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Unit II - TRANSFORMERS

1.State the principle of working of a transformer?


Transformer consists of two inductive coils which are electrically separated but
magnetically linked through a path of low reluctance. The two coils possess high mutual
inductance. If one coil connected to a source of alternating voltage, an alternating flux is
set up in the laminated core, most of which linked with the other coil in which it produces
mutually induced emf. If the second coil is closed current flows in it and so electrical
energy is transferred from the first coil to the second coil.

2.List the types of transformers based on construction:


 Core type transformer
 Shell type transformer

3.State why the transformer core is made of magnetic materials?


To provide a continuous magnetic path with the minimum air gap.

4..Define transformation ratio ?


Transformation ratio is defined as the ratio of number of turns in the secondary
winding to number of turns in primary winding .
K= N2/N1
= E2/E1
Types :
Step up transformer
Step down transformer

5..Define voltage regulation of a transformer:


The change is secondary terminal voltage from no load condition to full load
condition is known as voltage regulation

6..State the methods of reducing leakage flux:


To minimize the leakage flux, transformer core is sectionalized and by
interleaving the primary and secondary windings.

7..List the various losses in a transformer and state the condition for
maximum efficiency:
Core loss
Copper loss
Condition for maximum efficiency:
Iron loss = copper loss

8..Define all-day efficiency of a transformer?


All day efficiency is defined as the ratio of output in Kwh to input in Kwh
calculated for 24 hours
9. Define the purpose of breather used in a transformer?
Complete air tight chambers provided to permit the oil inside the tank expand and
contract as temperature increases or decreases
10..State the test to be conducted to determine the efficiency of a
transformer
OC test –iron losses
SC test – copper losses

11..State the various types of a transformers depending on its voltage


transformation ratio:
Step-up transformer
Step- down transformer

12.Write the emf equation of a transformer and explain the terms used:
E=4.44 φm f N (volts)

13 .why Core loss of a transformer practically constant ?


Since the core flux is practically constant for all loads the core loss is
practically same for all loads.
14. What is the main difference between core type and shell type
transformers ?
Core type:The coils wound are form woundand are cylindrical type.Wound
in helical layers insulated from each other by paper,cloth,mica.Used for
low voltage transformers.Windings surround a considerable part of the
core.
Shell type:coils are form wound but are multi layer disc type,insulated from
each other by paper.Transformer core consists of laminations arranged
in groups which radiate out from the centre.Used for high voltage
transformers.Core surrounds a considerable portion of the winding.

15. Why the rating of the transformers is in KVA ?


Opper loss of transformer depends on current and iron loss on voltage.Total
loss depends on volt-ampere and not on phase angle.

16. In what way the iron losses can be minimised.


Laminating the core,laminations being insulated from each other by varnish.
17. What are the two components of no load input current of a
transformer

(i) Active or working or iron loss plus small quantity of primary cu


loss
(ii) Quadrature with v1 known as magnetising component because of
function to sustain the alternating flux in the core.

18. What are the different kinds of transformers


Power transformer ,distribution transformer ,auto transformer

19. What is the need for conducting O.C and S.C tests in a
transformer.?
For the calculation of Iron loss and copper losses so as to determine the
efficiency of the transformer.

20. Define the equivalent circuit of a transformer?


Pictorial representation of the transformer,simplification can be done by
transferring resistances,reactances,load,no load branch for easy calculation.

21. Define an Ideal transformer ?


A perfect transformer considered to have no loss and having max efficiency
which is practically not possible.

22. Explain how the flux in the core is practically maintained constant?
The secondary current sets up its own flux which is in opposition to main
flux called demagnetising amp turns.For a moment v1 gains E1 and hence
more current to flow in primary.Additional current called i2’ known as load
component of primary current.Magnetic effects of secondary current i2 are
immediately neutralized by additional primary current i2’ hence the net flux
is constant.

23. Define mutual induction


Consists of two inductive coils electrically separated but magnetically
linked.If one coil is connected to the source alternating flux is set up which
links the other coil also which produces mutually induced emf.If the second
coil circuit id closed a current flows in it and so electrical energy is
transferred from the first coil to second coil.
24. What is approximate equivalent circuit.?
All the impedances combined neglecting the no load branch

25. Explain the term demagnetizing ampere turns.?


The secondary current sets up its own flux which is in opposition to main
flux
PART -- B

TRANSFORMERS

GROUP---A

1) (i)Derive the EMF equation of a Transformer? (6)

N1=No of turns in Primary


N2=No of turns in secondary
Φm=Max flux in the core
=Bm *A
Average rate of change of flux=Φm/1/4f=4fΦmwb/s
Average enf/turn=4fΦmvolt
Form factor=R.M.S value/average value=1.11
Rms value of emf/turn=1.11*4fΦm=4.44fΦmv
Rms value of the induced emf in the whole of primary
winding=4.44fN1Φm=4.44fN1BmA
E2=4.44fN2Φm=4.44fN2BmA
E1/N1=E2/N2=4.44fΦm

(ii) A 5 KVA ,2300/230 V ,50 Hz transformer was tested for the


iron losses with normal excitation and copper losses at full load
and they were found to be 40 W and 112 W respectively.Calculate
the efficiencies of the transformer at 0.8 p.f for the following KVA
outputs 1.25,2.5,3.75,5.0,6.25 and 7.5 (10)

Solution: F.L CU loss:12 Iron loss:40W

Formulas: CU loss for given KVA =F.L Cu loss *[given KVA/Total


KVA]2

Total loss=F.L Cu loss+Cu loss at given KVA

Output =Given KVA * given power factor

ή = output/output + Losses * 100


i) Cu loss at 1.5 KVA=7 W
Total loss=47 W
Output = 1000w
Effeciency = 95.51%
ii) ii) Cu loss at 2.5 KVA=28 W
Total loss=68 W
Output = 2Kw
Effeciency = 96.71%
iii) iii) Cu loss at 3.75 KVA=63 W
Total loss=103 W
Output = 3Kw
Effeciency = 96.34%

iv) Cu loss at 5 KVA= 112W


Total loss=0.152KW
Output = 4Kw
Effeciency =96.34 %

v) Cu loss at 6.25 KVA= 175W


Total loss= 125W
Output =5Kw
Effeciency =95.88%
vi) Cu loss at 7.5 KVA=252 W
Total loss= 292W
Output = 6Kw
Effeciency =95.36 %

2) (i) Draw and explain the phasor diagram of a transformer


with no load and on load.How it affects the power factor of the
loaded transformer?
(12)
Secondary current sets its own mmf,own flux Φ2
Secondary amp-turns N2I2 known as demagnetising amp turns
additional primary current by I2’
Additional flux is produced which is in opposition,Hence the two
cancel each other out.Net flux passing through the core is
approximately the same as at no load
Core loss is practically same under all load conditions
n2i2=n1i2’
i2’=n2/n1*i2=ki2
Total primary current i1 is the vector sum of i0 and i2’ and lags behind
v1 by an angle Φ1
It is observed that Φ1 is slightly greater than Φ2
If we neglect i0 Φ1=Φ2
I2’/i2=i1/i2=n2/n1=k
Under full load conditions the ratio of primary and secondary currents
are constant
For inductive load I2 lags E2 by Φ2

(ii) A single phase transformer has 400 primary and 1000


secondary turns .The net cross sectional area of the core is 60 sq
cm.If the primary winding be connected to a 50 Hz supply at 520
V ,Calculate the peak value of flux density in the core and
secondary voltage ? (4)
E1=4.44 f N1Φm
520=88,800*Φm
Φm=5.85*10exp -3 wb
Bm= Φm/(60*10^-4)=.975wb/m2
(ii) Secondary voltage v2/v1=n2/n1
V2=n2/n1*v1=1300v

3) (i) Obtain the equivalent circuit of a single phase transformer


(8)

X0=e1/i0 R0=e1/iw
E2/E1=n2/n1=k
Primary eqvt of secondary induced vg E2’=E2/K V2’=V2/k i2’=ki2
For transferring secondary impedance to primary multiply by k^2
R2’=R2/K^2 X2’=X2/k^2 z2’=Z2/k^2
Total eqvt circuit of transformer is obtained by adding in the primary
impedance simplification can be made by transferring the exciting
circuit across the terminals
Further simplification may be achieved by ommiting i0 altogether

(ii) A 230/230 ,3 KVA transformer gave the following results

O.C Test : 230V , 2 A,100 W


S.C Test : 15V , 13 A,120 W
Determine the regulation and efficiency at full load 0 .8 P.F lagging
(8)
Rated current=power/voltage=13A
Total loss=cu loss+core loss=220w
Power output=Rated power*P.F=2400w
Required ή=2400/2400+220*100=91.6%
From S.C test Z=V/I =1.154Ω
P=I^2 R
R=P/I^2=o.53Ω
X=SQ Root Z^2-R^2=1.0251Ω
Approximate Voltage Regulation
IRCOSΦ+IXSinΦ=13.51v
% Vg Regulation =App Vg Regulation/Rated Vg * 100=5.874%

4) Explain in detail about the conduction of open circuit and short


circuit test on single phase transformers to predetermine the efficiency
and regulation (16)
To determine the no load loss or core loss ,high voltage winding is left open
other connected to supply voltage.A wattmeter w1,voltmeter V1 and
ammeter A are connected to L.V winding
With normal voltage applied to primary normal flux will be set up in the
core normal iron loss will occur which are recorded by the wattmeter
Wattmeter reading represents practically core loss under no load condition
w=v1io cosΦ0 cos Φo=W/v1i0
iµ=io sin Φ0 iw=i0 cos Φo xo=v1/iµ
Ro=v1/iw
Exciting admittance yo of the transformer is given by io=v1yo yo=io/v1
Exciting conductance go is given by w=v1^2 go or go=w/v1^2
Exciting susceptance Bo=Sq root (40^2 – Go^2)

5) (i) Discuss about the different types of losses occurring in the


transformer ? (8)
Core loss: Due to alternating flux set up in the magnetic core of the
transformer it undergoes a cycle of magnetisation and demagnetisation.Due
to hysterisis effect there is loss of energy which is called as hysterisis loss.
Hysterisis loss = Kh Bm ^ 1.67 f v
(ii) With neat diagram explain the working of a single phase
transformer (8)
GROUP---B
1) (i) Derive the condition for obtaining Maximum efficiency of a single
phase transformer ? (6)
(ii) Explain the operation of single phase transformer on load
condition ? (10)
3)(i) Explain the constructional details of a single phase transformers
? (10)

(ii) A 25 KVA single phase transformer has 250 turns on the


primary and 40 turns on the secondary winding.The primary is
connected to 1500 V ,50 Hz mains.Calculate (i) Primary and
secondary currents on full load (ii) Secondary emf (iii) Maximum
flux in the core (6)
4)Consider a 4 KVA ,200/400 single phase transformer supplying full
load current at 0.8 lagging P.F .The O.C and S.C test results are as
follows

O.C Test : 200 V , 0.8 A , 70 W (L.V Side)


S.C Test : 20 V , 10 A ,60 W (H.V Side)

Calculate the efficiency ,Secondary voltage and current into the


primary at the above load

Calculate the load at unity P.F corresponding to Maximum


effeciency
5) (i) Discuss about the regulation of a Transformer? (6)
(ii) A 100 KVA Transformer has 400 turns on the primary and
80 turns on the secondary .The primary and secondary resistances
are 0.3Ω and 0.01Ω respectively and the corresponding leakage
reactancec are 1.1 and 0.035 Ω respectively.The supply voltage is
2200V Calculate (i) Equivalent impedance referred to primary
(ii)Voltage regulation and secondary terminal voltage for full load
having a power factor of 0.8 leading. (12)