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Transformer consists of two inductive coils which are electrically separated but

magnetically linked through a path of low reluctance. The two coils possess high mutual

inductance. If one coil connected to a source of alternating voltage, an alternating flux is

set up in the laminated core, most of which linked with the other coil in which it produces

mutually induced emf. If the second coil is closed current flows in it and so electrical

energy is transferred from the first coil to the second coil.

Core type transformer

Shell type transformer

To provide a continuous magnetic path with the minimum air gap.

Transformation ratio is defined as the ratio of number of turns in the secondary

winding to number of turns in primary winding .

K= N2/N1

= E2/E1

Types :

Step up transformer

Step down transformer

The change is secondary terminal voltage from no load condition to full load

condition is known as voltage regulation

To minimize the leakage flux, transformer core is sectionalized and by

interleaving the primary and secondary windings.

7..List the various losses in a transformer and state the condition for

maximum efficiency:

Core loss

Copper loss

Condition for maximum efficiency:

Iron loss = copper loss

All day efficiency is defined as the ratio of output in Kwh to input in Kwh

calculated for 24 hours

9. Define the purpose of breather used in a transformer?

Complete air tight chambers provided to permit the oil inside the tank expand and

contract as temperature increases or decreases

10..State the test to be conducted to determine the efficiency of a

transformer

OC test –iron losses

SC test – copper losses

transformation ratio:

Step-up transformer

Step- down transformer

12.Write the emf equation of a transformer and explain the terms used:

E=4.44 φm f N (volts)

Since the core flux is practically constant for all loads the core loss is

practically same for all loads.

14. What is the main difference between core type and shell type

transformers ?

Core type:The coils wound are form woundand are cylindrical type.Wound

in helical layers insulated from each other by paper,cloth,mica.Used for

low voltage transformers.Windings surround a considerable part of the

core.

Shell type:coils are form wound but are multi layer disc type,insulated from

each other by paper.Transformer core consists of laminations arranged

in groups which radiate out from the centre.Used for high voltage

transformers.Core surrounds a considerable portion of the winding.

Opper loss of transformer depends on current and iron loss on voltage.Total

loss depends on volt-ampere and not on phase angle.

Laminating the core,laminations being insulated from each other by varnish.

17. What are the two components of no load input current of a

transformer

loss

(ii) Quadrature with v1 known as magnetising component because of

function to sustain the alternating flux in the core.

Power transformer ,distribution transformer ,auto transformer

19. What is the need for conducting O.C and S.C tests in a

transformer.?

For the calculation of Iron loss and copper losses so as to determine the

efficiency of the transformer.

Pictorial representation of the transformer,simplification can be done by

transferring resistances,reactances,load,no load branch for easy calculation.

A perfect transformer considered to have no loss and having max efficiency

which is practically not possible.

22. Explain how the flux in the core is practically maintained constant?

The secondary current sets up its own flux which is in opposition to main

flux called demagnetising amp turns.For a moment v1 gains E1 and hence

more current to flow in primary.Additional current called i2’ known as load

component of primary current.Magnetic effects of secondary current i2 are

immediately neutralized by additional primary current i2’ hence the net flux

is constant.

Consists of two inductive coils electrically separated but magnetically

linked.If one coil is connected to the source alternating flux is set up which

links the other coil also which produces mutually induced emf.If the second

coil circuit id closed a current flows in it and so electrical energy is

transferred from the first coil to second coil.

24. What is approximate equivalent circuit.?

All the impedances combined neglecting the no load branch

The secondary current sets up its own flux which is in opposition to main

flux

PART -- B

TRANSFORMERS

GROUP---A

N2=No of turns in secondary

Φm=Max flux in the core

=Bm *A

Average rate of change of flux=Φm/1/4f=4fΦmwb/s

Average enf/turn=4fΦmvolt

Form factor=R.M.S value/average value=1.11

Rms value of emf/turn=1.11*4fΦm=4.44fΦmv

Rms value of the induced emf in the whole of primary

winding=4.44fN1Φm=4.44fN1BmA

E2=4.44fN2Φm=4.44fN2BmA

E1/N1=E2/N2=4.44fΦm

iron losses with normal excitation and copper losses at full load

and they were found to be 40 W and 112 W respectively.Calculate

the efficiencies of the transformer at 0.8 p.f for the following KVA

outputs 1.25,2.5,3.75,5.0,6.25 and 7.5 (10)

KVA]2

i) Cu loss at 1.5 KVA=7 W

Total loss=47 W

Output = 1000w

Effeciency = 95.51%

ii) ii) Cu loss at 2.5 KVA=28 W

Total loss=68 W

Output = 2Kw

Effeciency = 96.71%

iii) iii) Cu loss at 3.75 KVA=63 W

Total loss=103 W

Output = 3Kw

Effeciency = 96.34%

Total loss=0.152KW

Output = 4Kw

Effeciency =96.34 %

Total loss= 125W

Output =5Kw

Effeciency =95.88%

vi) Cu loss at 7.5 KVA=252 W

Total loss= 292W

Output = 6Kw

Effeciency =95.36 %

with no load and on load.How it affects the power factor of the

loaded transformer?

(12)

Secondary current sets its own mmf,own flux Φ2

Secondary amp-turns N2I2 known as demagnetising amp turns

additional primary current by I2’

Additional flux is produced which is in opposition,Hence the two

cancel each other out.Net flux passing through the core is

approximately the same as at no load

Core loss is practically same under all load conditions

n2i2=n1i2’

i2’=n2/n1*i2=ki2

Total primary current i1 is the vector sum of i0 and i2’ and lags behind

v1 by an angle Φ1

It is observed that Φ1 is slightly greater than Φ2

If we neglect i0 Φ1=Φ2

I2’/i2=i1/i2=n2/n1=k

Under full load conditions the ratio of primary and secondary currents

are constant

For inductive load I2 lags E2 by Φ2

secondary turns .The net cross sectional area of the core is 60 sq

cm.If the primary winding be connected to a 50 Hz supply at 520

V ,Calculate the peak value of flux density in the core and

secondary voltage ? (4)

E1=4.44 f N1Φm

520=88,800*Φm

Φm=5.85*10exp -3 wb

Bm= Φm/(60*10^-4)=.975wb/m2

(ii) Secondary voltage v2/v1=n2/n1

V2=n2/n1*v1=1300v

(8)

X0=e1/i0 R0=e1/iw

E2/E1=n2/n1=k

Primary eqvt of secondary induced vg E2’=E2/K V2’=V2/k i2’=ki2

For transferring secondary impedance to primary multiply by k^2

R2’=R2/K^2 X2’=X2/k^2 z2’=Z2/k^2

Total eqvt circuit of transformer is obtained by adding in the primary

impedance simplification can be made by transferring the exciting

circuit across the terminals

Further simplification may be achieved by ommiting i0 altogether

S.C Test : 15V , 13 A,120 W

Determine the regulation and efficiency at full load 0 .8 P.F lagging

(8)

Rated current=power/voltage=13A

Total loss=cu loss+core loss=220w

Power output=Rated power*P.F=2400w

Required ή=2400/2400+220*100=91.6%

From S.C test Z=V/I =1.154Ω

P=I^2 R

R=P/I^2=o.53Ω

X=SQ Root Z^2-R^2=1.0251Ω

Approximate Voltage Regulation

IRCOSΦ+IXSinΦ=13.51v

% Vg Regulation =App Vg Regulation/Rated Vg * 100=5.874%

circuit test on single phase transformers to predetermine the efficiency

and regulation (16)

To determine the no load loss or core loss ,high voltage winding is left open

other connected to supply voltage.A wattmeter w1,voltmeter V1 and

ammeter A are connected to L.V winding

With normal voltage applied to primary normal flux will be set up in the

core normal iron loss will occur which are recorded by the wattmeter

Wattmeter reading represents practically core loss under no load condition

w=v1io cosΦ0 cos Φo=W/v1i0

iµ=io sin Φ0 iw=i0 cos Φo xo=v1/iµ

Ro=v1/iw

Exciting admittance yo of the transformer is given by io=v1yo yo=io/v1

Exciting conductance go is given by w=v1^2 go or go=w/v1^2

Exciting susceptance Bo=Sq root (40^2 – Go^2)

transformer ? (8)

Core loss: Due to alternating flux set up in the magnetic core of the

transformer it undergoes a cycle of magnetisation and demagnetisation.Due

to hysterisis effect there is loss of energy which is called as hysterisis loss.

Hysterisis loss = Kh Bm ^ 1.67 f v

(ii) With neat diagram explain the working of a single phase

transformer (8)

GROUP---B

1) (i) Derive the condition for obtaining Maximum efficiency of a single

phase transformer ? (6)

(ii) Explain the operation of single phase transformer on load

condition ? (10)

3)(i) Explain the constructional details of a single phase transformers

? (10)

primary and 40 turns on the secondary winding.The primary is

connected to 1500 V ,50 Hz mains.Calculate (i) Primary and

secondary currents on full load (ii) Secondary emf (iii) Maximum

flux in the core (6)

4)Consider a 4 KVA ,200/400 single phase transformer supplying full

load current at 0.8 lagging P.F .The O.C and S.C test results are as

follows

S.C Test : 20 V , 10 A ,60 W (H.V Side)

primary at the above load

effeciency

5) (i) Discuss about the regulation of a Transformer? (6)

(ii) A 100 KVA Transformer has 400 turns on the primary and

80 turns on the secondary .The primary and secondary resistances

are 0.3Ω and 0.01Ω respectively and the corresponding leakage

reactancec are 1.1 and 0.035 Ω respectively.The supply voltage is

2200V Calculate (i) Equivalent impedance referred to primary

(ii)Voltage regulation and secondary terminal voltage for full load

having a power factor of 0.8 leading. (12)

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