complex numbers exercises

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complex numbers exercises

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You are on page 1of 4

i 4

2i 3

.

2. Compute the absolute value and the conjugate of

z = (1 + i)

6

, w = i

17

.

3. Write in the algebraic form (a + ib) the following complex numbers

z = i

5

+ i + 1, w = (3 + 3i)

8

.

4. Write in the trigonometric form ((cos + i sin)) the following complex numbers

a)8 b)6i c)

_

cos

3

i sin

3

_

7

.

5. Simplify

(a)

1 + i

1 i

(1 + 2i)(2 + 2i) +

3 i

1 + i

;

(b) 2i(i 1) +

_

3 + i

_

3

+ (1 + i)(1 + i) .

6. Compute the square roots of z = 1 i.

7. Compute the cube roots of z = 8.

8. Prove that there is no complex number such that |z| z = i.

9. Find z C such that

a)z = i(z 1) b)z

2

z = z c)|z + 3i| = 3|z| .

10. Find z C such that z

2

R.

11. Find z C such that

(a) Re (z(1 + i)) + zz = 0 ;

(b) Re

_

z

2

_

+ i Im(z(1 + 2i)) = 3 ;

(c) Im((2 i)z) = 1 .

12. Find a R such that z = i is a root for the polynomial P(z) = z

3

z

2

+ z + 1 + a. Furthermore, for

such value of a nd the factors of P(z) in R and in C.

1

Solutions

1. z =

i 4

2i 3

=

i 4

2i 3

2i + 3

2i + 3

=

2 + 3i 8i 12

4 9

=

14

13

+ i

5

13

hence Re (z) =

14

13

and Im(z) =

5

13

.

2. z = (1 + i)

6

=

_

2(cos

4

+ i sin

4

)

_

6

= 8

_

cos

3

2

+ i sin

3

2

)

_

= 8i. Hence |z| = 8 and z = 8i.

w = i

17

= i i

16

= i

_

i

4

_

4

= i (1)

4

= i. Hence |w| = 1 and w = i.

3. i

2

= 1, i

3

= i, i

4

= 1 e i

5

= i then z = i + i + 1 = 1 + 2i.

For w, we write 3 + 3i in the trigonometric form. We have 3 + 3i = 3

2

_

cos

4

+ i sin

4

_

, hence

(3 + 3i)

8

= 3

8

2

4

_

cos

_

8

4

_

+ i sin

_

8

4

__

= 16 3

8

(cos 2 + i sin2) = 16 3

8

.

4. If z = a + ib, a, b R, its trigonometric form is

z = (cos + i sin) , where :=

_

a

2

+ b

2

and is such that cos =

a

, sin =

b

.

a) a = 8, b = 0, cos = 1 e sin = 0. Hence 8 = 8 (cos 0 + i sin0).

b) 6i = 6 (0 + i) = 6

_

cos

2

+ i sin

2

_

.

c) We use the de Moivres Formula:

_

cos(

3

) i sin(

3

)

_

7

= cos

7

3

i sin

7

3

= cos 2 +

3

i sin2 +

3

= cos

3

i sin

3

.

5. (a) We compute

1 + i

1 i

(1 + 2i)(2 + 2i) +

3 i

1 + i

=

1 + i

1 i

1 + i

1 + i

(1 + 2i)(2 + 2i) +

3 i

1 + i

1 i

1 i

= i 2 2i 4i + 4 +

3 1 3i i

2

= i + 2 6i +

2 4i

2

= 2 5i + 1 2i = 3 7i.

(b) Since

_

3 + i

_

3

=

_

3 i

_

3

=

_

3 i

_

2

_

3 i

_

=

_

3 1 2i

3

__

3 i

_

=

_

2 2i

3

__

3 i

_

= 2

3 2i 6i 2

3 = 8i,

we obtain

2i(i 1) +

_

3 + i

_

3

+ (1 + i)(1 + i) = 2 2i 8i + 2 = 10i.

6. Every z C has n distinct roots of order n, which correspond (in the complex plane) to the vertices of a

regular n-agon inscribed in the circle of radius

n

_

|z| centered at the origin.

When z = (cos + i sin) = e

i

, then the roots of order n of z are

n

_

cos

_

+ 2k

n

_

+ i sin

_

+ 2k

n

__

=

n

e

+2k

n

. k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n 1.

The square roots of z = 1 i =

2

_

cos

5

4

+ i sin

5

4

_

are

z

1

=

2

_

2

_

cos

_

5

4

2

_

+ i sin

_

5

4

2

__

=

4

2

_

cos

5

8

+ i sin

5

8

_

and

2

z

2

=

2

_

2

_

cos

_

5

4

+ 2

2

_

+ i sin

_

5

4

+ 2

2

__

=

4

2

_

cos

13

8

+ i sin

13

8

_

.

We could also argue as follows: the equation

(x + i y)

2

= 1 i

is equivalent to the system

_

x

2

y

2

= 1,

2xy = 1,

which admits solutions

z =

_

_

2 1

2

i

2

2 1

_

_

which coincide with z

1

and z

2

.

7. The trigonometric form of z = 8, is z = 8 (cos + i sin). Then

z

1

=

3

8

_

cos

_

3

_

+ i sin

_

3

__

= 2

_

cos

_

3

_

+ i sin

_

3

__

= 1 + i

3,

z

2

=

3

z

3

=

3

8

_

cos

_

5

3

_

+ i sin

_

5

3

__

= 2

_

cos

_

5

3

_

+ i sin

_

5

3

__

= 1 i

3.

8. Suppose that some z C satises the equation. Then |z| = Re (z) + i(Im(z) + 1). Hence, since |z| R,

necessarily Im(z) = 1. The equation then is

_

(Re (z))

2

+ 1 = Re (z), and, squaring, we obtain 1 = 0.

9. We will use the notation z = a + ib, a, b R.

a) The equation becomes aib = i(a+ib1), that is aib = b+i(a1). Then a = b and b = a1,

which has no solution; We conclude that the equation has no solution.

b) The equation becomes z (z z 1) = 0. Hence a rst solution is z = 0, while the others satisfy

z z = |z|

2

= 1. Then also all the points of the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin satises the equation.

c) We square both terms and we obtain

|z + 3i|

2

= |a + i(b + 3)|

2

= a

2

+ (b + 3)

2

, (3|z|)

2

= 9(a

2

+ b

2

).

Hence we have to solve the equation

a

2

+(b+3)

2

= 9(a

2

+b

2

) 8(a

2

+b

2

) = 6b+9 a

2

+b

2

3

4

b =

9

8

a

2

+

_

b

3

8

_

2

=

_

9

8

_

2

.

Then the solution are all the points of the circle of radius 9/8 centered at (0, 3/8).

10. If z = a + ib, a, b R then z

2

R if and only if a

2

b

2

+ 2iab R, that is if and only if ab = 0. Hence

z

2

R if and only if z R (b = 0) or if z is a pure imaginary number (a = 0).

11. Let z = a + ib, a, b R.

(a) Re (z(1 + i)) = Re ((a + ib)(1 + i)) = Re (a b + i(a + b)) = a b. The equation is then equivalent

to

a b + a

2

+ b

2

= 0

_

a +

1

2

_

2

+

_

b

1

2

_

2

=

1

2

whose solutions are the points of the circle with center in (1/2, 1/2) and radius

2/2.

3

(b) Since z

2

= a

2

b

2

+ 2iab and z(1 + 2i) = (a ib)(1 + 2i) = a + 2b + i(2a b), the equation can be

written as

a

2

b

2

+ i(2a b) = 3,

and we deduce 2a = b and a

2

b

2

= 3. The solution of this system are z

1

= 1+2i and z

2

= 12i,

the unique solutions of the starting equation.

(c) Since (2 i)(a + bib) = 2a + b + i(2b a), the equation can be written as

2b a = 1.

whose solutions are the points of the line x 2y + 1 = 0.

12. If z = i, then z

2

= 1, z

3

= i, and P(i) = i + 1 i + 1 + a = 2 + a . Then i is a root for P if and

only if a = 2. Since P(z) = z

3

z

2

+ z 1 contains z 1, we have P(z) = (z 1)(z i)(z + i).

4

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