A study on Causes for Delays in Pre-Production Activities of

Garment manufacturing at Imperial Garments Limited, Hyderabad.

In partial fulfillment of the requirements of SVPISTM for The award of Post Graduate Diploma in Management (Textiles). Under the guidance of Dr. S.Usha, MBA, Ph.D

SARDAR VALLABHAI PATEL INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF TEXTILES & MANAGEMENT (A National level Autonomous Institution under the Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India) COIMBATORE - 641004


This is to certify that the project work titled “A study on causes for Delays in

PreProduction activities of Garment manufacturing at Imperial Garments Limited, Hyderabad.” is a bonafide work done by
Management (Textiles) RADHAKRISHNA UPPALAPATI, 09TM11 for the award of Diploma of Post Graduate Diploma in

Faculty guide Program Coordinator

Director Submitted for the Viva-Voce examination held on

(Signature of Internal Examiner with date)

(signature of External Examiner with date)



First and foremost I thank God almighty for the successful completion of my project. I would like to extend my special thanks to Prof. S.R.Pujar, Director of the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International School of Textiles And Management, for the moral support and providing all facilities for the completion of the project. My faculty guide, Prof. Dr.S.Usha had been pivotal for the successful completion of the Project by guiding me throughout the entire phase. I would like to extend my gratitude to her for rendering all the support I needed throughout my project. I also thank all the other faculty members, for their guidance and support and advice during the project. I am extremely obliged to Imperial Garments Limited for providing me the opportunity that was filled with a lot of experience and learning. Besides gaining exposure from my project, I also got a tremendous insight into the world of textiles and other related aspects. I am thankful to Mr.Surendra .C. Trivedhi, AGM (Fabric Sourcing) for providing me guidance about the industry. The other members of fabric sourcing team, and sampling department teams at IGL were also very cooperative in providing the necessary information for my project.




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4 1.2 1.1 4.1 1.6 1.4 4.5 3.3 1.6 3.3 4.5.9 Introduction Operations in Apparel Manufacturing Delay Lead time and timely deliveries Reasons for delays Order management Critical chain approach Business process review Role of merchandiser in Pre production ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Data collection SWOT analysis Order Tracking Delays in different Departments Lead time v/s production& Preproduction times Delay Reasons Approval Delays Quality Problems Lab-dips Material Procurement Changes specification 2.5 5 .1 Research Process 2.2 3.5.8 INTRODUCTION Background Objectives Need for the study Scope of the study Limitations Expected Benefits Hypothesis Company Profile RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.7 3.7 1.8 3.3 3.4 4.0 1.5.1 4.0 i iii iv vi 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 7 7 10 13 13 14 17 18 20 20 23 27 28 31 31 32 33 35 38 43 45 48 50 52 54 4.5 4.2 4.5 1.4 4.1 3.Acknowledgement List of Tables List of Figures & List of Appendices Executive Summery 1.0 4.2 4.3 4.2 Research flow chart THEORY OVER VIEW 3.4 3.

1 5.4 6 .3 5.0 5.1 4.3 5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Identification controllable and non controllable delays Developing action plan Embroidery and Print Delay Material Shortage Internal Communication External Communication Changes in bulk Incomplete submission Established the standard time and action for preproduction activities Conclusions Future Prospect of the Project References Bibliography 61 61 61 61 61 62 62 63 63 64 65 67 69 70 LIST OF TABLE S.4 5.5 5.2.5 4.2.11 5.9 4.1 5.3 5.2.2 5.7 5.4 4.2 5.10 4.8 4.6 4.4 FINDINGS.2 4.5.2 DESCRIPTION Delay in Different departments as percentage Delay in Different department Production lead time V/S Preproduction lead time Statistical Analysis table Status of order tracked Delay Reasons Approval delays Quality Problems lab-Dips delay Material Procurement Specification change reasons Controllable V/S uncontrollable PAGE NO 35 36 37 39 42 44 45 48 50 53 55 59 64 65 67 Time and Action plan solid dyed Time and Action plan for yarn dyed Bill value 5.2. No 4.7 4.6 5.1 5.2.

1 4.2 4.1 4.LIST OF FIGURES S. No 3.3 DESCRIPTION Types of Demand Delay in Different departments as percentage Delay in Different department Lead time Analysis PAGE NO 19 35 38 41 7 .

9 4. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 DESCRIPTION Time and Action Reports (Before) Time and Action Reports (After) Knitting capacity Capacity of Yarn Processing unit of GTN Capacity of Fabric processing unit Yarn Prices for 6 months PAGE NO 71 76 77 78 79 80 Executive Summary Growing demand for new product by customers leads to reduction in product lead time drastically.8 4. Reducing the delay elements which are normally non value added elements 8 .10 Delay Reasons Approval Delay Quality Problems lab-Dips delay Material Procurement Specification change reasons Summarization of delays 44 46 48 50 53 55 57 LIST OF APPENDICES S.7 4.4 4.4.6 4. In today scenario where ―lean is the buzz word making the delivery quick and on time is the main objective of any retailer and manufacturer. So the goal is not only to deliver the product at low cost but most importantly in shorter time which we can be achieved by ensuring proper coordination among different activities.5 4.

This also leads to getting more order. analyzed and best solutions proposed. The research work consists of tracking of particular orders through the entire set of activities in preproduction and study deviation of the current status and expected status. New detailed time and action plan has been developed for all preproduction activities with the consent of all concerned people. The main objective of the research is to analyze the entire process flow of orders in preproduction and identify reason for delays.51. more profit and good name in this competitive scenario. It helps to standardize the process and for better control over the process.and making the entire supply chain more efficient and agile. For orders tracked in 62. The delay is further identified as controllable and uncontrollable and measures are suggested for the controllable delays Action plan developed for each process for eliminating the factors causing delays. production and post production activities need to be managed properly. Then the causes for delays were studied. 35. 51% increase in on time delivery rate if above delays can be controlled. Hyderabad which involved in Manufacture of knit ware products. As per data collection 68% Of Delay was happening in pre-production.5% of cases it is the Material Procurement that is Contributing to delay and second largest contributor is Approval delay which Account for 58%. Hence entire pre production.750 Rs could be saved as part of discount for 24 orders in two months can be used for other purpose. This project work was done at Imperial Garments Limited. 9 .

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. fashion consciousness. disposable income and consumerism is at all time high. which is inducing product lifecycles to 10 . This much consumer awareness demand different merchandise at even shorter intervals complimented with greater shopping experiences.After implementing the proposed action plan in 6 running orders. the reduction observed in approval delay is 60% .1 Background Evolving consumer preferences whose awareness levels of trends. in Material Procurement delay it is 30% and in delay due to Specification changes by 30%. Hence increasing the chances of on time delivery and money saved as discount can be saved for upgrading and new technology.

2Objectives: Primary Objectives: 1. So the goal is not only to deliver the product at low cost but most importantly in shorter time which can be achieved by ensuring proper coordination among different activities. occurrence of delays and their magnitude. production and post production activities need to be managed properly. Understanding the work culture of different departments. 11 . driving the needs of even more new products. In today scenario where ―lean is the buzz word making the delivery quick and on time is the main objective of any retailer and manufacturer.shrink dramatically. makes the entire supply chain more efficient and agile. 1. To find out the reasons for delays at pre-production stage. more profit and good image in this competitive scenario. Hence entire pre production. Reducing the delay elements. which are normally non value added elements. These delays increases the lead-time even more than the standard one and hence to survive in the global competitiveness is much more difficult for the manufacturers. 2. This also leads to getting more orders. Pre – Production delays are the extension of the days beyond standard and planned schedule for the activities starting from order enquiry to all approvals required for bulk production.

3. Controlling the delay would 12 . The project is beneficial for company by helping them to execute order with smaller runs and frequent varying style. To understand the various aspects in Apparel manufacturing which cause delays in pre-production activities. To understand cost implication of delays Secondary Objectives: 1. 1.4 Scope of Study: Study helps us to get a view of process flow of product at pre -production and framework for set of activities required for eliminating the delay elements. Providing probable solutions for the delays in Preproduction. Shrinkage in product life cycles demanding shorter lead times. 2. preproduction activities are highly prone to delays in the process. 4. Generally the orders work on smaller runs. In the absence of a standardized process network. To understanding concept and dynamics of delay in Pre-production. every single buyer. 1. 4. It is observed that the said company is not fully exploiting its resources as a vertically integrated company for reducing the lead time to get a competitive advantage. Pre-production process networks are unique for every single enterprise. 2. even sometimes for every single order.2 Need for the study: 1. Garment preproduction activities demands 60-70% of total lead-time.3.

Limitations: 1. were selected for research in Imperial Garments Limited. Hence it helps in making company proactive in approach to foresee kind of delivery schedule and can get insight of delays.6 Expected Benefits to Sponsors: 1. 3. Orders. 13 . Raw data collected was for three months available at Imperial Garments Unit so all suggestions and recommendations are applicable only to the said company. It was very difficult to get sufficient data regarding activities of knitting unit. Many times it was very difficult to conduct in depth interviews since the department in-charges /merchandisers did not have much time to devote. executed in the period of Apr’10-Jul’10. 2. 4. 1. Any recommendations regarding material procurement is not possible since all operations are not under IGL control. Effective planning of resources. 2. Yarn processing unit & Fabric processing units since they are located at greater distances from main unit.enable company to reduce major amount of deviation from scheduled lead time and meet the delivery date. 3. These are followed up by central purchasing unit of GTN Industries. Reduce lead-time and delays in shipment. Increase in the unit value realization of the company.5. 1.

Beneficial to the companies trying to execute orders with smaller runs with frequently varying styles. 8 IMPERIAL GARMENTS LIMITED Company Profile: GTN Industries Ltd.7 Hypothesis setting: Null hypothesis: H0 : There is no difference between Planned lead time and actual lead time. organic yarns.4. 14 . mercerized and dyed yarns. an organization with over five decades of ceaseless efforts to select the best natural cotton fiber from the world markets & convert into value added products such as high-end fine count grey yarns. knitted fabrics and lifestyle garments at the consumer end of the markets. gassed yarns. 1. Alternate hypothesis: H1 : There is difference between planned lead time and actual lead time. 1.

70/2. Imperial Garments Limited is equipped with built up area of 9000 sq mts spread over 7 acres with latest machinery and open width cutting capable of producing 3 million knitted garments per annum in the highest end of lifestyle garments at Hyderabad. Dogleg. The ability to produce and employ fabrics of finer count yarns such as NE60/2. placket welting. KPR mills etc The company in which project has been completed has following departments: Fabric Sourcing.A state of the art Juki assembly line garment confection arrangement at Hyderabad backed by contemporary facilities in cutting. Quality. Finance & Accounting. Production. Sportswear. 15 . 80/2 and even finer in case of specific orders make an attractive proposition. Carrefour Etc Major Vendors: Vardhaman poly tex. Printing and Embroidery. Products: T-shirts (All types). Priyadarsini Spinning Mills. Marketing and Human Resource Department. Major Customers: Nike. Sampling. ITC. Pantaloons. CAD systems & embroidery machines from Tajima provide facility which is capable of producing over 3 million knitted garments every year in the highest end of life style garments. kids wear. Truworth.

final inspection by QA Final inspection by buyer representative CHAPTER-2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2. midline. specifications Closing of costing with buyer Make time and action Proto for fit Size set with artworks Testing Pre production Production Post production Inline.1 Research Process: 16 .Process flow of the company Salesman Sample Trade show Order booking Order to manufacture Process flow in execution for Particular Order Order from buyer Allocate to tech-pack.

To analyze the extent of delays in executing the orders 2. as poorly defined problems will not yield useful results. Research objectives: 1. Hyderabad.Step I: Define the problem and the research objectives It is the most important stage. Research problem: “A study on causes for delays in Pre-Production activities of garment manufacturing at Imperial Garments unit.” Growing demand for new product by the customer leads to decreasing of product lead time drastically. Nearly 60% of total lead time is consumed on Pre-Production activities. One should be careful not to define the problem too broadly or too narrowly. To determine the extent of pre-production delays in overall delays 3. To determine the potential areas causing frequent delays 4. to avoid delays Step II: Develop the research plan 17 . To determine factors those can be controllable.

Descriptive research is adopted.Designing a research plan calls for decisions on data sources. which help to understand the various causes for delays in related activities. Fact finding would involve just data gathering. choice of research design. sampling plan and contact methods. 18 . magazines and newspapers that helped in getting latest information about the happenings in this sector. In descriptive research more is involved in the form of reflective thinking. The Secondary data also includes Process flow charts. The secondary data was collected from literature provided to us by the company. Also help was taken from Internet. The primary data consists of survey of various people involved in related activities. process parameters. It involves observing things without influencing them. Descriptive research: It can be defined as fact finding with adequate interpretations. both secondary as well as primary data have been used. Data Sources: In this research. research instruments. structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance. and procedures. queries from company employees to understand the process better. Reflective thinking relates the facts gathered to the objectives and the assumptions of the study. A research design specifies the methods and procedures for constructing a particular study. For this research. Research Design Research design is the plan. research approaches. The Descriptive research focuses on the factors.

Step IV: Analyze the information The data had been segregated manually and the analysis work has been done with the help of simple tools such as standard deviations and measures of central tendency. desired quality levels etc. it must be decided how the Subject should be contacted. The data on 24 Orders which primarily got delayed in Pre-production stage have been analyzed on the basis of the following parameters:  Sample submissions  Material procurement  Quality problems 19 . Process capacities. Contact methods: Once the research plan has been determined. Information also collected as regard to MOF release dates. Past records as well as present records available at different departments were studied and personal enquiries were also used in this survey. selection of vendors. tracking of orders along various activities and informal enquiries have been used to understand the reasons and come to conclusions.Research Instruments: In this research. Step III: Collect the information Information was collected from the various people involved in production over a period of time.

charts were developed and findings were extracted from the research. The results are interpreted and tabulated. Lab dips On the basis of Enquiries. HYPOTHESIS TESTING 20 . 2.2 RESEARCH PROCESS FLOW CHART Secondary data collection ↓ Study of processes and activities ↓ Order tracking and study through questionnaire for concerned person handling the activity ↓ Identification of major problem (as per merchandiser and concerned person responsible and also as per observation made during execution of project) ↓ Analyzing problems ↓ Project suggestion ↓ Comparative analysis ↓ Project conclusion and feedback Time TECHNIQUES OF ANALYSIS The hypothesis testing is used for the analysis of the study to arrive at conclusions which will have practical application. the data were tabulated. Then the tables are used for comparison and analysis.

The difference between the two sets of scores is used for analysis. the greater the average difference and the more likely that the null hypothesis will be rejected. This would be the case if the sets of scores were exactly the same. That is.2 Formula 1. The null hypothesis is a statement to the effect that there is ‘no difference’ specifically the null states that the average difference between the two sets of scores will be zero.1 21 . The greater the overall differences between the two sets of scores. Then the result would be zero. if there is any difference between each pair of scores.1 and1. The means of differences and the standard deviation of the differences are computed by using formulas The standard deviation of the differences are computed by using formulas 1. add those differences and divide it by the number of pairs of scores.

1 INTRODUCTION 22 .2 Sd=√∑D²-(∑D)²/N/N Where Sd is the standard deviation of the differences ∑D is the summation of the difference (D) column ∑D² is the summation of the D² column The test statistic computed in step 4 of the five step model will be a t-score: Formula 1.Xd= ∑D/ N Where Xd is the mean of the differences ∑D is the summation of the d column Formula 1.3 t (obtained)=_____Xd____ Sd/√N-1 CHAPTER -3 THEORY OVERVIEW 3.

Overall about 25 % of the volume of its garment production goes into export markets. everyone feels its importance but no one really knows how to harness its real potential. concentrating chiefly on exports. since time is the stuff that life is made of” Time has always been an enigma for man. intense work pressure for faster and better delivery. on-line transactions and most importantly. enters export markets. plastic butterflies and packaging material. The indirect portion helps to sustain the direct production sector in the shape of items associated with the garment industry production including sewing/embroidery thread. need of the mass. buttons. Organized sector of the garment industry is roughly 20% of the total industry. metal plates. E-sales and E-Commerce. These are usually limited Companies while the rest are proprietary or partnership Companies. both directly and indirectly in almost equal proportion. Fabric constitutes 65 to 70% of the cost of production with labor making up a further 23 . optimization of profits. zippers.Benjamin Franklin aptly said that ―”to love life is to love time. 1 . cardboard sheets. are some of the challenges being faced by the Fashion and Apparel industry. buckles. customer demands for greater design variety and frequent design creation with specific changes. Almost 33 % of its knitwear production and about 20% of its woven-garment production. The global competition. leaving 75 % for domestic consumption. downtime analysis of productions process and human error. reduction in time-to-market. on-line information access in the production process. design driven market with quickly changing trends. both by volume. The Industry covers over one lakh units and employs about 6 million workers. The Garment Industry of India is an Rs -one trillion industry.

trim and wash desired to client’s specifications and create sample garments for final approval and pre production. If a prototype of a new design is needed. and globalization impact. but still not flourished at its fullest extent. 3. 3.15% and the rest go for overheads and manufacturer's profit. If the replication of an existing garment style and fit is requested then it will match the fabric. If no prototypes or samples exist. Korea. The first step to successfully executing an apparel product line for manufacturing is the development of a sample garment which meets the specifications fit and desired look of our client. traditional productivity. production and post production activities. Pakistan. Malaysia. The Indian garment industry is gaining grounding the world market at breakneck speed. and Sri-Lanka.2 OPERATION IN APPAREL PRODUCTION Manufacturing operations in garment production incorporates pre production. lower output. cut throat competition. 1 The main competitors of India are countries like China.1 Pre production activities Apparel manufactures develop sample size garments for a specific target market and size range. then Product 24 . high raw material cost. inadequate infrastructure. The key factors behind this are low technological development.2. product Development Department will assist in the development of original prototypes. unfavorable regulatory policies. Bangladesh.

In all relationships people work best when speaking the same language.Development Department will work as an advisor with the client’s design and merchandising staff to develop a new garment from scratch. After final approval of sample garments and final approval of fit and tolerances. Sourcing is to provide an experienced understanding of supplier relationships in order to develop procurement strategies destined to reduce costs. predictable and repeatable. Yarn Procurement. and to provide leverage over suppliers in negotiation on behalf of our clients. Fabric Sample development 25 . Leverage is therefore eliminating one of the biggest problems associated with sourcing and manufacturing by translating all specs into an understandable sourcing/manufacturing language. the product development team and production team will create a size range and deliver a Pre Production package to manufacturing facilities. A prototype garment is generated for approval and fit modifications. monitoring and requiring that each spec standard is met to the requirements of the customer. but that language changes slightly as you move from one area to the other. make procurement customizable. and by supervising on site all aspects of the production process. Some of the important pre production activities like • • • Proto-type Sample development.

26 .2 People involved in are:• • • • • • • • • • • • Development Team Designers/Sample Developers Customers/Clients Textile technologists Garment technologists Packaging & Dispatch Sourcing & Purchasing Costing & Finance Sales & Marketing Production Team Planning & Control Testing & Quality Control 3.• • • • Colour Development Accessories Management Fit Sample Development Specification Finalization and Costing Calculation 3.2.3 DELAY Delay means retarding detention and postponement of set of event and activities and to put off them to future time.

As far as apparel industry is concerned ―Deviation from quoted lead is referred to as delay Delays occur due to several reasons and these can occur at various stages of product and hence broadly Main causes for the delay can be classified as:1) Technical Problem 2) Employee related Problem 3) System related Problem 1) Technical Problem These problems are incurred due to some problem in making out the use of technology effectively and efficiently. There are several reasons under this category also some of 27 .It is unplanned deferment of a scheduled activity because of something or occurrence that impede its commencement or continuation. Poor utilization of capacities also lead to delay as it would result to piling up of work which would stand pending until the earlier loads are completed. It has time associated cost effects on a contact which may be measured in term of time money or a combination thereof. 2) Employee related Problem The garmenting activities are primarily people driven functions and employee play a very important role.

This includes the time taken in documentation. inter-departmental communication. 3) System related Problem This is mainly related to the process activities and the way entire system works. 3. And developing a system to work is very difficult. The main areas of concern are • • • • Merchandise development Communication System compatibility Long delivery time Export market is such where there is lot of innovation in styles and particularly fashion 28 .4 LEAD TIME AND TIMELY DELIVERIES Meeting the delivery on time is the most important factor in today market to have good reputation and existence with good market share in this competitive world.them are miscommunication. the release of orders. processes followed. flow of work. wrong interpretation of the information and work get affected as all activities are interdependent on each other. To keep abreast with the dynamic market conditions these days one need to be able to get more of the fastest selling merchandise on sale during season whilst its appeal lasts and correspondingly eliminate lines which are not popular and become drain on resources. The system is unique to every company and it is way the various functions are executed.

5 Reasons for Delay There can be several reasons for delay some of them can be:.1 What make situation more difficult is the interdependence of the activities and it is not at all surprising that the time taken to get goods from concept to market place is often longer than the selling season itself.Resource 29 .market which very dynamic and shorter run of production are increasing day by day. Timely deliveries in the department like fabric and color development. The actual garmenting process does not increase lead time as much as the preproduction activities. getting the samples made and getting them approved by the buyers. Moreover examples of ZARA which produce garments and hit store with new styles every three week emphasize more competing market. These activities include the process of procuring yarn and fabric. The maximum amount of time spend is in preproduction activities. garment sampling etc are more important. Figure: 3. 3.

accurate. in transit or at warehouse—along with real-time aggregated order reporting. while ordering excess inventory hurts bottom line. and in perfect condition.unavailability (Man. It requires an enormous amount of operational discipline. That means having a global view of inventory—at the supplier. your customers may not take note of operational execution. Achieving this performance consistently is no small achievement. Keep supply and demand in profitable balance with Distributed Order Management. Material). Non Clarities from Buyer Internal Communication. 30 .6 ORDER MANAGEMENT The classic definition of the Perfect Order is one that is on-time. To achieve a Perfect Order from your customer's point of view requires much more: Meeting customer demand on a timely basis drives customer satisfaction. After all. complete. In today’s scenario company should always know what they need and what they have. they expect to get what they ordered when they want it. However. Reducing lead times is only possible by: Elimination (remove a process) Compression (remove time within a process) Integration (re-engineering interfaces between successive processes) Concurrence (operate processes in parallel) 3. Lapse External Communication Lapse Frequent change from the buyer Priorities and Internal Rejections. Machine.

iv) Managing exceptions and substitutions: Inventory shortages. distribution centers and suppliers. distribution centers. to meet current demand. so that the time and information necessary to place new orders.Distributed Order Management simplifies fulfillment process by orchestrating the following points to be considered: i) Aggregating and prioritizing orders: This includes selection of the orders and planned execution of the orders based on the importance and priority ii) Sourcing: Optimize procurement across an extensive supply network. Plan for the future with Demand Forecasting so that right product at right time is ensured. retailers and partners to minimize delivery time and storage costs. Order Management Cycle 31 . including stores. cash-to-cash cycle time. reroute. For most enterprises and their vendors. substitute and communicate with customers is there. iii) Scheduling and shipping: Efficiently route orders to customers. Close eye on the events that may delay order delivery based upon past records. Proactive generation of purchase orders for additional supplies when needed. Get the information needed to continuously improve fulfillment process. inventory turns and forecasting accuracy. potential customer service issues and delivery problems should be monitored. v) Reporting: Capture key performance metrics and establish benchmarks for on-time deliveries.

(OMC) functionality resides in the ERP. and review account balances. However. More importantly. installation and support revenues. Business process frameworks and related business process repositories transcend functional silos and will enable enterprises to address order management challenges across all stakeholders in a hub-like manner. key business drivers are shaping the future of the OMC. Leading organizations adapt and modify these business processes in response to market conditions. As a result. these 32 . Expect enterprises to continue to grow warranty. • Increasing importance of service orders: Lower profit-product sales continue to take a back seat to higher-margin service orders. dispatch availability and asset scheduling will increase in importance. access order status. • Requirements for multiple party accesses: The number of access points to order systems increases as processes encompass all departments. the requirements of the OMC focus on order processes. CRM and SCM functional domains. These include the following: • Emphasis on processes. As process trumps functional views of business. However. enterprises are redefining their operational and strategic plans around key business processes including the OMC. most organizations manually adjust these processes and seek an automated systems approach to creating re-usable processes. service order requirements like project accounting. Today.

product. all of which are addressed specifically and decisively in the critical chain approach. requirements for multiple stakeholder access. and supplier—is leading to this new notion of process hubs. The pairing of master data with reusable order processes will complete the OMC equation resulting in the prominence of the order hub. Together with advances in BPM tools and Web services repositories. pre-production activities in garment manufacture are driven by human parameters. These include: 33 . some of the critical chain characteristics have a lot in common with garment pre-production activities. As process proliferation increases around the order management cycle. and maturation of middleware platforms in the order management cycle drives enterprises towards the concept of an order hub. 3.stakeholders expect to have the ability to change order attributes at various points throughout the order process. Furthermore. standards for core and reusable processes will emerge. organizations are seeking centralized management of these order processes.7 Critical Chain Approach Like project management. Growing acceptance of data hubs—such as customer. Focus on business processes.

Resources migrate from one project to the next to. Most people work in a multi-project environment and have to stop working on one task so that progress can be made on another task in another project.' and Parkinson's Law taking over the process." but at the same time they don't promote the concept of "being early" . This focus on showing progress on as many active projects as possible is the major cause of multi-tasking. loudest customer demand in an attempt to keep as many customers satisfied as possible. loudest customer demand in an attempt to keep as many customers satisfied as possible and also to show as much simultaneous progress as possible to different customers. Resources tend to migrate between projects in response to the latest. Task estimating 34 .Reverse scheduling Scheduling of activities start backwards from delivery date. Resources tend to migrate between orders in response to the latest. Jumping around like this results in reduced focus and loss of efficiency.which leads to safety-nets. Traditional work environments put the emphasis on "not being late. the 'student syndrome. And common resource dependencies . Multitasking Garment pre-production is organized chaos.typical apparel pre-production consists of 60 or more different tasks to be taken care by 3-5 executives in a time sharing approach.

but rarely early.When estimating the duration of a specific task. people often worry about the effect of unplanned work interruptions and add a hidden safety-net. Critical chain is the longest chain of dependent activities in a project. This is because people will simply adjust the level of effort to keep busy for the entire schedule. In this environment. but because it's hidden its purpose is lost. so they quietly enjoy the lull and officially finish on schedule. If a task is estimated at 10 days. early finishers often being accused of sandbagging their estimates instead of being rewarded for completing ahead of schedule. Activities can be 35 . thus eating into the safety buffer. if the task then faces unplanned interruptions it will overrun the estimate because there was simply not enough time to recover. It's perfectly reasonable to include this safety factor (especially with third party activities). it is usual for it to take less. A 10-day task may have an extra 5 days built into it. or late. No early finishes It is important to note that tasks seem to either finish on time. Student syndrome General human nature is to put off the start of any task until the last possible minute. This is because early finishes are seldom rewarded. Unfortunately. In fact. people worry about their future estimates being cut based on their past performance. Parkinson's Law Work expands to fit the allotted time.

) in order to improve project performance. Replace measurement that requires individual tasks to 36 . Allow individuals tasks within projects to be late. and concentrate it into explicit buffers that protect the whole project-at the end of critical chain and where other chains feed it. not projects Critical chain is a breakthrough for streamlining flow of work through multi project pipelines in a high uncertainty environment. multitasking. Instead of ―as soon as. on budget and on scope.depended on each other because of project structure or limited resources. Attack Policies not behaviors It is a myth that you need to change how people behavior (procrastination. release work based on the availability of most loaded resources (these are what limit the amount of work that can be done) Place blocks of protective time. Based on above schedules can be made aggressive and projects still be delivered on time. Indeed. called buffers where they can do most good. possible. Manage the flow. experienced project managers rely instinctively on aspects of critical chain principles in planning and controlling their projects successfully Adopt counterintuitive rules Reduce the amount of work in execution. The reality is that the following policy changes will give you much better results. Thus it greatly facilitates the management of projects. Remove safety from individual’s tasks. unnecessary polishing of already finished work etc. Use a buffer index (work completed along any chain divided by the buffer consumed at the end of that chain) to drive and measure performance.

Capture information once and at the source. Put the decision point where the work is performed. and build control into the process. Mandate a minimum amount of protective time in each project. 7. which then will produce even better results. Link parallel activities in the workflow instead of just integrating their results. and cost: 1. typically 50% of the sum of tasks. to be changed only by senior management.9 ROLE OF MERCHANDISER IN PRE-PRODUCTION 37 . sacrosanct. 3. Make project due dates.8 Business process reengineering (BPR) Business process reengineering (BPR) is the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises. 3. Identify all the processes in an organization and prioritize them in order of redesign urgency. Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized. There are seven principles of reengineering to streamline the work process and thereby achieve significant levels of improvement in quality. 4. 2. Design of workflow in most large corporations was based on assumptions about technology. time management. to assure uninterrupted flow of work. not tasks. Behaviors will change gradually in response to such new management policies. It help in getting was lower costs and increase quality. 6. and organizational goals. 3. Integrate information processing work into the real work that produces the information. 5.finish on time with the ones that drive low work in progress. Organize around outcomes. people.

In many cases. how many processes. so it’s important to be able to think on one's feet. In order to keep an eye on developments in sourcing. no. of modules. no. To find out customer requirements. and date of dispatch. site visits are made every week to mainland factories to meet suppliers and study production. Managing order route card and production timetable Merchandiser has to manage every single production schedule and order route card that helps to follow-up the execution in the planned way. there are modifications pertaining to the specifications in the order to dispatch on time and the right quality. This is customary that the essential 38 . of operators. The sub-ordinates are normally assigned to follow-up with execution of the plan. In garment merchandising. quantity. they regularly visit retail outlets.Today's garment merchandisers have to move with frequent changes in demand and the developing technologies utilized in manufacturing and production. there is no specific rule. The main procedures of merchandisers are as followed: Understanding Sample Order Merchandiser has to understand the buyer’s requirements after receiving specification in the sample order. Merchandiser plans the activities depending on the essentials or non-essentials. and top priority are given to the most essential tasks. output capacity. as the right information is required in decision making. It is expected to be acknowledged of the various descriptions like: design. He has to talk with the in-house veterans on the execution problems of sample orders. and deadlines in the schedules. and come up with latest updates from frontline staff.

then merchandiser has to reorganize the schedules to accomplish tasks.conformation. The activity that has to be focused with full attention to sweep-off non-essential activities and have to be to be corrected by prioritizing to meet the deadlines. no. In a ―daily schedule. Merchandisers that work on complete orders have to check deviation to the production teams so that any amendments can be done to avoid the non-conformities. Quality of the sample must be verified. scheduling critical ratio. of pieces to be produced daily. The execution of bulk orders should be made only after samples are approved by the buyer. the buyer ask for the goods prior to the deadline. The latest status can be fed into the computers. it is better to focus on the concerns of quality.activities are handled personally or with the support of junior merchandisers/subordinates. If required. Using route card to reschedule activities To get updated on the current status on the order. Merchandiser should adjust to the required changes demanded by the buyer. In-process inspection denote between any tasks in order-execution. output capacity. the route cards should be utilized. etc Submitting pre-production samples The pre-production samples should be provided on time to the concerned buyers. revised samples should be made available to the buyers. In case. In case of non. time availability. merchandiser has to carry-out and categorize which is the most significant and urgent task. 39 . supply time. substitute arrangements.

CHAPTER -4 40 . from the beginning. merchandiser has to communicate with the people that are in-house. In many cases. etc. contractors and job-workers. Also. and direct the procedures. It is expected that the merchandisers should verify quality of the goods prior to execution of the order. It is necessary to keep record of time value and keeping it safe. as it is going to be shared with concerned parties/buyers. yarn. Communicating with associated people and buyer It is essential to communicate with the buyers regarding the order. venders. merchandisers have to provide order status to the buyers. Apart from the above mention procedures. To record preferences for all the planned activities. If the material is found unavailable. merchandiser has to assign subordinates to help him in the order execution. The Merchandiser should find out exact reasons for time consumption.Solving shortage problem The merchandiser should know about the dearth of any commodity such as fabric. Merchandiser should go through the messages received from the buyer and reply on time. He has to revise his knowledge from time-to-time to know current market trends. It is expected to give some time to the buyer to read the sent messages. after discovering the shortage. Actions should be taken immediately to arrange required materials. It is certain that merchandising jobs need huge time planning. use daily or time log systems. the superior should be informed about the concern. Only through the right communication can one meet deadline for the concerned orders.

but if these are reduced. These are not the sole reasons responsible for the delay.1 Data collection Extensive list of tentative reasons that could be responsible for delays are prepared as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • Yarn procurement Fabric development Lab dip and bulk approval Print related problems Fabric In house Special label development Change of Specifications Changes in bulk production Testing failure Multitasking Miscommunication between merchandisers and buyer These are the main reasons that were responsible for the delays in preproduction activities during an order execution.ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 4. 41 . it will helps in overall reduction in delays.

2 SWOT ANALYSIS OF IMPERIAL GARMENTS LIMITED During internship. • • • Fully trained manpower Fully equipped with modern machinery Efficient supply chain 42 . STRENGTHS • • • Big buyers from market Backward integration Good reputation as a unit belonging to GTN industries. weaknesses. opportunities and threats of IGL which are given below.Some of the personal delay elements observed is:• • • • • • • Phone interruptions Acting with incomplete information Dealing with team members Crisis management (putting out fires) Unclear communication about the order execution Inadequate training to do the job Over emphasis on routine tasks 4. the researcher observed some strengths.

WEAKNESSES • Small orders • Low coordination between departments • Too much decentralized departments • No Designing Studio • No marketing research OPPORTUNITIES • Able to attract new customers • Expansion of business • More domestic demand especially in Hyderabad. THREATS • Low profit margins • Reduced lead times • Frequently changing styles • Switching of buyers 43 .

right from the order received to the final arrival of fabric and trims in-house was studied. In order to find delays and reasons for delays. The mails also include the internal communication to the corresponding Product department and the Quality department. These are the mails which are being sent to the vendor (fabric and yarn) as a part of the information system to communicate the resubmission of the particular sample of particular material.• High quality demands 4. The tracking of the orders involves the extensive study of procedures followed in the company that is process flow during different stages like Sourcing. The project has been carried out in Fabric department and entire orders were tracked as per this department only. Material Procurement and Approval. The tracking included the actual order follow up and also the reference of the record which is being kept in the entry register and in the excel sheets of the merchandisers and sourcing personnel. Sample development. 35 delayed orders were studied for two months that is Jun’10 and Jul’10.3 Order Tracking As part of data collection. delay in submission etc. Merchandising. It included both the historical data from records for the orders being shipped and tracking of the running styles. 44 . Tracking also included the follow up of mails of merchandisers to keep record of delay reasons with dates. the order tracking was done and during tracking of the orders the entire follow up of the order.

there are 24 orders got delayed primarily in Pre-Production stage. Table : 4.1 Department Pre-Production Production Post Production Total Figure : 4.1 No of orders delayed 24 8 3 24 Department wise Delay status % contribution in delay 68% 26% 6% 100% 45 .4.4 Delay in different department It was found that Out of 35 orders.

It is observed that preproduction activities are more prone to delays in garment manufacturing.2 Stage wise Delay analysis 46 . Table: 4.

3 Preproduction & production durations S.S.No Work No order Color Total Lead Preproduction production %time prein 47 . No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Work order No G1900460 G1900461 G1900487 G1900488 G1900489 G1900490 G1900491 G1900492 G1900493 G1900494 G1900495 G1900496 G1900383 G1900384 G1900386 G1900387 G1900527 G1900528 G1900529 G1900530 G1901183 G1901184 G1901185 G1901186 G1901187 G1901188 G1901189 G1901190 G1901191 G1901192 G1900542 G1900543 G1900544 G1900554 G1900555 Delay Pre-production Production Pre-production Pre-production Pre-production Post-Production Post Production Pre-production Pre-production Production Pre-production Production Pre-production Pre-production Pre-production Production Pre-production Production Pre-production Pre-production Pre-production Production Pre-production Production Pre-production Pre-production Pre-production Production Pre-production Pre-production Pre-production Post Production Pre-production Pre-production Pre-Production Table:4.

0 70.7 66.5 66.7 64.7 50.5 4.7 66.4 LEAD TIME V/S PRE PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTION DURATIONS 48 .7 66.7 66.7 66.7 60.7 66.7 66.7 66.5 66.7 66.7 72.Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 G1900460 G1900487 G1900488 G1900489 G1900492 G1900493 G1900495 G1900383 G1900384 G1900386 G1900527 G1900529 G1900530 G1901183 G1901185 G1901187 G1901188 G1901189 G1901191 G1901192 G1900542 G1900544 G1900554 G1900555 AVERAGE Black Peacoat kelly green DK Shadow Chalk Tropical Red Coffee Bean Olive Wine Red DK Shadow Black Sprit pink Red Black Olive Yellow Terracotta Blue White Coral Fresh Green Blue Marl Yellow Marl 90 80 90 75 80 90 90 90 90 85 80 90 90 90 90 90 110 90 90 60 100 90 90 90 60 50 60 45 50 60 60 60 60 55 50 60 60 60 60 60 80 60 60 30 70 60 60 60 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 production 66.0 66.7 66.7 62.0 62.7 65.5 66.7 62.7 66.

5% of time was involved in the preproduction of these orders.In 24 orders.2 TABLE : 4.4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS TABLE 49 . delay was observed in pre production and in further detailed analysis it was found that 65. Graphical interpretation of lead time v/s Preproduction and production durations Figure No:4.

9 Null hypothesis: Ho: μd=0 .No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Work order No G1900460 G1900487 G1900488 G1900489 G1900492 G1900493 G1900495 G1900383 G1900384 G1900386 G1900527 G1900529 G1900530 G1901183 G1901185 G1901187 G1901188 G1901189 G1901191 G1901192 G1900542 G1900544 G1900554 G1900555 Planned lead time 90 80 90 75 80 90 90 90 90 85 80 90 90 90 90 90 110 90 90 60 100 90 90 90 Sum Actual lead time 103 97 107 85 82 94 94 99 97 93 84 97 101 96 102 104 116 94 96 66 114 99 105 105 d 13 17 17 10 2 4 4 9 7 8 4 7 11 6 12 14 6 4 6 6 14 9 15 15 220.44 Interpretation: 50 .S.069 = 4. Alternate hypothesis (H1:μd≠0) Degrees of freedom = N-1=24-1=23 t(critical) t(obtained) = 2.1 Mean Planned lead time : 87.0 d2 169 289 289 100 4 16 16 81 49 64 16 49 121 36 144 196 36 16 36 36 196 81 225 225 2490 Mean actual lead time : 97.

The test statistic is in the critical region so the null hypothesis can be rejected. The difference in prejudice scores from the plan days and actual days is statistically significant. Actual lead times are deviating from planned lead time significantly. so it can be said that there is significant differences between these two values. Figure: 4. 51 . Same thing has been proved in t-score test also.3 GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAD TIME 140 Number of days 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11131517192123 Production Order Planned lead tim e Actual lead tim e It can be understood that mean actual lead time is higher than the mean planned lead time.

FISHBONE DIAGRAM Man Management Improper financial dealings with suppliers Less Freedom to Managers DELAYS Poor design of Supply Chain Improper Lab dips Priorities Lack of Flexibility Material Method Machine Quality problems Internal communication Incomplete submission More bargaining External communication Table: 4.5 STATUS OF ORDER TRACKED 52 .

Approval delay Lab dip. Lap Dip Quality problems. Quality problems. Specs Change Quality problems. Approval Delay 53 . Approval delay. Lap Dip. Material Procurement. Specs change. Quality problems Quality problems. Lap Dip. Approval delay. Material procurement.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Work order No G1900460 G1900487 G1900488 G1900489 G1900492 G1900493 G1900495 G1900383 G1900384 G1900386 G1900527 G1900529 G1900530 G1901183 G1901185 G1901187 G1901188 G1901189 G1901191 G1901192 G1900542 Fabric In-house Expected 20/06/2010 8/7/2010 8/7/2010 20/07/2010 28/07/2010 22/07/2010 22/07/2010 15/07/2010 15/07/2010 14/07/2010 16/07/2010 25/07/2010 30/07/2010 4/8/2010 4/8/2010 4/8/2010 10/8/2010 11/8/2010 12/8/2010 10/8/2010 19/07/2010 Fabric In-house Actual 3/7/2010 25/07/2010 25/7/2010 30/07/2010 30/07/2010 26/07/2010 26/07/2010 24/07/2010 22/07/2010 22/07/2010 20/07/2010 1/8/2010 10/8/2010 10/8/2010 16/08/2010 18/08/2010 16/08/2010 15/08/2010 18/08/2010 16/08/2010 2/8/2010 Total delay 13 days 17 days 17 days 10days 2 days 4 days 4 days 9 days 7 days 8 days 4 days 7 days 11 days 6 days 12 days 14 days 6 days 4 days 6 days 6 days 14 days Reason Material procurement. Lab dip. Approval delay Material procurement. Specs Change Quality problems. Quality problems Specs change . Approval Delay Spec. Quality problems. Approval Delay Material procurement. change. Material procurement Specs change. lab dips Specs change. Specs Change Material procurement. Material Procurement Lap dip. Lap Dip Quality problems. Approval Delay. Material Procurement Approval delay. Specs Change Material Procurement.S. Approval Delay Approval delay. Specs Change Approval delay. Material Procurement. Approval delay Material Procurement.

5 DELAY REASONS Tracking of the orders includes both Historical data and running and shipped orders during the project period.22 23 24 G1900544 G1900554 G1900555 18/7/2010 20/07/2010 22/07/2010 27/07/2010 4/8/2010 6/8/2010 9 days 15 days 15 days Approval delay.6 Broad classification of reasons for delays 54 . Quality problems. Material Procurement 4. The following main reasons are summarized • • • • • Change of Specifications Fabric quality Lab-dip and bulk approval Material procurement Approval delays Table:4. Lab dip Material procurement. Quality problems. Approval Delay Lab dips.

of cases*100) Figure 4. within one case the reasons for delay be multiple. Percentage were calculated = No of cases a particular Reason repeated/Total no. 4.8 33.5.4 Observed delay reasons 16 14 12 No of Cases 10 8 6 4 2 0 Material procurement Lab dip Specification Changes Approval delays Quality Problems 15 11 8 14 11 Reasons Interpretation: From the figure.3 58. it can be understood that material procurement and approval delays are contributing more for delays.S.1 Approval Delays The second biggest problem which is not allowing the various departments to 55 .5 45. No 1 2 3 4 Reasons Material procurement Lab dip Specification Changes Approval delays Cases Recorded 15 11 8 14 As a Percentage of total cases 62.8 (The reasons for the delay are not independent.3 5 Quality Problems 11 45.

knitting and dyeing have to wait for the various approvals. printing.4 42.No 1 2 3 4 Reasons Priorities Changes During bulk production Rejections Incomplete Details (The reasons for delay are not independent. The reasons for Approval delays are categorized as follows:1) Priorities 2) Internal Rejections 3) Incomplete Submission 4) Change in Product team specifications Table No: 4.7 Approval delays No. Although there is no permanent solution to this problem we can only work to minimize the loss due to this problem.plan and perform according to their capacities is the problem of approvals i.9 S.e.4 28.6 21. within one case the reason for delay be multiple Percentage were calculated = Reason for delay / Total no of cases *100) Figure: 4.5 56 .of cases 3 4 3 6 as a Percentage 21. at various stages the departments especially embroidery.

Sometimes they do not like the material or printing technique or any other stylization and hence they want to 57 . Mainly occurs due to the lack of communication between the sampling team and merchandising team handling the particular account. Resources tend to migrate between projects in response to the latest.Approval delays 7 6 No of cases 5 4 3 2 1 0 Priorities Changes During bulk production Rejections Incomplete Details 3 4 3 6 Reasons Detailed description individual reasons: Priorities Delays occur due to changing priorities at various supply chain level which mainly cause approval delays at the office and at merchandiser table. loudest customer demand (merchandiser) in an attempt to keep as many customers as possible. Internal Rejections: It is one of the major in house delay problems. Many times there are several styling elements and other changes that are being done by the sampling team after the sample is being made.

Change it at final time. For example: for size set approval a full package including original sample. Change in style that does not alter much of fabric consumption. Similarly the complete information regarding every submission from supplier and vendor is required. Change in the color ways in which the order was placed initially. 4. This need to be controlled as last minute changes lead to the great loss of time and money. Change in the print colors and sometime change in the print which leads to new development of screen and causes delay.5. Incomplete submission: This was the one of the reasons which leads to delay just because samples and another submission such as artwork etc without complete information and full package as required for nay approval. The changes that normally done are as follows change in the trims like buttons. Reduction in Order quantity.2Quality related problems: 58 . Changes by the Product Team A considerable time is involved in coping with the changes made by the Product Team. This causes delay as approval take long time and also new samples need to be developed. Missing information lead to either resubmission or wait for required information and in both cases there is loss time and delay happening. proto. specification sheet and any previous size set sample if it was rejected earlier.

8 Classification of Quality problems As a Percentage of total cases 18.6 Quality Related Problems 6 5 No. within one case the reason for delay be multiple Percentage were calculated = Reason for delay / Total no of cases *100) Figure: 4.1 S.2 27. Table: 4.of cases 4 3 2 1 0 Fabric GSM variation Barre/Patta problem shade variation in bulk Spirality 2 3 1 5 Reasons The main quality problems that are responsible for delays are Fabric GSM 59 .Following are the frequently observed quality problems in the company that were caused delays.5 9. No Reasons Cases Recorded 1 2 3 4 Fabric GSM variation Barre/Patta problem shade variation in bulk Spirality 2 3 5 1 (The reasons for the delay are not independent.3 45.

4 18.4 27.house.(grams/square meter) variations and shade variation between different fabric rolls. at times higher than the expected levels of 5% was resulted in delays in Fabric in.2 (The reasons for delay are not independent. Table no: 4. within one case the reason for delay be multiple Percentage were calculated = Reason for delay / Total no of cases *100) Figure: 4. Spirality. of cases 4 3 4 2 as a Percentage 36. Sometimes it was observed that Barre/patta ie stripes were appeared in fabric. 4.9 Classifications reasons for delay in labdips S. some fine tuning of knitting process is required.3 Delay in Lap Dip These delays result from problems related to the prints and colors not matching the specified standards and merchandise not getting the desired hand feel. Changes in bulk production.5. Different type of knitting machines producing different weights. Any material variation in producing yarn or mix up of different lots yarns leads to this type of problems.3 36. No 1 2 3 4 Reasons Internal Communication Lapse External Communication Lapse Not desired shade Changes during bulk production No.7 60 . resulting in deviation in color development from samples approved.

crocking. The supplier gets the Lap dips and strike offs approved but are somehow unable to get the same quality in bulk. Wash Test there is failures mainly the shrinkage. 2) There is test failure also in which the fabric is not able to pass the chemical and physical test. This might happen due to number of reasons:1) Miscommunication between supplier and the company: Some changes in the dyeing and printing mill at the bulk stage in order to cut down the costs. staining and 61 .Delay in Labdips 5 No of cases 4 3 2 1 0 Internal Communication Lapse External Communication Lapse Not desired shade Changes during bulk production 4 3 2 4 Reasons Print and color related problems: These problems arise when the supplier is not able to achieve specified prints and colors. Lack of the uniformity in different batches being dyed interims of quantity and time in quantities lead to dyeing at different times and batch and hence change in the shade and the tone.

The success of an organization depends largely on correct and speedy delivery of information to concerned departments. Right information at right time plays a significant role in getting desired beneficial outcome. 62 . There is lot which can be improved in this case and hence money and time can be saved.print chip off. As in these cases there are many cases when there is incomplete information transfer and miscommunication that is being made. Apart from the internal communication. • Incomplete information transfer regarding changes made to corresponding concerned departments. Communication plays a very important role in the success of any organization. External Communication also plays important role. • Lack of co-ordination and transparency between various teams. Internal Communication lapse is another reason responsible. • Miscommunication between Quality and Merchandising team regarding Test report. For example:• Sourcing team is not informed about the changes suggested by buyer from merchandising team and it is only at the last moment that they got to know it. fabric processing unit. External Communication comes into role when the information needed to be passed over to the other units such as knitting division. Wash test failure is observed in most of the cases and hence this causes resubmission and hence it lead to delay.

3 26.5% of the delay cases are due to delay in the material procurement. within one case the reason for delay be multiple Percentage were calculated = Reason for delay / Total no of cases *100) 63 .4 Delay in Material procurement Approximate 62.3 S.of cases 4 5 4 2 as a Percentage 26.5. Higher wastage and re cutting can lead to shortage.7 13.For example:. Material procurement includes Material shortage.7 33. 4. The main reasons for the material shortage is variation between the actual and indent consumption and quantity received is less than ordered. Poor material procurement planning is responsible for delays. Table:4. Resource Unavailability and Embroidery and Print Delay.Mail to the processing unit mention that fabric color need to be lighter how much tone lighter is not mentioned and hence great need to clarify and so amount of time is wasted in these clarifications.10 Delays in material procurement No.no 1 2 3 4 Reasons Resource unavailability Priorities Material shortage Fluctuation in Yarn prices (The reasons for delay are not independent.

Figure: 4. Sometime there is ambiguity 64 . As far as Embroidery and print delay are concerned it is the development of strike off and samples as per required specification.8 Material Procurement 6 5 No of cases 4 3 2 1 0 Resource unavailability Priorities Material shortage Reasons Fluctuation in Yarn prices 2 4 5 4 There are chances that the shrinkage of the fabric received might not match the planned shrinkage of the fabric. Priorities here tend to migrate resources between projects in response to the latest and loudest customer demand. Another possible reason is improper documentation and wrong details. Resource unavailability mainly includes manpower and machine unavailability which in turn causes the material throughput time and material delays at various levels.

5.5 25.3% of cases.5 (The factor for delay are not independent.0 37.11 Delays due specification changes: S. Percentages were calculated =factor for delay/Total no. major reason for delay was the frequent changes in the specifications and instructions.regarding the sample developer and his end time order lead to lack of planning so plan in advance can greatly reduce this problem.0 25. of cases*100 ) 65 . within one case the factor for reason be multiple. No 1 2 3 4 Reasons Internal Communication Lapse External Communication Lapse Lack of standardization Changes during bulk production No. Fluctuation in yarn prices forces the management to wait for some time. of cases 3 2 2 3 as a Percentage 37. 4. It was found that primarily there were changes in specifications and instructions because there was no standard procedures established for inter unit cooperation.5 CHANGES IN SPECIFICATIONS In 33. Table: 4.

location of logos and pocket positions etc. Sometimes changed specifications are not being sent and only comments are sent by the merchandisers and hence they are unable to understand and develop sample according to new specification. These specification changes are the major contributor to the delay in pre-production of particular style.9 Graphical interpretation Delay due to Specifacations change 4 3 No of cases 3 2 2 1 0 Internal Communication Lapse External Communication Lapse Lack of stadardization Changes during bulk production 2 3 Reasons There are times when the merchandisers sent the sample on old specification instead of updating new specifications while dealing with suppliers. 66 . For example.Figure : 4.

6 Summarization of the Delay Reasons: 11 15 DELAY Material procurement Lab dip Specification Changes Approval delays Quality Problems 14 11 8 Fig No: Factors for each reason: Material Procurement Resource unavailability Priorities Material shortage Priorities Lab-dips Internal communication lapse External communication lapse Changes in bulk Production Lack of standardization Approval Delays Priorities Changes in Bulk Rejections Incomplete submissions Changes in Specification Internal communication lapse Quality Problems Fabric GSM variation 67 .

There was format which was filled up by the merchandisers to spot controllable and un controllable delay and suggested measure against the controllable delays.1 Identification of Controllable and Un-controllable Delay The first step in the reduction of the delay is to identify the delay reasons and their factors as Controllable and Uncontrollable. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF PROJECT 5. RECOMMENDATIONS.5 FINDINGS. 68 . It was primarily done after discussion with merchandisers and coming on the single consent based on the secondary data collection.External communication lapse hanges i n bulk Production Lack of standardization Barre/Patta Shade variation Spirality CHAPTER.

Based on discussion with the senior executives.Table: 5.1 Opinions of 12 Merchandisers regarding delay factors Reasons Resource unavailability Print delay Material shortage Priorities Not desired Shade Internal communication External communication Change by 1 2 3 4 nc nc nc nc c c nc c c c c c 5 nc c c nc nc c c c 6 nc nc c nc nc c c c 7 nc c c nc nc c c c 8 nc c c nc nc c c c 9 nc c c nc nc c c c nc c c 10 nc nc c nc nc c c c nc c c 11 nc c c nc nc c nc c nc c c 12 nc c c nc nc c c c nc c c nc nc nc Nc nc nc nc Nc c c c c c c c c c c c c product Rejections nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc Multitasking c c c nc c c c c Poor Quality c c c c c c c c Here nc stands for Uncontrollable and c for Controllable delays The above table shows the merchandiser point of view. the final list of controllable and uncontrollable delays was summarized as:- 69 . Further.

2. 5. 70 .1 Embroidery and Print Delay • These delays can be reduced by planning in advance the according to the capacity of the company.2 Developing Action Plan 5. • Better strategies to be adapted to have Control over the subcontractor. the action plan was developed for each of the controllable delays so that the delays can be reduced to increase on time delivery rate and to save money for technological advancement which is otherwise lost in discounts.Controllable Embroidery delay Print delay Material shortage Internal communication External communication Quality problems Changes by bulk production Incomplete Submission Lack of standardization Uncontrollable Resource unavailability Priorities Unable to achieve desired shade Rejections Hence.

5. • Ensure access to the order status to all the team members by providing the common folder in the shared document about the order status.2 Material Shortage • • Proper documentation with correct order quantity and time of delivery Proper planned quantity should be ordered and it requires correct calculation of quantities required based on order and after considering reasonable waste percentage based upon previous orders. Sufficient Research and Development should be done during salesman sampling. The QC needs to be proactive than reactive.3 Internal Communication • Transparency to be maintained among different teams by information sharing.2. These discussions should also be done before inspections.• QC should be made part of Pre-Production meeting which presently includes the Merchandiser of Company and Technicians. 5. the standards of testing to be followed and the stylization aspects needs great concern.2. • • Accepting the orders where the minimum order quantity is achieved. 71 . Ensure some allowance for extra shipment in all orders. That is the printing technique to be used. This should include entire status including the comments which need to be regularly updated. • • Try to avoid accepting the new styles especially avoid accepting big order.

• Before starting each order, members of all the teams should organize common meeting for clear understanding of order i.e. quality levels, stylization, fit, special value addition etc and doubts are cleared. 5.2.4 External Communication • • • This should be as clear as possible. Set up the clear time line for approvals. Determine required time line for proto approval as one week from the date of entry in the sampling register. • Determine required time line for the size set and PP approval as three working days from date of entry in sampling register. • Accountability should be clear that is PP must be signed off by sampling incharge. Final approval should be given after consent of Quality team and Product team as it is going to be as standard for bulk • Clear comments to be followed should be informed to the vendor through mail also. • Handwriting on the Sample needs to be legible

5.2.5 Changes in bulk: • • Try to freeze process details before order placement with the other units Meeting session should be arranged for finalization of requirements as per consent and requirement of all the three teams i.e. the Product, Quality and Sourcing team.


5.2.6 Incomplete submission

The guidelines should be provided to the vendors for the submission of samples (Especially yarn dyed samples). All the samples that are to be submitted for the proto, Sizes set and PP approval need to be with base pattern along with the previous sample, original sample, proto and size set. It should be sent to the concerned Merchandiser attention. Base size pattern need to be marked with the seam allowance, Style no., Grain line, details of each part and most important with shrinkage Ensure that all suppliers should use specification sheet or work orders sent by the Company. Any alternate trim used, it needs to be documented. Original trims to be approved within one week.

5.2.7 Established the standard time and action Plan for preproduction activities Table : 5.2 Solid Fabric Delivery schedule of the solid dyed fabric. Normal solid dyed



sales man Days lab dips approvals yarn sourcing fabric knitting Processing Total if loose knit tip total with loose knit if Tirupur transportation Over all total 3 to 5 days 5 2 7 14 2 16 4 20

Bulk days 3 to 5 days 7 7 15 29 8 37 4 41

salesman days 5 to 8 days 3 2 9 14 2 16 4 20

bulk days 5 to 8days 5 7 20 32 8 40 4 44

Notes: Above schedule is effective after approval of lab-dips from merchandiser as well buyers. Above deliver schedules are only for normal yarn i.e. 20 C, 30 C, 34 C ,40 C, 2/50 2/60 CGX,CGMX. If any mélange yarn is involved, it will take yarn delivery 40 to 45 days+ 7days Transit time. If any special yarn or blend yarn order, yarn sourcing time will be reviewed. Above schedule is for max five shades.

Table : 5.3 Yarn Dyed Fabric

Delivery schedule of the yarn dyed fabric.

Normal soft yarn dyed sales man days Bulk Days

Gassed & Merc. dyed yarn salesman Bulk Days days


lab dips approvals


yarn sourcing


fabric knitting 2 Minimum 600kgs order /m/c. Processing 3 Total 24 if tirupur transportation 4

10 4 Inclusive Transit to & fro 35 20 Inclusive Transit time 7 2




4 56 4

4 30 4

5 49 4

Over all total 28 60 34 53 Notes: *Above schedule is effective after confirmation of approval of lab-dips from merchandiser as well buyers. *Above deliver schedule are only for normal yarn i.e. 20 C,30 C,34 C ,40 C ,2/50 2/60 CGX,CGMX. *If any mélange yarn is involved will take yarn delivery 40 to 45 days+ 7days Transit time. *If any special yarn or blend yarn order yarn sourcing time to be reviewed. *Above schedule is for max five shades/order.


If the above measures would have been used for 24 delayed orders. In this case Amount to be paid for transit will be much high.5.3 CONCLUSION A penny saved is a penny earned.24 Order in which delay could be controlled-18 Discount Slab >5 days – 2% of bill value >12 days – 5% of bill value >15 days-10% every week of bill value *Foreign buyers prefer air lifting. The Senior Merchandisers.35 Pre-production Delay found. Merchandiser and Product & Quality team were asked to categorize the cause of delays into controllable and uncontrollable delays and develop systematic procedures for better process control. The delay reduction and Control measures suggested herein when implemented will result in saving huge sums of money that manufacturers’ discount against delayed orders and will also increase on time delivery rate. 76 . estimated savings would be as follows: Now Total Orders Studied.

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Work order No G1900460 G1900487 G1900488 G1900489 G1900492 G1900493 G1900495 G1900383 G1900384 G1900386 G1900527 G1900529 G1900530 G1901183 G1901185 G1901187 G1901188 G1901189 Quantity 15000 20000 25000 10000 5500 10000 12000 25000 8500 10000 20000 10000 20000 15000 17000 35000 20000 15000 Total The orders on an average got delayed by 9.5% of Bill value Re71035000*5/100 = Rs 3551750 The projected increase in on time delivery Efficiency:The current delay happening due to pre production is 68% Total Orders Studied =35 Projected Total on time delivery after project suggestion = 18% Hence reduction in Pre Production Delay = 68-(18/35)*100 = 51.4 Future Prospect of the Project 77 .Table : 5.4% Price 290 210 190 299 350 305 325 198 320 255 199 250 210 320 210 220 250 260 Total Bill 4350000 4200000 4750000 2990000 1925000 3050000 3900000 4950000 2720000 2550000 3980000 2500000 4200000 4800000 3570000 7700000 5000000 3900000 71035000 5.4 shows total bill value of 18 orders in which delay could be controllable.2 days Hence the Total Discount offered: . S.

The scope and limitations of the project did not permit the implementation and result analysis of the suggested measures. lays the foundation for another Research study.A project when completed. However some of the suggested measures being implemented on 6 orders and hence the observed results are explained in below table. shades matching etc 29% Approval Priorities Change by Set up the required timeline for approval of 41% 78 . for nothing is ever perfect. Reason of delay Factors responsible Suggested measure implemented Suggested Measure considered for implementation Advance planning and Made arrangements for Sufficient yarn stock of regular counts ----- Percentage reduction in delay Material Procurement Resource unavailability Material shortage Priorities In advance capacity planning and having supplier control 30% Lab dip Not desired shade Internal Communication Lapses External communication lapse Change by product Meeting and training of suppliers Frequent meeting sessions should be arranged with middle level people to discuss capacity planning.

Set up the procedure & accountability for approval Set up the clear instructions to vendors for sample package being sent to the office for approval Change in Specification Internal communication Lapse External communication Lapse Changes in bulk Lack of standardization Standardization of specification in consent with all three teams i.e.process team Rejections Incomplete submissions samples at various stages. Quality and Product. Setting up time for complete style finalization before order booking by merchandiser Setting up of accountability for last minute changes by team 30% Quality Problems Priorities for selected suppliers Unplanned Purchases Selection of right supplier based on performance alone. Advanced planning for right product 20% 79 . Merchandising.

Merchandising -reatil-education-ppt-powerpoint BIBLIOGRAPHY 80 .com/pd f/CriticalChain_VitalPoints.com /methods bpr html 8) www.fibre2fashio n.Prabir (2001).asp supply-chain-and-its- 5) www.aspx?id=93070 3) Multi-Project Critical Chai n: Three Vital Points http://www.com /downloads/whitepapers/7x/ Distributed-order-management.REFERENCES 1) Overview of the Indian garment industry By : M.com/prese ntation/shrira nga n1986-97289-retail.authorstream .12manage.fibre2fashion. Panthaki http://www.realiza tion.just-style .pdf 6) Jana.asp 2) The critical chain approach to apparel p roduction 19 March 2003 http://www.com/industry-article/14/1346/ overview-of-the-indian-garment-i ndustry1. Supply chain Dynamics in Indian Apparel Export Manufacturing: A critical Chain Approach 7) Bussiness Process reengineering www.com /industry-article/11/1067/apparelvariants1.yantra. K.pdf 4) Apparel Supply Chain and Its Variants By: Debasis Daspal www.com/article.

1 st ed. Apparel Manufacturing. Ltd. Wilson. 81 . New York: Fair Child Publications. Sewn product Analysis. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley(India) Pvt. NewDelhi: Kindersley(India) Pvt. Apparel Merchandising. 5) Jeremy A. Management Research Methodology.2005. 6)Ruth E.P.2004. Ltd.2 nd ed. Appa iyer Sivakumar. Supply Chain Management.1) Chandan JIT S. Ch. Grace I. 3) Jana.2nd ed. 2000.3 rd ed. Glock.Mathirajan M.163. 2nd ed.Inc. 2) Krishnaswami K N. Supply chain Dynamics in India n Apparel Export Manufacturi ng: A critical Chain Approach.12. 4) Sunil Chopra.263.Rosenau/David L. Ltd. Peter Meindl. Prabir. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing house pvt ltd. 2008.7. Ch. Statistics.Delhi:PearsonEducation (Singapore) Pte. Kunz. (2001).p.

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