marx.) : . stinsi. cogito assumed i for *co-agito.). p. 1203). warrant. ' rough despicio. i. as originally aorists of the Hcessit. CIL. § 88. xvi.:: .: not sufficient to see § 38. whose treatment of is word : unintelligible.) .D. etc. tl Marx and 1. ii. carruca a Marx .D. Ost- words beginning with cogit.) See d'Ovidio in Grober's . who explains the .D. : 1. -Inxi. 193. dis- For distinguo. zenberger s Beitrage. . tinxl. cinxT. . I. hoff. distinguo. it post-Ciceronian period. conspicio. . 221).. cinto .: the here is regarded as long by many. sedge (lit. to Appetu&x which latter is somemanifestos. if I. p.D. on the conjungo. on the theory of comlengthening . root as car-ex. 545. (E. cLvcrvs. a Marx. Marx : see § SS. Inscrip- duumvir : (E.:::to.enormis : Marx and Lewis (E.-inxi. no which there is : e Marx. v. merit acceptance. but the evidence is . Geschichte des Perfects. ductus i Lewis distringo . des Perfects. r~.:. T Marx.. give extInctos. Cassandra :: : Cass- Marx . and other more probable that the word lowed the analogy of : . facesso. I. warrant this view cabaUiis a Marx. cinsi. 501 f. digitus: f Marx and discribo. see § ^&. after the analogy Probi confestim Camillns : T ace. eg. p. -ere. to Osthoff {Geschichte basis of conivgi. EysMarx. see above under cidium.-ere. tinctus. 197) what uncertain. 6S HIDDEX QCAXTITY. -ectus : -exi Marx and plant' ?). -exi. dis- others. p. -exT. of i ace. 66. as. tianus Capella (p. 4. finxT.) regards the ' as short in (E. see under allicio. point to T in the Perfect and PerParticiple of all these words. cf. who regards 9914. on the basis of an see norma. distingud. as cunctor this : u Marx. : I. pensatory * di-dc-sco) {disco for The Romance languages seem fect to see § S9. which are too improbable to capesso. lacesso. see § 42. -stinctus . ed. assis. and in pitixT. -ere. to MarKeil. . likewise in -stinxl. Marx and Lewis § 48. cf. disto. -ere. see § 38. iv. exi Marx alli- Br ugmann ( Grim - and Lewis cio. classis : p.L. . see § 88. . capesso : e ace. Italian finsi. Lewis (E. assumed etymological connection exstinguo. see § SS. ' if from the same ' da mm a a Marx. see dis- with ctarus.-inctus see cingo. -ere. modern name Durazzo. conjunx : senhardt). cognomen. Korting. Erinnys : T Marx . Worterbiuh. finto.L. is much fol- cogndtiis. from an a diminutive *ca6dnus for comburo : c Marx.L. -Tnctus tinguo. see disco : cinxi .. see above under p. regards the short. vi. 1066 .L.L. and Frohde in Bez. tions. as verb as for *co-amb-uro . taking a different view t of the formation. cognosco.D. . who cites the Grundriss. -ectus : same type as habesso. discidium. cardials : possibly a. etc. carrus. Lewis moreover.

is well 21. -ectus : . on the theory of lengthening a . In favor of jussi u Marx see § 88. . xii. others see § 38. and a classical jussT. . The same inscription has /rendu!. 25531 sit. /resus. which i. see allicio. But the apex here weight. hallucinor helluo : : e Marx Marx. see § 89. The shorten- grallae : a Marx : see § 88. forsitan Marx writes fcrsit iii. with which hir- theory of compensatory lengthening . Marx fastus. garrulus : a Marx. /astigium : 69 see § a Marx. fortassis a Marx. The simplest solution of is Garonne) points : to u. § 88. as though for /erst-. 20) this . . as though for fendt. see § 88. points to -ere. is nothing valid in support. ivssiT. 1. . who con/uttilis we find rvss[iT. 1 garrio. jussi. But Korting ( WorterbucJi) mance inspicio. 1. writ- ten after a long vowel 7. viz. to Marx and in flexi : JlexT Lewis and see § 38. et passim in inscriptions Garumna : u Marx on Gr. who cites Lewis. ing occurs in accordance with the I. I. Marx interprets the evidence 0. iv. i. I. . view of Tmus forsit. at least entitled to no see § 39. fesfino e Lewis and Marx. DISPUTED WORDS. compensatory § 89. The Ro-exl and forsitan on the basis of the Romance. CIL. I. nects with Gr. on the compares cus hispidus T kirtus. . . finxi. : immo : Tmmo Marx. -ere. on the theory compensatory probably 'literary' in the Ro. 77. in jussus CIL. gluttio. -ere. ace. -exT. ictus : theory of compensatory lengthening (see § 89).. Annivs. of and Lewis jubed. the Romance as pointing to : jussus : jussus fortasse. The is only authority for u ivssvs. /ragmen /rendo. may be : § 89. the basis of of the ante -classical Tapovvas .. 5 fin. 'semi-literary'. one other error in the use of the apex. 774. 5 Korting the i Worterbuch) Ictus regards as e and i Marx. -ere. sus : : a Marx and many others . § 98. Marx see under allicio. gluttus u Marx. see a see § 88. the difficulties to recognize an gigno i ace. but the Romance others points to F/ignus : 1 : see ci?igo. ante-classical jitsf. 547 a. I. or /res- -essus : Marx . . to Marx and many § 88. and Immo. CIL. yapvio . Marx. 36. Jingo. and iov1930. vi. CIL. : fesfinus. i is principle explained in § SS. 139) Korting disdain ' : WbrterbucK) related. lengthening. iii. -ere. Lewis 1. In view of Quintilian's additional doubt- state- hircus ful. /ictus flecto. 2. (Fr. /estiica. see C/ Grober ( {Archiv. Marx Romance. the quantity of the the ment that jussi was the orthography ss as which judgment Romance words upon is based may be of his day. and that was not (i. but the word fin. but the Romance period. of cites is the Marx and Lewis. on the short. . see . : attested by Quintilian in 7.fistuca : mance ( see § 36.

a result of the confusion of just and jussT. . to be probably a blunder) x. mist. 532 ii. . -ere. I. connect with nomen. ostrum . 1. e. to Marx and others . who con: See Osthoff. see usquam. to Narbo. xi. p.g. : who connects with Juppiter lascivus : ii Marx see § 88. . pellicio : see under allicio. § 38. see posed. p. des Perfects. mis cere. pecto. as in the case of I ace. 'be punished' Marx. pexT. (posco for mIssione. : citation pignus : t ace. Gr. ff. mIssis. mis cm. Grundriss. llbertus libertds : pannus e e : d Marx . mixtus niixtus ace. to e. : . posed : Marx. pensatory *porsco) postulo : . nescius : privignus e : Marx and others. Geschichte des Perfects. p. mingo. points to (Grober. 1930 is then a blunder. see § mis ceo. 1585. xvi. planxT. and Lewis others. lengthening . Marx : see § 88. see area. minxi. to Marx and Gr. untenable theory of compensatory see § 38. Diduced form po. nuncupo ntisqtiam u Marx and Lewis. Ro. pestis : e Marx. 7890 : . Gep. who mitto. see aspicio. Osthoff.plector. : : . . nects with Gr. remIssa. . 70 is HIDDEN QUANTITY. compares ttXtJctctw. to Marx and Lewis see § 46. : Bezzenberger's 184. plango. missus: the . without a Marx see § 88. who Brugmann. 46. com- see § 38. in pare nequeo. others . xii. I. planctus pldnxi. yvdipifws. mictum . see § 38. Fronde. n 82. . 526. in accordance with an see § 89. . ace. under area. see § 46. to : many . bucli) iv. 862 (shown by irorbv. iii. I.. to Marx and I see allicio.posca : Marx. texts accent larua. almost a necessary conclusion. Worter. schichte norma : Lewis and Marx. end. The Romance Archiv. : d Marx. on the basis of an Paelignus : t assumed etymology. on the theory of committere. pilleus : i Marx : . CIL. Beitrage. § 88. nescio. : see § 38. lengthening see § 89. lignum litter a : i ace. The Romance points The apex CIL. cf. -ere.(§ 69) cf. but the root had also a reinstances of i longa occur. planctus i d ace. of evidence. pexus pexl Marx. Marx. see area. i perspicio . minxi pingo see cingo. austrum. Korting. pldnctus ace. : Lewis Lewis . Marx and see § 88. Narbonensis a Marx but . -ere. Matrona Messalla : a Marx. . : ace. which connects others see the word with the root las(ldr-) of Uaikivoi. u Lewis Marx. who compares po-cnmance points to i a few suspicious lum . to i in end. : Marx and Lewis. to many : . Lewis . to malignus i ace. end. e 117.

p. e Marx. see Marx. fin. see bes. p. I. -exi. pensatory *terstis) . e. Grober {Archiv. § 89. u Marx.DISPUTED WORDS. see weak form ur{c)na. The Romance compares the form Sauromdtae. -exi . Sestius is 129). Sarmdtae. testudo : : e 1 Marx. tostus : tostus salignus § T Marx and : others . Marx taxo : . -ere. bessis. testa. -ectus : -exi Marx tignum Marx and others . it is probably pensatory purely literary § 36. : ii Marx. ses- points to See d'Ovidio in Gr'ober's i. others . : pugna pugnax pugno pugnus : u ace. : ii likely ultra. p. : ii ace. 5. Bezzento TuscT: berger's Beit?'dge. by-form. : strenna e suppartcm Marx see § 88. {testis for to u. 71 see § 89. tinxl. -ere. on the theory of comlengthening see § 89. Marx iirna : ii Marx and Lewis. testor. xvi. 204. Sarmdtia sescentl : a Marx. Marx and Lewis. exceptional. But the apex does See Lindsay. etc. on the basis of an alleged apex in VLTRA. but urna is to suspicio. and Lewis Sallustius : see allicio. buc)i). tinguo. ii probably the form with /'s had e. quousque : Lewis u . etc. vi. 5. Marx compares . 89. torreo. a Marx. Inscriptions de lyon. See Frohde. on the theory of compensatory lengthening ( TuscT for * Tursci) see § 89. Lewis. propugndculum others . Tusculu?n: Marx : see Tusci. The Ro- the Romance two . on the . tressis : e (for Sextius) but e in that word Marx . ii mance. -ere. I. on the theory of compensatory lengthening {tostus for *tors- 38. latin Language. stela ace. see § 3S. Italian urna. -ectus . but the only word he is Italian sorde. to respicio. see § 38. sordes : ace. basis 136. end. compares iirindtor . a a Marx. . on the mance points to u. ultimus. testdmentum. who cites drca . : ii Marx cf. see cingo. see usque. The Romance points . Marx. Korting basis of ( Worterthe Rocites. on the to of not occur there. see 0. -ere. would testa : e Marx. points to testis. ( theory of compensatory lengthening see § Korting 520 . but Romance points to u. as in ace. Boissieu.(§ 100. see § 48. On suspexi. on the theory of comlengthening for but . genuine Latin point to {testa inheritance. to Marx and *terstd) . § 88. . . testimonium. suspiro be referred to the root arc-. which is very 'literary' . stannum the stella : ' : d Marx. ulterior. tinctus : see sagmen § 39- : d Marx and : torrul. mance urceus : the points to u. The Romance see § 38. Grundriss. 595. urc. see § 36. whence if allicio. The ii .' stdgnum. 2). The Ro. who tus) . Sphinx spinter : : i 1 Marx. WorterbucJi). to Marx and others pulmo : ii Lewis.

p. and Lewis. vinctus : vinxT. ussi. vescus : 49) in the view that in the classical period longis. -ere. vexi. viscum. on the basis of the the it questionable etymology ve victor. to Marx and . victus. IO58. . urtica : shown u Marx tiro. Lewis . 6) gives ussi. such as vIctor. -ire. : + esca. VlCTORINVS. vectus see under allicio. but the Romance CIL. 1058. vi. tiro. . markings. i was short later. others. 2086 . I quite agree with Christiansen veho. victoria. vi. was lengthened. with a single exception no one of these inscriptions can be See under jubeo. i. INViCTAi. T Lewis. VlCTORIAM. ace. -ere. 466.d. vi. vincio. iistus : ussi but vi. . 10056. But to . Priscian (Keil. on the tional basis of repeated inscrip- vinctus. compares and vexi. 10115 .72 HIDDEN QUANTITY. apparently. T Lewis points to i. : Marx Lewis antedate the third century a. etc. {de Apicibus et I e Marx. vinxl. 353.

i. Stolz. this nature. Neither stress accent nor musical accent prevails alone in any language. Atissprache des Lindsay. . Seelmann.e. by uttering with a more energetic expulsory act on the part of the lungs {stress accent). 148 ff. Lateinische Lautlehre. 98 ff .. This prominence may manifest itself in three different Thus 1. 2. 73 . ff. 15 Handbuch der Lateinischen Laut. A syllable may be quantitatively i.'\ 2 pp. The Greek and 3.e. 94 ff. . 971 . Latein. while the other subordinate. pp. at a higher pitch than the other syllables of the same word {musical prominent. Latin Language. Sommer.und Formenlehre. Thus in English we notice chiefly the stress accent but the rise and fall of pitch also exists as a feature of the spoken language. No language was ever accented essentially on the quantitative . pp. principle alone but traces of the operation of this principle are noticeable at one stage of Latin accentuation. pp.. 95 ff.CHAPTER ACCENT. . IV. accent). As a rule the one constitutes the essential accentual is principle of a language. Grundriss. pp. Accent as in general is the prominence of one special syllable syllables of the of a word compared with the other same word. pp. German accent it are of A syllable may be made prominent by uttering Sanskrit accent were of this kind. See Brugmann. : A syllable it may be made prominent by The English and 'stressing' it. 54. its time may be greater than that of the other syllables of the same word. ways. Lateinische Grammatik? ff. .

ACCENT. Manlius for Manilius. contuberrialis for % cdntabernalis . inimicus became ininiicus . con- cludo for *cdn-claudo b) Syllable-loss : . as ex'istunio for existumo conficiuntTor conficiunt. exutuntamus became existumamus. it might rest upon any word. . ininiicus for *in-am~icus . and thus established the traditional accentuation of the historical period. In the parent-speech the accent was free. syllable of a polysyllabic {i. reppuli for *re-pepuli surpui for *sur-rapui un-deci?n for *uno-decem.' by which the accent is restricted to the last three syllables of a word. i. while unaccented frequently vanish. Where the penult was short. to is a certain degree of prominence for it Romance. the so-called ' Three Syllable Law. resting if upon the penult Yet the first that is long. i. The character of the Latin accent seems to have varied at the language. Originally it different periods of seems to have accent Latin been a rested stress accent. Apparently a long came to assume such prominence as to receive a secondary Thus peperci became peperci . 2. stress. operative in Latin accentuation. have always retained regularly retained in syllable of Latin words seems . 74 55. accent.e. In course of time another factor seems to have become viz. this respect represents a deviation from the accentuation of the Indo-European parent-speech. conficid for *cdn- facid. Ultiinitial mately this secondary accent prevailed over the primary accent. Evidences initial of this prehistoric Latin accent syllable) are seen in the the stress accent on the weakening of unaccented vowels and in the loss of unaccented syllables. It syllables in the interior of a word has just been stated that in the prehistoric period the . existumo for *exaistumo . cecidi for *cecaidi (caedo) . otherwise upon the antepenult.e. In the prehistoric period In this stress upon the initial syllable of the word. a) Vowel.weakening : Thus : exerced for *ex-arced. quantity.. 3. penult the preceding syllable seems to have received the secondary .

pp. More weighty stress the evidence of Latin Here the quantitative principle the fundamental basis of the verse. 4. even those who advocate the theory of a musical accent classical for the speech. Eng. Still. while French it scholars. 1902. made extremely probable by the discussion of Vendryes.g.CHANGES IN THE LATIN ACCENT. poetry. Latin accent was a stress accent. but they generally agree in showing a much slighter degree of stress on the accented is is syllable than exists in English or German. to cases to stand where. inevitable with Latin 5. A Cf. Attention has been called in the final Grammar. is e. by the loss of a vowel. become estab- Even were we stress accent. in Transactions American Philological Association. One its reason for this found in in the accentuation of the Romance accent in languages. 4. A decided accent would have conflicted with this to the extent of obscuring the metrical character of the verse. the accent has come . as may be seen from the strongly stressed modern languages. admit that by the fourth and fifth centuries of the Christian era the stress accent had lished. for example. retain the Latin original position. Paris. 65-76. These. Recherches sur Vhistoire et les effets de Vintensite initiale en Latin. § 6. inev'itabile. strong stress accent inconsistent with such conditions. we often find Latin words containing an unbroken suecession of long syllables. most of our leading German philol- holding that the Latin accent of the Ciceronian age was stressed. edicebatur. See also Johnson. are inclined This latter view has been to maintain that was musical. the classical period is J$ The in nature of the accent in a matter of controversy. Moreover. to it admit that the accent of the classical age was a would be clear that the Latin of that time was not as strongly stressed as English is and German. the main. their The ablest investi- gators often differ diametrically interpretation of the evidence bearing on ogists still this point. on the other hand. 1904.

( 5) recognize an acute ( ' ) and a circumflex " ). (xv. just as the rules given for syllable-division by certain Latin grammarians were probably rules. the acute stood upon short vowels. vii. See. ff. 2. Nigidius Figulus. in Nodes 14 Atticae. . Keil. It also upon a long vowel in the ante- stood upon a long vowel of the penult If the ultima in case the ultima was long. as regis. are properly written benefacit. though for Arpinatis. bene. 357.g. iv. According to them. veterem. CampHns. satisfacit. 17-18). Campanus. xiii. Such forms etc. 6. are also cited last by the grammarians as as hav- ing an accent upon the syllable. de Accentu. merely a learned fiction in imitation of the Greek See §35- . Audacis Excerpta. as benefacit. Priscian. Satnriis. . and penult. Arpinas. last upon the syllable of certain words. as rege. existence of a musical accent in Latin Gellius. a long penult took the circumflex. Samnatis. But it is more than probable that these rules are merely an echo of the principles of Greek accentuation. Priscian 22. Other instances of the same sort are disturbat for disturbavit . was short. and lay down specific rules for their all employment. as nux.. 26. etc. nostratis. The principle nostras. Various Latin grammarians who 1-3 support the theory of the (e. The circumflex also stood upon long vowels of monosyllabic words. stated by Priscian etc. z&flos. niuriit for is munwit. as fegibus. for example.76 ACCENT.

CHAPTER

V.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
See BRAMBACH, Die Neugestaltung der Lateinischen Orthographie, Leipzig,
1868,
t

and the same author's Hulfsbuchlein fur Lateinische Rechtschreied., Leipzig,

bung 3d

1884

;

Georges, Lexikon der Lateinischen Wort-

formen, Leipzig, 1890.

56.

The orthography

of Latin words naturally varied at different

periods,

and even within one and the same period there was not

infrequently considerable discrepancy between different writers.

During the

classical era

relatively slight attention

was paid to

the study of the language,

and

as a result

we

notice the absence

of any recognized standard of spelling such as prevails in modern
languages.

This lack of a recognized norm compels us to resort

to other sources of information in order to determine the best
spelling for a given era.

Our manuscripts of

the Latin writers

unfortunately have been so altered in the course of transmission

from the

past, that they

seldom furnish trustworthy evidence.

A
the

few of the oldest give valuable indications of the contemporary
spelling;

but more often the Mss. have
full

been adapted

to

standards of a later age, and are
encies of the Decline.

of the errors

and

inconsist-

On

the whole, carefully cut official inscrip-

tions furnish the safest reliance.

The testimony given by
first

these

is

supplemented

for

the

post-Augustan era by the statements of
century a.d., devoted
questions.

grammarians, who, beginning with the

much

systematic

attention

to

orthographic

Many

points belonging here have already been anticipated in connection with the discussion of Pronunciation.
classes of

The
:

following special

words

call for further

consideration
77

78
57.
i.

OR THO GRAPH Y.
Words of
volnus,
-vos,

the type mentioned in Gr. § 9.
voltus,

1

;

4, viz.

quom,
-quos,

volt,

volgus;
-uos,

Nouns and Adjectives

in

-quom;
;

-vom
;

;

-uom; and verbs in

-quont,

-quontur
spelling

-vont, -vontur

-uont,

-uontur.

This was the original

and continued

to

be the regular orthography down to
After that
it

about the beginning of the Augustan Age.
retained, particularly in special

was

still

words as an archaic reminiscence.

But as a

rule,

beginning about the 8th century of the city (BrugI
;

mann, Grundriss,
Language,
p.

2
.

§

662

;

Stolz, Lat.

Gr.

§

46
53

;

Lindsay, Latin
the following

299

Bersu,
:

Die Gutturalen,

p.

ff.),

changes took place
a) vol

+a

mute or a nasal became

vul,
for

eg.

vultus,

vulnus,
e.g.

But proper names show a preference
Vole anus,
b)
-vos,
Volsei,
etc.

the early form,

-vom,

-vont,

-vontur

became

-vus,

-vum,

-vunt,

-vuntur, eg. saevus, saevum, solvunt, solvuntur.
e)

-uos,

-uom, -uont, -uontur became -uus, -uum, -uunt, -uuntur,

eg. perpetuus, perpetuum, acuunt, acuuntur.

d)

-quos,

-quom,

-quont,

-quontur

developed

somewhat

at

variance with

the foregoing classes.
-cuntur, yielding,

They

first

became
;

-cus,

-cum,
quoni)
2.

-cunt,
;

eg. ecus (for equos)
;

cum

(for

relincunt (for relinquonl)

secuntur (for sequontur) .
during the Augustan Age, and
this class

This spelling established

itself

continued to be the standard orthography in words of
until shortly after the close of the first century a.d.,
1

when

-cus,

-cum,

-cunt,

-cuntur

became

-quus,

-quum, -quunt, -quuntur.

This change was the result of analogy.
for
1

Thus

in a

word

like ecus,

example, the preponderance of forms containing qu (equl, equo,
Examples are anticvm, CIL.
f.;

vi.

615. 4 b);
iii.

coevs, CIL.
a.
2.

vi.

8753

f.;

9264

Propincvs, CIL.

vi.

2408. 3;

5274

Cf. Gr. UpoirivKos

CIG. 6430.

Manuscripts also preserve numerous traces of such spellings.
Virgil's Acneid, see Bersu,

For examples occurring in the Palatine codex of
p. 88, N.


WORDS IN
equls, etc.) in

-QUOS, -QUOM, -QUONT, ETC.

79

time naturally produced the change from ecus to
Similarly, in the verb such forms

equus; and from ecum to equum.
as

relincunt, secuntur

ultimately

became

relinquunt, sequuntur

owing
quit,
3.

to the influence of the forms containing
etc.).

qu

(relinquis, relin-

relinquimus; sequitur, sequimur,
It is interesting to

note that the conjunction

cum remained
a paradigm

unaffected by this tendency.

Not forming part of
intact.
Its

containing

qu-ioxms,

it

remained
turn also

association
its

and
form
in

frequent collocation with

tended to preserve

unchanged.
texts,

The form quum, though

occasionally found

still

does not appear in Latin inscriptions or Mss. prior to the

6th century a.d. (Bersu,
4.

Die Gutturalen,
original
first

p.

44

n.).

What

has been said of forms in original -quont, -quontur,
to

applies

similarly

forms in

-(n)guont, -(n)guontur.

Thus an exstinguont became

exstingunt,

then later (after

analogy of the other forms of the same tense) exstinguunt ; so
exstinguontur developed through the
exstinguuntur.

medium

of exstinguntur to

58.

Assimilation
1

of

Compounds.
a)


Before
c,
f,

the

Final Consonant of Prepositions in

In compounds of ad, the preposition appears,
1)

regularly as ac-,
regularly as ad-,

e.g.

accipio.

2)

Before Before

e.g. adfej'd, adfiii.

3)

g,

regularly as ad-,

e.g.

adgredior; but as

ag- in aggei'd.

4)

Before

1

,

regularly as ad-,

e.g.

adloquor; but as

al-

in alligo, usually in allatus,

and often

in allectus.

5)
6)

Before

n, regularly as ad-, e.g. adnitor. p,

Before

regularly as ap-,
e.g.

e.g.

appello

;

but some-

times as ad-,
1

adpefo, adporfo.

On

this topic, see particularly the illuminating paper by

Buck

in the

Classical Review, Vol. XIII., pp.

156

fF.

Buck's results have materially

modified the position taken in the Appendix to

my

Latin Grammar.

80
7)

OR THO GRAPHY.
Before
r,

regularly as ad-,

e.g.

adrado, adrepo; but

sometimes as
8)

ar-, e.g. arripio, arrigo.
e.g.

Before

s,

regularly as ad-,

adsero, adsisto;
in assido.

but

as as- in assiduus,

and often

9)

Before

t,

regularly as at-,
e.g.

e.g.

attineo; but

some-

times as ad-,
10)

adtingo.
e.g.

Before

q,

regularly as ad-,
sc, st,

adquiro.

11)

Before gn, sp,
times ad-,

we

find

sometimes

a-,

some-

e.g.

agnosco, adgriosco; asfiiro, adspiro.
etc., is

Here

the spelling adgn-, adsp-,

purely etythe
actual

mological,

and
;

does

not

indicate

utterance

the

d

disappeared in these consonant

groups in accordance with the principle explained
in § 105.
1.

12)

In

all

other cases ad was retained both in spelling

and pronunciation.
b)

In compounds of com-, the preposition appears
1)

Before

b,

p,

m, as com-,

e.g.

combibo, comporfo,

commoror.
2)

Before

c,

q,

g

;

d,

t,

n;

f,
;

s

;

j,

v,

as con-, e.g.

concilio,

conqiuro,

conger
;

co?ido,

contero,

con-

riascor ;

confero, co~nse?v

conjungo, convinco.
collatus.

3)

Before Before

1,

as con- or col-, e.g. conlatus or

4)
5)

r,

regularly as cor-,

e.g.
its

corrumpo, corripio.
(see § 105. 1), e.g.

Before gn, con- dropped
cogridsco.

n

6)

For the origin of
see § 89.
1
;

co-

in coniibiiim,

cdfiived,

etc.,

3.
(

c)

The

Preposition ex

= ecs) before
s to

f,

lost the c (§ 105. 1)
effero,

and then assimilated
(cf. diffe?'d

f, e.g.

for e(c)sfero

for *disfero).
loss of the
is

Another form sometimes
s,

arises

by the

e.g.

ecfero,

ecfatus, etc.

This orthography
period.

found mainly in the archaic

1

ORTHOGRAPHY OF PREPOSITIONAL COMPOUNDS.
d)

8

The
i)

Preposition in appears,


e.g.

Before

1,

regularly as in-,
regularly as in-,
p,

inlatus.

2)

Before

r,

e.g.

inrumpo.
;

3)

Before m,

and b

as im-, e.g. imbibo ; imporfo

immor talis.
4)

In

all

other cases in- was both written and pro-

nounced.
e)

The
1)

Preposition ob
Is regularly assimilated to 00, of-, og-, op-, before
c,
f,

g,

and p respectively,
the

e.g.

occurro,

offendo,

oggero, oppono.

2)

Elsewhere

b

is

regularly retained in writing
s

and

in pronunciation, except that before
p.

and

t,

b had the sound of
Plautus, Terence,
this situation
;

See

§ 27.

Our Mss. of
in

and Lucretius often have op(i.

but Quintilian

7.

7)

assures us
ob.

that for his time

good usage demanded

f) The Preposition per sometimes appears as pel before 1, e.g.pellicid. Elsewhere r is retained ; ptjero probably does not contain the preposition per.

g)

The
1)

Preposition sub
Is

regularly
c,
f,

changed
g,

to

sue-,

suf-,

sug-,

sup-

before

and p

respectively,

e.g.

succurro,

suffectus, suggestus, supplex.

2)

Before m, appears regularly as sum-,
Preposition trans

e.g.

summoved.

h)

The
1)

Is regularly retained before
r, t,

vowels and

b, c, f, g, p,

v, e.g. transed, transfero, transport!), transversus.

2)

Becomes
Becomes
trans-

tran-, often before

s,

and always before
n

sc-, e.g. tran-sero, tran-scribd.

3)

tra-,

before

j,

d,

1,

ra,

105. 2),

e.g. traicio,
is

traduco, trano.

Yet before these sounds

often restored byre-composition (§ 87. 3).

see also. inl-. Vol. there was assimilation that adf- was pronounced aff-. Compounds is is of jacio. In accordance with this. conclusions.82 59. 3. in the compounds above tion. adg-. 129 1 In the Appendix to my Latin Grammar it was suggested that even etc. For further discussion of the compounds of ff. in the Appendix to my Latin Grammar. is In in many compounds. the best period of the language. emanating from half educated persons striving for special correctness. deicio. reicio (where a j would naturally be pro- nounced. in Gr. In others In occurs occasionally. ass-. i. 1 60. Vol. in pronunciation. XIII. Seelmann (Aussprache des Latein. But in all cases the orthography probably to be regarded as indicating the actual pronunciation. etc. Exon. The investigations of Buck no longer authorize those — at least not as a thoroughgoing principle. abicio. 53 ff. he considers to have been a faulty one. pp. § 9. however. . VI. of these words made probable by the fact commonly used as long in syllable Possibly the analogy of acid. . 61 f. OR THO GRAPHY. the etymological spelling was rejected and the assimilated spelling was recomof the mended as representing the actual speech of the Romans best period. Mather. these are better written inicio. even if not written) led to the omission of / in other compounds jacio. Hermathena. considered. ads-. Priscian. yet others is it the assimilated form practically it is unknown regular. p. adr-. indicated the actual pronuncia- This pronunciation.*) in the case of unassimilated spellings (adf.e. As indicated etc. first after the preposition. and Appendix declare the Probi all expressly etymological spelling to be in- correct in the type of words under discussion.) thinks that prepositional such spellings as inr-. adf-. ads-.ads-. That a j was pronounced that the verse. Terentius Scaurus. pp. Harvard Studies.

Areus pagus and Arius pagus .d. § 1. § II. ancora not anchor a . Antiochia dria. § 11. adulescentulus : like adulescens. § 31. balneum. 1 This list in the main follows that given in Brambach's Hulfsbuchlein fur Lateinische Rechtschreibung.WORDS OF DOUBTFUL OR VARIED SPELLING. artus. bybliotheca also occurs. Alexandre a for the : this is the correct form behia Later : also early Latin. 61. : : also occurs. bipertitus fin. is beneficium beneficus : rather than benificium. artdre : adolescens see adulescens. : balbutio ballista not balbuttio. not autor. benevolus : : rather than benivolus. benevolentia . rather than benificus. in early Latin.' and of adolesco aurichalcu?7i better than orichalcum. : Ciceronian period. : aeneus. balneae : balineum occurs agnd sco and adgnosco § 58. Adria : see Hadria. The The standard whole subject of Latin orthography calls for new treatment. for the most part. auctoritas not autor itas. . the to the list. : AreopagTta and Arlopagita. arbos is archaic and poetic. 1 A. Apulus. writes autumnus : not auctumnus. the participle adolescens. century a. Bosphorus § 31. : bipartitus and : : § 87. I. rather than abjicio . Alexandria found. C. 83 List of the Most Important Words of Doubtful or Varied Spelling. antemna : also antenna. § 60. : arundo {Neugeslalspelling for : not hartmdo. aenus better than aheneus. arbor : § Z%. arctare. not arctus. rather than benivolentia. better than Britt-. allium: early a Hum allec : § 88. : 'young man. B. brachium etc. bellua. Brundisuim not Brundusium. a book unfortunately much antiquated. abicio : arcesso : in early Latin also accerso. : bibliotheca 3. : adulescens Brambach auctor : tung. 52) restricts this to the noun. caecus : : not coecus . correct form is — roughly speaking. Aedui : see HaeduT. CA rather than adjicio : Alexandria. ahenus. a). Apulia. I. : not alec. omitted from the . The given first. Alexandria. 3 like Alexan- bracchium Britajmia. followed in this first list is the usage of the early Empire. preferable to balista. dnulus : not annulus. § 60. ad in composition adicio : § 58. Words belonging classes treated in §§ 57-60 are. Apenninus and Appenninus. adulescentia. Antiochea. caelebs not coelebs . bacca : early baca : : . p. : alioquT and alioquin. Apuleius and Appuleius : cf. I.

;

84

ORTHOGRAPHY.
ae,

caelum and derivatives have
oe-; § ii.

not

coniibium

: :

not conniibium

;

§ 89.

I.

convicium

not convitium

;

§ 25.

3.

caementum : not cementum ; § io. 2. cottidie and cotldie : not quotidie. cothurnus and coturnus : § 31. 3. caenum : see coenum. caerimonia and caeremonia : not ^<?rz- culleus, culleum : early culeus, ciileum ;

monia
caespes
:

;

§ io. 2.
/

§ 88. 1.

not cespes

§ io. 2.
2.

£«#z

.•

archaic
3.

quom ; never quum

;

caestus

:

not cestus ; § io. not cetra
;

see § 57.

caetra

:

§ io. 2.

cumba

:

also cymba.

cupressus : Camena : not Camoena ; § II. cur : quor Augustan prewas the ra«^ caussa
.•

not cypressus.
is

ante-classical.

form
r <?w#
/

;

§ 98. 2.
/

not «>£«#

§ 11.

D.
Cerialia.

Ceredlis

and
:

Cerialis ;

damma:
;

early

dama ;

§ 88.

1.

ceterl : not caeterl ; § 10. 2.

Cethegus

Cetegus

is

pre-Ciceronian

Ddnuvius : not Danubius. Cf.% 16. 2. Dareus : better than the later form
Darius.
Decelea
:

§ 3i- 3-

circumeo and
claudo
:

circtieo.
is

better than the later form

cludo

rare

and the
;

result
2.

Decelia.
defatlgo,

of 'De-composition'
clip e us
:

see § 87.
clupeus,

defatlgatio

:

also defet-.
;

better
;

than
§ 6. 2.

the

deicio

:

rather than dejicio

see § 60.

early spelling

delectus,

'choosing'; also

dilecttis.
cf.

Clytemestra
coclea

:

not Clytemnestra.

delenio

:

better than dellnio ;
:

and cochlea ; § 31. 3. coenum : this (and not caenum)
probably the correct spelling.

deprehendo
is

also the contracted

§90. form

deprendo.
derigo
:

com- in composition: § 58. &). comissdrT and cdmisdrz.

the original form.
ever,

which is probably Brambach, howrecognizes two independent
also dirigo,

comminus
con- in

:

not cominus.
:

verbs

:

derigo

(de

-f-

rego) ,

'

to

comprehendo

better than comprendo.
58. b).
die-)
:

move
dirigo

in a particular direction,
(dis
-\-

and
in

compounds: § conditio {con and root
ditio,

rego),

'to

move
I.

not con-

different directions.'

detrecto

:

also detracto ; § 87.

conecto
etc.

and derivatives
:

:

not connecto,

dexter, dextra,

dextrum

:

also dextera,

dexterum
rather than conjicio ; § 60.
coicio also occurs.

;

regularly dextera

when

conicio

used as a substantive.
dicio
:

A

form
:

not ditio
: :

;

§ 25. 3.

conltor

not connltor.

dinosco
disicio

earlier dignosco.

conived : not connived,

rather than disjicio ; § 60.

conjunx
contio

:

better than conjux.
coventio)
:

Duilius or Duillius.
concio

(for

not

dumtaxat
dipondius

:

not duntaxat ; § 87.
earlier

I.

§ 25. 3-

:

dupondius ;

§ 6. 2.

;

WORDS OF DOUBTFUL OR VARIED SPELLING.
E.
eculus
:

85

of Caesar, and the Celtic point to

cf^^j.d).
;

Gendva.
§ 60.

Held

:

rather than ejicio
:

genetlvus

:

not genltivus.
not genltrlx.

elleborus epistula
: :

better than helleborus.

genetrtx
glaeba
:

:

rather than epistola.

not gleba.
:

Erlnys
erus,

not Erinnys.
erills :

gndtus, gndta
etc.

this is the early form,
;

era,

not herns,

used also in poetry
ndta.

later

ndtus,

_

§ 23.

Esqulllae,
llae, etc.

Esqullinus

:

not Exqul-

gratis
is

and grains.

The

latter

form

archaic.

Euander

:

not Evander.

exedra and exhedra.
existlmdtlo,

H.
:

existlmo

existumdtlo,
spelling
;

Hadrla,

etc. :

not Adrla,

etc. ;

§ 23.

existumo are the early

§6.2.
exsanguis, exsclndo, exscribo, exsilium,
exspecto,

Haedui : rather than AeduT. Hallcamdsus : not Halicarnassus.
hallucinor better than kdluclnor
§ 88.
I
;

; cf.

ex

and other compounds of with words having initial s :
etc.

also dl-, all- ; § 23.

better than exanguis, excindo, ex-

amnion : better than Amnion ; §23. harena : not arena ; § 23.
haruspex
:

H

pecto,

rather than aruspex
§ 28.

;

§ 23.

haud : sometimes haut ;
F.

haveo and aveo
:

;

§ 23.

faenerdtor, faenero
etc. ;

not fenerdtor,

hedera
helluo,

:

not edera ; § 23.
helludtlo
1.
:

§ 10. 2.
:

early

heluo,

etc.;

faenum
faenus
:

not fenum, nor
see faenerdtor.
etc. :

foenum

;

§ 88.

Henna
fecundtis,

:

better than
:

Enna ;
§ 23.

§ 23.

Heraclea
etc.,

later Heraclla.

not foecundus,

her Cisco and erased :
heri
:

also here (a different formation).
etc. :

femina

:

not foemina
;

;

§ II.

Hlber, Hlberes,

not Iber,

etc.

;

fetus: not foetus

§

1 1.

finitimus
foetidus
;

:

earlier

-umus ;
:

§ 6. 2.

§23. hlems : possibly
HTlotae
:

also hlemps.

not fetidus ; § II.
§ 20. 2.
I.

not Helotae.
better than Ister
;

forensia and foresid
futtilis
:

Ulster
holltor,

:

§ 23.

early fu tills ; § 88.

holltorlum

:

see holus.
;

holus

:

rather than olus

§ 23.

gaesw?i

:

not gesum
:

;

§ 10. 2.

I.

garrulus

not gdrulus.
of the

Geneva

:

ace. to the evidence

Imb- in compounds: § 58. d") 3). lm?n- in compounds: § 58. d~) 3).

Romance
Arckiv,
ii.

(see Grober in Wolfnin's

Immo

:

not Tmo.
:

437)

;

but the best Mss.

Imp- in compounds

§ 58.

d)

3).

.

.

;

86
inclitus

ORTHOGRAPHY.
and inclutus
and
:

not inclytus,

litter a;

better than liter a
littus.

;

§ 88. I.

incoho and inchoo.
ingrdlis
inicio
inl- in
:

lltus
;

:

rather than
:

ingrdtils

cf.

gratis,

loquela

not loquella.

rather than injicio ; § 60.

compounds: compounds:
:

§ 58.

d)

1).

M.
maereo,
etc.;
I.

in primis, or imprimis: § 58. d) 3).
z;/r- in
§ 58.
:

maestus,
§
11.
:

etc.:

not

moereo,

d) 2).
§ 6. 2.

intellegentia, intellego

see § 87.

malevolentia

not malivolentia.

intimus

earlier

intumus ;
J-

malevolus : not malivolus.

mancipium
§ 6^ 2.

:

earlier

?nancupium;
manufestus

jilcundus

:

not jocundus, since the
'

manifestos:
§ 6. 2.

earlier

word

is

derived from juvo,
is

please

';

the form jocundus
false association

the result of
'jest.'

with jocus,
§ 10. 2.

Judaea: not
jiiniperus
:

Jild'e'a ;

not jump ir us. the regular classical form.

: earlier manupretium §6.2. maritimus : earlier jnaritiwius ; § 6. 2. Mauretania : also Mauritania,

manipretium

Juppiter
Jupiter
§ 88.

:

maximus

:

earlier

mdxumus ;

§ 6. 2.

was

the

early

spelling;

Megalensia and Megalesia

; § 20. 2.

1.

mercennarius

:

not mercenarius.
I

K.
Kaeso and
Kaletidae
:

Mess alia
7#z7/£ /

:

early Messdla ; § 88.

Caeso.

plural

millia

(Afonumentum

better than Calendae.
in
legal

Ancyranuni) and »zr/m (the usual
form)

kalumnia:
calumnia.

expressions for

minimus
§
6.
2.

:

also

minumus ;
and

§ 6. 2.

Karthago and Carthago.

monumentum

monit?ientum

lacrima:

earlier
6.

lacruma
2
;

(archaic

muccus : earlier muctis ; multa : not mulcta.
multo
:

§ 88. 1.

dacrumd) ; § nor lachryma ;
lamina and lamna.

not lachrima

see multa.
:

§ 31. 3.
;

milraena
syncopated

not miirena

;

§ 10. 2.

lagoena: not lagena

§ II.

murra and myrrha.
N.
navus
:

lai?i7?iina, also

lanterna : better than laterna.

earlier
;

gndvus.
2.

Ldrentia (in Acca Z.)
lautus
:

:

not Laurentia.

ne, 'verily'

not w<7^/ § 10.
:

better than lotus,
;

neglego, neglegentia
§ 6. 2.

§ 87. I.
:

legitimus : earlier legitut?ius
libet,

negotium, negotiator
etc.;

not negocium,

libens, libido: earlier lubet, etc.;

§ 25. 3.

§6.2.
lis:

but

stlis

in the legal phrase
;

stliti-

: not naenia ; § 10. 2. nequicquam and nequiqua?n.

nenia

bus judicandis

§ 104. I. b).

novicius

:

not novitius ; § 25.

3.

;

;

WORDS OF DOUBTFUL OR VARIED SPELLING.
nunquam and numquam.
nuntio,

87

pomerium
etc.;

:

not pomoerium.
not Pontinus.
6. 2.

nuntius

:

not

nuncio,

Pomptlnus

:

§ 25. 3-

ponlifex : earlier pontufex ; § Porsenna and Porsena ; also,
0.

ace. to

obicio

:
:

rather than objicio ; § 60.

Brambach, Porsinna and Porsina. prehendo and prendo.

oboedio

not
:

be did ; § II.

prehim
proicio
0/$-/
§ 58.

:

not praelum
:

;

§ 10. 2.
;

obscenus

not obscaemts ; nor obscoe;

proelium
:

not praelium

§ II.

nus ;
<?&•-

§ 10. 2

II.

rather than projicio ; § 60.
:

in

compounds: not
:

pro7nunturiur7i
ttiritim.

better than

promon-

e)2).

obsonium
obsdndre
:

also

opsonium

(oipooviop*).

proscaenium :
§
10.
2.

not

proscenium

see obsonium.

obstipescd : earlier obstupescd ; § 6. 2.

proximus :

earlier

proxwmis ; §6.2.

obtemperd, obtined,
§ 58. e) 2).

obtull

:

not

<?/V- /

Publicola: on the early forms Poplicola, Puplicola, see publicus.

dpi lid : better than tipilio.
opp- in

pilblicus (from pilbes,
1).
6. 2.

'

youth,'
')
:

'

able-

compounds § 58. e) optimus : earlier optumus ; §
;

bodied men,'
(early Latin)
lus ;

'

citizens

poplicus

is

from poplus
is

= popu-

Orcus

:

not Orchtis ; § 31.
P.

3.

puplicus

the result of the

contamination of publicus and poplicus.

paelex

:

not pellex ;

§ 10. 2. § 10. 2.

pulcher: early Latin pulcer ; § 31.

3.

PaelignT : not PelignT ;
paenitet
:

not poenitet ; §11.
2.

Q-

paenula : not penula ; § IO. Parnasus ; not Parnassus.
parricida,
§ 88.
1. etc. ;

quamquam and quanquam.
quattuor
:

not quatzwr.

earlier

pdricJda

querela: better than querella.

quicumqtce

:

better than quicunque.

Paul/us and Paulus.

quicqtiam and quidquam.

paulus

:

preferable to paullus.

quicquid and quidquid.
Quinctus,
QuTnctTlius

pedetentim and pedetemptim. pedisequus
p?jero
: :

Quinctius,
:

QmnclTlis,

not pedissequus.
;

these

are

the forms

not pejtiro

perjiiro

is

prob-

for the

Republican period;

under
etc.

ably a different word.
percontor, etc.: not percunctor,
etc.

the Empire, QuTnlus, Quintilis,

quom:

§ 57.

perjiirus and pejilrus : cf. pejero.

quor : see cur.
quotiens and quoties.
1.

pessimus
pilleus,

:

earlier

pessumus

;

§ 6. 2.

etc. :
:

early pTleus,

etc. ;

§ 88.

plaustrum
plebs
Pollio
:
:

not plo strum.

R.

not pleps; § 58. <?) 2). better than Polio.

raeda: better than re da ;
§
10.
2.

not rh-;

88
Raetia, Raett
:

ORTHOGRAPHY.
not Rhaelia,
:

etc.

.y?^"-

in

compounds/

§ 58.

£")

i).

reccidi (Perf. of recido)

not recidi.

sulpur and
§ 31. 4-

sulphur:

not

sulfur;

recipero

:
:

earlier recupero ; § 6. 2.

Regium
reicio
religio
:

not Rhegium.
;

summ§ 6o.

in

rather than rejicio
:

.£«//- in

compounds: compounds: §
:

§ 58.

£")

2).

58. £•) 1).

in poetry also relligio.
: :

suscenseo
susplcio
:

rather than succenseo.

reliquiae

in poetry also relliquiae. early Latin relicuos ;
:

not suspitio

,

§ 20. 3. § I. 5.

reliquus

§57.

Syria

:

earlier

Suria

:

repperl (Perf. of reperio) reppull (Perf. of repelld)
:

not reperi. not repull.
taeter
:

T.
not teter ; § 10.
2.

reprehends or reprendo.
res publico,
:

not respublica.
:

rettull (Perf. of refero)

not retull.

tanquam and tamquam.
te?nperi

rotundus

:

in

Lucretius
§ 90.
S.

sometimes

(Adv.)

:

not temporT.

rutundus ;

tentdre

and temptdre.
:

Thalia

Thalea
:

is

pre-Augustan.
is

thesaurus
;

thensaurus

archaic.

saeculum
saepio
saeta
:

:

not seculum

Thrdx and Thraex
§ 10. 2.

(6/)£|).

saepes: not sepes ; § 10.
:

tingo
2.

:

also tinguo.
:

totiens

also to ties.
:

see saepes.

not $£/#/ § 10.
:

trdjectus
2.

not trdnsjectus ; §58.^) 3).
:

Sallustius sdrio
:

not Salustius.

trans- in composition
trdnsicio

§ 58. ^).
:

better than sarrio.
: :

and trdicio

rather

than

satura
scaena

also later satira ; not satyra.

trdnsjicio, trdjicio ; § 60.

not scena
:

trdnsndre and trdndre
;

:

§ 10. 2.

§ 58. ^).

sepulcrum
§ 31. 3sescenti
:

not

sepulchrum

Treveri
;
cf.

:

rather than Treviri.
:

tribunuius
rather than sexcenti.
tripartltus

not tribumtius
tripertitus
:

:

§ 25. 3-

and

§ 87. I.

setius

:

not secius.
:

tropaeum and trophaeum.
tiis :

singilldtim

not singuldtim.
;

rather than

Z#£.y.

soldcium
sollemnis
stellio :

:

not solatium

§ 25. 3.

:

not sollennis.
;

U.
I.

early stelio
:

§ 88.

ubicumque
Ulixes
: :

:

better than ubicunque.

stlllicidium
stilus
:

not stilicidium.

not Ulysses, not humerus ; § 23.

not stylus.
etc. :
: :

umerus
etc. ;

stuppa,

early stupa,

%'&'&.

1.

zlmidus,
etc. ;

umor,
§ 23.

etc. :

not hzlmidus,

suddela
subicio

not suddella.
rather than subjicio
:

;

§ 60.

subtemen
succ- in

not subtegmen.
§ 58. £-) 1).
; § 88.
I.

unguo and ungo. unquam and umquam.
urged : not urgueo.

compounds:

succus

:

rather than sucus

Suebi

:

not Suevl ; § 16.

2.

utcumque : better than utcunque. utrimque : not utrinque.

earlier voltur . § 5 7. 89 vinculum and vinclum : § 91. a).. Vergilius. : earlier volgus . valetudo : : SPELLING. : vulnus : vulpes : earlier volnus . . earlier voltus . verto. . a). not vlllicus. Volcdnus : § 57. a). § 57. a) sometimes also vicensimus. a). vu/gus : also early Latin vorto. § 57 a). a). Verginius : not Volsiniensis : § 57. vicesimus commoner than vigesimus victuma : earlier volpes . verto : Voltumus : § 57. a). Volsci: § 57. Vortumnus : under the Empire Vertummis : cf. Virg-. in poetry often vemens. victima vilicus : : vultur vultus : : earlier § 6. not valitudo. § 57. a). 2. vehemens Vergiliae. § 57. vinolentus and vinulentus. vester early Latin voster. WORDS OF DOUBTFUL OR VARIED V. versus (versum) : early Latin vors-. vertex: early Latin vortex.

§§ 78-549 . Latin. 2 was regularly capable of appearing Thus the Indo-European root and another form gen-. . 2 While roots are usually monosyllabic. these fuller phases of the root are is called strong ' grades . The Indo-European parent-speech. yet series as belonging to the usual to recognize six such ablaut- Indo-European parent-speech. Slavic. from which the Greek. THE VOWELS} Ablaut. iv. 112-229. Lateinische material here presented. Handbuch der Lateinischen Laut. 34-336).' CHAPTER VI. Sanskrit. §§ 4-45 Lateinische Latitlehre. Latin Language. phases in which a root appears are designated as the general grades' while phenomenon of variation is called Ablaut or Vowel Gradation. had a vowel system of considerable regularity. Celtic. i. cited called the ' weak grade. to which work I am under the greatest obligations for the chap. ' The different . Of the by a three grades belonging to each series. By variation of the the root vowel. 62. . The different phases of a root taken together form an 'ablaut-series. Grammati&. gn-. 1 Thus gen- and above. 90 . See Brugmann. represent the strong Lindsay. I. THE LATIN SOUNDS. and Albanian languages are descended.' While ultimate conclusions have not yet been it is reached on the subject. Stolz. two are characterized fuller vocalism than the third ' . each in three monosyllabic root different forms. Sommer.und Formenlehre (pp. yet some disyllabic roots are also to be recognized. the third by contrast gon-. pp. Avestan. Teutonic. 'bring forth. Armenian.' had also a form gon-. Grundriss 2 Vol.

po- Vowel vanishes e. * ag- 6 a-Series \ { q- Vowel vanishes e. 534 1 ff.: :: ABLAUT.g. and . i. Some . it will be noticed that three are long. O e-Series I e. the ' protracted form teg- in fegula. 6 { \ od- 6 8-Series \ 3. as follows : The six Indo-European ablaut-series are Series. occurs.g. Lat.in sedes. which developed variously in the different Indo-European languages. bfol e. sufficiently accurate Brugmann. Grundriss2 Stolz. a-Series Weak 1 ( Grade. 0.series) But the short-vowel have. series comes the sed-.. dhi- I e.' 'tile' from the root protracted form' sed. . in addition to the forms given in the foregoing table. Of these six ablaut. . e. i. Latin Language. socalled tog' protracted forms e- ' of the root ' . dhe- dho- * 6-Series ( 5 pp- 6 po- { I e.g. . \ I { I { e.series.g.g. 91 loss of the e. 9 represents an obscure short vowel. The origin of this variation in the form of roots attrib- uted with great probability to accentual conditions prevailing in the parent-speech.g. and three short-vowel series often and o. Strong Grades. e.g. from the root ' teg- of the .g.series). uncertainty still prevails concerning details in the various series but for practical purposes the above (see scheme § is .g. o. is 63. ^ \ { 6 pot- S-Series 1 pt- P<*- [ ( drk- derk- dork- Vowel vanishes e. ~e-. Lindsay. — as a. 253 ff. The first it of the two strong grades gives name to the series in which 2. e-. series (the a-. p. is the its gn-.g.vowel series (the a-. Gr. 'seat. which has been weakened by the weak grade. grades . bhdbho- 8l e.

seen in s-im. 15 Lateinische Lautlehre. in the course of two grades having disappeared the development of the language. 2 . see § 102.g.' The root es- to be ') has only the is weak grade and one of etc. men-. prec-.we get posed (for *prc-sco. dec-et. sed-. notably the case with Greek and Teutonic. the strong grade in es-t. the Latin has ^me-men-1. s-unt. no form with gon- has been preserved the shows us another form of weak grade. gradation are preserved. and gen-us gi-gn-o. 1).' 'crony.g. doc-eo ' root sd-. mens (for *mn-t(i)s). Occasionally the liquid precedes e. col-lis (root eel-. . memini Com- pare also ex-cel-lo. b) The e or o is followed by a liquid or nasal. 105.92 § THE LATIN SOUNDS. *di-dc-sco) *si-sd-o) . mon-. it embraces three sub-types a) The e or o is followed e. and mon-eo. the strong grades. col-). Latin belongs to Most Latin roots appear in only a single grade. The weak grade etc. p. de- e in the weak grade the liquid or nasal often becomes veloping according to the principles explained in §§ 100. 'suitor. from the root pre-. gen-. gn-tus . 102. sod-alis. . . 157. From the root for mn-. . The ^-series is by far the : best represented of any in Latin . by some consonant which doc-. root dc-. ff. ex-torris (root ters-. however. Thus from the Indo-European root gnatus (for gn-. (' seat-mate. seen in disco . 64. dec-. *porc-sco prec-or. sod-. the other much obscured .) Article Ablaut). gon-. esse.. tors-).' §100. seen in siao (for ' sed-eo . By the loss of the vocalic.' table companion. .proc-.Series. the Latin has . £. is not (for a nasal or a liquid. Johnson's Cyclopaedia. . In other lan- guages the Ablaut has become the latter class. Yet some examples of the original will These be considered according to the different ablaut-series in which they occur. 2). proc-us. Of the different Indo-European languages some have preserved the Indo-European Ablaut with great this is fidelity. terra.

the obscure 1 vowel. the corresponding strong Cf. (earlier foid-us) . Grammatik? pp. dhe-. but often appears secondarily as in 1 accordance with § 71. in the u. feid-. se-men.. of these diphthongs. 157 ff. ma(g)jns (for -jos). fes-tus. . re-ri. weak grade mis. . fido (for feid-o) foed-us root due-. fanum (for *fds- num) shows grade. Lat Lautlehre. For protracted forms of the root in the ^-series. etc. Lind- say. e. dho-. No root shows all three grades in Latin. Language. weak grade . pp. p. became while the others became • u. The root dhp-.. ma(g)-Jes-tas. root fid-. i sometimes j in the weak grade. ei eu ou 1. sd-tus. Further examples of Ablaut in the ^-series are given in Stolz.: ABLA UT. weak grade the e. disappeared. deuc-. 9. and one of the strong grades the in sacer-do-s .3) in ambages. . as usual. mag-is. leaving i or originally / ei oi u But. ^-Series. ^-Series. 255. l place. 34 if. By disappearance of develops from the e. 2. Lat.' put/ shows the weak grade in con-ditus (for *con-da-tus § 71. One form ' of the strong grade is seen in dg-o. develops regularly as a. c) 93 i The Thus e or o of the strong grades was originally followed by or u. 3. Lat. An instance of this is seen in tracted form maes-tus. : except that oi (oe) has been retained in a few words. o of the strong grades. see § 62. seen in duc-em. duco (for earlier *deuc-o).2). The a may combine with i to produce the diphthong ai.g. 65.in mis-er. also rd-tus. douc-. the ' pro- (§62. Examples seen in fid-es . foid-. 66.

Cf. familia-s (§ 113). also cd-tus. . fa?na. generis. see o. the corresponding strong grade in donnm. the corresponding strong grade in fa-ri. 55) remains unchanged at that period. hor- tum. Indo-European a 1 in syllables which were accented § at the time of the early Latin accentuation (see in Latin . e.g. The suffix e is seen in the vocative hort-e. 68. 67. ^-Series. Cf. -es. w a. In case-endings we have an interesting illustration of vowel variation in the genitive ending. The other cases originally had the suffix Cf. The weak grade is seen in damns. odi. ddtus . od-ium. and originally existed in the locative horfi.94 THE LATIN SOUNDS. also std-tus . The weak grade is seen in fa-teor . and -os . -os show us the two strong grades of the ^-series. where again the suffixes -es. nouns of the type of genus. *gen-es-is. 126. also hortus. in syllables : which were unaccented a develops as follows 1 Including the a arising from Indo-European ? ( § 62. in fod-i. 70. in roots. e. Vowel Changes. suffixes Vowel gradation appears not only and in case-endings.g. Examples of this scantily represented ablaut-series are fo-dere. rad-ere and rod-ere exhibit the ^-Series. dos. but also in Thus in nouns of the second de0. hort-o-m. 3) appear ^-Series. two strong grades. footnote). § which is for *hort-e-i . The obscure vowel 2 appears as a. ped-is (for *J>ed-es senafu-os (early Latin). 71. clension the suffix varies between e and the two strong grades of the ^-series. 2. protracted forms (§ 62. The obscure vowel s fa-men. Of these roots. for a primitive hort-o-s. which appears ) / as -s. Stator . cos (for *cots). 69. originally *gen-os. 2 develops as a.

2). 4. . 5. e. the / the / is is guttural. u. labial the preceding « appears always as e. *confactus . 6. e. in all situations. exsilium for *exsa/ium. for *exsalto. e. single consonant in the interior of a word a for becomes *cecadi . i??ipertio particeps *pdrticaps .g. reddere for for *impartio . Before in labials. / before e or . hiasco). e. Before ng. *incalco . by u the earlier .g.g. 1 1 e. if 1. contactus By guttural i. or a consonant .g. liquid) and for before r (not a regularly becomes for e. occupo for *occapo contubernalis for * contabernalis mancufollows pium the (later mancipiuni) for *mancapium. a e. 1.VOWEL CHANGES. 1 / is meant / before a. mater . exsulo for *exsalo. palatal.g. if e. 3. accipio for *dccapio. Short a before / in open syllables becomes a) b) u. a regularly remains unchanged in Latin for *contactus. redditus for *reddatus. adigo *adago . acceptus *accaptus . tetig'i for *tetagj. attingo *attango . cecidi for concino for * cone and . 95 Before two consonants (not a mute final) and a e.g. and later by i (see § 6. *lnsa/sus. 2. hie to for *kz'ato (cf. a becomes for t (through the for medium .g. Before i. a becomes insulsus u. confectus for . 0.g. 1 in open syllables a becomes e. a becomes the sound which was represented period. peperci for *peparci *reddare. variegd for *variagd 7. confringo *confrango compingo for *compango. of e). a.g. Before exsulto /+ a for consonant (but not before inculco for //). 1 e.g. After . insitus for *insatus . 72. by palatal /. But when z.

simplex *v~ige7iti (from sem-.g. for .g. oliva for *e/aiva (Gr. unaccented by the early accentuation colligo 55). e. eg. in Latin in all situations. . I followed by a. 73.g. auspex.g. e. u for or a consonant. e becomes o before novos for an original *nevos (Gr. scelestus. Gr. Indo- European change of socrus.g for */eg-nu77t . e.. sve- becomes first svo- and then so. 1) *svecrus to *svocrus.g. e.g. *sosor. 771 b) Sometimes before n or for *se77ip/ex +a consonant. see § 98. ve/ros). agite. age. e. peXvw). ' *svesor to s *svosor.(§ 103. Usually before two consonants. e. e. § 73. correctus. *collego . horte. 5. 3. § 94. £ is regularly retained die. vigi7iti for tinguo for *tenguo qifinque for *quenque (earlier i. soror (for the to r. *degnus (from *dec- nus.e. 4. sceleris. obsessus. e. volvo *velvo (cf. But in unaccented according to the e is retained. 3). *penque). 1. (i. rectus.fero. o. v. 2. e becomes Before i: a) a single consonant in syllables which were (§ . e is regularly retained in Latin: r. militis for *milefes for *6bsedeo syllables protinus for *protenus.g. i. iXatpa). a. before r. whence . lig-nu77i Before gn original e also dig7ius for becomes e. 5). 74. generis. 'one'). 9<5 THE LATIN SOUNDS. a) b) c) Before e. When final. whence mother-in-law.' e becomes before guttural / e. correxi.g. confero. obsideo e.g. .

and then so */m 3. Final . but sometimes disappears. 1. ante final 2 for *#«#' (Gr. versus. e. *solcos A7^to. Gr. (Gr. . ^///x. genitive of a/fir. numerus etc. final 1 becomes e before a secondary r (§ 98. 3. So also in an accented 2. umbo for *ombo Gr. then to cerrio er. (Gr. vester. o became u in accented syllables (§ : a) Before n-adulteri?ium . 4. becomes w#/r for *mari . 1. sedi/e for *sedili . sulcus for (Gr. e. (cf.g. 4. 6. for earlier vorsus. 76. In unaccented syllables not 1). Long regularly remained unchanged in Latin. ^ ri cineris for *ciniris. animal (for ^ *animalT) . 6A. <?. later ter(s). earlier became ver-. ves-. z-lico for *in slloco. 1. vor-. KptVw) becomes *crno. 97 1. etc. remain unexplained. novitas for *nevo-tas.g.g. pietas for *pio-tas societas for * socio. uncus for *oncos (Gr. vet-. ' . *crino develops to r (see first § 100). oW)culpa for //.g.g. e. Before a consonant. rpis) 2 became £. mollis.C.koY). Gr. A few exceptions (domus. multa for molta . vo/xos). veto. oyxos) £) unguis for *onguis <?. In unaccented open syllables Indo-European o seems to have : become a) 1. olvtl) e. calcar (for *calcart). *lrs. o/x^aA. 75. (cf.£. b) After 1 this o became e.£•. verto. 1). pulcer for earlier polcer ..g. vot- About 150 B.£•. on the spot e.) *nomeros (cf. 20. vos-. VOWEL CHANGES.tas. syllable in sero for *si-so) *si-ro. But this change does not take place before hence 2. <?. armiger for ' armo-ger . Before /-fa consonant. vertex.os) . o also regularly becomes £ before for m 9 e. . indigena for *indogena.

Final o became 1.g. became see § 6. lacrima for earlier lacruma. footnote). which. donum.g. e. original ai was retained.g. But . retained § the also to a con- siderably later period. libens for lubens. u. developed ai arose a monophthongal sound see § 10. r. (later 1. in imperial times. 2. lables. lice to. u is regularly retained in all situations. filius for earlier filios donum -quom. e. e. Gr.C. 100 into B. e.fumus. -uom.g. late . 80. originally unaccented o becomes (cf. before a consonant in final syllables. Before guttural / (see § 71. about ae. 2). -uos. in turn. d) Before labials this o became u . For the rhota- cism. Final syllables in -quos. becoming. sedulo for *se dolo. e. u.g. sequere for *sequeso. e. 2). So also . o was regularly re- tained before 6. o. In closed syllables. see 57. see § 98. unchanged in Latin in all situations. NX u.98 c) the latin sounds. libet for lubet .g.g. for *donom -vom . lacibus This change regularly took place in unaccented but by analogy it affected some accented syllables also. e. e. opus for *oJ>os. Crassupes for * Crass opes 5. aurufex for *aurofex. under the early accentuation (see 55)) were accented. u.. conjunc- tum. e. In syllables which. 77.g. . -vos. ai. lacubus. 1. etc. 7. temporis. etc. 78. e. regularly remains vie tores. idvros). 79.. § 1. euntis for *eontis e. u before labials became 1 about the close of the Republic for earlier syl- (see § 6.g. onustus for *bnostos.g.

' XxesXyj'foedus. But it early began to take the B. 2. etc. Syllables. coepi for * coepi.^ or the labio. aijo. is Soramer suggests that the law this : When the labials/. the following oe was retained. began to lildus to u. e. coeravere.. e. coetus for coitus . ' ugly. oinom.C. 2 etc. e. oi. oi appears in the oldest monuments of the Latin lan- guage. form it oe. etc. coenum is for earlier *quoinom (§ 103). coiravervnt. virfufi. time after that to use the original e. The form served to moenia and munia.g. which were originally the same word. e. porfis. for This change was complete for a long by 100 B. Mdjus. coenum. Punicus along with coenum? cunio.C.. pronounced 2.g.g. Somewhere between 200 and 100 . for *virtutai. Yet oe (even after the : change of oe to u) appears even in a few words a) As a result of contraction. ajo. develop *loidos. b) In the following special words : poena. VOWEL CHANGES.. niensis. secondarily in Latin in a few words.velar qu began a word. etc. Poenus. except followed. ?naijor. for niensais.g. foedus. were unaccented. original ai became regularly *inquairo .' foetor.g. e. though a tendency existed oi in formulas. under the early accentuation (§ 1. existumo for *exaislumd . 1 This is probably the correct spelling for this class of words. etc. etc.. In Accented 81.. maior? Maius.g. by the side of Poenus. 1. .g. utilis for *oitilis unus for oinos . militi. 99 aid. not major. e. loidos. Yet by the side of poena we have punio . c) when t Moenia survived differentiate as an archaism. inquiro for etc. 55). In syllables which.

e. e. horti through horlei. ui. etc. mentioned by Festus. through the intervening stage of (cf. in Gr. 1.peior. levi for *leivt 3. au. d) oi in early Latin appears before § / in auoi(J)os. Hits). After /. through Vestiges of the early form are preserved poploe (=populi) and oloes (= oil is. 3. the correct spelling.g. from *hortois (Gr. 200 B. under the (§ 55). ^dpToi?). e. faxseis. Syllables. aurora. e. Xet/ros) . 82.g.g. Pompejus.. ei became ~e. earliest monuAbout ments of the Latin language. vicus for *voicos (Gr. claudo. and in some words itself this colloquial pro- nunciation even established in the literary Ian- . These were pronounced eijus. ei arose secondarily in some words. (from lino). e. see § 14. see 198. foiKos) vinum for *voinom (Gr. 84. for /axis ei peilum for pilum. au is regularly retained in syllables which.g. 83. Here oi. 100 THE LATIN SOUNDS. i. writing of ei for original in some words. x P T01) j hortis. 1. levis for *lewis (Gr. from *hortoi horteis. deicerent. ei. 2.g.g. oi became 1.C. eius. began to pass into i This circumstance led to the e. In Unaccented 4. Indo-European ei is preserved in the e. After . to In the speech of common life this au had a tendency permanently become an open o (later close). This diphthong undergoes no changes .3initial v. instead of the traditional ptjor. it deivos. foivot). ei. inal ei In inscriptions the spelling (both for origto the time and for 1) was commonly current even down of Caesar. early accentuation took the accent. Po?npeius. peijor.g. became i.

au. neu. after which they developed according to the etc. they were inherited first by the Latin. In the parent-speech. (§ 55). Examples are hortts . In a few instances we have eu arising secondarily. 4). these long diphthongs frequently lost the second element. eu and ou. (cf.g. x°W) l aur^ ra ) f° r * aurora noctu from *nocfeu. In syllables which. seu. so au. includo for Hnclaudo . element consisted of a long vowel. Thus *feilo . nvmasioi. 1 01 Examples are etc. from original *dietts. for rem (earlier *rem) from *reim diem (earlier *diem) from *dieum* . from original *hortois Gr. e. luceo. ex- isted in the parent. Latin f'elo. from *portai for *nocteu. principles already laid down for for original at. 2. under the early accentuation u. 1. ei. far as oi. ou. portae. by loss of the element of the diphthong. dative singular. eu. Long Diphthongs. implodo. . plodo. final dius here being for *dieus. the -a)). ou. guage. eu gave e. eu. ceu. Traces of this are seen in .g. (CIL. ei. first The name/ long diphthong ' is given to diphthongs whose At. e. In the dative -oi (Gr.speech. ei. eu first became ou (seen in early Latin dotted for *deueo) . xiv. Indo-European termination was In Latin this generally became -0. and subsequently developed to u. 86. *hor tot's (§ 81. Primitive Latin eu and ou are nowhere preserved in the existing monuments of the Latin language. in explodo. : Clodius for Claudius .VOWEL CHANGES. singular of ^-sterns. dueo. defrudo for *defraudo. So also probably dius in nudiustertius. from -oi. but in our earliest Latin inscription -oi. au regularly became e. These. 2. Original ou became u directly. 4123) we have perhaps a dative in viz.g. remained unaccented. oi. more commonly shortened the element. 85.

cuppa. ' cludo for claudo. A group of some twenty words exhibits shortening of fol- an accented long vowel. intel- thus replacing the regular *appito. .102 THE LATIN SOUNDS. following sections.g. but sexcenti (Re. muccus. *collico. exquaero. much later than the operation of the laws above referred Sometimes the form taken by a verb e. 4). where phonetic laws would demand *exiqud. § also sescenti phonetic form. littera. with compensatory doubling of the lowing consonant. The phonetic form (the traduco..e. trdnsduco as an illustration of Reis composition. appeto. . i. *revico. succus. plied for pleco after implied. etc.composition). are in reality not result of These apparent due to any violation of the i. 87. The principles laid down in the foregoing sections for the change of vowels and diphthongs in the (originally) unac- cented syllables of compounds often seem to be violated. law. interrogo. Shortening of Long Vowels. intelligo. colloco. gluttus. with appeto.g. exquiro. in composition occurs instead of the original form. Other instances of the same kind are exaequo.' 3. after includo. expeto. etc. parricida. *expito. 1. are also naturally to. viz. but are the 'Re-composition/ felt the identity of the simple verb it was so keenly that the language restored in the compound. gluttire. but also in connection with many of the consonantal changes enumerated in the Cf. bacca. etc. This process may be called De-composition. Cf. sus. 105. lego. Juppiter (for earlier Jupiter) . e. conclusus. hallucinari. intellegd. 88. which also occurs. 1). etc. Re-composition and De-composition manifest themselves not only in connection with vocalic changes. conclaurevoco. Thus neglego occur where the law demands irregularities *appito. intelligo. Re-composition and De-composition. negligo. *interrigo (§ 76. Many compound words 2.

1). 89. etc. which first . and in the 3. *taceo / deorsu??i from (cf. The orthography of the Augustan Age has two consonants. e. Often the consonantal group contains other consonants before the s. mo do.g. strenna.g. sWi. junxi (cf-jungo). an s before a voiced consonant is often dropped with lengthening of a preceding short vowel. functus.VOWEL CHANGES. disappear (in accordance with for § 105. -dr. . e.e.. cedo. it for *tens?no .g. for those cases in which a long vowel has developed before ncs (J. Nominative endings -ter. *deorsum desum. and -er of Passive forms . braccae. The vowel was regularly shortened in final syllables in m and /. fe??io dla for *acsla remus *retsmos . permanent shortening of the ultima. deeram d'efia). egenus for *egesnos. Many of these words often appear in Mss. from rel *pled. fide'i from Jidel . -dr. 103 bucca. mihi. from ra deesse.g. pled. and inscriptions. stellio. pilleus.' -11s A short vowel followed by at the end of a word is lengthened with disappearance of the 3. futtilis. often shortened . 2. has been given to this process. ') The name of ' Breves Breviantes shorts shortening 4. is designated 'compensatory lengthening. puppa. for an omitted consonant. is In the interior of words a long vowel e. *si-sd-o. giv' citd.g. sido for e. adieus. e. mutfire. before a vowel. b. appears before c. and where n discoiiived for *con-coiiived. This lengthening of the short vowel in compensation. a single consonant . 2. Compensatory Lengthening. -tor. scdla for *scantsla 1.g. ing mVii. tibi. n. cotiubo for co-snubo (§ 104. also in the original -or. helluo. -dl. stuppa. cedo. Messalla. e. texts.g. In accented syllables. 2). as were. Words of original iambic form. allium.nx). -sor. querela for *queresla. da??ima. -or. equds for *equons. e. (' modo. taceo. written with that represents the earlier spelling. 1. often suffered tibi. . Compensatory lengthening is also claimed by many scholars net. .

e. but possibly we should recognize the assimilation of a long vowel in filius. Assimilation mainly restricted to short vowels. . saeculmn the colloquial yet the original forms continued in use in e. to each other in suc- cessive syllables. nisi for *nesi . lit.' for *fe-lius. rutundus (chiefly in poetry) for ro fundus . stabulum. ac tot (for (for atque). which become . in vilulus. Aesculapius CAcrK\r)7n6s) mina (/avS) . In early Latin a short vowel following an accented syllable Illustrations of this are : was often dropped. memordi . see § ioo. . and several ) words borrowed from the Greek. in suspicio for *suspecio (protracted form of root spec-) subtilis for *subtelis {tela). 92. *acrs. *agr. is toiondi for tetondi . 91. root dliei- (see . auceps for *aviceps . Vowels are occasionally assimilated e. Apocope. quot. 93.g. . -tulo-. Further examples are famulus (for */amlos) (early Latin) . -bulo-. nihil for *nehil. Syncope etc. Final e and t often disappear. *agrs. 90. .g. for momordt etc. e. 'suckling. aut (for *auti). officina for * op(J)Jicina . pupugi pepugi . Assimilation of Vowels. language and in poetry. sitic In the immediate environment of a liquid or nasal. anceps for amb{f)-ceps. valde for valid e . *acr. -bio-. in final syllables is seen in ager for *agr(o)s. -culo-.g. i. ardor for *aridor . . drachuma (Sporty/. Thus.g. vinclum. and in reduplicated perfects. a para- vowel sometimes develops. prudens for *prov(i)dens .g. §86). reddo for re-d(i)do aetas for aevitas . populus for poplus e. Parasitic Vowels. e. et (for *eti . tugurium *tegurium {tego) purpura for for -n-opcpvpa . en). nee (for neque). Syncope. auspex for *avispex . saeclum.104 THE LATIN SOUNDS.g. and acer for acris. -do-. soboles for suboles for . etc. Gr.. especially in the suffixes -tlo-.??).

1. pp. to -e. g. Lindsay.) . cavere. 94. *quoti. qui. etc. and Slavic as sibilants. cruor. lego. dicere. 169-336. i. sequor . decern. Grammatik?. unguen. There are three series of ' k and ^--sounds in Indo-EuroPalatals/ ' pean. grus. Handbtuh der Laut. argentum. chap. -que . designated respectively as Velars. most languages in Sanskrit g (in Latin regularly as k (V).g. euro) for *j?/^<? {cf. gelu. ager.#£ CONSONANTS. appears as cf. . g. Velars : qu for c appears in queror. sk. The Mutes. and develop languages as plain gutturals. Latitlehre.. calcar -1 for *calcari. e. stinguo. e. ob for *obi and in neuter /-stems animal for *animali. see r. . for an original *apo (Gr. genu.e. (cf. queo. stercus (cf. they have a parasitic the k or g. Language. and sub § 96. e. g. rarely as q s. c. Final o disappears in ab. On the change of/ to <£. Lateinische L.' and l Labio- The Palatals were formed by approximating the tongue to the roof of the mouth.und Fon?ienlehre. gu for g. Grtmdriss2 . The in all Velars were formed further back in the k. Gr. sequor). §§42-69.atei?tischen pp. q. arcus 1 arquitenens) -lictus (cf -linquo). labialization. for But dissyllabic z-stems change 2.g. ago. Stolz. socer . The Labio-Velars develop with w-sound after gic. c. mare *mari. §§ 277-532 When Latin See in general iv. sterquiliniuni). cf. canere : augeo. socius (for *soquius . Latin represents these sounds respectively by qu and 2. Examples of the : different Gutturals are : Palatals centwn.' Velars.g. *toti . etc. genus. throat. 232— 291 Sommer. toti-dem) . as k. but never . They developed in . . 105 .THE MUTES. Lateinische . The labial element is sometimes entirely lost so that qu . Brugmann. 1 The Palatal and Guttural Mutes. -linqiw . t»7rd). . 1. Labio-Velars quis.

segmentum for The Dental Mutes. b may be an original p by assimilation *quequo. op. but becomes / in a . The Labial Mutes. -en- and -cm. 1. see 183. Skr. cf. sup-er. d. e. . By loss of the . -tlo-. Sometimes subsequently (by dissimilation. (g)venlre. 3. vowel these became *ap. lavacrum *lavatlom quadraginfa.g. p and 96. ab duce.132. *op-i (in Ablaut relaviro). quadr- probably represents a different word . By assimilation also. que .106 initial. an original *penque first became quin- and *pequo became . t 1. In bibo cf. t. supra) ap- and op. lacrnma for dacruma (preserved in Ennius) dingua (helped perhaps by association with § lingua for early in the folk-consciousness . sub. *op.are probably be recognized in aperio and operio . etc. pibami. sub decessu. salig- nus from salix (root *sec-mentum (sec-o). then coquo.e. § no) developed to for *lavaclom. a preceding syllable in had /. e. ab.g. *supo {cf. *sup to {cf. Gr. 'lick') . (g)vorare.occasionally develop salic-) . e.g. gv) loses the g and becomes as v. this saeclum (saeculuni) for *saetlom -do-cro-. tion to Gr. . gn and gm. {g)vivos. / regularly appears as c. but in the Indo-European suffix became e. dignus for *dec-nus . a) . THE LATIN SOUNDS. when . ob. § 64. few words. Gr. quadringenfi. vinclum. b. whence the forms with the initial b ultimately for became predominant. solium for *sod-ium (Ablaut of sed- see 64. d has not developed from § / . p regularly remains unchanged. d is regularly retained. e7n final .g. t. b has developed from an The original forms of these words were *apo (Gr. 95. for *piatlom. but in the prepositions earlier p.g. and sup regularly became by partial assimilation. piaclum (whence piaculum) . e.g. ob delicto. but before voiced consonants the b p of ap. 8d(f)vjp). gu {i. see e. a) levir for *devir (dialectal (?) for *laivir . airo). lingere.

particularly initial b. see 90- . dh for becomes § stabulum (with -bulum -blum . . for */ue#ios) fire- place. ambo *ambho . ffyrffiC) . 2. On the late develop- ment of intervocalic b to a spirant. In the Indo-European parent-speech the aspirates were i. and as- ph. (root oudh. THE MUTES. e. <f>r)y6s) fd-ri (root bha. . velar. (for *dhumos. eri-brum. in Latin.g. . e. see § 16. . Qr)-\v%) forum (root dhor-). medius (for aedes. Gr. 6p<£avos) mor-bus (suffix -bho-). ipv$po<s) and in the suffixes -bro- (for -dhro-. an environing . aWw. . th. b) <f>vw) fer-o (root bher- Gr. Indo-European bh became a) : /at the beginning of words. (root tf/V/A.g. Examples are baculum. Tiber . Gr. Gr. 2. ' *??iedhios cf. almost exclusively voiced. is the descendant of Indo-European in by no means a frequent sound Latin. : These voiced pirates developed in Latin as follows 1. balbus.fdgus (for *bhagos . orbus (root orbh- Gr. bh.g. b. Gr. if tains r. fu-i (root bhu- Gr. ovOap) rubro- (root rudhro- Gr. -OXo-). Qv/xos) femina (root dhei- Gr. Indo-European dh became a) : f'at the beginning of words. .g. -Opo-). Gr. (for b in the interior of words. e. brevis . 2.' hearth .g. dh. ') . Gr. lubricus. labio-velar) . ch were extremely rare. . e. a/xcfMo) . syllable con. e. ^w). suffix -dhlo- (Gr.g. fumus . e./ Gr.e. b) Usually ^ . as 107 b. /xeWos ' e.g. Gr. ' in the interior of words. .. The Indo-European Aspirates 97. l burn viduus (root vidh-) <:) <£ but in the interior of words. / in Similarly before the Indo-European b. labrum. gh (both palatal.

h. formus (for *ghormos). /. A. THE LATIN SOUNDS. B. 1. ges-si. pignosa. original s regularly became r between (cf. as regards phonetic changes. §23. fu-ndo (root gheu-). . when infix initial. 2) gu after /z).C.g. e. : when words. e. Spirants. C. sometimes seems to occur before v.g.g. e.g. j-. hiems (root ghim. and labio-velar gh.— 108 3. a) h. nivis. (root or between vowels in the interior of . But . vowels (' An {cf. 1) f. dheigh-. nivi. and often s to r This change of larva (root las-). e. <?. Gr. portarum for *portasom. vowels. anser (root gha?is-) has lost the h . (root The 98.£-. etc. see e.g. velar. (s)m'gh-. Here we must distinguish palatal. /before u.z. Velar gh. holus ghol) vehd (root initial vegh-) . ^ci/aw) . with the infix n) c) gramen (root ghra-). ninguit (root with 3) z> between snigh-). pre-hendo (root ghend-) gra- dior (for *ghrad-). g before r. This became initial e. earlier forms. Jingo (root b) g before and after consonants .g. j is the most important of the spirants. Labio-velar gh becomes. etc. Rhotacisni''^). e.g. . Indo-European gh. This change took place It within the historical period of the language. but hostis (for *ghostis) . ger-o for *ges-o ges-tus) . grammarians retained the tradition of the such words as arbosem.g. temporis for *tempos-is {cf.. Palatal gh. dirimo for *dis-emd temples') . had been conBut the summated before cite the close of the fourth century B. e. distingiw) . a) Velar gh becomes regularly h.

3. basium. Compounds. etc. The Liquids as Consonants. (for cf. so that rhotacism . h. . later. the r resulting from rhotacism sometimes crept e. r. suasi for suassi {i. etc. *mtt-si) . ties. and occur occasionally in inscriptions much e. (originally honos) after honoris. honor etc. fissus. in By analogy. scisstis. 2.THE this is LIQUIDS. it is Wherever s appears between vowels in the classical language usually a result of the reduction of ss after a long vowel or e. of quasi. is IO9 secondary.e.).g. 20). cf.g. -do. the suffixes. causa for caussa. *caera?'ies. 5.. 6. miser. v in such cases the oped from *las-u-a).e. *suadsi) . order to avoid % mirer. cism.g. with double ss were current in Cicero's day 7. 99. Mener-u-a *Menes-u-a) la-ru-a and Mine-ru-a are both found in Plautus. -cro. haesi (for haes-si). 4. having develis only apparent u. fus-cus) . desino. see § 23. -ari-. the Latin liquids exhibit few peculiariis Their most important feature a tendency toward dissimir. into the Nominative from the oblique cases. For the omission of the spirant The Liquids. 1.for -ali-. i. miser and caesaries as a result of dissimilation (§ no). often show intervocalic s after the e. . lation. Lar-es (for Lases) (for fur-u-os (for *ftis-u-os .g. desilio. nisi. The forms Quintilian. after short vowels ss was. 1). /.g. po situs (after situs) . a diphthong. Possibly the s was retained in i. mm for missi (i. as a result of which / changes to or r to /. In a few cases intervocalic s appears to have resisted rhotae. of course. course. always retained. {cf. analogy of the simple words of which they are compounded. As consonants.(from see § 95. caesaries. to avoid the in repetition of / or r in successive syllables. regular : lar-u-a .e. Examples are seen -tlo. honori (originally *honosis.

vel-lus latus * flatus § 104. falx 2. sounds in &?// (written bottle) . root . became reduced to the weak grade (see e or 0) § 64. b). Gr. cord-is (for *crd-) cornu (for crn-). ' flesh ' (for *cr-o.g. from root cer-. . al. cerv-ix) . Tretpw. In some words this or seems to have developed to ur. e. root flee-.g. root per. from root . as la or cf. English has these etc. 76. the / or r (by the disappearance of the became sonant. cf.' Sometimes r r's in . in their strong grades. praestigiae for praestrigiae (praestringo) sempi- ternus for *sempe(r)-ternus. disappears as a result of the tendency to avoid two succes- sive syllables. Before vowels r developed as ar.g. Sometimes the sonant / was long (i. endowed with These : vocalic character. . contained ol. the sonant r was sometimes long in quane. which. 100. er. b). Indo-European sonant 1. porta (for *pr-fd.g.g. centr (written centre). *cl-tos . root eel-). . card. 1.e. 110 e. usually indicated by r. liquids developed in Latin as follows ol. cf Gr.e. * viand) for *vl-nd.g. stratus (for *sff-tos root ster. /developed regularly tollo.g. e.' r developed regularly as or. i. root cerv1 curvus cer-.. exemplaris (to avoid * exemplalis) is \ lucrum (to avoid *luclum). 'cut'). Ketpo).e. for *Kepia)) e. *tol-no . in quantity and then devel- oped vel. i. /. Like the sonant tity. . pulsus (for an Indo-Eur. e. /.in sterno) cratis (for *cr-tis). cf. armus (ioxfrnos). e. (for */bc. 'the curving tool. root pel-) -cultus in oc-cultus (for an Indoal. . whenever roots el.g. (for *tl-no. lana (i.e. for *7rep-iw) . e. e. / developed as palea for *pl-ea. as which often became ul (§ tel-) . root cut ' .. 'sky-blue.g. THE LATIN SOUNDS. (*crz'os. or. from root tel-. The Liquids as Sonants. *pl-tos Eur. mflec-to). So caeruleus for *caeluleics {caelum). It then developed as ra or ar. Before vowels. curtus (for *cr-tos. . In the Indo-European parent-speech. 1 a).

was originally *agros by Syncope (see § 92) *agros became *agrs. Ill This In certain instances a sonant r arose in Latin sonant r developed differently from the Indo-European r above described. — root . venid for %gemjd (with labio-velar g. e. Other instances of the same change are libertas for *libr-tas (root libro-). These Indo-European sonant nasals developed in Latin (for regularly as em and en. ager. el. LIQUIDS. b). from agro-. *ager-lus for *dgr-lus. m became n. The Nasals as Sonants.e. Similarly. regularly becoming er. in their strong grade. n. English has these sounds in butn (written buttoii).g.e. endowed with character. The Nasals as Consonants. § 75. itself. As consonants the Latin nasals exhibit few peculiarities. for *catl-lus. catel-lus. om . m. and n before dentals.THE 3. on. § 94. In the Indo-European parent-speech. by syncope for *catlo- The Nasals. i. e. became vocalic reduced to the weak grade (see e or 0) § 64. qnonia?n for *quoi7ijam. septem (for *septni) . decern . whenever roots en.g. cri-) . incertus for *incrtus (from *incritos. — root m-) Latin agellus. m to disappear before labials. which. 1. m or n (by the dis- appearance of the became sonant. e. 2. contained em. gular of r^-stems. 2. Thus in the Nominative Sin. 101. etc. whence by assimilation er. for example. *agr(r). and by development of r to in -ris ager. usually indicated by m. — secerno for *secrnd (from *secrino. n. *acrs.g. Thus acris gave first whence acer. the i. acerbus for *dcr-bus. 102. — § 75. 2. 1. Similarly sonant / sometimes arose secondarily in and developed as lus (§ 92). Before j. rhythin. then *acr. On the tendency of § 20. see 2-4. 2) . stems developed an er in the Nominative Singular.

for *ntae. niilitm.g. Intervocalic v also often disappears. dom-ns) The Semi-vowels 103. medius for *medjos. abluo for *ablavd denuo for de novo . v regularly disappeared.g. antae n is sometimes long. . ' from root dem-. e. capio for *capjo. 5. etc. j. from trejes . An instance of ' m is perhaps seen in (d)materies (for *dmteries. and then regularly develops . e. 112 *decm) ped-em. latrina for *la(v)atrina . . for *tre-es. traction of the vowels tid.g. owing to their frequent enclitic (unaccented) use.g. gna-tus {{or *gn-tos root gen-) . av and ov in unaccented . THE LATIN SOUNDS. venio for *venjo 3. accompanied by concontio for co{v)en. § Like the liquid sonants (see ioo. somnus for *sop- nus from *svop-nos (earlier *svep-nos) soror for *sosor (§ 98. cf. for -mn. impluo Hmplbvo . suns and tuus for earlier sovos and tovos. for *pedm. Before 0. tres Primitive intervocalic j regularly disappeared. 1).g.. 2. build . e. syllables regularly for became u. etc.g. 2) the nasal sonant as na. e. sudor for *soidos from *svoidos coenom for *quoinom . e. following a consonant. which it separated.. v. moneo. in- duo for *indovo . niilitem. riomen. When . . 1. jucundus for ju(v)icundus all junior for *juvenior.g. . gna-rus (for *gn-ros). . 4) . etc. secundus for *sequondus 73. v. i. nolo {or *no{v)olo .. e. Yet this law does not affect instances of intervocalic 4. § . .e. from *svos-or (earlier *svesor). for *monejo. primitive / became i. memento for *tne-mn-tod. tentus for *tn-tos (root ten-) and in the suffix -men 2. socrus for *svocrus (from *svecrus .

dvoiiorutn are preserved in inscriptions. 2) /in latus lor *tlatus (root (cf. Early Latin still has stlocus {e.: : : CONSONANT CHANGES. .g. ^/ in Ju-piter for * Djeupater Gr. . stor-. CIL. nix (for *sninguit.t 3) g in /<2<r for *gtact . §§ 62-69 5 Lateinische Lautlehre. for *slego ' mat ') . for *storus ' (root . 104. of two winters. crreyco) - further. Lateinische Grammatiffi. a) Thus lost Mute 1) p in tilia for *ptilia (Gr. pp. Zeu's for *Aieus). c) 2. in /zj*. locus. 113 CONSONANT CHANGES} Initial Combinations. *snix) . Gr. broad. i. bonus and (earlier ^> ' . mutes ster-no. (cf. becomes £*j £ in bellum (and derivatives) cf. v. . while stlis is regu- larly used in the phrase Xviri stlitibus judicandis. tego (cf. yaAaKTo?). : torus stor-ea. sternuo for *psternuo. Trrekza) . 1. nubo for *snubo. (for *comnomeii). 295-334. 6. £• By analogy cognomen takes a b) s lost 1) before cf. also in . in lubricus for *s lubricus . for gnattcs notus for gnotus yet the £ appears in the e. 7381) and stlatus. and as 1 See especially Stolz. in . Initial consonant combinations often drop the first consonant. latus. stlocus. archaic language and in compounds.S . stlatus. (for ignotus *ingnotus) .r&r-.' for J-//7. St? for *S/:is) bimus for *dvi-him-us.' The early forms dvel- lum.g. tz<z/z/. Cf 2) also Quintilian. radix for *vradix. cognatus (for *con-griatus). dfr- v lost in /### for *vlana . mirus for *smirus . tel-) . : Before liquids and nasals ninguit. 4.

Gr. — i. biniestris for *bimens-tris {cf. one or more suscipio for *subs. tortus for *torctus ursus for *urcsus spars! for *spargsi cere .g. fulmentum fulc-mentum .form *es/i'go . is Often such simplification merely preliminary to further si.g. e. came to be used separately. preposition e as a ' of ex arose in this way. ' the Re-composition ' (§ 87. Where two owing of three consonants in a group are a mute and a liquid. agnosco for adgnosco. *quinctus . Compound Consonant Groups. sn e. The eligo. Com' pensatory lengthening (§89) then takes place. *pislum by. to facility of pronunciation. were regularly dropped in the formative period of the language to facilitate . suesco for *suedsco . In the case of groups of three or more consonants. mor- *pinslum. *ecsnormis.g. . pronunciation. des (= These are is archaic or dialectal. with with dimus. — regularly so when the groups . arise. a classical word. bd-. *a/snus . Here also belong such compound forms as ignosco for *ingridsco . . we find also forms bes).114 THE LATIN SOUNDS. traduco for transduco. So is also tra. *as/a. but dims. diennium. Simplification of in the Interior of Words. ala for *acsla. .' for pihwi. poscere for spores. enormis for estab- *ecs/igo.arose. *trasduco. illustris . ostendo for *obs-tendo disco . archaisms in the poets. e. apparently for *dvei-ros. *urc-na urc-eus). ultus for *ulctns . Examples are : cipio asporto for *abs-porto {cf.g. arsi for *ardsi . pastus for *pasctus mulsi for *mulg-si . simplification does not . Consonant Changes 105. . qiiintus for . Tuscus for *Turscus for Umbrian Turskwri) urna for alnus for {cf. . ecferri for *ecs(ex)ferrz . ixiy-wfxi) for *di-dc-sco . result of 3. from the foregoing e. misceo for for *mig-sceo Hllucstris . ' sm. cognosco for *co?igndsco 2. after e became Transduco lished in compounds. tar. qtiernus for *querc-nus. *esnormis it . 3). changes. By the side of forms roots.

§ 98. to analogy. e. nlX.g. see sometimes which was later simplified to in adjec- tives in -osus. for pm nm 11s to mm.g. see § 92. juss us for *jud-sus (root judh-) ds to ss. e.g. etc. e. ss. for *opficina. 'sprout' (root £<?#-). ullus for *unlus. suggerd. *unulus . s. progressive when 2. to pp. trans- much later than the formative period of the language. § 92. e. sit-is) quassl for *quatsi. Other groups easy of pronunciasculps'i. to ss. : occurro. suffero. I15 astrum. serpsl.g.e. {cf. siccus for *sit-cus (cf. 106. to to cc.formosus. first. planxi.g. e. though these may be due ports. assimilated to the By be regressive assimilation the following changes take place to ee. dl to //. CONSONANT CHANGES.g. e. apporfo. are not to be regarded as exceptions. . to e.e. e. cc. Assimilation. e. accurrd. sella lapillus (*lapid-lus). dg to gg. i. The earlier form was formonsus. (*sed-la) . 3) {cf. e. mercennarius for *merced-narius.. stella for agellus for *ager-lus (see § 100. aggero. .g.g.g. e. sometimes preserved. i. whence formossus rl to //.g.g. antrum. i. ff. paullus (classical paulus) for *paur-lus Gr.g.g. 2). e.g.. dc to supportd. e.g. tion are e. gemma for *gen-ma. e. bg to bf to gg.g. dn dp tc ts to nn. e.g. take place. e. Assimilation is is designated as ' regressive' ' when the ' of two consonants the second is assimilated to the second.g.g. being Compounds like transcribo. officina e. mm. e.g. . *sler-la .e. pf'to ff. summits *supmus. e.o II. first 1. *opificina. -navpoi). bp to pp.

c) scrip-si for The labial mutes p and b are changed e. the Id remains unchanged.g. tial. owing to the influence of the following e. ac-tum (for *ag-tum) *scribsi. prossus.g. THE LATIN SOUNDS.g. Partial Assimilation.' Metathesis. By //. somnus . torr~ere for *tors-ere. progressive assimilation the following changes occur e. centum . b) for Samnium Sab-nium 'opposite SabinT) antemnae ( *ant-ap-nae .g. . generally remained unchanged. b) A voiced mute may become voiceless before a following . prdsus for prdrsus (i. : Id to percelld for *perceldo. e.as a separate form of the preposition com-.' — hence yards..g. or a dental nasal may become mute. Il6 3. pando and tendd for *te-tn-o (reduplicated present). rs. 2. In to //. primitive Id. for *sop-nus (earlier for lit. pellis for *pelnis . for example. fastenings. unda for *ud-na. Secondary 1) for rtt. in Metathesis or transposition for is perhaps to be recognized for *pat-rid . in valde (— . to the correspond- ing nasals before n.g. *cemtum . for *velse . not affected by change. rs to rr. velle to //.g. e. In resulting from Syncope (§ 92). arose con. e. but sometimes became proversus) 4.e. in the colloquial language such an rs ss or s. . *svep-nos {cf. ferre for *fer-se . § 104. etc. as in versus for *verttos (see § 108. is as in ulna for *ulena this Is volnus for *vol-inus. facillumus for *facilsumus.g. valid e § 92). Assimilation affects only a . /undo *fud-no . .. 107. ventum for *vemtum whence (root guem-) con-tend o for *com-tendo. e. e. voiceless sound. — Sometimes assimilation is only par- Thus a) : A labial nasal may become for dental. labial.

earlier divissus. passus for *pat-tus. see § 104. though hiemps in attested occasionally good Mss. b. 2). but has etc. pulsus. contempsl. muliebris for . s has not developed phonetically. for *uttus . 11/ An original dt or tt became ss. fixus. i. ussus. t/i). then to whence br. claustrum for * claud-trum . e. dt. for *dii idtus.g. mulier-is for *mulies-is fibra for *fs-ra cf. Examfor ples are sobrinus for *sosr-~inus {*sosr-. sessus for *sed-tus .g. first from sr to = Eng. i. e. earlier form . fisus. Such a p developed also between ~emptus m and s in siimps'i. for *funesris funes-tus) § 98. 3. n. In such forms as lapsus.g. 108. from % sosor. exemplum for *exemlom templum for *tem-lom. see § 89. d. 4. . . diznsus. combined with lengthening of a preceding short vowel. Other Consonant Changes. these forms belong to a period in which the change of 2. tt to ss was no longer operative. g. cette cedd). 1) . For the disappearance of s before /. This phenomenon apparently was conis fined to accented syllables. attendd . s in After a long vowel or diphthong such an ss became (§ the Augustan era. The steps in this change were //-. . . m. In syncopated for *cedate forms and compounds. though retained in Cicero's time usus. An : original -srf>r {fi became br. e.filum for *fis-lom. and /. and between m and / in and contemptus. e. simply been borrowed from words like sessus.g. p developed. earlier i 98. 2 b) tenebrae for *tenesrae (cf. pedestris for *pedettris. membrum *memsrom . tt. dt simply became (cf.e. a parasitic Between m . r. of soror . nexus (= nec-sus).CONSONANT CHANGES. funebris *muliesris (cf. e.g. followed by r an original dt or tt When became st (instead of ss).

-nds. 4. Groups of two consonants plified. 3. ( thou art . is os for *ost . Iwfert. the existence of Latin as a separate language. 7-ex. Final -nx. mel for *melt.g. general principle see § 27) b) / is seen in final ps and x. far for *farr. After a long vowel or a diphthong. which latter appears in seditio. e. but changed after the . thus as for *ass so/el for . volt. Geminated consonants (cf. 3) yet probable that gemi(for *hodc). est. merx.g. cor for *cord. so fai'r.g. i. lac for *lact. -rts. Gnaivo d . final etc. Examples are e. -rx are per- lanx. By dropping the first.g. .g. nated consonants were spoken in these words. also certain praeda praedad. as-sis) . Gnaivo e. . disappeared prior to e. fron(d)s. urbs (bs = ps . 4. *fell. 2. lex. ops. *fars (§ 106. as agros for *agrons turris for *turrins.z-steiris see § 98. ' this last is the regular form in Plautus. -Its lost the /. but disappeared toward the close of the archaic period. d is found in early inscriptions. Consonant Changes at the End of Words. fell. *fels (§ 106. etc. Final -nts. pul(t)s. — at the end of a word are sim- a) By dropping the second.g. concor(d)s. . falx. ar(t)s.Il8 THE LATIN SOUNDS. and in final syllables in -ns.g. mitted. are not written at the end of a word . 3) . e. supra. e. ess. Adverbs and Prepositions. pro. analogy of the Final r arising by rhotacism in the oblique cases n in the Nominative Singular of . pes for *peds .g. ass. mon{f)s. -Ix. in homo for *hom-o{n)\ *caro(/l).e. it is i. e. : Ablatives Singular of for the for first and second declension. the final consonant retained after the analogy of agit. etc.for prod-.g. 109. is Final s does not become r phonetically. e. miles for *mzlets . i.e. So also se. A regular exception to the e. which latter appears in prodesse. -rds.for sed-. extra. Single consonants are usually retained.hocc not hoc .

110. the for *denfitio syllable was often dropped. . d~ebi- lifare for * debilitatare . same consonant.9 CONSONANT CHANGES.g. . first when two syllables began with the e. calamifosus for * calamifatosus for *fiortitoriu7n . dentio portorium veiieficus for *veneni- ficus . . . voluntarius for *voluntatarius semodius for *semi-modius. 1 1 By a natural tendency. Disappearance of Syllables by Dissimilation.

The the Nominative to the Accusative in <?-stems. chaps.. /era.g. ignis : Possibly the law of Breves Breviantes (§ 88. Brugmann. e. Stolz. etc. and /-stems might easily have led to such shortening. *fera. viz. ii. . 120 . a. §§ 184-404. by which */uga. — 1. 2). The original Nominative Sin- had * porta. Language.. Som- mer. -a. 111. §§ 179-265. the following pro- portional representations servos friictus : servom \ : fructum Tgnim \ : : porta : portam. Cf.: CHAPTER VII. owing to the influence of the Accusative where *-am relation of regularly became shortened to -am (§ 88. The weak grade of a. 3). led to the extension of -a for -a to these influences final a. regularly became fuga. in general: v. Lindsay. INFLECTIONS. Elsewhere the suffix remained 112. But -a was shortened to -a before the Possibly this shortening was Singular. a 66). z/-stems. to rota. etc. DECLENSION OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES} A. Grundriss. Nominatives. *rotd. Handbtuh der Lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre. occurred in the Vocative Singular. and vi.Stems. all Either one or both of may have operated produce the shortening of 1 See. (§ (§ In the Indo-European parent-speech there was Ablaut 62) in the suffix of ^-sterns. gular Nominative Singular. Latin §§ 75-88. beginning of the historical period. Lateinische Grammatik % .

e. Greek. vias (Enn. The This Genitive Singular in -ae goes back to an earlier -at (dissyllabic).) . the different forms representing Ablaut the result. etc. so camerata. m. 2. choice. — The ending of the Genitive Singular Indo-European was (§ 64.' e. ai. served in familias.. termination -at apparently arose by appending the -1 Genitive termination porta-i. familias. meant company of students. as -s. In the case of ^-sterns. 121 of Masculine 5-stems.g... e. ae. 'roomful of comrades. This termination appears in but a few Latin words. Dative Singular./. the nification . — The Indo-European case-ending of the But this Dative Singular was had already in the Indo-Euro- . -os. Thus vcavids.. justice (' Cf. by change of gender. probably. which is found in the poets as late as the Augustan Age. also English justice (the quality) and magistrate'). Whether at became aeby regular phonetic processes./.' later ' comrade ' (German Kamerad). pre- in the combinations pater familias.' but subsequently became individualized to mean 'a student' (German so further ' Bursche) . cf. of the ^-sterns directly to the stem. -ai. -775. mater is but elsewhere archaic. The mediaeval Latin word bursa.. Ann. ' The Latin ' ' has developed a ' number optio. being appended to indicate the Masculine many Greek Masculines in -ds. agricola. a).g. centurion's assistant/ from Other languages exhibit this same f. farmer (probably originally farming ' ') . 115. 'a youth.g. 'youth' sig- (abstract). e. 113. the casea.of the ending was -s.' -s probably goes back to a lost *veavCa. also covers these two senses.g. AS TENS. of varying accentual con- ditions of the parent-speech. selection. -es. which united with the stem and gave It is -as. 421 Vahl. is or under the influence of the Dative and Locative ending uncertain. forfunas (Naevius) 114. phenomenon. optio. Spanish justicia. in Genitive Singular.

Theoretically. praidad. praida. e. became predominant. i. 64 sententiad. and an ante-vocalic form.g. In the noun-declension. Ablative Singular. to 5-stems also.122 INFLE C TIONS. — The Indo-European case-ending of the Ablative Singular seems to have been d with some preceding this vowel. but it generally thought that such Ablatives were probably archaistic at that time. in actual use represents this original forma- merely the Nominative employed in Vocative function cannot be determined. final d when following a long vowel regularly disappeared. 118. is in- scriptions. form. a while two forms must have existed. final *portam. — There was no case-ending in the Vocative Singular of ^-sterns in the Indo-European parent-speech. form early But the ante-consonantal before 200 b. pro80. Locative Singular. CIL. is CIL. Before an initial consonant. 63. -ae (§§ 86 Accusative Singular.. 8. combining with the preserved in early i. These inscriptions belong to the period of Plautus . of the stem. -ad. The Vocative simply had Whether the Vocative tion or is the weak form a of the suffix a (§ in). 1). -ad. — probably Locative 119. 117. *-ai. — The -1. whence successively -at. praidad. etc. beginning of the historical period (§ ZZ.e. -ed. but the vowel in all syllables in m had probably become shortened before the 2). -m in Indo- European.c. final -a of the stem to produce which . or -od. pean parent-speech contracted with the ducing 116. therefore. 17. Vocative Singular. for — an ante-consonantal etc. final -a . i. This in combination with -a of the stem must have given a primitive Latin *-am. — The case-ending was e.g. 196. case-ending of the Singular in Indo-European was In -^-sterns this combined . case-ending belonged In Latin in it Indo-European exclusively was transferred to the ^-sterns (see § 130).

A- STEMS.
with -a of the stem to produce
-at,

123
a long diphthong (§ 86),
as in the case

which then became shortened to
of the Dative (§ 115). 120.

-at, later -ae, just

Nominative and Vocative Plural.

— The
must

original

case-

ending of the Nominative Plural in Indo-European was
nouns.

-es for all

In the case of ^-sterns,

this

-es

early have conis

tracted with final -a of the stem to *-as.

This *-as

the regular

termination of the Nominative Plural of 5-stems in the other
Italic

dialects,

— Oscan,
1

Umbrian,
-as,

etc. ;

but has entirely disapthe termination
-at,
is

peared in Latin.

Instead of
to

we have
*portai.

which goes back
analogical, after the

an

original

This

formation

Nominative Plural of ^-sterns
of ^-sterns
is

in -oi (§ 131).

The Vocative
ployed
121.
in a

Plural

simply the Nominative

em-

Vocative function.
Plural.

Genitive

— The

case-ending

of

the

Genitive
this

Plural in

Indo-European was -dm.

With the -a of the stem

case-ending must have early contracted to *-am, a termination

which has entirely disappeared

from

all

the

Italic

dialects.

Instead of *-am the Latin has -arum, a termination borrowed

from the Genitive Plural of the Pronominal Declension.

This
earlier

-arum
*-asom

is ;

developed by Rhotacism

98.
in

1)

from an
e.g.

compare Homeric Greek forms

-aw,

Oeawv for

Oed(a-)(j)v.

the poets,

The forms ending in -um, which sometimes occur in e.g. caelicolum, Dardanidum, are new formations, posAeneadum (from Aeneades).

sibly in imitation of the <?-stems (§ 132), possibly after the analogy

of such Genitives as
122.

Dative and Ablative Plural.

— The Indo-European parentthe

speech

had no special form
all

for

Ablative

in

the

Plural.
is

The

Ablative Plural, in

languages in which that case occurs,

identical in form with the Dative.
l

The genuine Dative and Ab-

A

few possible vestiges occur in the early language.

1

24

INFLE C TIONS.
5-stems in -abus (on -bus, see
is

lative Plural of

§

144) appears only
e.g.

in a few

words where distinction of sex
etc.

important,

equabus,
-is,

filiabus, libertabus,

Elsewhere we have the termination

which

is

historically

an instrumental formation borrowed from the
of the

tf-stems.

The
was
-ois

termination
(see §

Instrumental
the
-Is

Plural

of the

tf-stems

the termination -ais,

By analogy which regularly became
133).
t

^-sterns created

(see § 80. 2).

Nouns

in

-ia

sometimes contract the
e.g.

with

the

-is

of the
taeniis.

termination to

-is,

Virgil,

Aen.

v.

269,

taenis

for

Words
(for

in ia, e.g.
;

Maia

(the adjective) have
1.

-is, e.g.

Kalendis Mais

Mails)

see § 80.

123.

The Accusative

Plural.

— The case-ending of the Accusa-ns.

tive Plural in

Indo-European was
i.e.

The n disappeared

accord-

ing to § 109. 3,

portas for *portans.

0-Stems.
A. Masculines and Feminines.
124.

In the Indo-European parent-speech there was Ablaut

(§ 70) in the suffix of ^-sterns.

Both forms of the strong grade
in the Vocative
;

occur, e
tive

and

o.

The former appears
and
partially in

and Locathe

Singular,

the Ablative

the latter in

remaining cases.
125.

Nominative Singular.

— This

is

formed by appending

-s

to the stem, e.g. horto-s, later hortus
§

(§ 76. 1).

On

ager, see

100. 3.

126.

Locative and Genitive Singular.

— In

the

Locative Sin-

gular the suffix took the form e (§ 124), which, with the Locative

case-ending

1,

gave by contraction
is still

-ei,

whence

regularly

-1.

The

Locative function
in

apparent in humi,
;

belli,

domi, heri, also
etc.,

town names,

e.g.

Corinthi

and

in quarti, quinti,

in such

expressions as quarti die, quinti die (§ 173).

0- STEMS.
It

125

was formerly thought that the Latin Genitive Singular of o-

stems was a Locative that had taken on a Genitive function.
this position is

But

no longer tenable.
B.C.,

For

in the

Senatus Consultum
ei
I,

de Bacchanalibus of 186

where Indo-European

is

still

regularly written El, the Genitive ending appears as
that
this,

showing
Besides
different

we have a

different formation

from the Locative.
{e.g.

the Genitive Singular of z'<?-stems

imperium)

is

from the Locative.

For while throughout the Republican period
-i,

the Genitive of /^-sterns ends in

the Locative of such stems
is

ends in

-it, e.g.

Brundisti.

The

Genitive, therefore,

probably

distinct in origin

from the Locative, but what the origin of the

Genitive
in

-1 is, is

not clear.

Words

in -eius
3).

formed the Genitive

-el, e.g.

Pompei from Pompeius (§82.

127.
early
-oi.

Dative Singular.

— The

Indo-European case-ending
final o

-at

combined by contraction with
Perhaps we have
this

of the stem, producing
§

(shortened to -oi ;

86) in Numasioi

in our earliest Latin inscription,
torical

CIL.

xiv.

4123.

In the his-

period -oi has

become

o

86).
regular

128.

The Accusative Singular.
to

— The

ending -m

is

appended
(§ 76. 5)-

the

stem in

0,

e.g.

horto-m,

classical

hortum

129.

Vocative Singular.
e.g.

— The stem with the
is

^-suffix serves as

a Vocative,

hort-e

;

there

no case-ending.

Not only proper
-1

nouns in
for -te)

-ius but all

nouns

in -ins regularly

had

(by contraction
fill, Vocatives

in the Vocative Singular.

But barring

from other than proper names are rare.
cally

Forms

in -ie are practi-

unknown, except
Ablative
in

as cited

by the grammarians.
<9-stems
originally

130.

Singular.

were the only

class

of

nouns

Indo-European that
;

had a special Ablative

case-ending

other nouns, so far as they exhibit a special ending

126
for this case,

INFLECTIONS.
have borrowed
it

from

^-sterns.
e,

The form
or
o, i.e.

of this

case-ending
or
-od.

is

d

with a preceding vowel, a,

-ad, -ed,

As

the

case-ending

appears only in contraction, the

vowel cannot be determined.

The stem appears
and
to

in

two forms,

one in

o-

and one

in e- (§ 124), e.g. rtcto-

recfe-.

With the

former of these the case-ending combined

produce *rectdd,
in early Latin,

and with the
e.g.

latter *rected.

Forms with d appear
.

poplicod, facilumed
B.C. in

(= facillime)

Later (probably shortly

before 200
§

the ordinary speech) the
in -e

d

disappeared

;

see

118.

The forms
etc.

became appropriated

as Adverbs,

recte,

facillime,

131.

Nominative and Vocative Plural

The Nominative
-os.

Plural

of <?-stems in Indo-European was originally formed by appending
the case-ending -es to the stem, giving Indo-European

This

termination appears in the other
brian,
etc. ;

Italic dialects,

— Oscan,

Um-

but in Latin the osteins have borrowed the termina-oi.

tion of the Pronominal Declension, viz.

A

tradition of this

appears in pilumnoe, poploe, cited by Festus (p. 205, ed. Miiller).

But

final

oi regularly
is

became

i,

the classical

termination,

e.g.

horfi ; di

common

as the

Nominative-Vocative Plural of deus.

132.

Genitive Plural.

— The
e.g.

original termination

was -dm, the

result of contraction of final o of the

stem and the case-ending

-dm

121).

This termination, shortened to -dm

42.

1),

appears in early Latin,

Romanom, and
words in the
§ 25. 6.
is

in

the form

-um

(§ 76. 5) is also regular in certain

classical period, e.g.

ta/entum, modium, deum,

etc.

(Gr.

a).

The

usual end-

ing -drum

is

of secondary origin, and

formed

after the

analogy

of the Genitive Plural of ^-sterns (§ 121).

133.

Dative and Ablative Plural.
is

— The

so-called Dative

and

Ablative Plural

in reality

an Instrumental.

The Indo-European

;

6-STEMS.
form of the termination was
(§ 86),
§ 122.
-dis.

127
first -dis

This in Latin became

and then
In
;

-eis, -is (§

81. 4), the classical termination.

Cf.

-/^-sterns -its often
;

contracts to
is

-is,

e.g.

conubls for

conubiis

so fills, auspicis

dis

common

as the Dative-Ablative

Plural of deus.

134.

Accusative

Plural.

— The

Indo-European

case-ending

was

-11s.

Latin *horto-ns would represent

the primitive forma-

tion; this

became

horfos ; § 109. 3.

b.

B.

Neuters.
present

135.

In

the

singular

these

no special

peculiarity.
as

The Nominative,
ending, which
is

Accusative,

and Vocative have -m

case-

Indo-European.

136.

The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Plural have
is

-a.

This ending

in all probability identical with that of the
;

NomiThus
'

native Singular of -^-sterns

i.e.

certain Feminine collective nouns
so used syntactically.
'

came
an

to be felt as Plurals

and were
be

original *juga (Latin

juga) meaning
to
felt

collection of yokes

(cf.

German das

Gefoche)

came

as a Plural

and was con-

strued accordingly.

The
still

use of the Singular in Greek with a

Neuter Plural subject, apparently dates from the time when the

Neuter Plural was

a Feminine Singular.

In Latin

this -a

of the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Plural of ^-sterns

was transferred also
%maria,

to consonant,

t-,

and
'

?7-stems (e.g. *nomina,
'

*cornua),

and when (by the
etc.,

Breves Breviantes

law

§ 88. 3) the -a of jnga,

was shortened
stems,

to -a, this shortening

was

extended
etc.

also

to

other

giving

nomina,

maria,

comua,

' Cf. one which regularly -is viz. conventioni j §153. 33. ped-h. and developed pedem for *pedm principem for *principm. e. A.ending necessarily was -m. 1 28 INFLE C TIONS. the appears appended § consonant e. milit-zs.g. final e. case-endings are seen to best advantage in the Nominative and Vocative Singular. Consonant Stems. Masculines and Feminines. airid ( = aere) . probably -ai which regularly became milifi for *nulitai. it is necessary.vs. the Ablative of consonant stems sometimes id. Traces of the ending for -os are seen in early Latin nomin-vs {-us ace. In Latin consonant stems -i the ending -e is the the Indo-European Locative ending ends in (§ 75. The original Mute stems.. consonant in the ways enuprincep-s niiles .. 139. e. 137. 2. 3).g. (§ 102. ped-i for *ped-ai 140. as -em. became sonant . after — The Indo-European case. 1) a consonant. is European case-ending. 141. 2. But after analogy of ?-stems. 138. three -os. -1. case-ending is which combines with the Gr.g. Ablative Singular. §§ 32. s. e. Genitive Singular. The Nominative serves also as Vocative. the -es. stems. stated. — perhaps also in opus in the phrase opus est. This becomes according to -os 5). Dative Singular. — Of -s. to § 76. the to a). In the . — The Indo-European case-ending was -i. Castor. ' etc. Ordinarily the Genitive served also as already there was no separate form for the Ablative Singular except in ^-sterns. forms of the Indosecond.g. 73. honor-vs.g. as Ablative. — The . — In the Indo-European parent-speech. -es. Accusative Singular. which. § 341. merated in dux.

to denote place where. — The Indo-European ending -ns became *-ens. 145. where we find such forms as iovdicis. transferred the Nominative sively ( to early The phenomenon is confined almost excluLatin. come under all The ending § appears regularly in nouns of the so-called Third Declension . . -ns (§ 102. Plautine canes. e. —judicis) . 142. Dative and Ablative Plural. and owing -is to the further that many consonant stems took the -z-stems this -is in the Accusative that after (§159. turbines. it happened to by proportional analogy Plural. Owing to the the Nominative and Accusative Plural were regularly (e.g. which This appears (§97. b. was 1). milites) . the regular termination of § 156. but not preserved in Latin. -bos i became The is of -ibus. — The Indo-European end- ing was -bhos. Carthagine.CONSONANT STEMS. § — The regular ending -um is for earlier -om. aitdaci. but soon became -bus (§ 76.). forms are used. -es . 3. Accusative Plural. etc. once or twice in early Latin. etc. e. Nominative Plural was is Greek which cf>v\aK-es). has been borrowed from the z-stems fact that see 154. 1) after a consonant. 1. Indo-European seen in case-ending of -es (e. Lacedaemoni.g. 143. see 121. alike in consonant stems fact Plural. 3. all consonant steins. Nominative and Vocative Plural. the -e To denote place whence.g. prudent!. borrowed from the /-stems. § 88. Genitive Plural. the termination -i has become So also practically universal in (e. 144. indites. town-names. homiriis.g. from -om . 1 29 Ablative Singular of adjectives with consonant stems.g. § This regularly became whence 109. Carthagirfi. felici. Tiburi.. etc. b). -es pedes. etc. the — The -es. 5).

. 1). suffix -on- Thus : The lost (lengthened from -en-. but not in Latin. The weak grade appears Umbrian. shows a trace of the weak grade of the b) viz. e.1 3O INFLE C TIONS. B. gen-er-is. Neuters. had the suffix in early pigneri (Plautus). -o?i-. suffix. 70). are 146. Gen. turb-in-is. temp-or-is (for *temp-os-es) temp-er-e. though Anio(n) Anienis.suffix appears in the adverbs temp-er-i. /.g. actio{ii).g. the -n. Dat. Most words e. Gen. also temp-es-tas. The -ien-. Thus: S-Stems. car-n-is. § 136. The Nominative and Accusative Singular formed with- out case. — Stems formed with the . ord-d(n). Gen. *gen-os. had in certain cases the suffix -es- thus originally Nom. -es- Yet the -es. later gen-us. -os. . have and a weak one. Several formative suffixes originally showed Ablaut (§§ 62. Gen. Car-o{ii). *gen-es-es. Oscan. and show only -on. umb-on-is. e. 70). ord-in-is *ord-en-is. Plural. 2) turb-d(ii). gen-er-'i (§ 98.g.g. . 3) in . suffix -os (-tis) . § 73. which -es- ordinarily declined pignus.ending. 2. suffix -io(ii). §62. 1. Cf.had another form of the strong grade. — The suffixes of many nasal stems originally had Ablaut a) (§§ 62. 1). temp-us. temp-es-tivus.or -en-. and a weak grade Italic -in-.grade. etc. where the original is has been protected by the following Pignus.suffix of the Nomina- tive invaded the oblique cases. For the -a of the Nominative and Accusative Stem-Formation of Consonant Stems. e. (§ umb-o for umb-o{ii) (for 109. § 62) had another strong form. Nasal Stems. gen-us. etc. pignoris. -11-. acti-on-is. etc. strong grade..g. shows ('protracted form'. In some words the e. Latin. see. 147. where as a rule we have only -ien- -ion. in the other languages. *gen-es-ai.

e. sometimes the -nio{n) of the tive NominaIn the for appears throughout. ^-Sterns. e. gene-tr-ix. viz. sermonis. Thus a) Nouns of originally relationship in -ter. /-Stems. -s.g. Sometimes the grade appears in the oblique cases. sermo. — This regularly formed by aplost the i pending e. -mo(n) had -?nen- also the grades -men. 2).g. mater. 3. frater. turri-s. — Some of these originally had Ablaut in the suffix. suffix. pater. Tra-rip-a.and -mn-. /io-mo(n). 1). sponding feminine nouns of agency. /ftuns for -tentio (earlier -tentis . Nominative Singular. etc. ho-min-is.: 1 I-STEMS.g. e. -tor-. has clung quite closely to the original declension -tr- 7ra-Trjp. 2). suffix. cf. statio (earlier *statis . e. fer. the suffix. cf. and (weak form.g. in 148. b) Nouns of agency in -tor originally had three forms of the all suffix. etc. -tr-. ira-rp-os. These -tr- had three forms of the § 62). 2). . -ter represents earlier *-ter (§88.g. is no-men In the oblique cases min- for men-. rio-min-is for *no-men-es (§ 73.. Masculine and Feminine originally z-Stems. Gr. In Latin the form of the suffix has gained the supremacy in the oblique cases. -ventio (earlier *ventis cf. being for earlier *-tor. Gr. e. -ter-. In Latin these have -tor practically been reduced §88. is 149. -mn (§ 102.g. Examples are . These had Ablaut (§§ 62.g. The strong forms of the suffix were -oi-. Ignis. -tor (Nominative -tr-. -1-. Several nouns have . The Greek . appears in the corree. the weak form Many cn-acri? *(3aTL<s) original /-stems have passed over in Latin into the -io{n) class (§ 1470 2. c) 1 3 The suffix . in the Nominative. racus for *rarts). Gr. The weak grade however. to one. b). -tor-. for *oTa-Tis) . 70) -ei-. A. d) Neuters in -men show two forms of the stands for Nominative -men *no-mn. vic-tr-ix. viz.

how- formed an Ablative in : : e. Adjectives. These the however. 152. turri-m. always have 154. 150. Accusative Singular. was no special form for the Ablative Singular of z-stems in Indo-European. has disappeared in Latin. -ai was appended to the stem with the thus giving. in Greek (« = e) *7roAei-es. has -J. — The Indo-European termination seems to have been grade of Genitive -eis. for example. *turrei-ai. e.«s became turres by contraction. 3. 1). § 38. displaced primitive See Gr. between vowels first became then for and then regularly disappeared. + -s. *turr-ei-es. § 37. ei (strong form of suffix) 138). Genitive Singular. — The Indo-European case-ending suffix -ei. The termination Dative Singular. The Latin.g. pars for *part-(i)s (cf. after the analogy of : 0-stems (hortos -^/-forms. s before by Syncope . -is is borrowed from consonant stems. -e. — There -d. weak case-ending (§ But this termination while preserved in Oscan and Umbrian.e.g. . . largely -int. hortom hortod: turn's turrim : turrid). Nominative Plural. e. leaving the termination But most nouns the ending replaced this -i.g. (§ 92). Thus the primitive formation would 1 be represented by j. Ablative Singular. gens for *gent-(i)s metis for *ment-(i)s. — The regular ending -m -etn is appended to the stem. whence by contraction *turrei. however. 151.I 32 INFLE C TIONS. borrowed from consonant stems. ever. : turrid. -eis. 153. turri. i. Gr. are attested by only scanty examples -i. partim) . d in early disappeared (§ 109. The resulting *turrees 7roA. however. The termination (borrowed from the consonant stems) has. Cf. -ei- — The The suffix of the Nominative Plural took the form (§ 148).

The case. confined to the Plural. appended to the stem. 1. stems retained e.g. whereas regular /-stems in frequently show . 157.g. 5. B. b). 133 V Genitive Plural. 3. What has led to the adaptation of these words to the Plural tically is inflection of /-stems in the Genitive . calcarie).e. e. Accusative Plural. dissyllabic rete. On -bus for -*bhos. Several distinct groups of words belong here 1. is appended to the stem. -es. is -ns . is — The 1. nubes. while . 159. whence turns -Is. — The (§ termination was 109. The termination which is often used instead of borrowed from the con- sonant stems. 156. the adaptation is prac- viz. but mare. ending in the b . see § 136. and Accusative in the not certain but the fact that stems of this class pracin never show -/"/. These changed the final to -e by a regular law Stems of more than two thus syllables then usually dropped it. Neuter /-Stems.g.endings of Neuter /-stems are in general the same as for Masculines and Feminines. aedes.1STEMS.g. hence originally turrins. — The ending -um turri-um. One of the most important classes consists of nouns in etc. Consonant Stems that have partially adapted themselves to the Inflection of /-Stems. the Genitive and Accusative. see §§ 97. Indo-European end/-suffix. the -e developed. On the -a of the Nominative and Accusative Plural. 76. -i-d) termination -i is regular. 155. where -ium and take the place of the normal : -um and -es. ending in the /-suffix. tur- ing -bhos ri-bus. Dative and Ablative Plural. e. -is. (§ 75)./ the Accusative Singular or -is -/ Ablative Singular. -/ 158. animalie) 2. tically As stated in the Grammar. -is § 40. e. In the Ablative Singular the {i.

whence not formed from that in u. (/-Stems. the ^-sterns had a which appeared in three forms. regularly fructui. Like the /-stems. whence regularly fructus (§ 85). and . in -u is by contraction for -ui does not contract to friictu being The forms u are probably Locatives. -tatis. seriatu-is in -uis and -uos. . Nominative Singular. to the — The Indo-European case-ending -ai appended stem with suffix -eu- gave *fruct-eu-ai. The two were strong the last weak.g. viz. either -euits To this was added the Genithus giving case-ending in weakest form. viz. viz. Gen. — The Genitive Singular had the strong or -ou-. 162. 1 34 INFLE C TIONS. e.g. The traction termination -us cannot be explained as the result of con- from either -uis or -uos. Cf.. -I- civitat-i. 161. Genitive Singular. makes it these endings. e. for earlier *fructeu. form of the tive suffix. may possibly represent z-stems. -eu-. c 70. Nouns in -ids. above.e. Neither ui nor uo contracts to u. -s.fructu-s. In Plautus and Terence ^-sterns largely follow the analogy of 0-stems and form the Genitive Singular in -1. See §§ 64. -ou-. — The Nominative Singular appends e. 138). Gen. suffix first 160. and senatu-os. senat'i. -is.g. A. impossible to regard nouns in -es. found also in Sanskrit. as actual z-stems. -is These represent the other forms of the being for earlier -es (§ Genitive case-ending. -s (§ 138). 163. or *fruct-ou-s. i. 2. a peculiar terminationless formation. Dative Singular.. Masculine and Feminine zz-Stems. Early Latin also shows two other formations. *fruct-eu-s. yet the absence of -im and is forms in the Accusai tive and Ablative Singular against this. -ui in The Dative . -u-.

1. which are likewise Accusatives 167. § See 153. Accusative Plural. e. etc. Dative and Ablative Plural. original formation would have -f- been in *-eu-es. e. 168. i. Genitive Plural. fructud. fructus . -ubus often became 169. — The regular Indo-European (§ 97.g. fructu-bus. — The earliest Latin formation had -d.g. are for earlier rue tu-om. This. Nominatives in in -Is from z-stems. dency of u -ib us. The -d was soon dropped. case. fructu-m. currum.. Inasmuch as this formation appears in Plautus (long before the change of -uom to -uum. however. be referred to another it is probably an Accusative that has taken on a NominaCf. giving fructu.U-STEMS. either appended to the u-. the strong form of the sufhx (§ 160) -es the Nominative case-ending *-u-is. Nominative Plural. c). 164. therefore. e.g. but was a new formation. 135 ending -m is Accusative Singular. currum cannot be explained as from curruum. is § 57. e. specifically Latin. 3. — The . — The primitive formation would be represented by *fructu-ns (case-ending -ns). to become 1 before labials (§ 2). in place of curruum.ending *-bhos larly became Latin -bus stem in b). (§ 142). 1. A Genitive in -utn also occurs. early Latin tive function. The regular Nominative Plural origin . and was reguLater. b. Ablative Singular. in -us must. Nominative function — Fructu-u?n. or to the ten6. — The regular ap- pended. 165. owing to the influence of consonant and 2-stems.e.g. but after Genitives in an analogical formation -um from <?-stems (§ 132) and consonant stems. f On -om. *-eu-es would regularly have become which would have remained uncontracted. see § 121. whence regularly § 109. was not inherited from the Indo- European. 166. .

appearing in the forms lost all traces and -u- . shortening u regularly to u before vowels. Subus is not a contraction of suibus. and dies. result from the conception of the § 98. peculiarities. easterns are represented by sus and grus. but represents .. is rabies. — ' two knees/ etc. along with res . is vis.g. These are not numerous and present few The long u of genu and comic has been explained as being possi- bly an original dual formation. rabies. 170. i The terminations of the Singular follow those of z-stems has probably been short- ened in the Genitive. etc. § 88.originally had Ablaut (§ 70) in -i- Indo-European. 1083. 1. 172 a where. 1. /e-stems are represented by nouns in facies. which were originally diphthong stems see § 180.g. Neuter u. Ie. but Latin has of the z-suffix and has -ie throughout.Stems. vires. 2. -s. — The The i primitive Lucretius. Nominative Singular. *vim is regular.f-stems (spes and fides) have also adapted themselves to the same declension as the -z^-stems. The only z-stem in Latin . 1 and U. vires. stem as 2. The suffix -u. -ie stems ended in e. The Accusative vim etc.1 36 B. the original formation subus and suibus are the result of analogy. -ies. 173. both of which take the endings of consonant stems. though the actual quantity cannot be for proved. . whence *vis-es.Stems. In the Plural. But the regular termination -a. virium. — The case-ending is -s as else- Genitive Singular. species. acies. of this is probably borrowed . e. INFLE C TIONS. etc. vis-. 172.. Two original .Stems 171. Genitive of the iv.

. — The termination -erum is after the analogy of -arum of the ^-sterns and -drum of the <?-stems. subsequently 2 was regularly shortened before when a consonant in early preceded the termination. Dative Singular. e. Genitive Plural. after the analogy of the Ablative Singular of ^-sterns. before which (§ 88. diphthong became hence die for *diei. are for an earlier *acied. 175. 636). -es (see § 142) for *acie-es. Nominative Plural. i. Accusative Singular.). combines by contraction with the stem. -e (cf. The ending see -e. ei to -ei.fidei..g. — This is formed regularly by ape is pending the case-ending -m. But for the most part this original Dative in -e has been supplanted by the Dative in -ei. precisely as in case 137 of the ending -ai of 5-stems -i. The this original formation was -ei But under certain conditions 86) . e. 174 a . posiridie. is not Genitive. This formation would be secondary. 174.. plebei. § formation. e. ESTEMS. from ^-sterns. pernicu. die (in such expressions as quinfi die.g. § 174. though -i Latin. regularly shortened aciem for earlier *aciem. acie. 2). etc.g. A Genitive in also arises by the contraction of Aen. forms like fidei. but a Dative- Locative *diei. 176.g. the Dative and Locative seem -ei become merged -e (§ 1 in a single formation in (long diphthong) whence 73). though etc. — In the Indo-European parent-speech to have . rei. — The Nominative case-ending e. pridie. a new formation modelled on the Datives of consonant stems. dii (Virgil.g. whence -i. — No traces of forms with -d are found. Ablative Singular. acies 177. spei. etc. e. it is likely that acie. rei are found.

a 88. is regular (for *boubus) . 1. Dative and Ablative Plural. Jov-em. combined with -piter § pater. 1). really a Vocative. — The ending -bus. The 1 original Nominative was *Djeus. *Djev-. as a common noun. this last which. Initial ^'regularly became j (§ a). The oblique cases are formed from the stem bou-. is 178. with a f ' by-form ' *Difeus. had Decome 2.' passed over into the inflection of the z'^-stems. for Indo- European -bhos 179. the third days ' f§ 86). viz. which to Jupiter. is the real Nominative corresponding This same dies. Indo-European. but is borrowed from one of the Italic dialects (XDscan?).e. 104. b). It is The Vocative consisted which became *Jeu. 'day. namely *Jev. modelled on the Nominative of Ju(filter) was. hence *JDjevthis became *Jev-. originally a diphthongal stem. is The Dative Plural bubus bos. Ju. 3.' From But the latter came 'now com- mon noun day. 3. after the analogy of the Accusative diem. 2). — The primitive Latin formation would (§ be represented by *aciens. is *naus. whence acies 109.' preserved in nudiustertius. but used as Nominative as well. The stem and in 1. The Nominative Dative nam. in a Diphthong. bo bus 4. Singular of navis was originally . *reis.(§ 85). there arose also the Nominative Dies seen in the archaic Duspiter. o represents earlier ou. * day.' ' dius. appended directly to the stem. (i. res in the Indo-European period. navis is a new formation after the Geni- Bos probably not a genuine Latin word. (§ 97. gives Jupiter (Juppiter.(§ 73. b). From stem are formed the oblique cases Jov-is. § 73. Accusative Plural. . Jov-i. further Jov. Res.' god of ago day. of the simple stem. Stems ending 180. This form disappeared tive navis. 3J. 1. u becoming v between vowels.1 38 IXFLE C TIOXS. the god of the three sky.

e. ex-terus. became r (§ 98. Greek ^axco-repos. is Plus for *plo-is.g. 1 39 The Comparative. Following a consonant.as another form of the strong grade. ' But in Latin to. 'having a relation to the outside.-is appears in plus (see 3. * interns. suffix citer'etc. 1 181. § 92 p. This *plois became *plois (§ 86). which some languages developed Comparative force.g.speech had another suffix. Lateinische Grammati&. -tero-.itnd Formenlehre. Handbuch der Lateinischen Laut. changing to sible in Latin). having a relation connected ' with. the other phase of the root. Latin Language. -jos- alone 2 survived in Latin.' 'full' (§ 62). These were felt as Positives and took the regular denote Comparative relation. from the root pie-. 404. of other Comparatives.' e.g. Gen. -tor. but was probably originally a Noun. plo-. melioris for *meliosis the r was subsequently transferred by analogy to the Nominative. e. 182. posterns. *min-ios (which would be imposs. whence plus (§ 81. Stolz. *minvost whence *minos (§ 103. . 2). minus. 2. §§ 302 ff. ' fill. outer . 5). archaic In the find hymn known as the Song of the Arval Brothers we the form pleores from pie-. with -jes. In the Nominative Mascu- and Feminine the original formation i was -jos. -tera-. Minus not for u (§ 76. The regular Comparative Suffix in § Latin was -jos- ('protracted form' -jos-. and as weak grade (§ 62). viz. The Neuter took the e. This became analogv an Adjective and developed a Masculine minor. after the in The Indo-European parent. and in the oblique . .' i this suffix retained its primi- tive force of lit. below) and in the Adverbs mag-is. suffix -idsis and kept melius. The Superlative. *mineris. cases s j regularly became (§ 103. Formation of the Comparative and Superlative. 3). -is- 62. But line -jos-.: COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE. — We have three Superlative suffixes in Latin 1 See Lindsay. 1). — 1. Sommer. 5).to 3. 1).g. . nim-is.

sents the in the forms assumed as original. cf. bruma prox-imus 2. Syncope (§ (§ *acersimos is (§ 100. a mingling of (seen in the Greek Superlative ending -io-to?) and -mus . (§ pos-tumus. Cf. Latin Language. supre-mus .und Formenlehre. 3). singu/i. ex-timus. This suffix originally had much the same retains etc. . els for *o-e^-s is is not related to unus. plur-imus.' lit. 1 Cardinals. for pessimus . 4. the 'one- on dice).(see § 181). whence by 92) acrsimos. repre(§ weak form of the Comparative ii. /rzshortest day. for *fdcil-is-imos. etc. Grundriss. ff. for -istimus could not become been -issimus. On the quantity of i in -issimus. Lindsay. postre-mus . sum-mus l mus . INFLECTIONS. Duo for earlier *duo according to § 88. 3). 140 i. 1.g. 2) . 92) . 3. its meaning as tero-. spot ' 1. p. German ein and English one are the same word Greek 2. e. Brugmann. Similarly facillimus -is-. The formation was Dual. *sub-mus (§ 106. . pp. oLvt).. ii. llgi-timus fhii-timus. acerrimus 106. -mo-. 183. ff..seen in 'winter. for op(i) timus. (for *proqu(f)simus) 6. from ops earlier citumus. Sixo. Sommer. Handbuch der Latdnische Laut. also in extre-mus. 4). -tumus. §§ 164-181. 3 . § 81. in-timus.' for *breu-ma {brev-is) . still primitive force in several words. max-imus (for *mag(i)s-imus). suffix 181). -isto- It can hardly be for -istimus. offered. op-timus. -timus (§ seen in ci-timus. ul-timus. Grundriss. 1 See Brugmann. Gr. Lateinische Grammatik 9 §§ 306 § 91. 408 Stolz. Unus is for earlier oinos . and . see Numerals. Gr. The suffix -issimus is of uncertain origin. but to semel. ". 2). (cf. -into. 158. facillimus (§ 106. § 43. No plausible explanation of the suffix has as yet is Acerrimus probably for an original *acr-is-imos. tera. *facilsimos.

t originally appeared in the Nominative. Octo a is descended from an Indo-European (' *octo. Novem. tri-. *trej-es. -em for -en is probably due to association with the following dec-em. qu. tres. for quinctus. Sex. two sets of fingers . 1 . German neu-ri) . a by-form of *svex. Gr. see For tredecim we should expect * tredecim according {cf. in cf. tri-um. sharp. tri-a. strong grade trei. — undecim. On § -im for -em. -irregularly became or. seen in 7. The Indo-European form from which guattuor early after descended was probably *quetvores . Indo-European in *pi-bd (Skrt. § 2. 1. 1. whence *tre-es. Decern is for Indo-European *dekm . 1). oc-. is Quattuor. ' CARDINALS. the analogy of the other indeclinable § 88. 2. primitive e to a. 10. 6. The former stem 3. which regu- larly developed in Latin as * septem (§ 102. The Indo-European form was *septm. panea. The change of v to u 16. b. The long probably borrowed from quintus. This comes from Indo-European (for 07: e£).' These are regularly formed by etc. The Indo-European form was *nevn. ' root ac-.1 . The Indo-European form was *penque . cf. 3. piba??ii). other cases have § 109. viz. tredecim. 14 The stem shows Ablaut weak grade tri-. Latin would regularly have appeared as *noven (§ Eng. 73. Quinque. which 102. Doric p££ Septem. ni-ne . 8. c). Initial cf. § law. 'Eleven' § to 'Nineteen.in Latin is the result of assimilabi-bo for i is first syllable to the second . 3). tri-bus. 105). n. but the Latin form its lost inflection. The form ' was Dual '?). The change i is of e to accordance with § 73. / numerals. 5. tion of the tt£vt€. The . Tres. *sex. 'pointed 9. Greek e|. tris (for *tri-ns 4./. to 89 sedecwi for *sec(s)decim .. Skrt. The e remains . The change is of the and the doubling of the cannot be referred to perfectly natural any recognized cf. composition. (§ 64. § 102.

. is according to ' § 105. 1. which in etc. The Hundreds present few by assimilation (§ 90). 3. Eng. for -h. quinqua-. 1) and septingenti Sescenti is (for *septem-gent~i).' for *dvt. it is precise origin uncertain.' Doric xv^ ia (f° r *X* a ^ La)> The Indo-European form of this was *gheslia. unexampled 13.' cf. -ing- § 105. where developed regularly. for sex-centi.). which also occurs. § 136. and ' Nineteen ' were usually expressed by duodeviginti. 1 42 ' INFLE C TIONS. in which two. form by regular phonetic process red is the same word. A. rpiaKovTa. the result of Re-com- position 16. Sexcenti. Tre-cenfi for (for *tri-eenti Quadrmgenti. On^- for c in -gen ft see above. in Latin would regularly develop as *h~elia (§§ 89. . — The most probable etymology of it word is that which connects ' thousand. ' Gr. ' Vlginti. ' § 87. ' . entirely from quattuor. recrcrapdKovTa. dig-itus for *dic-itus (from root all Thirty' to Ninety. oetingenti -ing- quattuor-. an original Neuter Dual. 15.' is Gr.in triginta is On g for Its see above. probably a Nominative Plural is Neuter. As regards quadra-. die' though not point '). undevtginfi. sexais secondary. The initial would repre- . 3.. which with Greek -xiXia. whence in Latin * -gen ft. 1. The change ' of k to g is peculiar. The is a vestige of the original ending mentioned in Tri. 14.. in ' hundone. 12. -ginfd for *gonta due to the influence of vtginfi./ and. meaning ' tens *-konta shows the strong grade lies at of the root whose weak grade *kntis the basis of vlginti (see above) -a c. . from the root *du- *kmti. It is best to dis- connect word. by assimilation (§ 90). *hilia. £-kclt6v has prefixed difficulties. octo-) have borrowed the from quingenfi (for *quinq-genti . zn. 12. § 102. 1) was also Dual. Eighteen ' unexplained.). this Mille. The it -a in quadra-. hunde-. in the sense of ' tens. 97. whence the Latin . is The Indo-European form was *vi-kmfi. -gin ft (§ 102. . Indo-European was *-konta a Neuter Plural (cf.' These end in -ginfd. probably an independent Centum is for an Indo-European *cntom.

centum. *decm-mos. Secundus : (for *sequondos § 103. Vicesimus and the other tens are formed with the -tinio-. 1. Singuli shows the ' weak form of the root sem-. . earlier vicensimus. or else *cesimus for *cent-timus. Sextus formed from the respective cardinals by adding -tus.' sim-plex. m developed into the sound variously represented by 6. suffix -guli is once. etc. Decimus are probably for an original *septm-tnos. z. Septimus. u. sem-per.would have given *centum-timus. sin-gull. then tertius (100. to the stems of the hundreds. 8. 1. ducenfi. i. sent 1 43 sm-. Octavus is for an earlier *octovus. 3). pris-tinus) is a Superlative formation 2.' Tertius may be for *tri-tios. 9. 185. weak form of the root sem-. 'one. hence originally 3. is too devious to be here described. 1. 7. and was appended etc. § 6. Quartus. The origin of the not clear.DISTRIBUTIVES. came to be an inde- pendent ordinal suffix. 9. pris-cus. ' the following. 5) is from sequor. The suffix -timo. § 89. Distributives. 10.' On m for initial sm-. whence by Syncope (§ 92) *trtios. § Nonus is for *noven-os . Ordinals. for *vice?it-timos .e. Cf. Centesimus and the Hundreds. Primus for *pris-mos . Millesimus follows the analogy of the hundreds. — Inasmuch it as the felt as element -esimus was common to all the tens. vicesimus.' seen in sem-el. 184. 183. cf. Before m. are 4. see § 104. Greek fx-ta for *(or)/xta. Hence originally in Latin *sm(h)ilia. . one thousand. sim-plex. 2. The route followed in the development of quartus 5. b). suffix 1. {cf. Qulntus. also ' ' one/ seen in sem-per sem-el. § 108.

Greek 8ts. sometimes viceni. ii. 89). 3.144 2.Dative-Loca1 See Brugmann. e. 90 . used substantively. *qualrs. 3).' PRONOUNS} Personal Pronouns. bint for *bis-nt trim for *tris-nt. is ego. is Semel. The other Multiplicatives are formed by the suffix -tens. Multiplicatives. 2. §§ 266 ff. usually loses e. INFLECTIONS. Distributives are formed by the suffix which is borrowed from sent (for *secs-itt . is from the root sent-. see § 104. Lindsay. The other Distributives are formed with the suffix -no-. which is variously explained. 'once. This probably goes back to an Indo-European Genitive. Latin the By the side we have also in early Genitive mts. First Person. for earlier ego (§ 88. The Genitive Singular. is Quater possibly for *quatrus. § 185. 3. great. 5. Lateinische Grai?i?natik. Some l see in ' it the Participle of six. 1. 2.g. Gr. For Latin dis. the last two syllables. vii . Latin Language. z §§ 89. Stolz. §§ The 106. *trr. Ter is for *tris {cf. Cf. 187. simply the Genitive Singular Neuter of the Possessive of met metis. *trs.' for dvis.g. an Indo-European *ego. The Nominative Singular. sept{eni)~en~i. the -~~en~i. The cardinal form to which this suffix is added. nov(em)eni . 3. § 100. so that sex-tens would it mean literally going Others identify with the Sanskrit suffix -yant. *tris. Grundriss. -ies (see § 20. Sommer. Beginning with septent. 4. met. represents 2. Handbuch der Lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre. 2. ter. c). rpt's) in unaccented position. . — 1. Bis preserved in the Glosses of Festus § 104. 186. §§ 407-459. 100. its final syllable. .' eo. chap. 1. . 1. dent. sequence of development would be 3. quater(r) . §§ 105. 2).

Homeric rvv-q. 6. — Tui like mei (§187. 2. Before ttied nie. The form was originally the already existing Accusative and was thence transferred to the Nominative also. Locative. 188. 2). 5. tu-. 81. be explained like mis (see . larly appear in Latin as *niehi (§§ 97. A.. is apparently an inherited Indo-European formation. its — Nobis has apparently bor- rowed termination -bis from vobis . mihi. The Accusative and Ablative Singular. On the shortening of the final Mi may fxoi (also be a contraction of mihi or may be identical with Greek Locative). — The Indo-European stem was form tu te- tve-. Greek 2. remaining before vowels. To this was added the Genitive termination 3. A collateral also appears. The nie original sative Singular was me. The Dative Singular. rv. Nominative and Accusative Plural. nos. — Nostri. Nominative Singular. 3. 4. with weak grade 1. The change of e to took place first when *?7iehi was unaccented position see § 88. -s. an initial consonant tried would Accu- become nie.in — corresponds to German is du. see below. with the case-ending § discussed in 130. nostrum are the Genitive Singu- lar and Genitive Plural of the Possessive Pronoun used with subIn early Latin we find also nostrorum and (as stantive force. in 1. Second Person. PRONOUNS. is probably descended from an This would regu- Indo-European *megh-oi or *megh-ei. was tried in early Latin. Originally tried was Ablative only. 2) the Genitive of the Possessive Pronoun used substantively. tive I45 form *mei or *?noi. 1 3. § 73. Genitive Singular. 2). also a Genitive tzs to Early Latin has § 187. Genitive Plural. whence *mi. Feminine) even nostrarum. 7. Dative and Ablative Plural. but the existence of and med side by the side of side in the Ablative naturally led to the rise of med by me in the Accusative.

etc. like mei and tui. The stem of the Reflexive is *sev-. § On the origin and relation of the two formations. *tebi. see under mihi. and — In both Accusative on trie. In both Accusative and and Ablative Singular. See under mihi. — Vestrum. is for *sebkei.. 4. 5. Accusative The origin of the termination -bhei is uncertain. 6. The 190. Dative. 2. sv-. the relation of -bis in vo-bis to . see § 88. Genitive. 6. vostri. see 187. — Sibi. 1. tibi on 1 e. On the shortening of the final 4. -os {-us) to the These are formed by appending formed by adding the stems or other form of the Personal Pronouns. see 187. see § 88. and Ablative we have origin with sed as an alternative form in early Latin. § On the and relation of the two formations. is the Genitive Singular of the Possessive used substantively. earlier sibi. for from association with nostrum. . the Indo- European Genitive form mentioned in § 187. Me-us is suffix -os to *mei. with the collateral forms 1 *se-. with fed as an alternative form in early Latin. 146 3. result 7. INFLECTIONS. 189. nostri vestri. § 187. — Vobis is formed with the suffix -bliis. Accusative only. § 187. 3. was originally Genitive Plural. nostri. *sebi. 3. for -i. as nostrum. Vostrum. The Reflexive Pronoun. 3. Dative Singular. Nominative and Accusative Plural. . -bi in ti-bi being perhaps de- termined by that of Hits to Hit istis to isti. see 187. 2. Possessive Pronouns. 4. — Ablative we have te. — Vos it represents an Indo-European formation. 1 Accusative se. On the shortening of the final Ablative. 3. — Tibi is for an earlier *tebhei. Dative and Ablative Plural. Like nos (§ 187. § vestfi are of the same formation vestrum. — Sui. 3. 5). This *mei-os .

cf. preserved in early Latin. i. The weak form in of the root sev was It is this which appears e. regularly 147 Singular became mens. Su-us is from the stem whence originally *sevos. which by loss of its -e might become *mei.e. (Dat. 191. . Tu-us is from the stem tev-. 4). later e. With primitive Latin *sev-os cf. Greek 6's for 07:0s. Gr. In enclitic position.' The form voster became vester according to § 76. Gr. sis and traces are present also in Latin. Plu. preserved in early Latin. with Syncope of the e . see § 103.-Abl. whence originally *tev-os. a Nominative consisting . a) Hie is now explained this as for *ho-ce. 4. suus . tuus . ha-. ^/xe-Tepo?. 6 (for *cro).' ' and had the mean- ing connected having a relation to. 4. The stem of hie was ho-. The element thought originally to have been a Nominative form of the same type as Indo-European *so (Skrt. found in Noster and vester are formed by adding the suffix -tero. 2. 1. Hie. 4. suos. (i. Homeric Greek 3.to nosis and l vos-.PRONOUNS. u. would regularly become hois whence hie (§ 76. e/ro? for *cre/:os. In unac*hice. later tovos (§ 73.e. The early suffix the same as that already considered 181. pdtrem sovom. To the regular case- forms of this stem was often added the to -c 2. 3.' Nominative Singular. With Latin *tev-os. In enclitic position ov became cf. sa. suffix -ee. Homeric Greek sv-. Te(/r)oV sev-. whence tuos. Masculine. frequently ' reduced -ce itself represents a pronominal stem meaning here. Gothic sa). 2. is The Vocative for *mei-e. mi is either the old Genitive mi. with. 3).g. ov became u y whence see § 103. or mi. in such forms as early Latin.g. for *svis (root svo-). The Demonstrative Pronouns.). cented enclitic) use. 3). sovos (73.

short. have developed from hoi-(j)us in accordance with 4. The exact way in which huic arose un- Accusative Singular. 26. to earlier *hod-c(e). 1) a Locative formation that took on Dative From i. Genitive hoc templum. b) c). and the word always has 1 1 in Plautus. a The o of hoc Whenever the word makes initial long syllable in verse before an vowel it is probable that the Romans pronounced 664.e. 81.148 INFLECTIONS. The i of the stem alone without case-ending. Plural Forms. clear. preserved is still in early Latin. below. of Virgil. An instance of hicc occurs in CIL. Genitive Singular. — These follow the regular termination of a- and except the Nominative and Accusative Plural Neu- . 60. 3. Latin form. by disappearance of the intervocalic j earliest and contraction. arose the 197. §§ 118. (§ 103. This cc comes from hocc. 130. — Hoc. *had-c (e) represent the same Ablative formation as regularly seen in a- and 0-stems 7. in which -d is a case-ending peculiar short. with obvious phonetic changes. Before consonants they pronounced hoc. ii. e. hicc est. but the vowel ix. e. hocc. — The original form of the Dative Singular was probably function. CIL. is viz. we should probably read is is long. for *ha-i-c(e). Dative Singular. an apparent the syllable in later times. 6 . hoice. this. — Hunc. 5. Aen.g. Hoc was is for *hocce. ^-sterns. See Feminine. hocc erat in Mss. *hoijei. . — The earliest form of the Singular was whence hoi(j)us. hac all for earlier *hod-c (e) . find i. The exact nature of this formation far from The classical form hujus seems most § likely to 1. adds i (a formative element to recognized elsewhere in the inflection original c) of this pronoun) an *ha {cf. certain. *hoi)'-os. Haec *porta). the Pronominal Declension.g. Where we Kicc. of hie was thus short by origin. *ha-m-ce. Ablative Singular. Neuter. hanc are simply for earlier *ho-7n-ce.

see above. it is repre- sents the original formation. have been § 82. the suffixes -o- and -a we get the stems eo-. 1. Neuter. ter. were formed from the stems as that of a7.PRONOUNS. weak form 1- (§ 62). Ablative Singular. 149 haec. or (by disappearance of the intervocalic j) Nominative Singular. 8. earlier *ej-ei ejo. -ae (instead of -a) exhibit the same 1 as noted above in connection with the Nominative Singular Feminine. Genitive Singular. is. 192. ea-. Masculine. earlier eod. was in forma- tion a Locative from the In the Pronouns the Locative served also as Dative. Plural Cases. els. ejo-. and earn represent an earlier *ejom. — These are formed regularly from the ei (for *ej-oi) stems In the Nominative Plural. Ea is for *ej-a .(see 1). z for ei by assimilation (§ 90). 4. is ead. eja- By appending 2. — Ed ea. whence the correct classical form cf. . eja-. 1. Dative Singular. also the corresponding Dative- Ablative forms. Accusative Singular. 3. original formation is thought to . 1. — El stem for *e-ei. eja-. — The eius. a) Is shows the root in the weak form with the case-ending b) c) Feminine. Idem is simply is with the suffix -dem. *ejo-. *ejam. Is. see § 89. its. The case-ending all the same and <?-stems. 1). where -ai. *ejo-. 5. Id shows the weak form of the -d. Cf. -s. — Eum. root with the Pro- nominal case-ending 3. The root of this pronoun is ei-. *ei/os. is from it by contraction. (see 6. For the Compen- satory Lengthening.

here seems the root of is [cf. ro(S)). Ille. The Genitives istius. Olle. The Neuter would have *oltam. Iste.). 6. // and the Accusative *oltom. The regular AccuGreek tov. eopse. iste. eventually caused *issa to The preponderance of forms with become ista and *isso to become ille. 3). as is usually held. *isto. Then the forms with those with might naturally have gained the supremacy over It. Ille. early Latin eapse. whence olle (§§ 76. It was apparently an unchangeable element. whence / *istom. . 195. — With the exception of the forms istud. Ipse. 194. influenced by ipse. while the origin of the sufnx -pse obscure. *tod. *sa. *istam. 197. ipse. ipsum Noun Declension. *tod. ' she ' . The first syllable of iste is of uncertain origin. ' But by association and analogy the second element has become much modified. Iste. itself. show the usual terminations of the Noun illius. is. The Neuter. These three pronouns presumably contain in their second syllable the ' Indo-European pronoun *so. *tam. is eu7npse. *sa. I. *istod. that. By the addition of *istod. Ipse. *ol-sa. *oltod. sative of *so was *tom. etc. and the Genitive and all Dative Singular.I 5O INFLE C TIONS. Ipse. ipsius are formed by Locatives appending the Genitive ending -os {-us) to isfi. *ol-se. ipsi. the change from can be accounted for only on the ground of adaptation to such forms as *ol-so. these Declension. shows transition to the Declension of Iste. 193. 196. rdv. *issa. Ml. olla. later iste (§ 76. Mud already mentioned. Ille. would arise *isso. (instead of *ipsud). *so. If olle to i was the original of ille. 6). 106. ' he ' . may be for The Feminine would similarly have been been *ol-tod. *tod {cf.

seems best explained 4. 6. which from the stem . This may have been § genuine Ablative form (qui for *quld). Plural Forms. Relative. 3. from the stems is to-.with the case-ending Qui is for a formative element which hie. — Cui seems to have developed in the first § 14. § 191. etc. 2. Nominative Singular. or an Instrumental. Later the Genitive was differentiated from the Dative. Qua. regular pronominal ter- mination to their respective stems. Genitive — Cujus. These are all formed from the same root. turrem. Accusative Singular. 3. it The Dative and qui-. hujus . 2. 151 ipso-. may perhaps be explained by the enclitic charQuae is the regular Feminine of the Relative. the stem qui. qua. qua-. which ap- pears as qui-. Interrogative. see Quoi was probably a Locative formation. 2. era for earlier quoi(j)us. like Dative Singular. is same as seen in hae-c (§ 191. find qui used for genders a and (in early Latin) for both numbers. 1. The 198. quo-. i//o-. ovem. PRONOUNS. 7) . analogy of z-stems having -em for -im. 191. 5. — Quis shows quo -f. -s. century of the Christian from the earlier quoi . in the Indefinite Pronoun. 7. u. § 152. all quo. follows the Noun De- Quo-d and qui-d append the Singular. — Quae is is analogous to hae-c. — Quern for *qui-m has followed the e.. oi in accented syllables regularly becomes but 1 for oi in qui acter of the word. and Indefinite Pronouns. Ablative quis from the stem quois (§ 133). b). *quoijos. which present no peculiarities. the The formation which appears clension.g. Ablative Singular. appears elsewhere in the Pronominal Declension (see under § 191.i. b) . — Besides we the regular quo. These Locative formations served originally as both Dative and Genitive in the Pronouns. 7. has no formal connection with qui-bus.

Lateinische Lindsay. original Perfect Indicative has become merged with the sigmatic Aorist. 5. Stolz. 200. like the r.und Formenlehre. The The strong {i. Latin ii. In the Imperfect and Future Indicative of the a. Grundriss. ullus. solus. The Latin has lost the augment. liter. lar. 199. the Latin in its verb-system exhibits extensive deviations from the original conjugational system of the Indo-European parent-speech. i. Pronominal Adjectives. Sommer. As compared with Greek and Sanskrit. alius. and whose meanings are Aoristic as well as Perfect. Handbuch der Lateinischen Laut. 6. The The original Middle Voice has disappeared.I 52 INFLE C TIONS. unsigmatic) Aorist has disappeared almost entirely. 1 See in general: Brugmann.e.and ~e- conjugations we meet new formations in -bam and -bo. 4. Language. are peculiar to Latin and Keltic. unus. an initial e-..e. : The fol- lowing are the most important points of difference i. §§ 317-391. chap. being super- seded by a new inflection peculiar to Latin and Keltic. §§ 460—1086. designated Subjunctive. totus. also the Several Adjectives of pronominal meaning have adopted Pronominal Declension in the Genitive and Dative Singualter . Subjunctive and Optative do not appear as separate moods.^% 96-118. viii. nullus . 2. neuter . 3. but have become fused into one. CONJUGATION} Introductory. . viz. which. Grammatik^. Alius takes also the pronominal -d in the Neuter Singular. The result is a tense whose inflections are derived from both sources. prefixed to the secondary tenses of the Indicative as a symbol of past time.Passive.

illustrated is called Thematic.CONJUGA TION. The strong form of the root appeared in the Singular. the etc. and secondary endings has become 8. herited two distinct types of Present formation. Several new tense. A. \ey-o-/A€v. This type by dicu-nt (for *dico-nt) dici-tis (for *dice-tis). Unthematic presents originally had Ablaut (§ 62). while -w verbs are thematic. Unthematic Presents. Latin . . on the endings in the In Greek. Formation of the Present Stem.g.formations e. have developed which are peculiar to Latin. . ddt (for earlier dat) 1 1 . 201. the Perfect Indicative in -vi and -ui. das. Aey-e-Te. For the personal endings in this and the other verbs. primitive accentual conditions. see §§ 235 ff. and hence is called Unthematic. rt-dc-fxev) . — The The Latin inone. verbs (jL-dr)-[Ai. da-tis. acterized by the presence of the variable or thematic vowel o) is before the Personal Endings. Thematic and Unthematic Formation. This change was connected with Presumably the accent originally rested on the root syllable in the Singular. char(e. Pluperfect Subjunctive in -issem. the reduced form in the Plural.g. 7. 202. I 53 In the Personal Endings the distinction between primary effaced. Plural. The other type of Present formation has no thematic vowel. : Do. Classification of Present Formations. The the class 1. Unthematic for the Presents are but scantily represented in most part they have passed over into the thematic following verbs are the chief representatives of inflection. dant. the Unthematic Conjugation -/u is represented by the e. Plural da-mns.

1) . *ez-si *ei-ti (Gr. represent *ei-mos. itis. : would have been theoretically somewhat as follows *i-mos *i-tis *i-nt In the First Singular *ejv regularly became eo (§ 103. : would have been theoretically somewhat as follows *es-nfi *es-s es-t *s-mos *s-tis *s-nt this. along with su-mus (for *so-mos).: : 1 54 2. long in early The presumption is that ess represents Plautus's pronunciation. INFLE C TIONS. *ei-mi (Gr. imus. The First Singular sum. ej-ont. and *eit. 1 These are often The Indo-European inflection ef/xi) was presumably *i-mos (cf. it. The Plural seems to have abandoned early the weak form of the root in favor of the . primitive inflection for Latin. The historical forms show considerable deviation from es as Traces of *ess are seen in the regular use of Latin verse. and -i (weak). therefore. Gr. ei-tis. — The two forms of the The *ej-o 1 *ei-s *ei-t root were ei- (strong). *eis became strong 3. therefore. The original conjugation for Latin. eunt. and sunt (earlier sont) may represent a special thematic The Second Plural es-tis is formed from the strong formation. therefore. the weak s-. i-re) elcri for *e?Ti) *i-enti The Indo-European inflection was presumably *smos *ste *esmi *essi *esti *senti . 2 Gr. like the Second Singular. Eo. Sum. root. X-fiev) *i-te (cf. is (§ 82) . later It. — The strong form of the root is es-. Enclitic forms V and 'st sometimes occur for the Second and Third Singular.

joined in writing with a previous word. *vel-s. — Unthematic forms occur only in the Second and Third Singular.(later die-. Void. Of these Class. 5. Examples are leg. B. leg. and Second Plural. . ei(i). 3) and maid for *mag(e)vold. teg. (§ 92). (cf. root . 5. The usage in the is poetic and colloquial. had is e. but comes from the root also meaning ' wish in- vitus. § 82) -J . veh. Edo. altered to Is1).(later due-)..e . 1 55 bonust = bonum 'st morast 4. with o for according to Vultis (earlier volti's) is most naturally explained as for *vl-tis. teg. : 203. Nolo for * nevoid^ *novolo (§ 83. deic. The Second vet-. those of the ^-Series had d. it is forms arose by Syncope 6.g. .. estis for *edtis (§ 108. root deic.. by euphonic change. root veh-. volti's). e. Volumus. The ^-Series most fully represented. ' void. certainly unthematic are vult. = mora J st..). according to 73. show apparent unthematic forms. — Fers.e root deuc. Thematic Presents. The root shows Ablaut. appearing in some forms as ed-. etc. Singular vis not for cf. est (ox Fero.. 1).J ' j / . vultis (earlier The root in the Singular was normally *velvolt. feid- root feid- (later/J^-) deuc. e volunt have followed the thematic inflection § 73. _. in others as ed-. 5. fert. -f- there are the following classes Root — The Present stem vowel e consists of the root in . eu{u) .g.e -/ _. I. Thus roots of the ^-Series etc. — The only forms which are volt.fertis *edt. its More exactly the root / appeared in that phase of the strong grade which gave its name strong form the thematic to the different Ablaut Series (§ 62). is whence voltis (§ 100. e. CONJUGA TION.e - : e-Series : root / _.e ' e. vel-im. probable that the above Latin but in view of the fact that this verb follows the thematic conjugation in Sanskrit and Greek. but *veld § and *vel-t became is .

. : vadced- e - J root vad-. to ' represented in Latin.. root appears in : strong e which is appended .. its is but sparingly form. yi-yv-o-fxai) si-d. e. but in it souie words. Originally the infix was confined to the Present system./ 6' .e-/ -. The Latin word results from assimilation *e7ri-7ri7?-Sa). appears throughout the entire verb.. The root was pib. but have passed in not properly a redu. stringo. 1).. Reduplicating Class. INFLECTIONS. — The Present _...1 ' 156 d-Series a-Sei'ies : . as jungo. . II. though not in the Perfect Participle. — To the root in its weak form is added the unthematic. reddo for *re-d(i)-do by Syncope *se-. T-Class. junctus. strictus.. originally unthematic formations Gr. III. a reduplicating which consists of the its consonant of the root + 6 -/ i. Exam/ _. Stem is formed with a nasal . gi-gn- . N-Class.{cf Skr. fictus . f Examples are nec-t f . Sis to. root ag. root ced-.e -/ for *sz-sd (§ 89). . strinxi. root also apparently originally *di-do {cf. root rup- jung root jug-. e. junxi. root -f- — The Present Stem e is formed by prefixing to the syllable. (o-)i-o-t^/u. the thematic vowel initial / . : rod- . and se-ro for *si-so (§ 98. The sed. fingOi finxi. — This t e class. jungo.. The . ISeries o-Series : e -/ e -/ . . e~ thematic vowel '-/ ples : The . plec-t e ~/ pec-t*l IV. § 89). Perfect In other verbs the nasal appears in the Indicative. root gen- Gr. find e '/ . like the preceding. caed. root appears in the weak . . ag. root fid- rump. ofp to b. root appears in {cf.. root do not strictly {cf. suffix NO-Class.. root rod-. pibami. Gr.g. belong here.. infix before the final consonant of the root to this is appended the form. Latin into the thematic conjugation plicated i7ri(38a for bibo is formation. weak form . root sta. n e' Originally verbs of this class were .g.. They were {a)l-{(r)r}-jxi)..e -/ . (§ 68). flec-t e -j . Examples: e -/ . V. (§ 62).

and even from nouns and adjectives. contract verbs in -id.in Plural. si-rib. hiscd. stei-nit in after the analogy of dicimus. for * tl-nd (§ ioo.. li-nd. verbs of this naseor. Many secondary formations also occur. trenie-scd . e. dicitis. — The Present stem is formed by appending (g) nd-scd. Singular. especially derivatives from contract verbs.g. was once inflected *ster-nii-o *ster-nif-s : *ster-nu-mos *ster-nu-tis *ster-nu-t *ster-nu-nt But % ster-nu-mos regularly developed to sternimus. -ire (see b below). dieit. slernis.g. i). venire. Other examples are sper-nd.g. Thus two the forms of the Plural {sternimus. and nu. suffix f' / o. suesed for *sued-sed. as gem~i-scb.g. for example. roresco. from flored .verbs is is not an inheritance from the Indo-European parent speech. VI. jO-Class. the chief of which are the following tf^yV-Presents from roots ending in a consonant. venid. e. /abased from labd.. tem-nd. show no trace of the inceptive force. cre-scd. 2&fld7'~escd. and the so-called verbs in -id of the originally of this formation Third Conjugation. Several different formations belong : under this head. SCO-Class.in the Singular. hl-scd. duresed. sternuni) were identical with the thematic inflection and hence led to stemd. disco. but a special development of the Latin formation. . posed. VII. capid for *cap-jd. gii-scd. jac-id for *jac-jd. diets. dlcunt to died. to the root. so that a verb like stemd. 1 5 7 The primitive suffix was nu. The inceptive or inchoative meaning of numerous scd.CONJUGA riON. e.to — The Present Stem is formed by appending the a root or stem. itself. Here/ all becomes i. The Personal endings were appended directly to these suffixes. posed for *porc-scd. se e '/ . tolld. Some verbs have passed over into the inflection of e. as lapidesco. Many etc.

The here becoming intervocalic. and the Fourth Conjugation. : Dissyllabic verb-stems domamus for * do-majo-mos. 1) and regularly Examples : Monosyllabic roots : i?np?e-mus for * imple-jo-mos. This theory of the origin of the Latin Imperfect finds confirmation in Slavonic. doc-eo. The Imperfect. The adjective aegrotus is likewise possibly be referred to an orignal *aegro.verbs) vowels (except in the First Singular of contract. These all take the <?-phase of the strong form of the root regularly suffer contraction gation. torr-eo. They and form a part of the Second Conju- d) Verbs in -ojo probably once existed in Latin. c) z-contracts the Causatives in eje '/ . dpoo). */egebkvam. some oblique case of a noun derived from The primitive formation would be represented etc. 3) Noun and Adjective stems in -a. to This seems to have been appended the stem of the verb. (§ 64). disappears e- and the concurrent 1. /^. 204. root pie-. stem fini-. from the root bhu-. stem doma-. Thus a?'d. *bhvam. firiimus. by *monebhvam. the e- and ^-contracts the Second Conjugation. e.-Presents from roots and stems ending in a vowel. mon-eo. stem rube-.158 b) /. but have dis- appeared. The termination -bam explained as in the Imperfect Indicative is plausibly representing an Indo-European Aorist. stem cura-. 1: curamus. where the Imperfect consists of a the past tense of the verb 'to be.. root tra-. Gr. *arojo) to . These ^-contracts form the so-called First Conjugation. e.' case-form of a verbal noun + . INFLECTIONS. rubemus. Tense Formation in the Indicative.g. arare was probably originally *aroo (for cf. intramus 2) for *intrajomos.

is Subjunctives. — This formation appears for *es-o forms as dixd.' Cf the analogous German werde lieben. — The Redupli-f- cation in such verbs regularly consisted of the initial consonant e. 222. in such archaic The future in -so. so that amabo (for *ama-b/wo. 205. e. that have in reality a Subjunctive. to is regular in the Third and Fourth Conjugations. — This formation. The Future in -bo. 2. Ho- meric Greek Attic w (by contraction). — The Future in -bo is analogous to the Imperfect in -bam -bo is probably the Present of the root § bhu-.' Erani for earlier *es-am (§ 98. The ending -iebam. (§ 98. Reduplication. 1. 1. in this formation. 1) exhibits the same etc. On is e. has been suggested that the element preceding the -bam in Infinitive. monefound also scibo. ero. which are in reality Aorist Subjunctives that have come to be ranked as Indicatives. In Verbs beginning with a Consonant.g. The 206. 'to make dry.CONJUGA TION. 1) cf.g. €(<r)a>. See §§ 221. capiebam. . The Future in -am. however. is The Future of sum. The Future. is later in origin than -ibam. It the Imperfect was an old Cf. .faxo. or rather two 1st come be ranked as Indicatives. and was borrowed from /^-verbs of the Third Conjugation. such compounds as are -facid. see § 204. 204) ich literally means 'I become loving. . The Perfect. The Future in -bo in verbs of the Fourth Conjugation in early Latin. 1 59 Early Latin has both -ibam and -iebam in verbs of the Fourth Conjugation. . ama-. the remaining forms are ^-Subjunctives. praeterite formation as that assumed for *b/w-am in amabam. 3. similarly a Present Subjunctive. audibo. The Singular in -am (for *-am) an ^-Subjunctive .

reduplicating latter was the sci-cid-l. xiv. A. The special phase of the strong form appearing in the Singular was that containing o or 3 (see the various Ablaut Series. (§ 92) . spepondi. e. Stem Formation of the Perfect. Only a few verbs have preserved e. reccidi for *re-{ce)cidi. .). (early Latin) spopondi. and explain the long vowel in the foregoing Perfects in other ways. early Latin scicidi). was lost in the root syllable. Several of the Indo-European languages. The Reduplication traces of its earlier presence are sometimes distinguishable. Greek. the root began with se. -epl{iox *e-apT) in coepi. or st appeared in the reduplicating syllable. mo-mord-i. vowel. have preserved with more or less fulness the original . In the same way represent an earlier *fepdi. Where e.g. *scecidi 2. consisted in prefixing egi for *e-agi epi. spo-pond-i . pu-pug-i. yet e. The Primitive Perfect. e. or st. in rettuli for *re-(te)tu/i reppuli for *re-pepuli . same in the Perfect as in the Present. It on the root but on the Personal Ending in the Plural. but the original forms with <?are often found in early Latin.g. In the Indo-European parent-speech the accent rested syllable in the Singular of the Perfect. repperi for fidi. memordi. ~emi for *e-enu. but the s sci-ci-di e.g.l6o INFLECTIONS. scidi re-i^pe^peri . as Sanskrit. the sc. edi for *e-edi . for *co- root ap- . was probably owing to these root primitive accentual conditions that the strong form of the appeared in the Singular. was assimilated to the root The vowel when the ste-fi. and the Teutonic. in Latin Some scholars refuse to recognize a Reduplication verbs beginning with a vowel. (ef. 207. e. — The Reduplication here it.g. 4123. pepugi. has disappeared very largely in Latin. the reduced form in the Plural. § 62 ff.g. sp. sp. fhefhaked CIL. di-dic-J. In Verbs beginning with a Vowel.

dental. iavi. v really belongs to the stem. 208. pupugi and compounds) -punxi . td-fjL€v ta-re ta-aai. movi. fect (in Some verbs have preserved both the true Per- and this Aorist Perfect. The Perfect is in 209. for example. and guttural mutes. The Perfect in -vi a new formation which has itself. e-Se^-a. 1 6 * but in Latin there has been a uniform ' levelling' .. Cf. latter in ce-cid-i. spo- pondimus . devel- oped in the separate history of Latin The -vi is origin of this suffix is not clear . tu-tud-i. borrowed from where such Perfects asfavi.g.fovi. p. in -si. (in compounds) -vi. ol5-e or Gothic vait vaist vit-um vit-u\> vait vit-un . Latin Language. e. The Perfect -si. according to one theory. by origin an Aorist which has passed over to the Perfect inflection. 1 solvi. of the mentioned. or the weak form has invaded the Examples of the former process may be seen in totondimits. is The whole subject too intricate for detailed consideration here. partly from the workings of analogy. pepigi and C. Cf Latin dix-i with Greek.1 CONJUGA TION.juvi. In most Latin verbs. 494 f. peperci and parsi . vovi. Ablaut of the root in the Perfect . either the strong form has invaded the Plural Singular. other formations have largely displaced both of those just This has come about. -panxi. The Perfect in which appears chiefly in roots ending is in labial. Greek oi8-a ola-da. See Lindsay. (the usual sequel). however. B. partly as the result of phonetic changes. volvi.

With this true Perfect were fused certain sigmatic Aorists. exui. Plural 1 vidl ? vid-i-mus ? 2. an . D. . plui rut. -vi thought to have been added to extended forms of the roots *gen-e-vi (root gen-).e.Aorist. 210.4. extend 103. Its diffusion was probably assisted by the existence of such Perfects as fui. (root dom-). From forms like these the category might easily itself. iinbui. In its inflection the Latin Perfect presents a mingling of Perfect and Aorist forms. is The Perfect in -ui is a development of that in -vi . The type of Perfect inflection existing in Latin prior to the fusion of Perfect as follows : and Aorist may be partially reconstructed Singular 1.g. The Second Singular and Second Plural cannot be conjectured with any degree of satisfaction. the following explanations can claim only a certain degree of probability. — for early fuvi (Ennius).1 62 INFLE C TIONS. *dom-a-vi § e. The exact determination of the details of this fusion furnishes one of the most difficult problems of historical Latin grammar . 212. The Perfect in -ui. whence genui. 213. 3. Inflection of the Perfect.y-Aorist i. European middle. These were to the originally unthe- matic. the endings were appended to stem without the 1 No attempt is here made take account of the Ablaut. and an -is. pluvi — The 211. etc. viz. indui. *vide *vid-ent (for *vid-nt) Of these forms vidt in the First Singular represents an Indo*void-ai. domui.

Perfect Hnsti. Probably was borrowed from the Perfect Third Plural in -~ere. vidisfi may have been may be a contami- nation of *visti (Perfect) and *vidis influence (Aorist). however. (= Latin -si) has been suggested The Third ing. 3.g. helped on by the of the Second Plural vidistis. though not at present well under- stood. The scansion -erunt. (for e) in -~ernnt of uncertain origin. Singular *vide early assumed the regular Personal Endvidit. 98. Greek oto-0a for */roiS-0a. In the Singular. vidi. explanation. evidence in favor of of -it in early this view is found in the regularly long quantity Latin poetry. Just what furnished the starting-point is for the formal fusion of the two tenses is not clear j vidistis in the Second Plural the Aorist form to e~ . help of connecting vowels these -is- 1 63 (§ 201). frequent in poetry. so is viderunt in the Third Plural. Perfect The Second *visti. of the other tenses. regunt. *vid-is (for *vid-is-s ) *vid-is-t *vid-er-ent (tot*vid-is-nf) 214. *vid-er-em (for *vid-is-m s 102. it amab-unt. /. involves The assumption of a difficulties. In Latin -tha after should become Influence of the Second Singular Middle ending *-sai . Cf. Plural 75. The Personal Ends ing of the Second Singular Perfect was -tha in Indo-European. First Singular. Perfect forms (§ 212). vidi-mus. which is certainly a different formation. with % -ent the analogy of other tenses. preserves the earlier quantity. are is difficult Active. \)*vid-is-mos *vzd-is-tis 2. I. .CONJUGA TION. This gave *videt. -ta. also of the First Singular ending -i. I. hypothetically reconstructed as follows Singular 1. like the First Singular). vidi has already been explained as originally a Middle which has assumed the function of the and the First Plural. Some have Some thought that in the true Perfect in Latin the primitive Third Singular was *vidi (a Middle form. is changed -u?it after e. The inflection of one of : Aorists may be . Singular vidisfi of Possibly the primitive form of the Second Singular If so.

the terminations of the Perfect Subjunctive had Hence. Present Optative. The Future Perfect. 3. the primitive inflection of the Present Optative of the ' to be. -itis. as Subjunctives. by confusion of the two formations. in the Plural. except in the 3d Plural. 7. -i- sometimes iv.1 64 INFLECTIONS. The Pluperfect Indicative in -eram seems to have devel: oped by proportional analogy videram : videro : : eram : ero. -it. which has -int instead of -wit. 1). In strictness -inius. suffix as already 98. which larly it regu- resembles in the other persons and numbers. The Pluperfect. the appears in the dederis. Horace.is is for a primitive *veid-is-o (§ 75. 217.g.' was : Singular 1. e. 215. is 216. probably owing to the influence of the Perfect Subjunctive (§ 219). 3) s-i-?nus s-i-tis 2. Odes. There were two Optative formations in Indo-European. in which the same Aorist mentioned in §§ 213. Thus root es-. In Latin probably only the unthematic is to be recognized. The inflection follows that of Presents in -o. 215. a Greek \v-o-i-fxi represents the for- mer. Thus videro -is. — Only a few forms occur. The thematic and an unthematic. -ie- The special -i- suffix of the unthematic Optative was in the Singular. Future Perfect. 20. (§ Owing 353). *s-ie-m (siem s-ie-s 88. Optative. type tive (Tra-L-rj-v the latter. all to the thorough fusion of Opta- and Subjunctive Optative forms are traditionally known 218. -is. 1 . Plural . -is. s-ie-t *s-t-nt (s-i-nf) . The Future Perfect Indicative an Aorist Subjunctive.

as illustrations above. we find siemus. The long vowel was in the regularly shortened in the 1st and 3d Singular and is 3d Plural.CONJUGATION. Thus the original inflection of ihderim *veid-is-ie-m *veid-is-ie-s *veid-is-i-mus *veid. and by gave development of Plural to 1 to e 75. where they occur. sietis.faxim. i by rhotacism before r (§ ie (§ 98. . 1). sies. -erim is Aorist Optative. *v~iderim. dii-U?i. 219. A trace of the long vowel in the 3d Singular found in Plautus. viderlmns. suffix ie-. are to be with the explained as the result of confusion Future Perfect is (§216). The after classical in- flection of the Singular. Hence viderimus. riolim. suffix -s. and the correct inflection videris. in early is Latin. 924. edim (edd. *viderit. is : common -itis. videris. — The so-called Perfect Subjunctive in by origin an Aorist Optative. this of Optative are l velim (for *vel-i~e-m. Mercator. sit.. this etc. videritis. Siem. after vel-i-mus). regularly appeared in the Plural. -is. 215. 1). and probably also The forms in -imus.is-i-tis *veid-is-i-nt *veid-is-ie-t By change the regular *videriem. the analogy of siem. malim. in the 2d Singular. but was retained in the 1st and 2d Plural. : which is further appended the Optative was i- (§ 218). The weak form Other of the root. of ei to 1 (§ 82). etc. sis. adduxerit. formed the analogy of the Plural. Another Aorist formation was by means of the of -is-.in place This is seen in dixim. ausim for earlier *dic-s-te-m. eat '). sie?it after Similarly in early Latin also etc. But the of the Singular giving was early changed after the analogy of the Plural. siet 1 65 are common sim. suffix -is- The tense is formed by means of the Aorist to already mentioned in §§ 213. possim.

to Subjunctive. * audiam. -s- There are two formations. audi-r-em for * audi-s-em. ament. come to rank as 3. 1). audiam. Traces of the original quantity are preserved in Plautus. 2. faciat. reg-e-rem for reg-e-s-em (§ 98. both a) Aorists in origin Without connecting vowel. characterized by the suffix a the other is and belongs the suffix e. would have ~e given *amam. etc. jam) the reg-a-m. the a has become regularly shortened. 222. vellem for *vel-s-em (§ 106. The 220. e. 489. Examples are : ess-em. which would have resulted from the ^-formation here . 208.g. For the e in amet. are be recognized. — Examples are moneam § (for *mone2. For the shortening of cf. ntone-r-em for *mone-s-em. earlier *regam f Singular. suffixes take the place of the thematic vowel of the corresponding Indicative formations. amet. 221. 3) ama-r-e7n for *ama-s-em (§ 98. A. both descended from Indo-European. 1.g. but traces of the original quantity are early Latin. * amat. which is an ^-Subjunc- tive) a Present Subjunctive of the ^-formation which has e. 2. etc. 3). an Indicative. ferrem. The so-called Future Indicative of the Third is and Fourth Conjugations (outside the First Singular.. b) With connecting vowel. audi-e-s. § in *•anient.Subjunctives. Famulus. The Imperfect Subjunctive also belongs here. Two formations. e. In 3d and 3d Plural also. *ama-ja-m.fer-e-s.g. One of these is . to the Present tense characterized by and appears not only Both these in the Present. * amas. 88. preserved in Plautus. . 221. but in the other tenses as well. see § 88. Anient (for *ama-fe-ni) evidently has preferred this type. 1) . E-Subjunctives. . to avoid the identity of Indicative and Subjunctive. for *fer-s-~em (§ 106.: 1 66 INFLE C TIONS. Curculio.

audite. not a Future the Future force -tod is is a special development of the Latin. bears in general meaning a strong resemblance. simply a pluralization of the Singular is The Third Plural termination -nto new formation i. is — The a termination of the Second Plural -tote -to. too. — This . 1 6/ The : Pluperfect Subjunctive vidissem : may be : the result of proportional analogy vidisse : : essem esse. 223. Originally this formation Strictly. mone (for *mone-je). that Present. fer-te. audi (for *audi-je). 4. (Indo-European ending of the secondary tenses) to the stem. 225. be analogous to the Vocative. in id of the Third Conjugation follow diic. ieg-e.g. fac. by dropping off the final short 224. to The Imperative. is Future. this — The most probable view the is which regards form will as consisting of simple stem. — The Stem. -to. Second Singular. ferto. 226. Verbs e. Second Plural. i-te. esto. es-te. was a Present. Active. Singular force. face.g. termination ito. e. violatod. : Exam- ples are i. appended to the Present e. it had Plural as well as . Second and earlier -tod. Present. The ending preserved in early Latin. etc. (cf. Second and Third Plural. § 225) after the analogy of the relation existing between the Third Singular and Third Plural of the Present Indicative. is formed by adding -te e.e. legifo. es. A.CONJUGA TION. the root class (§ 203. 2).g. monete. Future. fer are probably e. datod. cura (for * cura-je). The Iterative. Die. Third Singular. duce.g. legite (for * lege-te § 73. 1) for dice. which it then. fere cape. sunto : esto : : sunt ' est regunto : regito : : regtmt affiant : regit amanto am a to : : : *amat . amate. licetod.

— The for Indo-European Latin -s endings were -si (primary) and -s (secondary). etc.g. 2d Singular.1 68 INFLECTIONS. The Future forms are the result of appending the Passive -r (§ 235) to the corresponding Active forms. the tion of the Imperative. The Second Plural probably an old Infinitive which has taken on the funcCf. may be either for *kg-e-s or 1 The endings of the Perfect Indicative and of the Imperative have already in §§ 211 ff. see 202. 1 A. 228. . amabam. with the suffix -men. 230. or original *-si vowel. The Present. 3) . Xeytfxevai. 229. ger-meji. hrov. ger-mini. and Future Perfect Indicative. -o appears in the Present. may represent the final short secondary ending. e. may have lost its example. Elsewhere in the Indicative and everywhere in the Subjunctive (including some original Optatives) -m appears.. Dat. 227. Future. 1st Singular. essem. while -mi was the termination of the gation. B. Unthematic Conju- Secondary tenses had -m only. so that * leg-e-si. The Personal Endings. legis. sim. 6) corresponds exactly to Greek in -mini is e7re(o-)o. so that Latin seque-re (for * seque-so . been considered 223 ff. — In the Indo-European parent-speech -o was the termination of the primary tenses of the Thematic Conjugation. Active. Passive. — The Second Singular ending -re repre- sents an original -so. Homeric use of the Infinitive as an Imperative. § 76. amaveram. § Latin shows no traces of -mi (on sum. According to this view Latin legi-mini = Greek both forms being originally the Dative of a verbal noun Cf.

-d. in Italic is its wide applica- found only in the family. In the Italic languages -nit became this dis- while -nt became Oscan and Umbrian preserve tinction. -t fecld. sied } on the other hand. to earlier *-mos. — The only ending appearing — The Latin ending i in Latin is -mus. but in Latin *-ns has disappeared.g. -t — The . 1 69 -ti 3d Singular. 2d Plural. One thing is is with per- Latin r does not arise from the reflexive se as was formerly held. In general the Latin Passive an outgrowth of 1st Singular an earlier Middle. endings were -nit (pri- mary) and -nt. Indo-European Apparently endings were (primary) and (secondary) Cf.CONJUGA TION. The distinguishing characteristic of the Latin Passive is the presence tion. 1 for early Latin. 235. being everywhere supplanted by -nt (for -nti). the Sanskrit ending -re of the fectly certain : Some have connected it Perfect Middle. 1st Plural. and Keltic groups of the Indo- European Its origin not yet sufficiently clear to warrant an attempted explanation here. in the earliest Latin. B. -lit — The Indo-European -ns. . The and -/ closely related Oscan dialect exhibits this distinction of -d assumed 232. '& s bor- rowed 234. This formation. is of final r. Passive. which seems to stand in Ablaut relation (§ 62) Greek 233. With the exception of the to and Middle forms are seen have been at the basis o f the developed inflection. fhefhaked. -it's probably stands for -f -te Indo-European ending of the secondary tenses) either from the 2d Singular or the 1st Plural. became and very early supplanted the -d of the secondary tenses. early -ti. (the -pes (dialectal). had become feced. 3d Plural. inscriptional forms. -t e. 231. st Plural. (secondary).

Infinitive. Asinaria.g. analogy of legimini. the Passive regor (earlier -or. loquar. — We probably have here a periphrastic formapresumably stand for legiminl estis. legemini. 1 is INFLECTIONS. — Where the Active form ends in -o. amabor. The ending -s. -r. — This is in origin a Middle. formed with the Indo-European ending *-so. as in other Indo-European languages. This was possibly the result of an effort to distinguish the Indicative 2d Singular from the Imperative. the Active ends in the Passive has r instead of amabar.fateor. 559. 62.g. legerlmirii are all secondary.g.1 70 236. — The origin of the 3d Plural in -n tur is too obscure to be considered here. 3d Singular. 1 st Plural. in legimini. formed 241. 237. -in. termination of secondary is Thus sequere for *seque-so (§ 98. Infini- In Latin.. 2d Singular. Cf. a Middle Participle of the same type as Greek Xeyo- This formation must have originated in the Present Indic. which legimini fxevot. Greek e7re-(cr)o. Where amer. is etc. Ittov. 2d Plural. the tenses in the Middle. st Singular. after the legamim. — The origin of the 3d Singular in -tur is too obscure to be considered here. 1). e. 238. 2). -s of the Active ending -mus we have the Passive 240. Amphitruo. — In place of regimu-r. e. -in. The originally long vowel before -r sometimes appears in Plautus. 239. (§ Thus sequeris for *sequere-s 73. ative legebamifft. -or. § 88. e. 3d Plural. tion .g. 2). e. the tives are oblique cases of verbal nouns which have become stereo- . The 242. -ris arises secondarily from -re by further appending the ending of the 2d Singular Active.

215). A.g. but an Infinitive. vid-is-se. Gracchus. After the analogy of periphrastic forms. e. ferri for *fer-s-~i. cited by Gellius. audiri. dicturum into subsequently came vogue (though the form with rise esse never came to be predominant) and thus gave in -urus. esse 7). § Present. 139.e. as though from a -si). where dictu is Supine. vel-le 244. though lost in Latin.CONJUGATION. *reg-os. — Such forms as reg-'i. -is- Perfect. The foregoing explanation ac- cords excellently with the use of dicfurum and similar forms without esse and (in early Latin) with a Plural subject. The form has been plausibly explained as being contracted from dictu *erom. (C. 'will say this' 'I believe my enemies are for saying this. such forms as dicfurum esse.g. fer-re. ?noneri. -a. . was apparently suffix. This Infinitive pre- served in Oscan and Umbrian. e.e. 2).g. Active. to be about to say' (on dictu see § 252. and *erom (for *es-om. e. typed by usage. Present. 171 cases have contributed The Dative and Locative most largely to this category. 243. etc. Other verbs append the Dative ending to -^-sterns. 246. so curart. -um. Unthematic verbs appended -se (for for *ve/-se. Nom. — This -es-.g. credo inimi- meos hoc dicfurum.' i. § 98. Passive. — The — In Locative -se (for si) is appended to the Aorist stem (§§ 213. esse. it is probable that originally dicfurum was not a Participle.(-esse). 1) is the old Infinitive of the root es. 245. force of dictu The ' original *erom would be ' to be for saying/ i. Future. e. for */er-se. cos i. to the Future Active Participle B. in origin the Locative of ?-eg-er-e a noun with an *reg-es-i (§ -os- Thus for a primitive 141). for *cura-es-i.. dic-i are Dative forms.

g. 1) in ab-sens. Perfect 250. prae-sens regens for *rege-nt-s. duc- tentus for *tri-tos (§ 102. tanger for tangere.g. e. t. suffix was -tus. *ej-o-. 1). No Passive signification originally attached . dic-tus. Some -ere. 172 Cf. became appended also to some guttural and liquid stems. (§ — The here . ss or s arose phonetically (§ 108. — Periphrastic forms its are used here. suffix Present Active. 1). 247. sessus for *sed-tos By an extension this spurious ending. colloquial Latin. § INFLECTIONS. dictum The latter consists of the Supine com- bined with the Passive of eo in impersonal use. is — The origin of the termination -endus. — See Passive. is -nt-.g. earlier -tos.sus. e. The Gerundive. 251. -undus not yet determined. -sens for 102. — The § 245. and similar forms might represent Passive Infinitives with an added Active termination. ap- pended tus. Future Active. e. *-s-nt-s Participles. of unthink that -er represents The Passive Infinitive in -ier (archaic and poetical) certain origin. 249. pulsus. from the Locative The is dif- ferentiation into Active and Passive meanings was purely arbitrary.g. originally to the weak form of the root. The oblique cases of tens are formed from the stem eufitis for *ej-o-ntis. Active ending This seems to have been biber for bib ere .g. fix us. itself to these Dative Infinitives essentially at the outset they could not have differed Infinitives of the Active.. tap. The 248. dictus esse. 243. . e.g. e. ended in d ox -sus e. the fairly apocopated frequent in Agier. Where the root e.g. Perfect and Future. therefore. iri. usus for *ut-tos.

Gerund and 252. I J3 Supine. 163). might easily give larly 2. — The Gerund probably a developas virtus colenda est ment of the Gerundive. — The Supine in -um suffix -tu.. 1. The Supine. while simi- patriae defendendae causa might generate a d~efendendi causa. is an Accusative of a is Verbal noun formed with the the Supine in -u § a Locative formation from the same stem (cf. Such expressions colendum rise to a est (impersonal).CONJUGA TION. is The Gerund. .

Bene and male -0 (-for result from the operation of the Breves Breviantes' law (§ %%. early Latin suprad. Thus i. — These result from various syntactical usages.g. extra.. juxfa. Limit of motion. Ablatives. 3). Adverbs in -od . 254. e. clearly Ablative in form. 2. e. Locative.g. Cf. plurimum. Cito and modd result from the operation of the 'Breves Breviantes' law (§ 88. ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS. etc. AD VERBS. citra. comparatives. 3). (for -Id. aliquid. and Instrumental. — Here -~e belong § : Adverbs . 255.g.g. fortius. See especially Lindsay. Cf. vicem.g. /nul- lum. e. Ablative. 3) . e. continud. § 118) from ^-sterns. case-forms which have become stereotyped as the result of highly specialized usage. 253. x Adverbs are. in foras. in the main. pulchre. exstrad. 2 . supra. chap. 1 Many words. etc. 3. § 310. 1. Accusatives. § 130) from ^-sterns. sane ' certissinie. : Accusative of Result Produced (Gr. 'infra. early Latin meritod. Adverbs in -a (for -ad . 130) from <?-stems. cerfd. The cases most frequently thus employed are the Accusative.g. e. § 176. ultra. supi'a. e. Latin Language. apparix.CHAPTER VIII. and other Appositives. facile.. 2. contra. 174 . partim. pl'erumque. 3.

Prepositions are in the main Adverbs which have come to have special uses in connection with certain cases. — Here belong : sponte. /oris. e. 257. hunii.5- 256. illi-c. i. qua. 1 See especially Lindsay. ently 1 75 became Adverbs through the medium of Instrumental conCf. 'in the dark. 259. 1 260. . repente. saepe (originally. Originally the cases alone sufficed for denoting relations. . Ju-c. isti-c (§ 197). denuo for ae novo (§ 103. prorsus for proversus.PREPOSITIONS. 258. nfilitiae. Locatives.' 'with the beat'). via). e. Some breviter have thought that Adverbs in for breve iter.g. meridie die crastim . numerd.' 'rashly') nominal Adverbs 2. Historically they belong to a relatively late period in the development of language. 173). nocfu . Many adverbs . ed. . Even a few Nominatives have become Adverbs. latin Language.g.g. Cf. eadem {sc. belong here. music. etc. ix. rursus for reve?'sus . belli. temere also the Pro- (originally. vesperi. 'promptly' (originally a musical term. adver- sus . heri. the requisite definiteness of meaning came to be expressed by various Adverbs. postndie (§§ 126. structions. § 34i. but as greater precision became necessary. forte. etc. ultimately crystallized as Prepositions bial yet an independent adver- usage often remained. German kurzweg. recta. which .g. — 'with the e. : True Locatives. 'with frequency'). e. — Here belong e. PREPOSITIONS.' and so 'blindly. donii. 4) ilico for in *stloco (§ 89) -iter also admodum. chap. e. were originally phrases. Instrumental.g.g. Ablative in Locative function. una. .

in phrases before voiced for consonants p became abdo for *ap-do. 2. probably the Genitive ending in weak form subs (§ 138). The Oscan and Umbrian show greater latitude than Latin. whence by the side of £v . seen in pond for *po-s-{i)no (§§ 92. also Greek by the side of Ik. than of Greek. A form of *apo with aphseresis of the initial cf. Po- also possibly appears in po-lio (root //-. Prepositions enjoyed later. obsAttic cU. and ultimately the form with b supplanted that with p. § 105. Au-. It appears in Latin only in aufugio. au-. ultimately.g. a/x<f>is d/x<£t. off. probably merely a dialectal variation of ab. 2). A seems to have (for developed from abs in compounds. 89). in amplify- ing prepositional and adverbial formations. however. and then to have detached itself as a 'by- form' of ab.g. po-situs. most of them became This is restricted to combination with particular cases. cf. seen probably in ap- erio. abs. an element frequently employed Cf. considerably more latitude of usage than being freely com- bined with almost any oblique case . Cf. avello from *asvelio *abs-vello. from ob . e. truer of Latin. period of their employment. A form af found in early inscriptions and occasionally It is of uncertain origin. abs. Abs is formed its from ab by appending -s.1 76 In the earlier ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS. 4. for example. ic-. *ave-fero by Syncope (§92). ab. By loss became and in Latin ap-. 261. A. ex ( = ec-s) from (in suscipio for * sub-s-cipio . etc. ab. 1. § 105. and auferd for *ave-fugw. 'rub polish. . abs go back of the final o. Sanskrit ava. auspex for *av(i)spex. ev<?. by the side of e. this to an Indo-European * apo. augu- rium. is where the older also freedom quite apparent. ab gene re *ap genere. Greek a-rro. 1) e£ from sub. goes back to an Indo-European ave. vowel is po-. is It-no). A.' later. But in composition b. 3.

3.' On the final -s of see 261. cis. De is obscure in its formation and its relationship. Clam evidently contains the root of is celo. sub ter.to co?n- not clear. 271.^). is Ar- probably of dialectal origin. circus circum the Accusative Singular. ' to be Indo-European *apo (§ Circum.PREPOSITIONS. ring. citra are § from the root ci-. arfueruntj arversus . is Ante for *a?iti. They can have no connection with Greek work.g. § The relation of co. Cis. Com. 261. Citra has the comparative suffix (§ 181). On the formation. see § 255. propter. inter. — See §58. also ar-biter. is uncertain. 264. supra 255. 266. Erga. circa. 2. 265. ' conceal. 3. Ambi-. 270. 262. circiter are .' The formation 269. Greek a/x^l. 263. 268. formation. e. — See 255.(cum). 267. avrt. used late first as Adverb. ' all connected with the noun is circle. 'this. Contra. In early Latin inscrip- we find a form ar-. circus. 272. 2) with Apud seems an appended d. Circiter probably contains the Cf. Comparative suffix -ter (§ 181). arcesso in classical Latin. Greek probably an old Locative. . is probably an old Locative. 3). ergo are obscure in etymology and (f)epyov. . used before / and v in composition. later as Preposition circa is probably a (§ formation after the analogy of extra. tions i JJ Ad is cognate with English at.

yet op. The form (§ ob has developed from *op. a Locative formation kindred with Greek (§ to which it stands in Ablaut relation 62). is seen in early Latin is en-do. Post. exactly as ab • from *ap is 261. indu-gredi. a Superlative of jugis. Jiixta ' is from the stem juxta-. formed from 181. words. On the final s of ex (=ec-s). Infra. Ex.' For the case-form. 274. 2. Ob is from an Indo-European k-rr-i. connected. 275. 279. On the case-formation. see § 225. Extra is formed from ex by means of the Comparative suffix tero. f7in- diftis. The original form of the Preposition Ivho-Ot. inferns. 'iv-Sov. Greek h. *posti.' ' continuous. and preserved in Oscan. Intus contains the same suffix as seen in dnnnitus. ind-oles. Cf. (indi-) Cf.(§ 181). 3. see § 255.g. intra are . ec-.1/8 273. 3. e. apparently goes back to a Locative .probably appears in op-erio. in by means of the Com- parative suffix -tero- §§ 278. § ef-. Cf. 2. Greek Another form of endo indu- seen in indi-genus. Per is for an Indo-European *peri (Locative). ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS. 281. 2). 277. irepi. 3. early Latin poste. Greek 282. 280. and in several early Latin e. 276. see 261. etc. *ofi-i. Inter. In is the unaccented form of Indo-European *en. 255. 3. and see § 255. See § 105.

prS-. is *upo. praeter.(§ 100. forms. Propter bears the same relation to prope as inter to 286. proficiscor). sed-. s is Greek (with irregular The viz. inter. porrigo. seen is in prodesse. may have been so-brius. 284. lit. Sub. On subter. v-n-o — The Indo-European form rough breathing). may repre- 289. 283. but Por-. profugio. see § 261. initial 'ks. 179 — Prae is very likely a Dative from pra-. the d of red- is of uncertain origin.PREPOSITIONS. . explained as containing a reduced form of ex. 2). red-. profteor.. early Latin . Prae. Praeter bears the same relation to prae as inter to in. pro dire. with which the above words are ultimately connected. chiefly before e. Se-. not original.(weak form of per-). 'following' 288. — Pro and pro were Indo-European only in 'by- In Latin. so that *{k)sup would represent the primitive formation. an extension of pr.g. Cf. e. etc. Cf pro(d) from pro-. etc. Cf. f (e. an Ablative formation sent the Ablaut of se-. in por-tendo. — Prope is is for pro-\-pe.g. Re-. seen in so-cors. 285. probably borrowed from retro(d) or red-. subter to sub. Secundum an Accusative from secundus. all weak form of the root per. so-. 2. Prope. in.g. subter. — Reis the earlier form. polliceor (for *por-liceor) may represent pr-. cf. por-. quip-pe. protego. preserved in seditio. 287. pronepos) is The d of prod-. propter. (sequor).' Pro. but also elsewhere . For the change of/ to b. pro- appears composition.

Uls. Versus. olle. . etc. Tenus is probably the Accusative of an obsolete tenus. 'that' {cf. i. 2. versum. penetrare originally trans flumen niilites duxit meant he led his troops. *uper. § 195). 'a. — Super goes Supra back to an Indo-European breathing). On tra. -eris. Trans is probably the Present Participle of *trare seen in .} see § 105. — See § 258. 293. intrare. ultra from root ol-. lit. are the pendants to cis. crossing the river. same relation to super as intra to inter. supra. ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS.' root ten-. Greek v-n-ip (with irregular rough sustains the For the initial s. Super. Cf. 294.180 290. stretch. see § 289. 292. citra. 291.e.

1 See especially Brugmann und Delbruck. (from trWcd. 1900. Paris. of the Cases. Hannover. 1 Ausfuhrliche 878. iii-v Grammatik. Schmalz. kXtjtlkt]. 1 THE Names 295. Grammatik der Lateinischen 3d edition.' change' or de- and was accordingly ' first employed to denote the oblique cases. primarily denoted a viation. Dative. 2 vols. SoTi/07. therefore. was not at the outset a though early came to bear this name. Nominative. yevLKrj. Grammaire Comparee du Grec du Latin. which was a translation of the Greek word 7nwts. 1 {Vergleichende Syntax. 88 1. Accusative. Vocative. 1 ii. -tttuo-ls. as a grammatical term. CASES. 2d edition. Kiihner. Genitive. Paris. 1888. aiTLaTiK-r}. London. ii. 4th edition. Latin Gram- 5th edition. 1900. IX. Munich. Riemann. ii.CHAPTER SYNTAX. as being deviations ' (7n-wcreis) from the Nominative. vol. vol. Historische Lateinische et Riemann et Goelzer. Strassburg. 1899. The English word case comes from the Latin -m-wo-is ' casus. mar. 893-1 900. 1878. The Greek names ovo/iao-TiKi] (sc. Klassischen A/tertumswissenschaft. Historische Syntax der Lateinischen Leipzig. TrTwo-t?). 181 . Roby. Grundriss der Vergleichenden vols. in Muller's Handbuch der vol. The Nominative it itself. Landgraf. Sprache. of the cases were : 296. ' fall). La Syntaxe Latine. by Delbruck). vol. Drager. ii. Gram?7iatik. Sprache.

The Dative was is called Sotlk^. 'the case of giving. time (90 .' i.ai.1 82 SYNTAX.d.' though this simply one prominent function of the case. and obliged to coin a for this case . uncertain just duced. is The significance of the term ya/1/07 it in dispute. of the thing caused Here again the name designated but imperfectly the For the Accusative indicates also the per- functions of the case. In translating yevi/oj by Genetwus the of source.' uses of the case.g. It probably meant 'the case of the genus.' 297. The Greek therefore ' had no Ablative.' tons of earth. misled doubtless by the frequent use of the Greek was Genitive in that function. they Romans were named it Ablatwus. became the Vocafivus. the Greeks intended to designate this case as the 'case of (clItul). as though accuse. The Romans (sc. love ofpare?its. ~K\-qTiKr) means 'calling case' or 'case of address. new term viz.). This designation was accurate for certain . 'fskers of'men . effect. airiariKTJ AiTiaTt/07 rendered Accusafivus. falsely Aon/07 became Dativus.' is But the usual meaning of against this view. KXrjTLKrj were derived from atTiao/x. became No7ninativus casus) . fairly the case of taking away. those of the true Ablative but it ignored It is the Instrumental and Locative uses of the case (§ 331).' This view accords with the regular use of the Genitive to restrict the meaning of another it word by denoting the class or yeVo? to which applies. son or thing affected.e. Roman grammarians falsely interpreted the case as that or origin. tilian's when and by whom these Latin names were introThey had become established as current terms by Quina. In calling the Accusative cutultikt}.' or 'the generic case. e. in devising grammatical terms for their 'Ovo/xao-ri/oj own language simply translated these Greek names. to say nothing of other uses. so called because it The Nominative was for it was the case employed naming a substantive when meant yevtKo's was simply cited as a word. Some have thought 'the case of source or origin.

except the Dative of the Greek has in Latin. there has been much discussion concerning the original force of the cases both individually and collectively. in. fo-ca.se. comparative sively proves that grammar concluit Localism in the form in which Hartung held . — The chief representative of und Bedeutung. the Dative as the in-ca. in. nite sense concepts. he assumed that Greek and Latin there had been (in addition to the Nomi- native and Vocative) three cases. 299.se. Wherever more cases appeared (as in Latin or Sanskrit). while the Dative has developed new meanings. Dative and Ablative. according to the views of most investigators) that in language the development is concrete to the abstract. substantially the For that same explanation was given. who set forth his views in 1831 in a work entitled Ueber die Casus. he explained the Genitive as the from-ca. of Case-Theories. according to Hartung. these (' were held to be differentiations Zersplitterungen ' ) of the original three. The Localistic Theory. of which the has entirely absorbed the ///-function. It asserted that the original Indo-European case-system (apart from Nominative and Vocative) had cases. Hartung's theory has been styled 'through-going' Localism. from. the Accusative as the Latin.se. ihre Bildung Hartung started from the with the assumption (largely a correct one. originally been limited to three : which expressed the three natural space relations in the individual languages to. been differentiated into latter two cases. — that words later at the outset indicated defi- which came to be used in transferred meanings. from. in Applying this principle to the cases. Applying this prin- to Greek. Whatever may be true of the meaning of individual cases.REVIEW OF CASE-THEORIES. this was Hartung. one to designate each of the three definite local relations. 1 83 Since the beginning of the last century. Review 298. and ciple first to.

1

84
absolutely untenable.

SYNTAX.

is

A

case-system

of at least

six

clearly

distinguished oblique cases must have existed in the Indo-Euro-

pean parent-speech.

300.

The Logical Theory.

— Michelsen,

in his

Casuslehre der

lateinischen

Sprache vom causal-localen Standpuncte aus, pub-

lished in

1843,

endeavored to apply logical categories to the

explanation of the cases.

According to him two principles are

fundamental
ity.

:

1) Causality (including cause

and

effect)

;

2) Final-

Hence

in every sentence,

he holds, we must have a cause, an
as the case

effect,

and a purpose.

The Nominative he regarded The

expressing the cause, the i^ccusative the case of the effect, the

Dative as the case of finality or purpose.

Genitive
these

and
cases

Ablative were also given special treatment, though

were regarded as not essential
Michelsen's theory
is false

to

logical

completeness.
is

But

in principle.

Language

not founded

on

logic,

and any attempt

to explain forms of speech as primarily

identical with logical categories will probably always be fruitless.

301.

The Grammatical Theory.

— In

1845 appeared Rumpel's

Casuslehre in besonderer Beziehung auf die griechische Sprache.

This book was a protest against the Localism of Hartung on the

one hand and the logical theory of Michelsen on the other.

Rumpel asserted the purely grammatical character of The Nominative he defined as the case of the Subject,
sative as the case

the cases.
the Accu-

used to complete the meaning of the verb, the

Genitive as

the

adnominal case

or

case

used

to

complete

the meaning of a noun, while the Dative was used to modify the

meaning of the sentence
a verb,
to
it

as a whole.

Where

the Genitive limited
as

was explained as denoting an internal relation
relation,

opposed

an external

such as that denoted by the Accusative.

As Rumpel concerned himself only with Greek, he propounded no
theory of the Ablative.

THE ACCUSATIVE.
302.

l8$
better

Subsequent Views.

— Rumpel's theory shows much
is

method than

either Hartung's or Michelsen's.

Yet the gramDiscussion
cases are

matical theory of the cases
since Rumpel's day has

not universally true.
that while

shown

some of the
were

undoubtedly grammatical
tainly local.

in their origin, others

just as cer-

To

the Grammatical cases belong with certainty the

Nominative and the Genitive, the former as the case of the subject, the latter as

the adnominal case.

To

the local cases belong

with certainty the Ablative, as the from-ca.se, the Locative, as the
in-ca.se,

and the Instrumental,
Diversity of opinion

as the case denoting
exists as to the

association

with.

still

Dative and to

some
take

slight extent as regards the Accusative.
it is

If

we regard
;

the

Dative as originally the case of direction,
it

a local case

if

we
a

as originally used to

modify the sentence as a whole,
is

it is

grammatical case.

The Accusative
but there
is

usually regarded as simply
is

completing the meaning of the verb, and
a grammatical case
;

therefore classified as
for considering
it it

some warrant

as originally denoting the goal of motion, in
local.

which case

would be

See

§

311.

The
303.

Accusative. 1

The

distinction
§

between the Accusative of the Person or

Thing Affected (Gr.

175) on the one hand and the Accusative
is

of the Result Produced (Gr. § 176) on the other,

one of funda-

mental importance.

Other designations are often employed to

distinguish the two types.

Thus the Accusative of the Person or
But these designations are

Thing Affected

is

called External Object, the Accusative of Result
likely

Produced the Internal Object.

to prove too philosophical for elementary pupils.

German
'

scholars
'

employ

also the designations
1

'

Akkusativ des Affekts

and

Akkuthe

sativ des Effekts,

terms which might be advantageously imitated

in English,
x

if

our language only had the noun Affect.
§ 311.

When

For the original force of the Accusative, see

1

86

SYNTAX.
to the Accusative,

Greek philosophers gave the name atnariK^

they had in mind only the second of the two uses of the Accusative

now under
or, as

consideration,

viz.
it,

the Accusative of the Result

Produced

they designated
').

of the Thing Caused ('Internal
in transferring the
it

Object,' 'Effect

The Romans,

Greek name

of the case to Latin, should have rendered
as Caitsativus (a designation actually

by some such word

employed by Priscian) or
would have been accu-

Effectwus.

Either of these would, like the Greek original, have
{cf. §

been a defective name
rate as far as
it

296), but

it

went.

304.

The Accusative with Passives used as Middles.
§

— The
2.

treatment of the Accusative after Passive Verbs in Gr.
is

175.

a)

based on the elaborate discussions of Schroder,

Der

Accusativ

nach Passiven Verben in der Lateinischen Dichtersprache, Grossglogau,

1870

;

Engelhardt,

Passive Verba

mit dem Accusativ,
his Ausfilhr-

Bromberg, 1879; and the treatment of Kiihner in
liche Lateinische

Grammatik,

ii.

§ 71. b).

The

explanation of the
is

Accusative as Synecdochical
given for

{cf.

Gr.

§

180), which
It

sometimes

this construction, is

not adequate.
is

might explain

such phrases as ductus tempora hedera, but

irrational for

galeam

induitur, riodd sinus collecta, laevo siLspensi loculds lacei'td,

and

many

others.

On

the other hand, the interpretation of the Pas-

sive in

such instances as a Middle, and the Accusative as the
all

Direct Object, furnishes a satisfactory explanation of of this type.

phrases

Sometimes by an extension of usage the Middle
indicate that the subject lets
himself, or has
it

is

employed

to

some
Aen.

action be

consummated upon
his hair cut.

done.

Cf. English he
ii.

had

An

illustration of this is Virgil,

273,

per pede~s

t?-ajectus lora,

'having had thongs drawn through his
in

feet.'

For a few instances

which a Synecdochical Accusative occurs with Passive verbs,

see § 307.


THE ACCUSATIVE.
305.
tions
1

87

Accusative of Result Produced.
§

— The

different construc-

grouped together under Gr. Cognate Accusative as the

176. 1-5, are often referred

to the
all

original

from which they have
is

developed.
its

The Cognate
it

Accusative, however,
to regard
it

so restricted

in

scope that

seems better

as a subdivision of a
Cf.

larger category rather than as the basis of such a category.

Brugmann,
Tv-rrTeiv e'A/os

Griechische
{strike

Gram/natik
i.e.

3
,

§

439.

a wound,

produce a

who wound by
2,

classifies

striking)

and

vLKav vlktjv,

win a

victory, as parallel subdivisions of the gen-

eral category of the

Accusative with Verbs of producing.

306.

Accusative of Person Affected and of Result Produced
§

Dependent upon the Same Verb {Gr.
acter of this construction
sative of Result
is
is

178).

— The
e.g.

true

char-

best seen in phrases where the Accu-

a Neuter

Pronoun or Adjective,

fe

haec rogo,

id nie doces, the essential point being that the Latin was able not
only to say id doces (Ace. of Result)

and ml doces (Ace. of Per-

son Affected), but to combine the two constructions in a single
phrase.
in
It is a

misconception to regard the Accusative of Result
less the

such sentences as any

Direct Object than the Accusathe two Accusatives
is
is

tive

of the Person Affected.

Each of

a

Direct Object equally with the other.

There

no

essential differ-

ence between the construction of haec in haec me rogas and the
construction of haec in haec rogas.

In

many

instances the Accuetc., is

sative of Result with verbs of asking, teaching,

clearly of
fe

secondary origin,
celavi

e.g.

t~e

sententiam rogo, after

tl

hoc rogo;

sermonem

after fe

id celavi.

307.

The Synecdochical
little

or Greek Accusative

{Gr.

§

180).
Cf.

There can be
Quintilian,

doubt that

this construction is a
it

Grecism.

ix. 3. 17.
its

Some have claimed
who
imitate

as a genuine Latin

idiom, but

almost total restriction to the poets of the imperial

age and to the prose writers

them

is

against any such

1

88

SYNTAX.
The names
'

theory.
tive of

Accusative of Specification' and 'Accusathis construction.

Respect' are sometimes used to designate
it

With Passive verbs

is

better in most cases not to recognize a

Synecdochical Accusative.
usually be classed under

Apparent cases of the construction can
§

Gr.

175.

2.

d), but in some twenty inthat

stances in the Augustan poets
in

and in about twice

number

Lucan,

Silius, Statius,

and Valerius Flaccus, we must recognize

the Synecdochical Accusative with Passive verbs.

308.

Accusative in Exclamations.

— This construction
is

is

appar-

ently the result of ellipsis.

Just what verb
is

to be supplied in
is it

thought in particular instances,
rial

not always clear, nor

mate-

that

it

should be determined.
of the Infinitive.
is

309.

The Accusative as Subject

— The Accueum

sative as Subject of the Infinitive

an outgrowth of the use of
history of the construction
like jussi

the Accusative as Direct Object.

The

may be illustrated as follows abire, eum was originally the
was a noun
being:
in the Locative
to

:

In an expression

object of jussi, while the Infinitive

(§ 243), the force of the entire

phrase

a going (§ 351). But in course of time the eum abire came to be felt as a whole and as sustaining an

I ordered him

object relation to the verb, a conception which led to such expressions as jussit pueros necari,

where pueros could never have been
once the construction of the Accusaestablished,
its

the object ofjussit
tive

When

with

the

Infinite

became

extension

was

rapid.

Expressions like jussit pueros necari easily led to dixi
esse,

pueros necatos

whence pueri necati

esse

dicebantur and other

types of Infinitive usage.

310.

Id genus, muliebre secus,

etc.

1.

Id genus
it

is

clearly

appositional in origin, as indicated by the fact that

regularly oci.e.

curs only in combination with a Nominative or Accusative,

not

virorum id genus, but usually

viri id genus, viros

id genus,

etc.

published in 1845 § 3 OI )> contended that the Accusative served simply as the complement of the verb. It is admitted that . tuam vicem.9. while doubtless of the same origin as id genus. or thing. 'to for us two. e. virile secus. certain. — The appositional or prediho die sese excruciari meai?i cate origin of this phrase seems to be indicated by such early Latin usages as Plautus. 3. partem. find not only liberi muliebre secus. Holzweissig.' as an exchange Magnam ix. seem to point in that direction. yet expressions like Livy. as my substivicem. the female sex' (of children). Yet there have always been some scholars who have recognized the goal-notion as representing the original force of the Accusative. time. and that all the varieties of meaning. While it is impossible to prove the truth of this its latter theory. are but varieties of this primary function. have nevertheless in actual use. 311. such as limit of motion.' eum remittal nostrum lit. (</• — Rumpel in his Casuslehre. 1 89 Muliebre secus. accordingly regarded the this It is Accusative as a grammatical and view has been maintained by most subsequent all scholars. both simple and rational. person. Brugmann. Mostellaria. Original Force of the Accusative Case. let himself be tortured. 355. yet the arguments in : favor deserve consideration. maximam partem ad arma trepidanfes caedes opp7-essit. it must be admitted. is Gadicke. Rumpel case. duration of etc. advanced a stage beyond it We lit. Delbruck. direct object. — The appositional origin of these phrases v. very great. Meam vicem. advocated to-day by the leading authorities. 697. qici vicem possit pati. others. Hubschmann. 2. 'who can tute. and This theory. ' amborum him in return for us two.' Captivi. etc. 'children of the female sex/ 'children.g. are the following The antecedent probability of the existence of a case denotis ing to a place. ut release 4. maximam is less partem. 14 and 37.. They 1.THE ACCUSATIVE. but also liberdi'iim (liberis) muliebre secus.

rus. these languages the practical disappearance of the goal-notion in historical times would seem to indicate that as other uses de- veloped the original function gradually passed away. in starting with a concrete.I90 the parent-speech SYNTAX. It is The Supine become -um also shows this primitive this goal-use noteworthy that in post-Homeric Greek obsolete.se (the Locative) and afrom-ca. pessum dare.' tive may also have orginally designated the limit of the action of the verb. had an m-ca.se (the Ablative). so that a to-case might naturally be expected as the complement of these.' whence arose secondarily the notion of extent. Thus aedes struxit would originally have meant 'he per- . force.' whence secondarily 'he lived throughIn the case of the Direct Object. the Accusa- out twenty years. while the vestiges of historic times it in Latin indicate that in pre- had been more frequent. 3. to Thus the use of town as exsequias Ire. tangible meaning Language undeniably develops from the concrete to the abstract. As the and most obvious developments must be considered the Accusative of Extent of Space and of Duration of Time. domos. 2. processit Thus znginfi rriilia would originally have meant ' he advanced to the limit of twenty miles. point to a freer use of the in same kind in early times. mfttias names and of domum. of the Accusative had stands Post-Homeric Greek In both of upon the same ground as Latin in this respect. The goal-notion is shown by the testimony of those Indoliterature European languages whose reaches furthest back. 4. to this have been an extremely primitive force of Sanskrit case. denote the goal of motion. and the occurrence of such expressions Ire. The other uses of the Accusative may all be satisfactorily first derived from the goal-use as the original one. Similarly viginfi annos vixit to the limit of would have meant originally 'he lived twenty years. Thus and Homeric Greek exhibit the goal-meaning of the it Accusative. venum dare. There are advantages for the Accusative.

lit. formed an act of building. 'looking to the shoulders. 'I tell you ' this. which. 'like a god to the shoulders. The Dative probably of. so far as ). just asas the original sumed meaning of the Dative would originally have ' Thus 'I . 'I perform an act of seeing. however. as Delbriick. In that case the poetical construction of the Dative to denote direction of motion (Gr.' the shoulders are conceived as the thought limit to which the state- ment is referred. The 312. it appears in Latin. § 193) would represent the original meaning of the case. Spanish yo veo al hombre.' may be explained as originally meaning i. Some. regard it as a grammatical case. But it is much more dif- develop the notion of direction from the force of the It Dative as a sentence modifier than vice versa.' The so-called Accusative of Specification. 'ruin threatens us. meant tell this your direction so tibi ignosco. the similar idiom prevalent in certain Ro' mance languages.' 'as regards the shoulders. and think that originally like the so-called ficult to was a mere sentence modifier. least like is apparently a Grecism (§ 307 would be the Yet expressions obvious development of the goal- notion. the goal of which was a house. ' tibi hoc in died. as umeros similis deo.THE DATIVE.e.g. I see. It motion in the direction was accordingly a it localistic case. originally designated motion towards.' . to the man' = 'I see the man. lit. —The Dative of Indirect Object case. a very obvious development of the notion of direction. e. Dative. is Dative of Indirect Object. simpler to assume this concreter meaning as therefore seems the original one.' . the goal of which is a man.' Cf. very much Dative of Reference. 313.' larly video 191 Simi- hominem. I pardon you nana nobis inipendet.

g. It is SYNTAX. though admitting a Dative. The Indirect Object with Compound Verbs. meaning 175.' etc. Cf Gr. pounded with as to a preposition. the verb transitive {i.g. ich verzeihe Ihnen. — It is a mis- conception to suppose that the mere fact of composition with certain prepositions was the occasion of the employment of the Some- Dative ease. but meaning of the verb. obsequor. but this erroneous. on the other hand there is a strik- ing agreement.g. Modern German Cf. the verb becomes transi(e. ich glaube Ihnen.192 314. when come. does not differ from English and the other Teutonic languages in taking the Dative with these verbs . ich helfe Ihnen. when we come to examine the matter from the historical point of view. governing a direct object. Least of should the Dative be regarded as depending upon . making the compound incapable of e. times they tive) make 2. mire magistratutn. Indirect Object with Verbs signifying 'Favor/ 'Help. 315. ich traue Ihnen. therefore. essentially Prepositions when prefixed to neuter verbs often modify the previous character of the verb. e. and largely due to the loss of inflections original distinction impression in English.e. Latin. not a direct one. perlculis incurrit. But to in all these fact all the use of the Dative should be to the referred not the of composition.g. of the category under consider- ation were intransitive in Anglo-Saxon and in Teutonic generally. case. becomes only so far modified in admit an indirect object. and accordingly governed the Dative gives clear illustration of this. Sometimes also composition changes the char- acter of a transitive verb. More frequently a neuter Verb. whereby the between the Anglo- Saxon Dative and Accusative has become obliterated. and it then governs the Accusative a). so that the English ' Objective ' is As a matter of fact commonly many verbs felt as an Accusative.— a common many is conception that the Latin is peculiar in con- struing verbs of these meanings with the Dative.

316.' 319. Dative of Possession. — This is is simply a special phase of the Dative of Reference.' i. the Dative represents the direction of the thought as a whole rather than of the action in- dicated by the verb. The name is 'Dative of Interest' sometimes in applied to this construction ' somewhat narrower is scope than Dative of Reference. 318.e. Dative of Purpose. The Dative Reference is an outgrowth of the original It is notion of direction belonging to the Dative.e. Object. like the Dative of Indirect a perfectly obvious development of the original notion . quite untranslatable. The Ethical Dative. in fact. a somewhat less obvious development than the Dative of Indirect Object. the preposition. Thus in a sentence like nobis hosfes in conspectum venerant. representing as it does a somewhat weaker relation.THE DATIVE. 'Accusative of Disadvantage ' would be equally 317. is — This. It is fined to the Personal Pronouns. and is of 'we have lands. calling attention. ' 'I must do this. — often. ' The ' sub- division of the construction into Dative of Advantage and Dative of Disadvantage ' is also quite useless. meant there are lands. These designations tend to obscure the real character of the construction.' and hence ' less satisfactory. to what is merely accidental. ' A division of the Ac- cusative of Direct Object into Accusative of Advantage' and justified.' i. Thus haec mihi is agenda sunt originally meant reference to ' this is to be done and with me that this is true. as they do. 1 93 — an of error often propagated in the minds of elementary pupils.' Similarly it nobis sunt agri originally us that this is true. and rate category only because it entitled to recognition as a sepaits represents the Dative in most con- attenuated force. — These it are both developments of the Dative of Reference. Dative of Agency.

in Gr. ' was originally rei to sound the signal in the direction of a retreat publicae cladi sunt similarly meant ' they are in the direction of damage to the state. from life . depends upon the context. — The special kind of closer deter- mination expressed by the Genitive. to amare patrem. The 320. relations. Thus receptifi canere. sound the signal for a retreat/ . argenfi oratio. ' 'departure ~ira praedae amissae. There was no one type from which the others developed. The and use of the Genitive with verbs must be regarded as as secondary. but the Objective noteworthy as first exhibiting at times a wider extension of application than at belonged to it. Thus amor patris corresponds to metuere deos. Theoretically the Objective Genitive is used only with verbal nouns whose corresponding verb governs the Accusative. as opposed to a local. 'talk about the money. .e. therefore a grammatical.' These by however. are usually ' anger on account of the loss of the booty'. 321. Most of these Genitive is call for no special comment. etc. Genitive with Nouns. 'intercourse with men'. case. § 195 (excepting the Genitive of Quality) are equally primitive.' 194 SYNTAX. Genitive. and even from verbs which admit no Typical examples are excessus vitae. The Genitive is best regarded as primarily an adnominal i. but all of the varieties enumerated. case. consifetudo hominum. metus dedrum But by an extension of usage we frequently find the Genitive used with nouns derived from verbs which govern other case construction cases. 'to ' of direction belonging to the Dative. more accurately expressed means of prepositions. as originally It is used with nouns to define their meaning more closely. developed from its use with nouns by some association or analogy. : whatever.

1 95 — This seems to have been of second- ary origin and to have developed from the Subjective Genitive. — If the Genitive was primarily an adnominal case. 1903. however. just as original a construc- tion as cupiditas laudis.. As regards the construction with similis with the Genitive similis. Latin the Genitive is in Silver comparatively rare. In the earliest Latin This is we find similis construed only with the Genitive.Constructions of Similis and its Com- pounds. or of a governing word. probably Plautus's unvarying usage. Genitive of Quality. is probably merely one of chronology and not of meaning. Thus man. for example. see § 345. 324.' homo magnae virtuiis was probably the originally 'Virtue's In conformity with this origin. and as time goes until on the Dative gains the supremacy more and more. 323. which was primarily employed to designate qualities which were more or less transitory. — This is construction must be regarded as nouns. 322. Thomas M. its use with verbs must be of secondary origin. as opposed to the Ablative of Quality. The dif- ference. many fine-spun theories have been propounded to account for the difference between and similis with the Dative. primitive with that of the Genitive with Cupidus la?/dis. Later the use of the Dative begins to creep doubtless after the analogy of par and similar words construed with the Dative. Genitive with equally Adjectives. Case. and is due either to some analogy whereby the verb adopts the else to the ellipsis construction of a noun of kindred meaning.THE GENITIVE. See Jones. in. For a completer statement of the difference between the Genitive of Quality and the Ablative of Quality. Genitive of Quality- more commonly denotes a permanent quality. Baltimore. Genitive with Verbs. .

Interest and Refert. 328.' mine was expressed. Occasionally cri- 'he convicts Verres on the charge of avarice. is crimine. Macmillan. ing was probably as equivalent to aliquem and was construed with the Genitive on 327. 8 maiestalis crimine reum. 2 cecidere conju- 44. Thus pudet suggests pudor. vi. A Study in Case-Rivalry. rationis crimine .g. Annals. iii. Obliviscor followed the analogy of opposite Cf English differ with after the analogy of agree with. nomine. York. is quite analogous to patris est rem fa?niliarem For the Ablative Singular Feminine of the Possessive § with refert and interest. miseret. miseri- 329. paenitet.. paenitentia . judicio. Tacitus. 3. XIV. Paenitet. is Genitive with Pudet. co7'dia. With Verbs of Judicial Action the Genitive ellipsis is plausibly explained as resulting from an of the governing word. 326. . Thus memini was its memor sum. see 349. Genitive SYNTAX. L.I96 325. is probably the interest Subjective Genitive used predicatively. Reminiscor. C. Cornell Classical Philology.) New etc. — The Genitive here held depend upon the noun notion implied in the verb. felt — Here the verb of remindmemorem reddere. patris rem familiarem curare curare. Genitive with Admoneo. Thus Verrem avaritiae coarguit for to be regarded as standing Verrem avaritiae crimine coarguit. memini. being an Inves- tigation regarding the Use of the Genitive and ( Accusative with Studies in Verbs of _Re?ne?nbering and Forgetting. See Babcock. e. Vol. etc. to etc.e. 1901. Obliviscor. this principle. with Memini. — The Genitive here i. — With felt as verbs of remembering the use of the Genitive apparently comes from associating the verb with mentor. 14.

the Genitive. Thus we find from-uses. 1 97 — With verbs of plenty and is want. indiged after egenus. and -e- stems both the Ablative Singular and the Ablative Plural are true Ablatives. for portad'. Thus in ^-sterns the Ablative Singular is a true Ablative (e.' The 331. the true Ablative or fr07n-ca.g. where used. although they great diversity of function. Genitive with Other Verbs. 330. -e {e. viz. is § 118). Ablative. In the Plural of ^-sterns the so-called Ablative probably an Instrumental.g. The Ablative is a so-called syncretistic case. a case resulting from the fusion of more than one original case. i.se. employed after the analogy of its use with adjectives of plenty after this and wa?it. By the Romans.se. is etc. niilite) is In Consonant stems the (§ Ablative Singular in probably a Locative while the Plural forms ending in -ibus are true Ablatives. plemcs . last much rarer than the Notions so radically distinct could hardly have developed from a single original case.e. . b) Functions : The triple function of the so-called Ablative also points clearly to a triple origin of the case. master of.g. a) Forms : Only a portion of the forms designated as Ablative are historically such. The and Ablative represents three original Indo-European cases. same is true of ^-sterns as of ^-sterns. impleo. and zVz-uses (the others) side by side. e. thus compleo But with most verbs of construction. porta. indiged.se. the Locative or in-ca. The 141). the They were totally ignorant of its recognized its Ablative was felt as a single case. -i-. with-uses. syncretistic origin. In the -u-. of course. category the Ablative the regular Potior when construed with ' the Genitive follows the analogy of pofens. Evidences of the fusion referred to are found both in the forms and in the functions of the so-called Ablative.THE ABLATIVE. the Instrumental or with-ca. compleo.

Thus aqua lavare might have meant water ' originally either ' to or ' to wash in water.' i. a construction which in prose con- fined to narrow limits. — Despite wash with their radical differences of meaning. Genuine Ablative Uses. The or ' Ablative and Instrumental also have certain points of contact. ' they come with carts 'or 'on carts. Ablative.g. might be expressed either by Similiarly ' the Instrumental or the Locative. in a Caesare accusatus est the action was primarily conceived as emanating from Caesar as its source. Points of contact between less Locative and Ablative are naturally English expressions as ' much and frequent. the agent being conceived as the source . SYNTAX. — the Ablative. yet such to receive at the hands ' of and is ' from the from the hands of.' west.' etc. When the dissociation . 'he bears the load his shoulder' or 'with his shoulder'. therefore. etc. The true Ablative designated dissociation or the point of departure.' ' the wind is in the west' the wind show that even here contact was possible. Ablative.198 332. carris ve?iiu?it. ' equo vehi might ' mean ' to be borne on a horse on or by a horse . we call is the coninternal.e. to a certain extent occupied common ground in the field of thought. Thus Ira or ard'ere might ' mean either 'to burn with anger ' from anger ' . the Locative. lacte vivunt might mean either 'they live from milk ' by milk. is struction Ablative of Separation when the dissociation we call it Ablative of Source. 333. Causes of Syncretism in the Latin Ablative. and this circumstance ultimately led in Latin to a complete fusion of the three and to the establishment of a single syncretistic case. Instrumental. and Instrumental cases naturally possessed certain points of contact. . and Locative. from which the action emanates e. onus umerd sustinet. The Ablative of Agency is also a develop- ment of the true Ablative.' These examples all show points of contact between the Locative and Instrumental. is external.

incenduntur.' and so in similar expressions. 334. 336.' For a detailed discussion of the Ablative of Comparison. lents of plus minus. and this assump- tion is borne out by the repeated occurrence of xii. and amplius are used as the equiva- quam. however. the plus. etc. were urbes probably originally Thus amplius cities. The construction not frequent. and to a few stock phrases such as luce clarius.g. this An examination of Cicero's Comparison is orations shows that in writer the Ablative of mainly restricted to negative sentences. of the Ablative. of course. l etc.Construction after the Comparative in Latin. Macmillan. {Cornell Studies in Classical Philology. 'food days. The Case. minus qua?n. e. 1901. ' haud amplius.. K. appositional.) New York. — This is logically one of the and most obvious developments of the is sociative idea. Instrumental Uses 335.g. reckoning from honey as the standard. viginti incenduntur originally meant fired. for fifteen 43 quindecim durum alimenta. The Instrumental was primarily the case of association or with-case. amplius. to interrogative sentences imply- ing a negative. involves the assumption that originally a different order of the this type.. Vol. longius.' twenty (aye) more were This explanation. Ablative of Comparison. latins opinione. etc. minus. XV. When plus. 32. equitibus. this order.THE ABLATIVE. 1. 1 99 — This construction also reveals the original conception of point of departure. first Ablative of Accompaniment. not more'. no more. Ann. Tac. e. P. non amplius. with fifty horsemen. 222. Gr. words existed in sentences of viginti urbes. R. Thus melle dulcior primarily meant ' sweeter. 5 cum quinquaginta. being confined mainly to military expressions. . see Neville. Livy xxix..

pp. it should be recognized in a limited set of expressions Jungere. Thus in magna 'he speaks great impressiveness. ' mella vino miscere. Thus dat sonifu no one cele' magno stragem means occasions loud crashing brate dies . The with Ablative of Manner is another obvious development gravitate. — This ' construction also in a direct outgrowth of the sociative idea inherent * the Instrumental. it regularly restricted to abstract words. labore. seems better to recognize the primitive sociative force of the Instrumental. ment (which only to persons in connection with a verb of motion) the Ablative also sometimes denotes association. to mix honey with wine war * . etc. strictly applies — Besides the idea of accompaniin Latin.' 339. permutare thus with jungere. 64 rT. 7.g. assuetus. Ablative of Attendant Circumstance (Delbriick's ' Instru- mental § der Begleitenden Umstande is . all accustomed (lit. loquitur. he under circumstances of great sorrow. Vol. 195). bellu?n agricultura permutant. ' assuetus '). of the sociative idea. Ablative of Association. ' lust joined with ' crime . mutare. ' nemo mea funera ' let my obsequies with weeping exstinguitur ingenti etc. This construction was never common . . For a fuller discussion of this Ablative of Association. SYNTAX. ' Vergleichende Syntax. virtute. rather than the Ablative of Means. as is done in Gr. see Bennett in Transactions of the American Philological Association. yet .g. XXXVI (1906). lilctu. celeritate. miscere. 218. familiarized with toil In of these expressions and in it some others of less frequent occurrence. dignitate. . cone.200 337. 5 .' the 'impressiveness' was primarily conceived as an accompanying feature of the speaking. destruction in connection with a fletu faxit. 338. libido ' scelere jimcta. is 'Manner' differs from 'Attendant Circumstance' in that e. ' ' they exchange to toil ' for farming .

and this some cases With is idea is very prominent. service by means of something.. 3. construction bio cii77i is seen in Cic. to be closely the one hand and Attendant Circumstance on the and pronounced that it other.' Now in the case of opus. hostem telo percussit along with a spear. Ablative of Means. hoc usus necessary. de Sen.' etc. § 220.g. with the Ablative. pares autem vetere prover- paribus facillivie congregantur. 'help. necessus. the predicate . . deos precibus adorare. i. use of these verbs. self. est. the Ablative of Means 2.' Out of idea the notion of means or instrument developed secondarily.' relic of The formation would then be etc. a natural result of the Middle.' 1. fruor. this sociative Thus. in Yet there are few instances of the Abative of Means in which traces of the sociative notion are not apparent. ich brauche etwas. construction was probably the earlier opus is best taken as the Genitive of ops. The type is so definite deserves clear recogni- tion in our Latin teaching." 341. moribus. Ablative of Accordance. (§ 138). Another excellent example of the 3. 'according to the old ' proverb. 'this is we find usus used predicatively. earlier ' From the Cf.g. "birds of a feather flock together. smote his enemy. 'benefit one's 'enjoy one's is self. Manner seems in Gr. iitor. primarily 'he. need of something.' Besides the use of usus est e. 201 — The construction treated under mea senconnected both with Manner on viz. ' I use something. fungor.' reflexive. — The notion of Means is an outis growth of the idea of Association. vescor. 'there is In usus est aliqua re. notion of need arose secondarily. lit. sifis Ablative of tentia.' an outgrowth of the meaning. service. German I need something. With opus est the Ablative a secondary construction after the anology of usus est with the Ablative. 'to worship the gods with prayers. a Genitives of the type of nominus.THE ABLATIVE.e. e.' the Ablative was 'there is originally one of Means.' as notion of use the. 340. potior. etc.

such matters. same force is noticeable at times in Cicero 19. See Quid hoc nomine facias. — This construction seems to be one of considerable antiquity. explained the case in expressions of this type as a true Ablative. 230. constare. and later writers. Instru men talis. the use with contineri they explain as Locative. Ebrard's collections for early Latin. de Ablativi. Locativi. 3. L. I/istru men talis usu. and Delbriick I. and ii.' and adopt different explanations for the separate verbs. of.' meant 'this is of service. showed that the construction was ( rather Instrumental in origin. and to have developed this after the analogy of usus est aliqua re. It is in it view of theory of the origin of the con- struction that has been classed in the Gr. 'of service. 4). p. consistere.g.. be held together. consist of. est At the outset hoc opus 'this is necessary. With contineri. 4. p. Vergleichende Syntax. p. now Vergleichende Syntax. 296). and deserves recognition as . Ktihner and Roby also give this explanation for the Ablative with constare and consistere . The construction opus est aliqua re seems to be historically later than the predicate construction.202 SYNTAX.' {e.' secondarily Early Latin exhibits its many instances of this predicative use of opus in the original meaning. p. But prepositions are a very uncertain guide in Often more than one case relation . xliii.g. 5. ' But all three words originally it had the same meaning. as a subdivision of the Ablative of Means. the same verb is possible with and often a verb in its developed meaning takes it a different construction from that which Delbriick. de Or. however. This view is based upon the occurrence of ex with the Ablative with constare. regard the Ablative with all Some scholars three verbs as a true Ablative usage. Localis. quid me fiet? Delbriick in in his Ablativus. 645. Ablative of the Way by which. originally had. 248) adopts this view. Livy {e. Such is the view of Ebrard. seems unnecessary to hold together. 17 (published 1867). be composed the Ablative was probably originally one of Means.

L. the construction e.' way. 'that he might . but in It 203 appears not only in Illustra- several other : Indo-European languages.' With verbs selling .' and so on. 344. uno dil lo?igiore?n ??ie?isem faciunt meant primarily 'they make the month longer by means of one day. now the opinion of Delbriick (Ve7gleichende Syntax. equally conceivable.e. The Sanskrit often employs the Ablative mental origin sions as is in this On the other hand an InstruCf. Ablative of Degree of Difference. howl with pain. Ausfuhrliche Gra?n?natik. 343. the Sanskrit employs the the Ablative to denote this relation. Cf. of selling the price was not strictly the means of but .THE ABLATIVE. an independent type of the Instrumental. its — Cause • is sometimes referred to the this true Ablative for ard'ere origin. also Kiihner. Other Indo-European lanit guages also use the Instrumental to denote Cause. 291. 342. p. Ablative of Price. ii.g. reisen. outset. the — Price At the was in its origin a develop- ment of Means notion. reach Octogesa by way of the mountains' porfis erumpunt. . emit. While is impossible to prove that Cause has developed exclusively from the Instrumental conception. had the greater share in propagating the construction § such 126). yet least is it is likely that this case has at . such English expres- burn with anger. tions for the Latin are utjugis Octogesa?n pervefiiret. ' In accordance with theory ira meant originally to burn from anger. Latin. Ablative of Cause. green Instrumental as well as with envy. must have been confined to verbs of buying. leap with joy. 'he puellam vlginti minis bought the girl by means of twenty minae. — This seems an out- growth of the Ablative of Means i. Cf. fru- mentum quod flumine Arari subvexerat. German mit der Bah?i com- where the traveller is evidently conceived as keeping pany with the road.

The Ablative of Quality is an obvious outgrowth of the sociative force of the Instrumental case. § of tanti. of buying. 'he urges them to be of good courage. not sufficiently exact. its origin. selling. construction is A still further extension of the seen in its application to verbs of costing. Here the phrase immani corpoi'e can be conceived only as an Ablative of Quality.3) from verbs of valuing. to verbs of Cf- buying and Such a transition is psychologically easy. etc.g. Thus in a sentence like ' serpens glides immani corpore labitur. worth. ut bono animo quality is sint. which are the naturally mere outward permanent.' HS sex milibus constat. minoris with verbs of buying selling is the result of a transference of the Genitive of Value 203. 'dear.' as though the body were a serpent. also to the adjectives vilis. since a per- . limiting serpens . . On the other hand. 'it costs 6000 sesterces'. estimating. such verbs early came to take the Ablative construction.. our English I wouldn't give a penny for that (a phrase of buying) in the sense of / don't value that at a penny. and e.204 after the analogy of verbs SYNTAX.. pluris. it cannot be associated with the verb In conformity with denotes more or as in the first example. man of high purpose is in Latin vir magm animi.' the yet the Genitive could not here be used internal. quanfi. being . accompaniment of the tive in this But in course of time the Abla- such cases came to be felt as a modifier of the noun. asse carum. 'cheap' carus. etc. the original idea was the serpent distinct on with its huge body. 345. 'dear at a farthing. for while the quality 'a is it is transitory. the Ablative of Quality primarily Qualities less transitory qualities.' 'too dear. denotes accompaniment of an action are observation not The is sometimes made that the Genitive ititej-nal qualities. whereas the Ablative primarily denotes In the phrase hortatur external ones.' The use and (Gr. In way such expressions as acerba tuens immani corpore serpens became possible. ' internal .

Ablative Absolute. Thus helping in Plaut. passis eapillis.. Geo. Trin. Cf further scissa veste. see Edwards. Locative is This theory was suggested by the fact that the the case absolute in Sanskrit.. bodily characteristics are regularly designated by the For an excellent discussion of the Ablative of Quality.' also The Means conception may have assisted in the propagation of the construction. New York. however. 'with me as judge ' . Physical and Ablative. original construction was lost sight and the phrase as a whole came to be felt as a kind of loose modifier of the rest of the sentence (Ablative Absolute). 1900. 346. — This ' seems to be a develop- ment of the sociative force of the Instrumental. where ambiguity would not Genitive is result. V. See Brugmann. V. praesente 'with you present. 347. .' clothes torn. By an extension sometimes employed. p. Die lateinischen ff. 142 Others have regarded the Ablative Absolute as a Locative development. but ultimately the of.THE ABLATIVE. little That it fact. 'lame with his foot. would be of significance for Latin unless can be shown that the Locative was the case absolute in the Indo-European parent- speech. manent and not a passing of usage the Ablative is 205 quality is intended. The Ablative of Quality and the Genitive of Quality. but the not used to denote temporary qualities. But there is nothing to show that such was the case. the sense is: 'he lost his property (in connection) with me te him' . 'with and hair dishevelled. 13. to indicate permanent characteristics . so frequently me judice. Thus Helve Hi virtute praecedunt meant originally the Helvetii with their valor are superior' j so pede claudus. Prol. Ablative of Specification. Vol. Indogermanische Forschungen. to-ParHcipia. is — The Ablative Absolute trie construction an outgrowth of the sociative force of the Instrumental.' At first the Ablative in such phrases modified the verb of the sentence. rem paternam adjutrice perdidit.

and Accusative in Gothic there are traces of the Dative the Accusative. Greifs- 1877).. ' in the time of Servius reigning bello confeclo. origin would find the beginLoca' in l the temporal force of the . language seems to have developed its own case In Sanskrit we have the Locative. This last appears to be rare. The Locative seems at. rally fall into I. its literal' —These may be umeiro.g. explains bello confecto. Bombe as ' after the war having been tive to finished. and the dence points to an Instrumental rather than to a Locative origin. refers the Ablative Absolute to the true Ablative for its origin. modern German employs therefore. 1 . etc. known for Latin. : In ' force the Locative may mean a) b) c) in. Place Relations. this at the time of the war having been finished.' as premit altu?n corde dolorem.' 'near. chende Syntax. much less natural than the former.' as pharetrarti fert 'by. 183) : . if Bombe's theory were predominance we should expect a predominance of time-words in the early history of the construction. Moreover. From this meaning Verglei- notions on subsequently developed (Delbriick. there lar case. tive SYNTAX. to have designated originally the is space in or within which something the done. Servio regnante. wald. The Locative uses of the Ablative natu- two classes Place Relations and Time Relations. ' on. is As regards Latin.. p. 348. that of Bombe (De Ablativo Absolute. any particuevi- no anterior probability is in favor of The question simply one of evidence. 349. in Greek the Geni. But explanation seems Another theory. Locative Uses of the Ablative.. Those who advocate a Locative nings of the construction tive. but no such is found to exist.' But no such use of the true Ablais denote time after which true. e. .' as litore curvo exstruimus toros. 206 In fact each absolute. either literal ox figurative.' etc.

they are in suspense in their . Some recipere. I. a few ' phrases such as aniniis pendent. Some regard mea re has also r~efert equivalent to ex mea re fe?'t . it and conquer in battle is significant that the Sanskrit regularly employs the Instru- mental case. aliquem fecfo pugna vincere. . § 112. — The Ablative ' Singular Feminine of the Possessive with refert originally limited the re (Ablative of res. mea been explained as a stereotyped Dative (§§ 86. stare conventis . p. however. ' mea refert may have . but all of these easily admit interpretain the phrase tion as Instrumental usages. minds' {cf.. detector. 3. 174).e. the Singular aninii in aninii pe?idere) ' stare pro missis. But now in his Vergleichende Syntax. If the construction was Locative in origin. The preposition. 2. gaudeo. and even as a Nominative. Here belong. The same explanation is also to be preferred Instru- for laetor. recognize a Locative use in tenere se castris. originally i. 1 thing ') of refert.e. formerly in pronounced in favor of recognizing a Locative usage connection with glorior. manere promissis. 1. however. 'it concerns me.39> Delbriick In his Ablativus. lit. meant it bears towards my affair is (Goal Locative § 351). 1. this scholar regards the construction as Instru- mental in origin. with retention of the original long in a of the Nominative mea. 'to stand by one's promises. Localis (1867). In figurative uses the Locative function of the Ablative is restricted to very narrow limits. for mea re (s) fert. and in the classes of § words specified in Gr. etc. inasmuch we find this case used in Slavic with verbs of trusting. of secondary conseas being modelled on the construction with similarity of refert. in quence of meaning. Similarly with fido and confido an as mental origin is the more probable. P.' The use of the Ablative Singular Feminine of the Possessive with interest origin.THE ABLATIVE. 228. Instncmentalis. Refert and Interest. except in poetry and late prose. b i. 253. . is 207 usually necessary to express these relations.

frequency in the best prose of all The use of the Ablative to denote duration of tune. to is This use of the Instrumental denote duration of time would correspond to the use of the Instrumental to denote the way by which (§ 341. e. 141. Time Relations. 5. ford ponit (Ennius) loco collocare (Lucilius) certa parte reponunt (Lucretius). Examples in Latin are confined chiefly to the archaic . Thus. G. also occur in this sense. — Sanskrit and This is Greek both exhibit a goal use of the Locative. SYNTAX. are original Locatives. the result of extending to verbs of motion a conception primarily belonging only to verbs of rest Cf. the Third Declension.and <?-stems are more safely regarded as Instrumentals which have taken on all the functions of the Ablative. dorni. see § 256. is 26. The chief genuine Locative formations in common use are enumerated in Gr. and (by association with noctu) in diu.. . Plural formations in from a. but referred to an Instrumental origin. probably not rather to be a development of the time within which.g.g. e. periods. postridie (for posteri die). Locative included. Locative of the Goal.g. after he is among the Indians.. Formations in § -e of Sulmdne. eaque tota node continenter lerunt. — The transference of the Locative from is space relations to relations of time easy and natural. In this way arose the notions of time at which and within which. domi adveniens. Plurals in -ibus of the Third Declension are certainly Ablative in form. 351. § 232. etc. some B. period. Beside these we should probably recognize the Locative of an z/t-stem in noctu. pressions as quarfi die. e. On -Is die. humi. Genuine Locative formations. as the Locative of dies in such ex1. 5). 352. Surviving Locative Forms. 208 350. in English he went among the Indians. Caesar. which occurs with little i.

indicating that hiclinatio was sometimes used as an alternative designation. 1 The On the names of the Moods. The Greeks recognized TrpoaTaKTLKrj five ey/eAto-eis. 11. I. d7rape/x<^aTos (Infinitive). (Imperative). and was as literally translated 5. its employment in wishes. p. GramGram. pronuntiativus. VTroraKTLKrj (Subjunctive). precise. 17). see especially Jeep. probably following the tradition. Ey/oWi? 7rpo(TTaKTLKrj meant mood of command. : Diomedes (Keil. which the the Latin grammarians.. viz. 338) gives the heading De modis sive inclinationibus verborum. matici Latini. Vol. literally ' in- clination' or 'turn/ turn of thought. as meant mood of definite statement' (from 6oi£w.THE SUBJUNCTIVE.e. v 4. Lat p. It did not apply with accuracy to the Potential uses of the mood. 'bound. but "EyKAicns evKTiKrj was the name the designation was good for only a small portion of the uses of the Greek Optative. 1. lyKAto-is as modus finitus. to be Thus Priscian.V o\. . 2. defines modi as diversae inclinationes animi. varios eius affectiojies dei?ionstrantes (Keil. Neither of these 6/310-1-1*77 designations was ' however. o/awrn/oj (IndicaevKTLKrj tive). 1893 PP« 216-236. 'OpLa-TLKrj was variously rendered by the Latin grammarians or indicativus. The Greek name i. 353.' 'define. Leipzig. viz.' The Romans transferred is this designation to their universal designation for own language mood among modus. by the Romans modus imperativus. (Optative).' 'limit. of the Greek Optative. still Yet traces of the influence of the Greek designation are seen in the definitions given by the grammarians. Zur Geschichte der Lehre j der Redeteile bei den lateinischen Grammatikern. Hence definiUvus would have been a better name. 3.' 'state definitely'). 421. 209 THE MOODS. for mood was as ey/cAto-is. ' 1 Latin Names of the Moods..

p. — The Latin Subjunctive of the Indo-European the result of a fusion of two original moods parent-speech. Jussive. it But the name was a poor one. Lat. the Subjunctive and the Sanskrit kept early Optative. The 354.. Redeteile. less (cf. misleading. Greek and in Latin they them distinct in from each other. EyKXicrts v-rroTaKriKrj meant 'mood of subordination' and was the Greek designation for what we ordinarily call the Subjunctive. 1. the Subjunctive in wishes. special verbal forms recognized as Optative. and implied that these represented the original function of the mood. since applied only to the uses of the Subjunctive in subordinate clauses. They thus made 6. footnote course. but a single became merged characteristic meaning of each. Gram. Deliberative. 224. But it should be noted that the Romans never used the name it optativus to designate a group of inflected forms. 407). SYNTAX. II. . Origin of Subjunctive Forms. having no times used (Keil. It ignored the independent Volitive uses (Hortatory. Vol. Yet they somePriscian remarks ad imitationem Graecorum. as had no need of the designation modus it. mood endowed The following table with the indicates the origin of the different formations appearing in the so-called Subjunctive : . of the Greek original from which they were taken. as 3).210 Romans. the name narrower than whose syntacti- cal province J/ extended beyond what its title designated.With them viz. 'Axape/x^aTos infijiitivus was rendered by the Roman grammarians modus or infinitus. 7. Prohibitive). frequently by conjunctivus Jeep. The Romans names quite as translated woTa/m/o^ usually by subjunctivus. p. also the so-called Anticipatory uses. designated merely a syntactical use of the Subjunctive. is Subjunctive. the Greek evKTiKrj. optativus.

duim. ndlitti.e. 2. eg. while the so-called Future Perfect All of these is an Aorist Subjunctive (§ 216). Met him rise. 4. Original Force of the Subjunctive. . formations bear witness to a Pure Future force as having once existed in the Latin Subjunctive. All regular Presents.g. dl- rim. . particularly of the Homeric . etc. 2. (precisely like a Future Indicative) . amdve- 3. etc. = he will go. The connection than might at first of meaning between the Future force and the Volitive force of the Indo-European Subjunctive is much closer appear. possim. moneam. e. THE SUBJUNCTIVE. he is repre- sented as willing something over which he has control or volition hence the name 'Volitive' has been given to characterize use of the mood. regam. Yet it should be borne in mind that the so-called Future ero was . etc. and this may be traced to a different origin. velim. amem. or as Future. § 222. All Perfects. . § 219.. xissem. Subjunctive Forms. the Indo-European Subthat of junctive also possessed a second force. — pure futurity The Greek. All Pluperfects. but it is uncertain whether we should recognize In Latin the Subjunctive has a Pure Future force only in subordinate clauses. mdlim. amdrem. and may be interpreted either as Volitive.g.' power or authority on the part of the speaker. Presents in -im. . sim. §§ 221 f. e. All Imperfects. frequently exhibits this Future force of the it Subjunctive in Latin. e. = let him go.e.g. i. audiam. i. § 222. I.g. 3. dialect.g. in reality a Present Subjunctive (§ 205. amdvissem. Thus the English he's to go clearly stands on the border line between the two meanings. e. surgat This use implies a cerwill him to rise/ i. 3) also audiam. rega??i. F) this Alongside of this Volitive notion. viderim.. 2. etc. monerem. edim. § 218. — The Indo-European Subjunctive exhibits two meanings which seem to have been the source of a) all others : = 'I tain The Subjunctive expresses the will of the speaker. essem. 211 Optative Forms. e.

some one may ' crediderim. may he come is ! ' The element of power. is ' used to express an act as wished for by the speaker. the Indo-Euro- pean Subjunctive may be even though we are unable to determine their mutual relations. Some have regarded the Volitive notion as the original one and the Future notion started with the Pure as derived from that. e. Grundbe- 355. nor this is problem. 2 two functions as equally primitive and merely two phases (the Subjective and Objective) of the same thought. ' (Delbriicks Bedingte Zukunft). 1 Others have Future notion as fundamental and have Others have regarded the as representing deduced the Volitive uses from this. viz. probably impossible to explain satisfactorily the relation- ship to each other of these two uses of the Indo-European Subjunctive. and volition which characterizes the corresponding use lacking here. in of the Indo-European Subjunctive b) Alongside of the notion of wishing. as in the case of the Sub- junctive. Optativ im Sanskrit und 2 3 Griechischen. Original Force of the Optative. we find both in Latin Greek and another notion. veniat. p.212 It is SYNTAX. Notably Goodwin in Greek Moods and Tenses. authority. For the views of those who deny that the Indo-European Sub' junctive possessed any definite fundamental force (or griff'). The view advocated in the earlier edition of this book. see below. The two meanings of safely accepted. however. 'who would think? This 1 obviously a weaker type of Future than that belonging to the view of Delbriick in his Conjunctly 1 1 ff.g. 371 ff. that of a contingent futurity aliquis dicat. is ' I should believe' quis ftutet. a) Thus : The Optative e. has it commanded its extensive is likely to. . . but closely related meanings. say' . — Here we note two dif- ferent. Fortunately solution necessary to our purpose.g. 3 No not attempt to solve acceptance. § 356. This is und p.

that of positive categorical assertion and that the specific Subjunctive and Optative uses found in the various Indo-European languages are the result of selection in this wide attitude field. 384 ff. Subsequently (Altindische Syntax. just as in its 213 meaning of wishing the Optative expresses a weaker phase of thought than the Subjunctive. see the following section. to content ourselves with recognizing the existence of the various Optative functions. he apparently returned to his earlier view. p. p. the Subjunctive (in Greek). . 2. Tenses. Closely related to this of Bergaigne is that of Morris {American Journal of 1 But in his Vergleichende Syntax. . 57-73) urged that the Sub- and Optative alike originally covered the entire range of modal conception outside embraced by the Indicative. 1877. Thus Abel Bergaigne (De Conjunctivi quissima. .THE SUBJUNCTIVE. . 302) he has expressed the conviction that the wish meanings and Potential meanings are distinct in their origin. even though we cannot determine their origin and mutual relationships. 1 Goodwin (Greek Moods and original. junctive Paris. and derived the Potential uses from that. Some eminent syntactical investigators have contested the propriety of attributing to the Indo-European Subjunctive ' and Optative any precise narrow fundamental value (a Grundbegriff'). p.) starts with the Potential force as But scholars are far from agreed as to accepting any of It is safer. 41-50. force whatever (a 356. IV. The problem ings of the of the mutual relationship of the different meanis Indo-European Optative even more difficult than for the meanings of the Subjunctive. present at least. at these theories of relationships. Delbriick in his Konjunktiv und Optativ started with the wish meaning as fundamental. 373. For the views of those who deny that the Indo-European Optative possessed any precise fundamental 'Grundbegriff'). et Optativi vi anti- pp.

Iranian. 357. it represents with certainty only three of . Greek. so-called p. Optative.: Volitive >• all four of the original significa- Indo-European Subjunctive. viz.' but urges that the as moods have developed etc. . and Contingent Future all and from these three primary uses are to be derived existing Sub- junctive constructions in Latin.). but also in subordinate. may have been the result of development.. The existence. 116. Latin. The absence of the Pure Future use of the Subjunctive in Latin may be accounted for by the fact that the Subjunctive in that use early came to be felt as Indicative. as an amalgamation of the original Indo-European Subjunctive and Optative. also. not only in principal. might naturally be expected to exhibit tions. the Volitive. XVIII. Vol. a matter of fact viz. and Slavic of a number of substantially the same specific Subjunctive and Optative modal uses seems impos* sible to account for except upon the basis that the value in of these moods cf. especially chapters iii. audiam. a result of context. also On iv. Die Grundiagen der Griechischen Syntax. gesture. 214 Philology. . Gothic. Yet to most investigators the phenomena of linguistic growth seem to point to the early existence of a fairly definite value for every inflected form. Principles and Methods in Syntax. intonation. ' and Morris recognizes in Subjunctive and Optative no actual functions of these Grundbegriff. 1 It is not necessary that this assumed value was absolutely primitive in It Indo-European speech. p. The Latin Subjunctive. ero. Pure Future " \ Indo-European Optative. SYNTAX. Indo-European was a fairly precise and definite one Delbriick. Contingent Future J As them. in Old Indian. and as a result various Subjunctive formations actually became Indicatives. clauses. 392 ff .

'somehow.' 'just. viderd. accompanied by ut. 2. ( \et them speak. a. like expressions ut bene aedificatum Ut and an adverb. e.' i. expressing a command. 115. under d. Ter. him speak'. Relative. Ad. e. in these Cato.' . 4. This in accord with the origin of the two tenses. a) Jussive. 21 5 (§§ 205. The Perfect tense is sometimes employed in the Jussive. It calls attention rather to the summary performance of the act. /oquantur. . This use is found most commonly 1) In the Third Singular and Third Plural of the Present toquatur. 216). Volitive Subjunctive. is let them be watched !' Bacch.' 'only. 280. ' strength. 358. and § 360. The : three meanings viz. ufi adserventur.g. — probably originally indefinite. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJUNCTIVE USES. An example is utare itiribus.' 'as. This transition to the Indicative of those Subjunctive forms which possessed the Pure Future force naturally resulted in the restriction of the remaining forms to the Volitive use. de Agr.e. omne reddat. Original Uses. ut caveas 1. ut siet. Jussives Cf.g. 3 . ufi occur in early Latin. Capi. etc. Plaut. for the Perfect was by origin an Aorist (§219). corresponding to the indefinite qui. 'just 739. Subjunctive in Principal Clauses. while is the Present represents the act as in progress. A.' of the adverb qui are well substantiated. but not necessarily so.: THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 1. Met tense.' 2) In the Second Singular and Plural Present. 'use your a man use his strength (indefinite). 'in which way. The Second Met Singular often has indefinite force.

however. This occurs in the 2d and 3d Persons Singu- and Plural of the Present and Perfect Tenses.' 'in some way. the Perfect an act (or state) conceived of without reference .g. Of determined hoc quod coepi This rare usage ' is confined to the Present First Singular. 1894.' i. while the Second SinguThis view has been Present had a general (or indefinite) force. Interrogative. SYNTAX.' 2l6 2. Interrogative ut. and to be sup- ported by the use of qui and ut interchangeably with independent Optatives b) . The earlier theory as to the Prohibitive was that the Second Singular Perfect was employed of a lar definite Second Person.g. 'in which way.' modo. ' how ' ?' cf.' 'as. The value here suggested for ut seems to occur also in uti-nam. we recognize the Indefinite ut. to speak. 'somehow'. If how? ' 3. : Relative ut. e. In the Grammar citement. and a mingling of a) and b). Tin bound d) lar and do you speak. 'let us speak. Elmer.e. e. "enarrem. to be false shown by the exhaustive examination of the subject by 3. Terence. American Journal of Philology. we get for ut the third of the three meanings which are assumed for qui. Indefinite. who holds that the difference Present and Perfect tenses was one of the kind of action desig- nated by the verb. has compelled me to abandon that attitude and to accept the conbetween the clusions of Delbnick. loquamur. is wait ! I'm bound to finish telling what I Hortatory. and the Appendix I had given my adhesion to Elmer's view that the Perfect Prohibitive expressed special emotion or ex- Renewed examination of the question. is This confined to the Present First Plural. see § 359. originally ' in away.' ' 2. resolution.' Prohibitive.' In case of the corresponding adverb ut we have 1. No.' ' somehow. 3. only. H autontimorumenos ' 273 first mane : c) primum began. the Present indicating an act (or state) going on.

The Per- fect less frequent than the Present. to continuance. Aen. 651. 59. Both the Present and Perfect tenses occur. sequere :: quo ? sequar? : : Aul. as xii. the Jussive (§358. 358. de Rep. under the head of ' Derived Uses. ' may I have prophesied. : : Trin. Optative Subjunctive ex- presses a desire or hope for the fulfillment of a wish. is i.e.g. 785. e. We shall is come later. is quid your faciam. e.7 THE SUBJUNCTIVE. was an Aorist (§ 219).g. There is nothing deliberative in an inquiry after orders. Plaut. Cic. 839. 359. Plaut. Pseud. Deliberative. 923. 8. denoting the sumact. in the sense will that \ what do you bid Plaut. 603. a. dene sit Verg. d). accordingly. 714.g. 'what do you say (direct) that we do?' ? The name ' Deliberative ' is by no means an accurate designa- tion of the usage here under consideration. iv. quod di omen But occasionally the Perfect Optative has true Present Perfect force. We shall bear the come name number of other uses which traditionally Deliberative. me do ? ' ' what I do?' Cf. Phil. Utinam is also frequent. Cf. strengthening particles.' to a usage which also to a ' truly deliberative. it ordinarily differs but slightly in value from the Present. ut ilium di perdant. in 'what let's do?' i. Aul.g.e. Trin. for the Perfect e) 21 This accords with the origin of the two tenses.' though no deliberative character inheres in them. 14. mary performance of an § opposed continuance (see averterint. tibi . di tibi praemia digna fera7it. the use of utw'ith. consists simply in the inquiry An English analogy may perhaps be recognized after a command. See § 363. 2).g. This occurs in affirmative questions inquiring after the will or command : of the person addressed.' hope I is have prophesied. redde hue quid reddam Capt. gaude quid gaudea?n The usage. — The e. e. . Optative Subjunctive. lit. Cic. qui istum di per- da?it. i. ' cui quidem I v'ere auguraverim. a.' not infrequently accompanied by The Optative Subjunctive e. When to its used.

aliquis dicat. Potential b) . b). 'I should say'. the Perfect (originally Aorist act.' Possibility.g. . is b) Where some condition i. ' if you should have occasion to express an opinion. — This corresponds second of the two meanings of the Indo-European Optative 355. he should have spoken. dicas. 'I should believe. ' he was to speak. crediderim. a. to the (§ SYNTAX.' The name under a) and is usually given to the Subjunctives cited but this name is somewhat inexact. Derived Uses. The uses here enumerated are secondary developments in §§ from those cited above 358 ff. he obviously has failed to An expression like loqueretur. 'you would say.' i. 'you would rejoice. e. if he should come. e. loqueretur. laefe- veniat.' i. see § 365. being con- fined chiefly to phrases of the type cited in the above examples. Cf. e. Subjunctive of Contingent Futurity. dixerim. § 219) upon the accomplishment of the while the Present calls attention to its progress. velim. tenses. e.g. § 358. B. § 303).g.e. .' This use occurs also particularly in the First Singular of the Perfect (Aorist.e. ' e.' 'if I were to have my way'. in the sense. 361. we get a Conditional Sentence of the Second ris. From : this general notion have developed the follow- ing special uses a) Subjunctive of Pure say. si Type Gr. Extensions of the Jussive and Prohibitive.' This use is manifestly a derived one.2l8 360. aliquis dixerit. a) Corresponding to the Jussive loquatur there developed an Imperfect use.e. but it is rare.g. since one cannot now will a person to have done in the past what do. 'some one may This is the most obvious develop- ment of the notion of contingent As regards the use of lays stress futurity. § 219).g.' Where the condition is ( expressed. 'I should wish. implied or expressed. d. 362.

shown by the fact that the tale facer'es. grant that had been grant that done there ' . originally this sibi kabeant anna. at ob rem mihi Ubellam argenfi etc. ' Or. need ea7n to perform the act involved. ne sint vv'es in senectute. num. de Sen. bonus . This is found in the Present. for aught I care. us . 437. the familiar/^/ of comedy. ' but I grant that he it ' Verg.THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 1. ' dderint. tecum dummodo sim. tu . ' let them have. ad Att. 76. 3.g. ' dissolvent. Brut. . 'so be e) Here belong expressions it. at dissolvit Idem..' These when negative.' like 'very is well. Fr. ii. v'endat aedes vir . 58. Accius. sed refuted . Academica. iv. 34. quae?-o . exem- plified in such expressions as Cic. 101. ought not to have done any such thing' poposcisses. . The Perfect in this use refers to the past. Plaut. de Sen. de et Off. Ennius perfectior. let let us suppose the case of a good man selling a house . I is not strength in old age . ' ' . rie dicis. provided they fear. Cic. but iii.e. ' habeantur salubres . Capi. inquies.' An example of this is Cic. Perfect.' c) The Concessive. e. segnis vocer . 'you don't need to give me. Tibullus. must have been formed after the The Pluperfect Subjunctive also occurs in this sense.' and they to may i. 'I grant that there wasn't. ' Mihi quidem ndn videtur . 1. 603. sit Examples: Ennius is Cic. nemo is. imply that one does not e.' ! ' i. In this way a recognized permissive value Other examples are came attach itself to the Subjunctive. may hate. meant so. duin metuant. 75. and Pluperfect tenses. pestilenfes sint etc. they may have their weapons The ' Permissive. fuisset. Aen. 947.' d) Subjunctive of Acquiescence.' is Subjunctive of Supposition. e.' is The Volitive character of these expressions tive is regularly rie. This infrequent. um- quamfuit. ' let them have have. ' eui7i imifdtus esses. 219 analogy of loquatur.g. 58. ii. 54. Pseud. F) ' Cic. nega- Plaut.g. . therefore. rie 'you rie. they Permissive Subjunctives. 'I grant that more finished'. Nefuerit. you ought to have imitated him. you ought not to have asked. .

' how can I have b) Questions implying the idea of duty. Extensions of the Deliberative. unwholesome. . is The negative 'isn't of this usage it non. but is considered safe. quid faciam what am do ? in the sense ' there's nothing I can do. Caes. 40. Imperfect. Amph. .g. hunc ego non di/igam.. § — These e. 1 e. e. cur despe7-arent. or propriety. pro I Arch. 748. The ' Present. and rarely qum. quid facerem often means what was my duty to do ? This is simply quid faciam projected into the past. The ' tenses used are the Present is and Imperfect. implying that the thing mentioned fect tenses is impossible. quid facerem. non haec facerem.. is SYNTAX. ' introduced by cur. obligation. what do you bid I me do?' becomes tantamount 'what ought ' to do?' it So in the Imperfect. G.' The Imperfect repre- sents this present use projected into the past. nan haec faciam. not to ought I not to admire this man?' ? So also in expressions e. what do you bid me do ? ' Whenever is this ' addressed to a person whose authority to respected. ! ' and PerI to occur : in this use. e. heard it? where am I to i. ubi ego have heard it ? ' audwerim. are all outgrowths : of the original use mentioned in 358.g. 18. We distinguish a) Questions of purely rhetorical character. ? ' (was n't it) my duty to do these things So also in Cic. 'what was I to is do?' implying the impossibility of doing anything.g. i. B. quare. l why should they despair 1 The negative non (instead of ne) is to be regarded as a perfectly natural consequence of the derived nature of the usage. e). I 363.' etc. but is The Perfect ' found in Plaut.' ' ' 220 suppose the house ask whether. ' A characteristic I to example quid faciam in the sense of what ought I do ? what should do ? ' This is a perfectly natural and legitimate in outgrowth of the original idea contained 1 quid faciam question is (§ 358.g. rare.e. non admirer? 'ought love.

after the analogy of sintfelic'es. : : Glo. c) 221 ' Real Deliberative questions. 496. tibi e. 2). 3. And. 1. Capt. hence its employment with reference to the present and the past must be a derived usage. yet the only real Deliberative Subjunctive found in is expressions like quid agam. ut cr'edam ? In these cases we see that the usage originated in an inquiry after a command. As a result a new category was formed. 'you gave me a cloak : ' Cic. pro Sulla. rids Plaut. pallam quam dedi mihi redde ! : : mihi tu dedei. Mil. 618. the primary force of for- the Optative was to denote a wish. Ter. is in expressions like if utinam tu valeres. fingitis fugam : : fugiamus ! The idiom even transferred to the past.g. ' Although the name all Delibera- tive is used as a designation of the related idioms here conis sidered. in which the speaker repudiates with scorn some command or imputation. that the inquiry listen uttered with contempt. ris Men. a. The context shows Hence the idea is. Questions The origin of the Repudiating may be is seen in passages like Plaut. — The For it use of the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive utinam adfuisses. e. must have looked ward to the future .THE SUBJUNCTIVE. command is dis207. etc. mihi cujusquam ? salus tanti fuisset.g. Extensions of the Optative. but that the indignant attitude of the speaker developed a repudiating force.g. or expresses his disdain at some proposal of another person. in expressions like . 45. Plaut. quaeso ego auscultem tibi. where no vestige of an inquiry after a cernible. what decision to take or what course of action d) Repudiating Questions. zncine ausculta. is find Repudiating Questions. quid facia?n. and we e. 678. pallam. Pluperfect Cic. I ' to you!' Sometimes we have the Indefinite ut tibi ego (§ 358. or even imaginable. ad Quint. ut meam neglegerem 364. ego te vid~ere ridluerim. The Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive. also secondary. where the speaker actually pondering to pursue.

dicas Contingent Future denoted mere objective = 'there's a possibility. the protasis in such conditional sentences was in origin partly Optative.g. could see'. c) The Imperfect and e. and. partly Jussive (e. is The usage is an extension of a) above. . the Subjunctive of the possibility. 'one could like that. one can. This is restricted to narrow 'one being found chiefly in such expressions as vider'es. — There are three derived uses a) e. In these derived uses utinam is almost invariably used. vidisses.: — 222 SYNTAX. vid'er'es .' In its origin.' 'you may say. si adesses. '). 'you see. The Present 2d can Singular in the sense 'you can. 365. as seems probable. one of the most difficult problems of Latin syntax. Extensions of the Subjunctive of Contingent Futurity. 'would that you were if this here. believe.' — vid'er'es.g. 'one could observe'. Potential in the strict sense of that term. 'you may' becomes 'you can. A very few exceptions occur in poetry.' videas. cemeres. you will say. is to-fact conditions. then the use of the Imperfect lation.' In the derived usage this objective possibility becomes subjective. For potentiality involves capacity and con- which mere possibility does not. do not strictly express a wish. F) limits. only the second Potential.' cr~ede?-es. The exact way in which this use has grown up But if. The 2d Singular Imperfect. adesses. but rather a regret at the present non-existence or the previous non-occurrence of something. e. ' then you would see — may be assumed. is Strictly speaking.g.g. Pluperfect in the conclusion of contrarysi adfuisses.' of these trol. and Pluperfect would be a kind of assimi- induced by the regular correspondence of tense and mood in other conditional sentences. those cited above.

p. a. analogous in origin to those introduced by intres probably in !' Thus . 113 ff. For further discussion of Parataxis. or by e. 2. another Indicative without any conjunction. I give you § money just purchase bread. Principles and Methods Syntax. that of subordination. and Relative Adverbs.g. IX. This especially noticeable in the early and colloquial language. let them cease. Sentences were joined by co-ordination. p. felt as subordinate and ut from being an adverb came In this to be felt as a subtit. nant. ne. Morris. ' eos I warn them. lit.' In course of time in such felt combinations the one clause came to be to be introduced as subordinate. The tibi Subjunctive clause of Purpose It is introduced by ut. 66 i?i ff.' For this force of ut. 223 Parataxis and Hypotaxis. way arose the purpose clause with Negative clauses of purpose introduced by ne were quite ut. In Latin the paratactic form of expression often survives.THE SUBJUNCTIVE. . do pecmiiam ut panem emas originally meant . Vol. — In the earlier stages of lan- guage there were no subordinate clauses. 359. desi- was followed by an independent use of the Subjunctive. tibi obsto ne meant originally i I stand in your way don't come Ultimately this Parataxis developed into Hypotaxis. was probably Jussive in ' origin.g. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. the hypotactic relation has become clearly developed. but found also in the best see. quo. . see Bennett. and by various connecting particles is ('subordinate conjunctions'). 2. ordinate conjunction. Subjunctive of Purpose. The stage of co-ordination called Parataxis. e. tive For example. see 358. 366. even when is is . In course of time the ^/-clause came to be to the other. an independent use of the Indicamoneo. for prose in certain categories of expression example. Hypotaxis. qit'i. 1. § 381 f. in in Cornell Studies Classical Philology. 367.

As regards the meaning of the it relative clause with digitus. eras dignus (cited by Quintilian from an early author). See 4. dignus ///-clause. ad imitandum . quae. as done by Kiihner. tibi purpose had practically legas. 4.' originally meant I give you a book read Relative Clauses with dignus. This view further confirmed by the other constructions found with dignus. to send them.' originally elegit fit ' he gives me shoots fit 'he gives So homilies dignos originally : quos me fit mitteret may (in order) fit shoots well to plant..' have meant 'he selected ' men. 'worthy to be Verg. dignus eligi. 18. find an Infinitive employed with these words. et puer 7.g. with a lowing relative clause. to read. 30. ii. not as one accom- plished. . Gr. SYNTAX. 4. as a Clause of fol- Characteristic. Paneg. § 282.' Subjunctive clause one of Purpose. indignus. does express a characteristic in a general . 3 and idoneus have been under Relative Clauses of Purpose. idoneus. It is etc. this The similar cannot be regarded as one of Result in is and cases. p. ' worthy to be chosen. Eel. Rep. secondarily. indignus.. Ausf. and sometimes even an ut haberes ///-clause Cic. 'he gives to plant. in relative clauses of e. ' 5. Qui. librum do quern ' I give it ! you a book 5. This has been done partly on account of the meaning of such clauses. idoneus. classified in Gr.' and In each case the is then.g. Some regard the relative clause with dignus. of course quite true that dignus. e.' me shoots from dat mihi surculos dignos quos seram.g. etc. Quo as an Ablative of Degree of Difference is regularly con- fined to use in connection with comparatives. 858 d). Thus we repeatedly e. since the action is viewed purely as one contemplated.g. The Subjunctive with quo arises in the same way as with other relatives. seems impossible to separate a sentence like dat mihi surculos quos seram. ' a demonstrative force. 53. he selected is fairly men to send. idoneus. to plant. etc.' i. praised \ Pliny. partly in view of the other constructions found with dig- nus.' 224 3. The Gerund with ad also occurs. e. ipse cantari dignus.

upon the analogy of those Clauses of Characteristic. This difficulty results chiefly from the fact that a Relative Clause of Purpose may denote a characteristic of an antecedent characteristic. audeam. ' following negative expressions.THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 368. The Clause its of Characteristic is a relative clause devel(§ oped from the Subjunctive of Contingent Futurity probable that in origin it 360). — Difficulty is often experienced in distin- guishing Clauses of Characteristic from Relative Clauses of Purpose. malit. Clauses of Characteristic as Distinguished from Relative Clauses of Purpose. there is is no one who would be is able.. It is was confined to a limited number of words such as passim. 370. audeat. way . ma fan. est qui putem. nolit. therefore. in the general sense of the word Thus in Cicero. since the Volitive Subjunctive not naturally used to represent a person as exercising his authority and volition over himself. Thus a nemo credam. 56 scribebat 07-ationes quas alii dicerent. See § 371. etc.' that early took on this Similarly in such expressions as nemo est qui velit. tive It is obvious that only those purpose clauses are of primi- origin in which the main clause and the subordinate clause refer to different persons. 369. 225^ not a Clause of but the relative clause itself is certainly Characteristic in the technical sense of that term. emam cannot be to a Volitive origin. putet. are more probcited ably of later origin and formed in § 367. no fan . leaving the relative clause essentially one denoting a fact. Brutus. Sentences like the last. lit. possit. In all these cases the notion of con- tingency is so slight as easily to disappear.' is so nearly equivit alent to 'there force. velim. credat. no one who able. Thus in a sentence of the type pecureferred directly is niam mutuor tit libros emam. 'he wrote .

. In accordance with expressions i. Sat. but in such cases we may explain the relative as referring to an indefinite antecedent to be supplied. like o fortunate — In sentences adulescens qui tuae virtu lis is Home- ruin praeconem inveneris there an apparent violation of the to ' principle that the Clause of Characteristic refers an ante- cedent not otherwise defined' (Gr. quae tuam senectutem either Phormio 433 hafrebis 'you will have some one to cheer ' who cheers' 371. 'I have nothing to do' (Hor. these Did I sentences ' doing and ' I mean respectively don't know anything find sentences ' have nothing that am that I am rejoicing about (contemporary action). One essential difference between the Clause of consists in the Characteristic fact that the and the Relative Clause of Purpose former denotes an action or state contemporary with or anterior to that of the main clause. like nihil habeo quod again. A good example oblectet. (one) who has found. force According to this view the original ' : of the above sentence would have been etc. The syn- tactical nature of the relative clause will then depend upon the interpretation. Clauses of Characteristic Denoting Cause or Opposition. utpote qui. Capt. 'I don't know anything I to rejoice about' (Plaut. 842) are Relative Clauses of Purpose. as this § 283. is Ter. nil scio quod gaudeam. O ! fortunate man. other persons to deliver/ the . clause quas the alii a Relative in a Clause of Purpose but ' at same ' time its it does certain sense indicate a characteristic of antecedent. they would be Clauses of Characteristic. 'as being one who.' supports The use of the Second Singular in the subordinate clause would then be a species of attraction. The frequent employment of this view. (Characteristic) or 'some one (Purpose). while the Relative Clause is of Purpose denotes an action which the future relatively to that of this principle main clause. . etc.' ut qui.' 226 speeches dicerent for is SYNTAX. 1) . 9. At times we which are ambiguous. 19).

. quae non. a development of the Subjunctive of Contingent Future. nische Forschungen. — dubitet might be ' felt by some simply ' as a Clause of a consul of the sort that .. where there is a condition implied (§ 360. nolit. since in these verbs the transition from the idea of contingency to that of actuality easy. quod non. of such a nature as anyone it). p. tale est is Thus in the sentence hoc flagitium ut quivis oderit. Clauses of Result. quin. 4 follows that of ff. IV. At times it is not easy to decide indi- whether the clause is one of Characteristic or of Result. in the sentence given in Gr. you please would hate' if he should see From this to it. second phase. velit. 374. its from b). audeat figured largely in the establishment of this category. but the clause also admits the interpretation 'a consul such that he does not hesitate ' .THE SUBJUNCTIVE. Vol. cf. At the outset malit. § 284. Clauses of 227 Characteristic Introduced by treatment in Gr. eii7n same sentence would doubtless often For example. . probable that such Sub- junctives as possit. introduced by ut. The Brugmann in IndogermaBrugmann sees in the first qui. the original meaning was ' ' : this outrage (i. 391 must then be regarded as a separate word.' the meaning of such a nature is that anybody you please hates it is an easy transition. etc. qui Characteristic. 372. are viz. qui. § is particularly 370. . 2 habltis consulem qui parere vestris decretis non dubitet. § 283. the clause . ut non.e. was capable of standing According to this view. 226 Quin. Relative Clauses of Result are simply a development of the Clause of Characteristic. — element of this qiiin an indeclinable Relative for which he thinks Plural. the quin mentioned in §§ 383. 373. and in that sense it is a clause of Result. and vidual interpretations of the differ. Clauses of Result. any case either Singular or quin might be equivalent to qui non.

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c) (tit) (tit) ' Past Extensions.' da7'~es. ence between tibi The tibi original differ- impero hoc mihi des and impero ut hoc mihi des. just give Probably even this distinction soon passed away. . could hardly have been more than that between 'I you. a.' b) tibi ' Future Extensions. like: became natural to form sentences mihi imperat (ut) hoc tibi ill! illi sibi dem imperat (ut) hoc sibi sibi tibi des det det imperat (at) hoc imperas (ut) hoc mihi imperas (ut) hoc tibi dem.' and ' I command you. simply tibi impero (ut) hoc mihi des projected into the Future. tibi impero (ut) hoc : was undoubtedly once paratactic ' I command you ' . they are analogical within the Present. An Here illustration would be. type. . 359). rise Taking now our tibi impero {ut) hoc mihi des as the it let us consider a variety of Extensions to which gave a) ' Extensions within the Present. give command me this. and the two forms of expression lent in force.' it After the analogy of tibi impero (ut) hoc mihi des. is In either case the dependent clause of Jussive origin . came to be felt as practically equiva- 383. imperabo hoc mihi des. 230 SYNTAX.' (tit) An illustration of these would be.: . mihi des.' me this. . give this me ! ' But the developments just enumerated could obviously Extensions never have stood in Parataxis . Our to original typical sentence. A sentence like this could It is obviously never have stood in Parataxis. ut is simply the adverbial particle which we have already met in inde- pendent sentences (see §§ 358. tibi imperain i?npe?'d hoc mihi similarly we have our tibi hoc mihi des projected into the past.

I you to go away. ' A recognition of the foregoing varieties of Extensions ' is of great importance for an understanding of Substantive Clauses Developed from the eties of subordinate Volitive. e) tibi ' Interrogative Extensions.g. hoc mihi des.' 'I persuade you (ut) abeas nor tibi to go away. Such combinations would have failed to make sense.' I succeed in my ' request that you go away. and in fact for many the other vari- clauses of Subjunctive origin. tibi non imperdbo (tit) (tit) hoc mihi des (Future) . Substantive Clauses Developed from .g. si mihi non imperavisfi (ut) hoc darem. Within the Present. or or they may contain a combination of these tibi Extensions. d) ' 23 tibi ' I Negative Extensions. Purpose Optative.g.g. I advise you to go away.' si tibi impero (ut) hoc tibi These may Negative e. . similarly be also Future. quis tibi imperat (ut) hoc mihi des ? quis tibi imperavit (ut) hoc mihi dares ? cur mihi non imperavisfi (ut) hoc tibi ' darem ? e. Negative Extensions may non (tit) be combined with Extensions of the kinds already noted. tibi imperdvi hoc mihi dares (Past) mihi non ifnperat hoc sibi dent (Within the Present).' ' I beg you te to go away.' ' Now induce after the analogy of this we get ' exoro (ut) abeas. e. .g.THE SUBJUNCTIVE.' (tit) These are exemplified by These ' non impero also e. or Negative.' ' Similarly after tibi suadeo (ut) abeas. also be Future. Past. I succeed in my advice that te you go away. f) dem. Past. a Conditional Negative Past Extension. Conditional Extensions.' Neither exoro persuaded (ut) abeas could have stood in an original Parataxis. Clauses.' These are exemplified by quare These 'Interrogative Extensions' impero (ut) hoc mihi des? at the may same time e.' we get tibi persuaded (ut) abeas. g) te ' ' Extension by Analogy of the Meaning of the Verb. Within the Pres- ent.' Thus : oro (ut) abeas undoubtedly represents an original Parataxis (Just) go away ! I beg you.

Result. Merc. Merc. ' I ordered you to go to prison' (a Past Extension). Volitive etc.' . No theory of origin can possibly explain or even any proportionally large part of the phenomena ordinarily classified under any one of these syntactical usages. SYNTAX.) Substantive Clause. tell her not to depart. A large part of the instances belonging under any single syntactical category (Purpose. Without ut. the Jussive and Prohibitive.' 385. Clauses. I tell you not to go ' to the harbor' Mil. ' : ut. s1 Original Uses : Plautus. Men. represent analogical Extensions of one Classification of Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive. Developed from 384. 465 ad portum .' : Extensions Plautus. Glo. ' I beg you to make peace. Plautus.. 992 pacem facialis oro. Stichus. I Men. sort or another. With Verbs of Ordering or Commanding. bitds s1 died tibi. With Original Uses habeatis cu?-ae. 624 dixi. 185 hoc ei dicitd ut ne digrediatur. 990 died ut imperium meum bid you heed my orders. Original Uses: Plautus. With Verbs of Begging and Requesting. etc. 232 Clauses of Characteristic. Result all. Poen. 1155 died mi'hi ft Ham despondeas. ' I bid you to betroth your daughter to me. 784 edixi ut caveres (Past Extension) With ne and ut Examples * : ne. Without ut.' tibi Extensions : Plautus. in carcerem ires. lie Plautus.

' I succeed in my request that. "With Verbs of Advising. Cure. We have no sure instance of any such Result Clause Furthermore. I succeeded in my request that he ' cherish no anger toward him. Men. Men. in the entire Latinity. Cas. 257 orant suom. 627 quaeso ut ne pigeat ' beg that you be not Extensions : loth. succeed in my request that she return the cloak. Bacch. THE SUBJUNCTIVE.' Extensions: Plautus. Rud. It is therefore much simpler and more natural to explain such usages as analogical Extensions. affirmative clauses depenut. Plautus. 1048 possum.' .' With Original Uses 1 : fie and ut tie. 302 earn exores ne tibi suseenseat. Plautus. ' they entreat us to forgive their fault (Extension within the Present). 233 ignoscamics peccatum ' Amph. 'worry him That's my advice. With Original Uses : ut. dent on exoro and impetro often lack in which is never lacking Result Clauses. 629 quaeso ut mihi dicas. 1013 quaeso ne me te deseras.' Some regard the clause with exoro it and impetro as one of Result. — The origin of the Subjuncis tive Substantive Clauses after verbs of advising : indicated by ! Plautus. but is abnormal to have ne or ut ne with a Clause of Result. 1 I beg you not to desert me . Bacch. 'induce her not to be vexed with you'. 569 male habeas sic censed. ' I beg you to tell me. Cist.§• Similarly impetro ut.' Plautus. 533 impetravi ut ne quid e~i suseenseat. exorare ut pallam reddat.' an Extension after Analogy of § Meaning of the Verb 3%3. 532 orabat ut properarem.' . Extensions: Plautus. 386. 'he entreated me to make haste ' (Past Extension) ' .

the fact that (instead of lacking. this head belong clauses with verbs of inducing.' Extensions ' : Plaut. g). negative clauses with these /// have ne. Original Uses furere. Persa 680 ne permittas do mum. 674 moneo hoc ut reputes. in let him go'.' With Original Use: Plautus.' ' In these cases the usage represents an Extension after the Anal- ogy of the Meaning of the Verb' (§ 383. Without ut. Trin. ut tie. impele. desinant : ' I give them warning let them cease tibi dein their Extensions: Plautus.' Plautus. impelling. ' I induced him to believe 'he persuaded her to . ut is lie non). . persuading.g. verbs viz. I urge you not to hie yourself home. sha- 'You advise me to give you my ut.' With Original Uses te. se ut amitteret. 9 eos hoc moneo. Persa to 842 hortantur tuo ut imperio paream. ' : ne. Mil. ' you urge him Under ling. Plautus. in this Cat. Merc. Glo. Plautus. Some regard the Subjunctive Clause after verbs of inducing. But the same arguments are to be urged against this view as previously in the discussion of the nature of the clause used with exoro and impetro. ii. ' I've persuaded myself not to hate her. 1015 meant sordrem des. Epid. while in affirmative § clauses the ut often See 385. frenzy ! : Cic.' 234 SYNTAX. 964 persuasit. persuading.' : Extensions not to go. 'I advise you to consider this. they exhort me obey your bidding. sister. 1269 induxi animum all tie oderim. Bacch. 8 7 perpuli ' ut ce~7is~ei-et. 608 suades ne bitat. as a Clause of Result. moneo. Stick.

iv. 'see that you persuade him Extensions : ! Plautus. Plautus. 2. ut ne. 51 efficiam it posthac quem- quam sectifi I'll . ' see that you hold your tongue it ! originally ' hold your tongue ! see to Extensions: Plautus. face. 387. ' : Virgil. ' ' ' . 890 fac scia/n. ' see to it that I know/ 'make me know' (Extension within the Present). 'see to fear ! ' Extensions: that I Plautus. No suitable examples are at hand. THE SUBJUNCTIVE. that no business can be done with the people Q. challenge anybody hereafter ut n~e ad Fam. 'you have achieved your end. Most. 12 18 fac ut faciam ut exores. 26 feci tliensaurum ut hie ' I saw to it that he discovered the treasure (Past Extension) With Original Uses : lie. Men. Cic. facito. '. ' Aid. 34 adepti estis ne quem civem metueretis. 4 Macedonas assecufos quis tuto locus esset. we seem lie to have accom' plished this. pro Mifone. 1145 fac ne metuam. Poen. face. see to it ! Without Original Uses 1 : ut. of standing in fear of no one. scias. With Original Uses that he receives : ut. ' 4 hoc videmur esse con- quid cum populo agi possit. Til see that you know' (Future Extension) reperiret. As. ! 1035 linguam compescas. facite. bring Cic. 13. about that you do not i. it have no occasion for (Extension within the Present) Especially interesting are the clauses with verbs. about that no place was safe'.. Curtius. efficid and related n~e Here belong lacessas. viz. 'see to it!' Rud. particularly with fac. 'brought it 14. it Plautus. 28 . Persa 526 ut accipiat. 3. Eel. 235 ' With facio.' All of these clauses are probably to be regarded as Extensions after the Analogy .

Pseud. video. then. With cave. followed by Substantive Clauses than of the other forms of facio combined. licet. such as assequor. of the ' usage probably goes back to clauses with fac. Original Uses: Plautus. Expressions of the cave abeas Type. Beginning with Cicero we find ut non in negative clauses after facto. Plautus.' From fac. Amph. point to a Volitive origin. Granting. Cave tie. g).' . to it factio. cave ne. as one of Result. facite. The origin of the Meaning of the Verb (§ 383. You may see ' .' 236 SYNTAX. The most is plausible theory as to the origin of these expressions is that cave abeas formed on the analogy of fac abeas. which seems to show that the Clause of Result also is used with these verbs. Most. efficio. Plautus. Many regard the dependent clause with these verbs {tie. 1179 vide as ' originally 'see l ! you may ' . ' take care you don't fall : ! ' Originally ' Don't fall tie ! Take care ! Extensions 389. 324 cave ne cadas. Without Original Uses : ut. the first Extension seems to have been to the other forms of facto . facite. to it Other verbs of seeing 388. c From succeed facto the next Extension seems to have been to in one's effort to see to it efficio. consequor. are curd. With Verbs Permitting. but in our earliest Latin there are many more instances oi fac. permit him to speak. Trin. of 478 quid noceat cavero. all factio. adipiscor. 806 sine dicat. see (that). but the employment of negatives ut ne) and the fact that the affirmative clause often lacks ut. (that) ' . and from efficio the construc- tion was extended to other verbs of closely equivalent meaning. Allowing.

' Extensions : Plautus. 29. 391. 237 'let ' Cist. ' Sail. the Senate decreed that the consuls should give heed. Without Original Uses: Lucretius. 2 senatus decrevit darent operain expressions like consules. Pseud. 54 viverent. ut. 454 sine dicam. Extensions: Plautus. oportet. 26 m~e ipsum curies. ' : ut. As. 'I gave be. Poen. sivt me I let speak' (Present Extension) live ' Mil. oportet. : let the consuls see to it. originally 'admit! you must'.. iii. I must be my own defender. 847 potestatem dedi ut esses. iisus est. As. etc. 'you ought to love me myself . Without Original Uses videant. Resolving. 'I had resolved to go to the farm' (Past Extension).' you the opportunity to Here we have a noun taking the place of the verb in a Past Extension. 1244 mihi patronus sim necesse est. 390. ii. 43 dono ut expers sis. originally 'love me my myself! that's your duty. de Fin. Glo. necesse est. necesse est. No suitable examples are at hand.' With Original Uses : ut. An original use would be : decernimits consules we decree. Extensions The foregoing was evidently the starting-point for Cat. . Plautus. them (Past Extension) With Original Uses : ut. ' THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 549 rus ut irem constitueram. 593 fateare. With opus est. Cic. Extensions: Plautus. 'you must admit'. With Verbs of Deciding. ' I permit you to be exempt.' .' : Extensions ' Plautus.

' Without Original Uses : ut. With ut. However.' i. that. — As is explained in Gr. These seem lacking. 'now you must pretend that you're Mil. Several scholars regard the Substantive Clause after necesse est as one of Result. Moreover. 'fear hinders men.e. But if the clause were one of Result. Original Uses t~e : Plautus. § 295. they have their ultimate origin Purpose a development from the Volitive The original character of Subjunctive Clauses of this kind may be seen in an expression like fornfido viros impedit : quominus velint.0. and hence order that not.' . Epp. in order that they willing. 500 nunc tibi opust aegram ut ill'. 3 opus esset ne reus 392. videretur. Glo. in the Volitive.' These expressions also are followed by Substantive Clauses of viz. 'it remains for me to attend your departure with affectionate wishes. adsimuTes. prevents them from being by which not. it would be impossible to account for the practically invariable absence of ut in this idiom. in the sense 'it remains 'the next thing is to. reliquum est. 6 reliquum est tua77i profec- Extensions: Cic. after Substantive Clauses Introduced by Quominus and Quin Verbs of hindering. xv. With to. restat. 6.238 SYNTAX. since (§ 368.' the fact remains 393. may not be minus lit. takes ne as a negative in Pliny.' Quo'in means 'by which the less. 1 132 nunc ad vie ut veniat usust. we find that the clause with opus est vii. 3. but they then have another meaning. Substantive Clauses introduced by quominus are probably developed from Purpose Clauses. tionem amore prosequar. 1). originally willing.' sequitur. ' Result. ad Fam. True. 21.

t~e impedio quominus 'I haec facias might theoretically be conceived as meaning hinder you so that you do not do this. lit. 'not'. Cf i. Thus. by which this sense. quin would be the exact equivalent oi quominus. but an examination of such clauses clearly shows that they are developed from the Jussive. The origin 239 of Substantive Clauses introduced by quin with is expressions of hindering serve consideration : not altogether clear. is ' why not?' In that case the Substantive Clause developed from the Deliberative.' meaning But this nor were they preis vented so that they didn't conception just as possible in case of quominus-clauses after negative expressions of hindering. . Amphitruo. Two views de- (1) Quin In in such clauses may be and a relative adverb. so that the original purpose character of the quomi- ^^-clause seems beyond question. 'why am I not to You cannot . 560 quin loquar. . and even more so in case of quominus-clauses after affirmative expressions of hindering.e. ' Plautus. ne. It is of course true that in negative dicate developed meaning the quin-c\dMSQ at after in- expressions (negative) of hindering does result. 641 dering are retiiieri Clauses introduced by quin after negative expressions of hin- sometimes its classified as Result Clauses. not merely to the English rendering. Any consistent treatment of Substantive Clauses must have regard to their origin. numspeak? quam potes deterrere . (2) Qian in such clauses may be the interrogative quin. ' com- pounded of qui not.THE SUBJUNCTIVE.' the z//-clause might seem at first sight to indicate a Result.' (old Instrumental). ' But quo minus is clearly a pur- pose particle. in a sentence like eis persuasit ut exirent. after expressions of hindering and the Substantive Clause with quin would have the same origin as that with quominus. lit. ' prevent it ' You cannot prevent me from speaking nequeo quin dicam. e. Thus. Tri- nummus. times seem to a nee impediti sunt l quin face- rent may be conceived as literally do. 'he persuaded them to go out.g.

'may this day be (I'm afraid though). After Verbs of wishing and de si ring {Gr. e. after verbs of hindering are not neces- developed from the Jussive. § 296.' . After Verbs of fearing {Gr. Substantive Clauses in Sentences of the est cur. I want you to marry her. of Schmalz {Lat.' Andria 600 quid causae is quin in pistrinum proficiscar. Optative origin of these Substantive Clauses It sufficiently should be noted. ' . and supii.' 396. Cic. — Instructive for the history of the construction are such early Latin uses as Ter. 1 Cf.z-clauses. 2). 1). is § 296. — The evident. 277 ferre. 3.g. . if it were to depend on you alone . Type : nulla causa {Gr. ' Hand verear si in te sit sold situm : sed ut vim queas . e. originally ' why shouldn't I I go away There's no reason' Cf. but also possible that. 7). the among others. Synt? § 350). — These This is have is been explained view. in / want you ' to understand). ' ad Fam. nulla causa est quin.g. like quominus and Purpose Clauses. that in colloquial lan{cf. set out for the what reason ' there why is I shouldn't ? mill ' ! ' originally what reason there Why shouldn't I set out? Substantive Clauses Developed from the Optative. but may you be able to withstand compulsion 705 dies hie mi ut sufficient satis sit vereor ad agendum. ported by the history of these clauses. 17. later there's no reason why est. quin decedam nulla causa ! est. guage void sometimes has the force of commanding English authoritative the / want. however. etc. they have been developed from 394. § 295.g.' 240 Clauses introduced by sarily lie SYNTAX. is as suggested in it is Gr. This the more probable view <^z. void earn ducds. Ter. I should not fear. e. as developed from the Deliberative. Andr. § 295. In such cases the Substantive Clause with void must be referred to a Volitive origin. 395. shouldn't go away.

'it's a noble thing that we love reliquum est ut virtus is sit frugalitas .' like accidit ut aegrotaret. Indirect Questions. a view advocated by some. Substantive Clauses of Result. which has regard exclusively to what each instance. The treatment in the Grammar follows the traditional is classification. implied in the Protasis in . but where verisimile it e. 399. The origin of the Subjunctive in Indirect Questions is not yet clear. 'it so happened that he was show clearly the origin of the Substantive Clause of Result. 398. The construction is manifestly a relatively late one in the development of Latin syntax. quis dubitat quin. accedit ut doleam. Conditional Sentences. ut eos amemus. and the substantive notion became so prominent by ut occur where not only no never could have existed. Plautus and Terence frequently employ the Indicative in such sentences.1 THE SUBJUNCTIVE. But the Result notion early became weakened in these clauses. In the expressions non dubito quin. Thus dubitat quin in virtute divitiae sint originally meant 'why shouldn't there be riches in virtue find ! who doubts it?' It seems difficult to any ground in the history or signification of these clauses for regarding them as Clauses of Result. non est ut ille anteponeret. hand dubium est quin. 24 397. non est dubiicm quin. 400. 'another fact est that I am suffering'.' Substantive Clauses Introduced by Quin after Won Dubito and Kindred Expressions. Expressions ill. the qztin-clause is probquis ably developed from the Deliberative Subjunctive. ' that Substantive Clauses introduced notion of Result exists. it's not likely that he preis ferred' .g. 'the fact remains that economy a virtue. praeclarum them' .

bene est. so. in (i. Conditional sentences are the development of an earlier Parataxis (§ 367). Thus a sentence like si videat.' The conditional force was purely the result of the context. valet. ' is well . With English so in such expressions as so you pay me.242 401. ' i.e. si. deb'ebam. conventionally called Potential.' valet. secondary and the result of its association. and of the Indica- of the Periphrastic Conjugations in Apodoses of Conditional is Sentences of this type frequently the result of ellipsis. credat. obscure. — Here the Subjunctive in the Protasis was originally Jussive in character. SYNTAX.e. Conditional Sentences of the Second Type. They are simply a relic of the earlier paratactic stage. The ori- gin of the conjunctional use of was as follows : Si was originally an adverb meaning sentence with well so. si would be seen he well. its earliest form. Perhaps the Protasis was originally an lit. — The origin of this type Optative. 402. bene esset. that the earliest type it of si valet. i. si adesset. The most is primitive type of a conditional in bene est si. decuil. est. let him see assuming he should the Subjunctive of he would then believe. O that he were here ! it would be well. 'it is {viz. 2). the fact that one clause was related to the other as an assumption or condition was brought out more definitely by the use of st. I shall be satisfied. Thus we may assume was bene est. he is well. ' would.' The Apodosis ' is Contingent Futurity. have been videat. yet conditional sentences without less si occur with more or frequency in all stages of the Latin language (Gr. Conditional Sentences is of the Third Type. Thus in . see). credat lit.e. which indicated that valet was something assumed. As language devel- oped. that) is In this expression si limits bene si. and valet use of really an appositive of the adverbial idea in is The si as a conjunction si cf.' 403. § 305.' The employment tive of oportuit.

. si 243 ituri.' way quamvis ultimately developed ' into a Conjunc- tion with the force of although. cannot become honorIn this able.' Hence dum metuant. manent ingenia modo permaneat studium only interest et industria. fuistisne ad arma in the thought is 'were you about to proceed to arms (and would you have done so ? ) had Pompey been slain ? ' So eum patris loco colere debe: bas. the original sense ! was: 'let and vigor remain (then) old men's faculties remain. quod turpe quamvis occultetur.' Subordinate Adversative Clauses with Quamvis. ! meaning 'while. est. junctive. 'as id. had you any sense of devotion. Modo. be concealed as much as you wish. the original meaning was: 'what let it base.' Thus tamen is sentence. originally Quamvis was in the quam vis. senibus. 404. Here the Subjunctive was originally a paratactic Jussive.' Dum was originally an oblique case of a noun in oderint. These were all originally Jussive. Pompeins occisus esset. Dummodo.' Clauses of Proviso with Dum. the original sense was 'let them fear the while (then) they may hate. Thus in 405.' Some regard the clause of Proviso with ('while'). much as you wish. si Tdla in te pietas esset the full sense is 'it was your duty to revere him (and you would now be doing it). dum as originally temporal But that view fails to account for the use of the Subalso ignores the fact that the negative with the is and dum- clause of Proviso always ne.THE SUBJUNCTIVE. hones turn fieri no n potest.

400. deer. 1. VII. 258. 253 f. 54 f. abs. 2. of cause. in -0. 350. a- Stems. c. 345. see the special lists. of person or thing affected. 1 [The References are to Sections and Paragraphs. of quality. of duration of time. For words containing hidden quantities and spelling. 1 abjetis.. 347. with genitive. ' from. 305. of means. 303. 47. in -e. of time within which.INDEX. Ablaut-Series. 58. 72. 3. 4. 3 106.] A. 130. -acrum. 2. p. pronunciation. Ablaut. aegrotus. 62 f. 341. 244 for words of doubtful or varied . 343. of agent. Adverbs. of specification. of result produced. in exclamations. 307. 100. 261. of degree of difference. 66. 261. 93. 308. in -0. of comparison. . Abldtlvus. 339. 1. changes. 91. accompaniment. in suffixes. a. Aesculapius. 326. Accusative. 182. of Greek. as subject of inf. absolute. accestis. in f. ab. 79. 350. admoneo. Acquiescence. 309. 261. 259. 297. -abrum. a. .' 261. 303 original force. 311. 334. of manner. 338. in e. of. 3. 262. 333. 67. 93. 2. of attendant circumstance. Accusdfivus. syntax. 51. of separation. 304. a. 52 and p. d. 344. 97. Ablative. 404. Accent. a-Series. 70. of Adversative clauses. 337. way by which. 15. ae. 350. 333. 1 agellus. agceps. ac. 297. 303. -atrum. adversus. 103. 203. 333. 70. in cas'_-endings. 130. 92. d. of time at which. 257. 181 ff. 100. with passive used as middle. 346. acerrimus. 342. pronunciation. Subjunctive ad. . f. 62 abluo. 307. a. of source. 2 96. 5. of accordance. of price. 1. 20. in composition. synecdochical. in indicative. 362. 336. b. admodum. 3. Adjectives. ff. 255. of association. a/. 4. aedes. 10. 341. 331 f. acerb us. 71. 5. 100. 3. 340. 2. 306. a-Series. a.

141. 2. 263. auspex. 92. £. 1. ai. anticus. sigmatic. B. 1 a^?. breviter. 261. pronunciation. 204. 96. 92. 105. 10. pronunciation. 106. ar-. 88. 98. 97. VII. -sr-. 1. 90. 3. 105. aufero. are/acid. audies. 255. Anticipatory subjunctive. 1. 3. M (Indo-Eur. tozz. apud. 2. 3. 262.94£. 31. 20. of vowels. 3. 219. aj (j). agricola. ?7. &?//z. strong. . 2. aro. to<?. 92. blmestris. 88. £. . anceps. 256. 1. pronunciation. 93. 100. 5. -al. 264. audirem. azidiam. 262. &«•. 261. 93. 1. 99. armiger. earlier form of ae. 200. 27. 80. 2. 254. 76. ambi-. 96. 5. 262. 89 105. miser. for o 102. 2. ardor.zzV. bubus. arfu'erunt. 222. 379. £. 1. C.r. 2.for -a/?-. . attingo. aid. 262. 84. 1. 182. 3. 245 ar versus. for r. basiuvi. 106. -br-iox bracca. 92 100. Alphabet. £. ambo. a mare m. arbiter. Antisigma. aggulus. — Gaius. bobus. A. 4. I. 1. antemnae. atirufex. 1. aufugio. 219. Aspirates. -ar/. au. <z/\57. 1. 265. 23 97. -ar. 112. 203. 1. <5. 57. ali quid. 88. Assimilation of consonants. Augment. . amem. 2. #«/. alnus. a/ for _ * /. a^». 86. . 1. 3. 88. 2. 3. 97. armus. ausim. N. 259. Aorist Optative. antae. 3. 97. 108. 222. bacca. 261. 109. 180. 3. changes. antequam. 1. 4. 97. 185. 102. 4. aurora. ° ala. azz. 222. 2. 88. 221. 3. 3. 1. with subjunctive. A. 31 asporto. 1. ager. 76.). 261. ar. 2. 36. 200. 1. 1. 3. 2. allium. 200. 88. 3. 180. 96. 2. 1. 80. au. 1. 98. 93. 105. 2. 2. 86. 1. 92. auceps.z£. 180. 1. 105. ai. to. 100. 186. 3. a. <fe. arbosem. 71. 12. tf?z 222. . 2. I. Breves Breviantes. 86. 88. 3. . 25. au-. 2. animal. 1 203. 1. bruma. airid. Bosphorus. 379. #. changes. bucca.INDEX. 3. 100. Apocope. aperio. C.3.

370. Comparative Degree. 1. conubis. . = centum.. catus. cognosco. 362. 255. £ari>. 2. 25. 88.«. 5. contra. 3. 100. 298 ff. cerno. Claudius. conditio. Concessive Subjunctive. 106. 4. contemptus. 94 ff. 341. 3. Cn. 141. 109. 5 16. see c-stems. 200 ff. 2. 58. final. 57. Cardinal numerals. as grammarian. 181. in composition. 76. 11. introduced by £«. 103. 2 <rc£/>?. Cases. Carthagine. 1. 3. convicium. 11. 6. 3. 183. 0-stems. clam. . 2. catellus. Cethegus. 266. . 15 ff. constare. 1. with genitive. 1. n. 2. 400 conditus. 9. calamitosus. that have partially adapted themselves to 2-stems. 266. 295 . 2. conubo. 100. coenum. 99. 103. convention}. -clo. Caslorus. 100. contyb erndlis 6. 95. 377. I. 89. n. 81. introduced by quin. I.for -tlo-. calcar. compleo. 81. con clausus 87. 266. ceteri. denoting cause or opposition. 96. Cauneas = cav(e) n(e) eas. consistere with ablative. <ra/7<?. circa. 183.' 341. 11. 58. 84. Conjugation. Clauses of Characteristic. 2. co. £*#*. 296. cordis. 349. cw. 98. centesimus. 1. 137 ff. «Y5. t^wa. caerimonia. caesaries. distinguished from relative clauses of purpose. Clodi us. 1. citimus. coeravere. 2.in compounds. 355. caedo. 81. names. 2. 87. with ablative. 108. 3. 1. 58. 3. coetus. 1.in 11. 1. cost. 138. 267. 81. cir titer. 69. N. 2. 133. 141. £>&. 3. 2. 1. 88. 14. con tid. 2. ££>r. 159. no. 341. £. Consonants. Conditional Sentences. b. 1. 3. /£. contempsl. 31. causa.246 C. 108. . caelum. VII. 2. caecus. 98. 268. 16. 203. ^/Y^r. 31. b. 75. 376. «'^a. Consonant changes. Case-endings. 2. 182. cineris. 267. Consonant stems. Compensatory Lengthening. 2. . 3. 3. 372. circum. 108. <%>#. b. Case-theories. 4. 93. 103. mfo. confido with ablative. 1. <5. 105. 1. 181 f. 3. £. Contingent Future. collis. ' consist of. 206. 1.' 344. cludo. 3. 65. coemeterium. 2. . 109. 255. 5. caelebs. Causal clauses. Carthagini. 104 ff. 141. coquo. . 34. 6. ff. 104. co. compounds. 371. «wz-. 104. 2. INDEX. 1 1. — Gnaeus. caeruleus. 25. Comparison. tffc. cog?zomen. 181. 1. 330. 184. ff. 3. 1. . contmere. 369 ff. ' . Consonants doubled. 2. a. COCUS. centum. 3 257. 75. 3. 89.

2. e. Deliberative Subjunctive. . 380.^ . dixim. £?«£<?. 100. ««'. £. 4 a?. 1. 103. 223. De-composition. D. cratis. E. 2. of agency. cribrum. 2. do ceo. 32 f. 1. cornu. 102. 1.35. Diespiter. 315. 64 105. . didici. 88. 28. /J. 349. . cujus. 95. pronunciation. 223. 184. 2. 80 ff". <^J. 2. domu'i. 1 . 5. from from a. cuppa. dirimo. of purpose. VII. . coventio. 185. 4. Diphthongs. drachuma. I. £<?j-. 103. 1. />. 4. 15. y ^-74'from. 203.' ' ' help. 297. Dative. £. 88. duim. 203. 2. 219. 10. etc. 1. 4. 97. ff. 2. with Subjunctive. dlxti. Diphthongal stems. 82. 2. culpa. 2. 1. 183. changes. 206. 2. 91. 48.in compounds. 313. culleus. with verbs signifying favor. 358. deeram. 3. -dhlo. . 180. deesse. 198. donee. Double consonants. in dum. debllitare. dlvus. 4. 173. 218. 95. not afo. dlvissio. dlrus. to. 64 f. ^-Series. ducentl. 104. 4. 318. ?. 2. 88. with ^zzz-clause. 73. dk (Indo-Eur. 405. duo. 67. ^'j- 1. 1. Declension. ff. ?. 3. curamus. 2. 2. with the ablative. of indirect object. 76. 363. Crassupes. <$J. . 256. 318. 198. D= 205. Distributive numerals. curvus. 47.rz. . 100. 76. no. 185. dajjtma. 98. 271. 64. 103. c. cresco. 98.. 191 deni. dfo?. 2. 4. 316. -£>-<?-. 1. 1. dingua.). no. e. VI. £. <r«//z-Clauses. dentio. of reference. 34. 183. tf'awz. 4. 1. ^-Series. a^r. 100. 380. for -^/tf-. 71. 183. 10 ff. curtus. 1. 312 f. 203. of possession. 3. 88. <&'<?. 97. 314. with compounds. 87. 105. 5. 95. corpulentus 108. 75. 99. 82. 88. 186. Doubled consonants. VII. 4 259. de lector. Demonstrative Pronouns. 319. decent. 202.INDEX. 95- 208. 94. 1 introducing a Proviso. temporal. 86. 2. 2. 65.#. domamus. dovii. e. decimus.97. disco. 100. 4. 14. 6frr<3. Dafivus. <*4?»* J 3 8 . no. 247 2. dacruma. 367. . dins. Dissimilation of syllables. de. 180. die. 500. VII. 73. 86. pronunciation. denuo.' origin. dfortf. 203. 2. 377 f.

-^z. 202. existumb. ' familias. edim. I films. 2. 122. 3 192. 100. 349. 1. earn. 6. 204. 71. I. 102. . origin of letter. ecferri. 80. 3. d. 2. eapse. f. 90. 2. . 97. 82. exemplar is. 222. pronunciation. 3. eumpse. /tfrz. 243. feres. extremus. filiabus. 2. 71. 87. 192. 108. 254. 5. 3. . emptus. 87. 1. 3. with ablative. 97. eu. 2. ecus. eo. 5. f 50. et. eram. euntis. edi.r. 1. <?^-0. fanum. 106. INDEX. -er cuius. / 2. 109. 3.. 11. 91. ec-. F. 2. yfzziJ.' 202. -ir. ei. _/ar (r) . . <?. ex s ilium. 2. 206. 3. 2. egl. 3. 2. 64. 1. 108. 255.?. 3. c. exsulto. 182. 183. <?«. 113. y£/ (/) . 202. 181. ^j-(j-). «. 99. 86. 1. exaequo. 192. 2. ferre. 205. faxim. . 1. 97. 1. /a. facilUmus 182. famulus. I. 97. essem.. 3. 51. 196. 86. 76. 223. 23. 105. 192. equabtis. 172. 273 ex. 182. ^z/j. 192. a. ei. 2. ex terus. 13. ergo. 85. 196. 5. 58. Eleven. exstra (d). £»z for etc. _/#/. endo. «z. 2. emi. 51. 273187. 273.z 7?. 102. 82. 57. 11. 108. */-. eu. 1. 222.r5. 6. 222. 192. yfrfz. ejus. eo. 3. 2. 2. ^r for r.«. fagus.. eopse. 261. 2. IV. 196. Final Consonants. y££ra.248 ^-Sterns. o orj^. in Composition. 5- /*/£. 2. 65. 51. 172 ea. 7. -emus. 4. 71. 2. . -ellus. 122. equus. 3. 93- /«#?. 3 errem. -estus. 205. o y#£. 82. Ethical Dative. 4. eadem (adverb) 255. a. facile. go. ero. 57. 2. #. 1. 243. 3. erus. extimus. ££/<?. exsulo. 202. 317. 203. 2. 5. 206. est (edo). fl. exquaero. 255. /j pronunciation. 206. 88. 100. 3. 218. 3. for 1. 192. 7. 109. extra. b. 219. 1. 1. . 21. yz"a£y.«<?. 86. exemplum. 206. <?. ea. /*?ri?. 51. ^r^a. 65. . £y. ea (adverb) 255. festus. 4. 109. 3. 206. 2. femina. 1. ttjq. 109. «:. 4.

. honorus. 191. fiecto. for ng. 30- 171.. 7. Jingo. 3. f. 191. gluttire. hieto. 1. 5. foe dus. 64. 191. 88. 6.«-. 94 107. frons. 322. c. ghtttus. earliest form. 1. 203. A. 191. flxus. 4. haec (Fem. 23. 299. B. gemma. b. a 210. for inus. 216. funebris. 3. G. Hypotaxis. y5«. horfis. quantity of vowel before. hum'i. 349. 2. 323. furuos (= furvos) 98. 321. Guttural. 94. 3. 97. haec (Neut. gaudeo. 23. VI. 2. 3. gignb. 191. original force. 205. 256. 23. haruspex. 256. 86. 109. 97. 3. quantity of vowel before. 38. /$<?£. 1. /zz«V. 3. B. 2. pronunciation. 4.fontis. 97. 1. 254. 341. 203. gaudeo.). Genitive. futtilis. 203. 203. 1. 97. hellud. 97.for -en-. 41. -gn. distinguished from Palatal fulmentum. 97. -<. 88. 5. 203. 108. hortl. hoc (Ablative). hohis. gradlor. hujus. forts. Future Indicative.. 3. Hidden Quantity. I. hac. VII. 4. . >&J<. VI. harena. 2. 252. pronunciation. a. 6. 36 hiemps. horteis. 98. hiems. glorior. gllsco. 102. Gracchus. 2 104. with the ablative. 2. g. fr otitis. 2. 1. 88. 20. ff. h. 256. /at/*. 81. 94. I. fons. . H. 301.INDEX. 324 genus. £. . 39. 2. fords. 1. 94- Hartung's theory of the cases. 1. hortei. 3. hoc (c).£•»?. 3. A. -gm. 191. Future Perfect Indicative. with verbs. 2. 256 1 1. gram en. Hortatory Subjunctive. 97. gn. Gnaivod. a. A. hostis. 97. 3. 4. 341. 6. 88. 113. 191. 320. .). . 210. 1. 2. Grammatical theory of the cases. gnotus. 2. 108. . 249 Jtnimus. 31. Genetivus 297. 3. 29. 3. forum. g. fiimus. 71. Gutturals. . 20. II. 106. 200. Gerund. fruor. hisco. gndrus. 1.). 1. of quality. 41. hanc. 108. 81. 104. hallucinari. ^ pronunciation. gnatus. 102. 138. 1. f. 2. with ablative. 203. 2. with nouns. III. gero. 23 97.for hunc. /brte. gg. 191. 109. with ablative. 6. fungor. b. with ablative. 97. 1. 97. 358. 1. 191. 97. 3.3. 2. fortunas. 105. 88. A. 367. g/i (Indo-Eur. 3. 3. gn. 1. a. ^r^. /undo. 257. 81. hlc (Adverb). /k?rJ. 2. VI. 349. B. 1. 3. 191. 1. with adjectives. 70. gnosco.

by ^zzz-clause. Instrumental case. 1. ?2. 1. b. 3. b. 87. 368. -ister. 103. z7?V<?. for/. VII. 3. 76. 43 z-yzV. i. 1. idem. 2. pronunciation. 197. 358. 259. VII. 3. 80. Indicative. 50. 203. /. 5- juxta. 197. in -ri. indu-. 195 . 186. intimus. 1. /. inter ieisti. with genitive. 192. 25.2 SO INDEX. /. -issimus. 3. 4. induo. 51. 222. ignosco. 1. i from 1 from J from i from £ from zfrom z z z in -ier. uses of the Ablative. 60. j acid. 335 ff. *. impi emus . Inchoatives. by followed indigmis. 76. 278. r-4. formation. 256. 1. incertus. indigeo. 277. 100. IV. 171. 182. in junior. J. 198. 1. 4. ff. 4. 203. 3. 2. 15. 331 332. VII. ilicet. 3. 362. indigenus. zyfor/. 71. 2. 1. illic. 2. 2. jticundus. indoles. 198. Juppiter. Imperative. 330. 335. 78. 244. 17. pronunciation. 103. with genitive. 4. 243 pronunciation. 275. 6. 4. 203. z-Stems. z^zls-. in -isse. -tens. 87. consonans. 243. Indirect Questions. 1 . ?. ei. defence of the character. d. earliest form. 399. 2. 47. inquirb. . 192. intramus 203. 15. in ff. illacrymant. in -r<?. c. 103. Imperfect. 329. composition. 2. 2. Inflections. z. 51. 4. 246. wiih the genitive. z-fz*z£. 36. z-Stems. 103. 203. 6. L= fff / for r. 204. illTisfris. . 49. inter. 3. y<?-class of verbs. 80. <?z. 3. jtisti. ipse. idoneus. 310. 275. Jupiter. is. 368. 256. a. Infinitive. intelligo. 58. 180. intus. impltio. 5. 103. -ies. 105. 73. 2. . 275. 1. 197. impleo. Interrogative Pronoun. in 2. /. . with the ablative. i. 106. 8. 6. Jussive Subjunctive. indugredi. 4. /» 103. 88. Indefinite Pronoun. 4. interest. id genus. indigena. 1. 50. VII. 275. 81. compounds. 3.z. 246. a. 223 f. -i litis. jungo. 275. 204. 182. infra. longa. 82. 15. 2 a. 1. 1. 5. 105. 279- ^J-clause £. z'/zV. 196 . 99.3.2SS. 255. 349. 5. 3. jussus. 148 id. formation. intellego. ISat. K. 3. -z. 192. z>z. 104. 330. 200. Subjunctive. followed 68.

81. 3. medius. 2. 104. materies.Velars. 1. 1. 300.zz 88. 106. 2. maior. 106. 2. 1. 95. 2. minoris. modo. minus. 97. 112. lingua. 86. 3. 20. 3 187. Moods. Messalia. £. 89.zz (Dative). 1 2. latus. mens. /). 299. 3[ 93Masculine a-stems. 95. 99. 95. I. maxumus #Zi?. b. . Middle . Long diphthongs. 2. viercennarius. /). 108. 141. levir. #z£</. 76. 81. 256. magislres. 4. 102. 1. 1. lis. 1. . zzzzj. mons. 2. 17 f. ?7zz7zz. lavacrum. 16. 187. 71. names morbus. 100. o 1000. legimini (Imperative). /z'. millesimus. 2. Lacedae?noni. 2. 328. /zV<?/\ Metathesis. male. membrum. 349. 187. monerem. wz^z. I'Mera. 16. miser. 2. la for / 100. z. 105. libertabus. militiae. me?'idie. 4. 99 f. 100. of. introducing a proviso. 206. V. 183. 4. moneo. 108. moneam. 82. //$!?/ {lubel). «•"•*. 86. 98. 1. 353. magis. 1 . 122. 75- 4. 2. 1. larva. o_ /. Liquids.INDEX. 2. 187. 41. lapsus. 4. 1. 106. 190. c. 187. b. . modo. 6. 2. Iubidd. 1. lacruma. 100. 3. Menerua. 2. VII. Lengthening of vowels. Logical theory of the cases. lapillus. /) . mollis. Labio. 1. ?. 98. 405. miluos. 1. Localistic theory of the cases.2. 3. memordi. laetor with the ablative. moenia. 1. 203. lalrina. with the subjunctive. 1. lac. 3.x. 16. /<?£7. m. 1. liber fas. 256. 11. Indus. 88. 1. 98. 389. 104. 351. mis ceo. 190. 1. 300. malim. 222. 78. 251 100. 104. as sonants. Locative uses of the Ablative. 206. 88. mille. cevi. Michelsen's theory of the cases. 1. 80. 82. 91. <S. with genitive. Matiita. 1. 1. 255. 202. muccus. 10. 184. 109. 1. maid. 78. 6. 3 237. 2. 181. 3. 181. 1. /a/ztf. 90 . 3. 325. 348 f. 1. locus. miseret. 1. 3. 88. 2. Mains. .z<?. 227. 3. Locative of the goal. memini. 200. 3. viaestus. M. 97. 19. 6. 1. »z^/. 107. 80. pronunciation. 203. 100. 97. 2. lubet. 2. 218. 1. 1 . 187. 88. mina. (Vocative). lucrum. 3. 2. 98. 102. £. 1. 3. 131. motnordi. 2. 103.y. mancipiiim. 104. M= ' m. 94. 103. lama. montis. i. voice. 95. . 344. 109. 77ZZJ7. 6. with genitive.

noster. 722". 297. 7z-class of verbs. 4. 391. 5. 97. 184. operio.773 verily. 186. 181. Numasioi. 76. 104. obliviscor. 2. 6. oliva. n 7z for 171. Nasals. 6. 7. 84. ob. lost. 203. numerus. 2. 73. 20. with the subjunctive. nolini. f. 2. I . 2. nexus. «. 3. 25. 90. 391. 7. mimero. 138. 9. nihil. noctu. 7«. . 102. 102. 96. . pronunciation. from azz.. 124. 11. 1. . 256. causa quin. oinos. Subjunctive. 7?/ quantity of vowel before. from /. occultus. ?z«//a N. 68. 8. nudiustertius. 1. 102. 76. 187. 355. declension. 1 . 77/j pronunciation. m. 93. 92 . 58. 218. 24 ff. O pronunciation. 73. 37. 1. 2.252 muliebre sccus. 0-Series. 359 6. muliebris. ^-Series. 1. 1. nee. 1. Nasal Stems. 184. 1. /zoy. 7z<?/<?. o/'. in ff. octavus. 1 ob in composition. onustus. 76. ne. 183. 20. 19 f. 104. ?iavis. nonus.. 1. 86. novos. optimus. V. ^-sterns. 20. munia. 364. 112. 3. olle. 183. 90. 280. notus. novem. IV. <?£. 1. 71. 4. changes. Mutes. 87. nostri. 257. 2. negotium. <7. Tzo-class of verbs. n. B. ninguit. 106. 15. 3. 0^/0. 2. <5. 254. neglego. octingenti. nobis. 103. 7zm. oitilis. 5. <? »afor 101 f. ote. 40. 147. 76. nectd. 86. 5. Nominativus. 81. nd. n. 3. 93. quantity of vowel before. 217. 94 ff. 187. oportet. 2. . 2. 73. 76. 0/ 1. 20. changes. 81. 4. 2. 190. INDEX. Nouns. nimis. 2. 394. 11. multa. ' 0. occupo. 88. pronunciation. pronunciation. oi. 1. 310. 11. 182. 3. 93. 4. 3 . multum. ndminus. 2. 40. adulterinum. 81. III. 280. 325. 101. with the subjunctive. 187. noveni. etc. 97. Numerals. I. 2.' II. 108. 0C#?. muttlre. -nguontur. necesse est. 86. B. as sonants. 3. 202. 7Z7w>. quantity of vowel before. mulsi. 86. 5. nostrum. 101. novitas. 7. 100. 69. 105. 96. 185. quantity of vowel before. 183. natus. I. with genitive. e. -nguont. 37. from 2. 57. offievna. 183 f. 203. 1. 108. original force. Multiplicatives. 203. 195. 4. 6. t?^. 180. 187. Optative.

/. 105. 1. 1. Subjunctive. ou. 98./". 1. 4. 96. 4. pilumnoe. 97. 256. 215. 208. in -si. I. 209. 349. Perfect Indicative. 2. 3 inflection. pa?-ricida. 362. ^atf. 81. poploe. III. pietas. . 222. 107. populus. 1. polio. Ordinals. 105. 284. pledres. 131. Orthography. 138. I. 3. /<?r. 330. . 207 229 ff. 99. 200. Participles. c. ostendd. 100. III. 391. 261. 85. die. 2. 203. f. 82. 173. for b. I. 310. Pronouns. posed. 344. 84. 1. 1. 2. 16. no. 1. plddo. 4. 87. poscere. Permissive Subjunctive. 109. 261. 284. 1. 3. with genitive. 108. 328. 3. plectd. 30. 182. paenitet. 1. parti ceps. 248 pastus. . 181. 71. 341. 190. 108. 2.INDEX. ph. 182. piliem. 1. plerumque. Pluperfect Indicative. 109. pandd. 106. 1. or bus. //«£. A ^ 96. 1. postrhnus. 181. 4. 253 piaclum. possini. 82. 1. opus. 3. parsi. 91. 88. ^r<2£. 210. 2. pronunciation. p on tis. porrigo. f. 1. optumiis. pontufex. 254. portendo. Palatal distinguished Palatal Mutes. pendere animi. 210. 182. or. pons. pignosa. in -vi. 88. 81. -panx'i. Pompei. 56 os. 4. 4. pessimus. VI. 4. <??^. pond. from Guttural. 182. 5. in -ui. with ablative. 203. Parasitic Vowels. potin. pedestris. 187 ff. 6. 94 palea. peior. 2. postmnus. with subjunctive. 95. 281. 2. 208. b . with genitive. 365. pellis. 76. pluris. plied. 91. 1. I. 131. 105. 366. 2. 41. praestigiae. 58. 282. Pompeius. 206 ff. 1. 206. 284. 85. 184. 218. Personal Endings. partem. Partial Assimilation. 284. 254. 100. postridie. 2. opus est. 1. polliceor. 86. 105. ///7j. plurimus. pluvi. 106. 341. 203. pilleus. pecto. Parataxis. 208. ^?r-. 2. 283. in composition. poena. f. 3. parjetis. (J. 88. porta. 6. 2. pepugi. potior with ablative. for £«. posterns. . 1. Potential Subjunctive. b. I. 126. 1. /<??- Possessive Pronouns. plurimum. 181. 3. 210._ 31. praedad. formation. 4. 64. 26. ariiniis. 212. portdrium.

quod. 203. f. 100. 98. 344. quater. 257. 76. Pronouns. ^zm. 9308MZTC. Rhotacism.. 1. Provisos. 0MW. Pronunciation. 25. 86. 198. I. 260 0«<?. 362. 7. II. 2. procus. 6. pulcer. 13. 73. 1. remus. 285. Root class of verbs. 206.5. regerem. 1. 2. refert. reliquum est with the Subjunctive. Reduplication. b. 198. 218. qulntus. r<?<^-. prodesse.254 praeter. 2. 198. $r«ff. 183. 0Z"^. 183. Result Clauses. 182. prehendo. 3. quernus.1. pulsus. £ 96. j. rtibro-. Relative pronouns. pudet. quoad with Subjunctive. 1. Present Optative. 18. 206. 4. 1. recta. 183. 2. 90. 13. 1. 328. 36. 2. orthography. 285. 1. 0. 3. proximus.25. 2. Progressive Assimilation. 1. 208. relincmit. £. 2. 1. 3. . ?. 1. 198. 198. pupvgl. puleher. 1. 184. purpura. 405. /«#><*. 255. r. 1. res. 380. 349. quern. 4. 199. -quos. R. ff. 89. 147. quae. 286. 284. 101. 105. 1 . 206. B. 31. 1. pr'idie. 100. 1. 358. 180. 379. 6. 57. 0«J. 97. 373 rettull. 90.4. 98. 105. 3. Prohibitive Subjunctive. 203. propter. 286. <£ pro-. querela. 3. radix. 1. 97. 73. d.2. priusquam. 0///V/. 4. ff. 329. Prepositions. 222. Pronominal Adjectives. . quattuor. 186. 173. quant l. 1. 1. prot'mus. 284. pro-. quadringenfi. 255. 301. 109. 182. Reduplicating class of verbs. 206. 2. 198. quadraginta. -quont. remltuscor with genitive. 184. 104. primus. 392. with genitive. prorsus. -r for -J in nominative. b. repperl. r. 198. d. 89. 187 prope. Repudiating Questions. 106. a. Romance qulnqiie. 1. 108. 3. /. 1. VII. 183. 4. c. quartus. 198. rem. 2. 325. pronunciation. 64. 2. stem. languages. 203. in composition. 3. 183. refert. 238. 206. rubemus. INDEX. 184. ra from r<?-. regain. 397. 15. Regressive Assimilation. 88. 198. repente. 198. 3 r-Stems. 3. f. -punxi. etc. with genitive. reccidl. 98. 201 f. quoniam. 1. 2. Rumpel's theory of the cases. 87. 101. 4. 5. Reflexive Pronouns. 57. 283. 3. 363. 94. quadra. 38. I. 106. r from r from 99. 1. 3 . ^". 57. 189. 1. 5. Re-composition.

sequitur. 288. spepondi. 88 . sempitermis. 206. 3. septenl. 1.H. 287. rumpo. semodius. 98. 95. 106. 2. #0»£\ j\r Semivowels.r. IV. j^rc?. 1. . 31. socius. 184. 64. sella. 3.rafo'. 171. 183. secundus. 4. sperno. salvus. s. 255 rutundus. 3. -T0-. siccus. 1. b. septem. 4. origin as a conjunction. 4. V. sommis.. s pronunciation. b. sescenti. 88. 103. . scidi. soboles. II. i'/ZJj. I. sepulcrum. I. c. . . 1. 3.' with subjunctive. 1 203.tf<?. I. 1. 64. 108. strenna. 106. Samnium. 3. 2l8. 3. solium. 100. 94. 102. VI. 91. jz. 3. 94. 2. 87. 288. 392. 203. 147. 103. 186. 76. 3 . 75. II. si?iguli. satin. scilicet. 7. jz'wz. 88. sedes. ^. . 172. <.W from from <#. 109. 203. seditio. 94. 1. 185.s^. 5 secwitur. 109. 91. 2. 105. semndum. 2. 3. ' V. 6. 16. j-Stems. 204. sacerdos. sovos. j^. 1. 1. 76. -s -s from from ns.$£-. 1. stemud. 5. 203. stellid. ts. jr^?. socors. 2. 90. Spirants. 3. 257. 5. 100. 259. 2. 103. 3. 218. sexcenti. secerno. 73. sextus. 4. spopondi. $. 2. 206. £. 76. . 4. 184. 5. 108. 99. 206. £. saeclum. stabulum. construction. . Shortening of Vowels. stare with ablative. 1 . 1. salignus. stlocus. 349. 2. 203. 206. scala. 323. 62 sparsi. 183. 2. 203. 184. 288. 1. jfe/J. Sounds. 106. 73. 89. I. 108. 22. 104. sernel. 57. rursus. 189. I. 106. 3. no. 104. I90. 1. 2. II. 103. <5. 206. 288. f. gy. saeculum. 185. socrus. 106. sedulo. 190. 3. 2. 90. stratus. Septimus. 2. . JM. 103. simplex. 88. 89. 5. stella. 108. #.. 1. 401. 2. scicidi. 104. 4. segmentum. 1. . 1. 1. 4. between vowels. 73. 3. j£#«. . 218. 88. £. sterno. j^-. 109. -•sw-class of verbs. 62. -w. f. 65. 1. similis. 203. it remains. 100. 2. sobrius. 189. stlatus. 95. sequere (Imperative). 185. 104. societas. 3. speres.INDEX. silua. 1. siemus. sobrimis. 1. ww. 189. 105. 21 98 f. jJ^o. j/<f»2. 6 227. 4.

2. fe. succus. 3. in principal clauses. after verbs of deciding and resolving. 47. 188. sub in composition. 255. 88. 367. 365. 2. 104. temno.. subus. -en-. Subjunctive. 360. 4. 92. . etc. Syncope. 106. 182. developed from Deliberative. T. of purpose. 398. 1. 147. -in-. 3. 3. 385. -mn-. with sequitur. sus. 103. temere. 358 in ff. e. 3. 2. 397. ter-. 2. surrexe. templum. Syncretism. 105. suprad. 90. I. grant/ fig. su'escb. in. Supposition. 2. 291. developed from Volitive. 1 289. tego. 5. /-class of verbs. men-. 2. of. 148. after non dubito. 384 ff. formation. subter. 290. 3. 2. -es-. g. 102. tenebrae. 147. 4. 362. 203. 394. est. -tr-. sumus.-. t. after verbs of permitting. 93. 2. -mn-. 220 original force. fed. 388. tentus. of c-stems. Syntax. 2. 1. 88. VI. sudor. 171. introduced by quo-minus. 108. V. 393. 389. 354. -£r. tenere castris. 358 sui. 1. 386. 3 90. 1. 182. after verbs of wishing and desiring. 25. Syllables dissimilated. ios-. 255. 203. no. 396. suscipio. Dependent Clauses. mon-. 393 f.256 Strong grades of roots. 147. a. 182. tanti. of. 108. 381 ff. 395after verbs of fearing. 190. sulcus. 103. Subjunctive supra. tenus. 395 ff. tenuia. tor-. begging and request- ing. 252. 58. -tr-. 147. 62. suus. 64. 1.. b. after Supine. stuppa. 107. temo. b. 5. -ies-. suspicio. 108. 147. 202. 1. 147. tero-. 393. -ma-. 384. a. 344. of Contingent Futurity. 160. 1. -men-. 147. 188. 189. 24. 105. 1. *. Suffixes. 331. 2. 3. Substantive Clauses. os-. 1. 391. 3. uses. III. -tor-. 289. sumpsi. 349. 2. 171. after cave. 124. 181. 353 ff. 2. . 200. 295 ff. 332. after /acid. manding. developed from Optative. 89. 4. 1. with quin. super. usus est. 181. 96. d. 88. 16. ion-. -n-. a. sub. division est. c. tegula. reliquum 392. tendo. 256. subfilis. 2. 1. ff. 2. after verbs of ordering and com- sum. 387. INDEX. 3. . after verbs of hindering. allowing. 203. pronunciation. mo-. in ablative. of «-stems. ff. 366 ff. syntax. etc. of z-stems. 35. necesse est. after verbs of Superlative degree. 390- with opus oportet. 76. 1. of a-stems. 95- of Result. -ter a. b. on-. verbs of advising.

2. variego. 1. 3. a. valde. 51. -tumus. in genitive singular. 182. th. u cbnsonans. zW/<?. -usculus. 3. 103. 76. velim. <?. 2. 3 . 1. a. 257 2. tinguo. 2. 76. 57. 90. t/<?/$<?. 106. . 1. 1. 1. unda. 76. 90. -tlo-. a from eu. 84. 3. £. 104. £. I. 188. 103. no. -undo. £. Verbs of judicial versum. ultimus. uls. v. 1. venio. 23. -ustus. 2. 76. 188. <?£<. 3. /cc/<?j-. 201 ZWZ2W. traxe. ter. 97. etc. 2. 203. 222. Tuscus. 103. ventum. vescor. tilia. trans. 81. 255. 14. 1. 255. 1. 85. 1. in composition. 47. pronunciation. 105. . 182. 188. 6.5. velle. 4. 203. K-stems. 93totondl. 4. 1. umbilicus. 1. 5. . 327. 95. 3 action. 2. K. 243. 2. torus. -us. 3. 201 tibi. I. 3. 94. Velar gutturals. 78. U. 190. 73. 190. . vesperi. 2. £. V. 1.INDEX. I06. 87. 292. 76. 2. Unthematic Conjugation. 2. 341. 31. torreo. 8. ^. 88. 2. 4. V. tortus 105. 186. 1 203. 94. 16. torrere. 203. 183. £. zit///^. pronunciation. utor with ablative. 3. /. 184. -uom. 51. 23. 5. -zzj- 3. 183. 2. 105. vester. 85. . 138. zWo. 3 105. A*. 168. vertex. 202. 100. &r. VII. -timus. 2. 2/. 4. £. 16. 103. u from ozz. 51. zVzzzz. 101. venire. 1 2. 256. 3 . z?-stems. 4. 4. n. 3. veneficus. 31. ter tins. 104. »««. zzrzza. -unculus. -tor. #-£r. £. « from au. VII. vellem. 2. tredecim. umerus. 13. 1. 71. 107. -urn us. changes. ul from lilluS. -?z<?. 341. « from u from m from ». 3. 1. 106. 3. I. 293. 76. « from a^. 160. 190. -um in genitive plural of a- and c-s terns. «(5^r. A. -uont. 3. 2. 83. trans. triginta. 58. 75. 2. tugiirium. 218. 3 . 88. 2. . umbo. 2. tribubus. trecenti. »/zV-«. 183. 42. taz. 1. with ablative. 97. /«. . 4. 51. 71.y. uncus. 4. 183. 15. 92. 51. z«. 293. 106. a. 104. 1. 76. z7 from <?z. 1. tazzj. 185. unguis. o' Thematic Conjugation. 3. 183. triu?npus. I. transduco. 76. 3. 79. iimor. 103. 171. v. 100. 188.. 4. 294.

219. no. origin of the letter. Vowel gradation. ^. 6. orthography of words beginning z. 3. videlicet. • 212. viduus. 3. 3. 88. 1. 81. virile secus. vostri. 5. 97. INDEX. 310. ' 81. 1. -zw. 73. vestrum. 5. 4. 5. 8. 188. 6. x. voluntarius. vicem. X. z-^jj. . x. . 57. vicus. 188. Vowels assimilated. . 185. <5. 12. 188. origin of the letter. volvo. pronunciation. viginti. y. Vocativus. 91. vidimus. 76. vostrum. 349. 94. 2. vorarc. 2. 113. 7. 1. 2. 94. 2. a. 33. 204.' 202. 9. void. vichii. y. Volitive. z/<?/-. 5. Weak grade of roots. veto. 188. 62 7. 95. 32. thou wilt. £. -vom. 310. 1. vitulus. 202. pronunciation. vincere pugna. 354 358. f. •z/«/J. <5. vias. vivus. 183. W. 297. origin of the letter. vinclum. 73. 2. 6. ww. 184.258 vestri. 108. 57. 1. viderimus. vhevhaked. 2. 2. 1. 3. Y. ^. -vont. with. 2. pronunciation. 1. vinum. vlcesimus. 90. 206. 1. z^j. 64 f. Vowels shortened.

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Date Loaned •• \. uu J . J / 1 .

BOSTON UNIVERSITY 1 1719 02815 8204 .

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