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The table of contents
Educational Studies and School. Los Angeles 2011 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ANTIOCH UNIVERSITY LOS ANGELES EDUCATIONAL STUDIES AND SCHOOL Edited by RICHARD KAHN SŁAWOMIR MAZUR LOS ANGELES 2011 3 .
PhD Sławomir Mazur.01(082) EDUCATIONAL STUDIES AND SCHOOL / edited by Richard Kahn and Sławomir Mazur . Kahn. essays. 2011 ISBN 978-1-4507-7293-8 1.The table of contents Reviewer: Edited by: J. 2. Sławomir Mazur. 37.Los Angeles : Department of Education. Cynthia McDermott. PhD Department of Education Antioch University Los Angeles. Richard 4 . PhD Richard Kahn. Antioch University Los Angeles. USA. Richard Kahn. essays. PhD Josef Valenta. Education-Social Sciences-Methods-USA-Addresses. 2011 Main entry under title: Published by: Department of Education EDUCATIONAL STUDIES AND SCHOOL Includes index. Educational-Research-USA-Addresses. 1.
...................................... 83 CHAPTER 6 EARLY INSTRUCTION OF MATHEMATICS THROUGH HISTORY Mara Cotič and Darjo Felda .............................................................ORPHANS: THE NEW PROBLEM IN POLISH SCHOOLS Anna Kožuh and Grażyna Miłkowska........................... 51 CHAPTER 4 ARISTOTLE’S CONCEPT OF MIMESIS AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR EDUCATION THROUGH THE ARTS IN THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD Robi Kro�lič ... 9 GLOBALISATION AND REGIONALISATION...Educational Studies and School................................................................................................... 105 CHAPTER 7 THE CONDITION OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAMMES FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN VIEW OF THE CHANGES IN POLISH PUBLIC TELEVISION Joanna Aksman ........................ 115 5 ........................................................ PARADOXES IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF EDUCATION Karel Rýdl .......................................................................................................... Los Angeles 2011 CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 MEASURING EFFECTIVENESS Boris Kožuh .................................................................... 65 CHAPTER 5 EURO ........................................................................................................................... 29 CHAPTER 3 ARE INDIVIDUAL PUPIL DIFFERENCES THE PRIMARY PERVASIVE INFLUENCES ON TEACHER EXPECTATIONS? Alison Kington .............................................................
....The table of contents CHAPTER 8 USE OF TEXTBOOKS.............................. Timina and Norman L................................. 137 CHAPTER 9 UNCOMFORTABLE TOPICS AND THEIR APPROPRIATENESS IN ASIAN EFL CLASSES Svetlana A.................................. 157 CHAPTER 10 FORMS AND METHODS OF WORK WITH THE GIFTED PUPILS AT LESSONS AND OUT�OF�CLASS ACTIVITIES Elena Bocharova ...... WORKBOOKS AND OTHER DIDACTIC MATERIALS IN SLOVENIAN SECONDARY TECHNICAL EDUCATION Damijan Štefanc and Jasna Mažgon ............................................... 167 CHAPTER 11 CHAPTER 12 THE GIFTED IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF CROATIA Anči Leburić................................... Lau and Hui Li ....................... H....... 199 CHAPTER 13 CHAPTER 14 TEACHING PRACTICE � A BRIDGE BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TEACHER TRAINING Jolanta Pułka ...... 215 CHAPTER 15 6 PROCESS OF ACTIVE TEACHERS’ LEARNING FOR THE SAKE OF ENHANCING EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE Jelena Maksimović .................................................................. 175 THE CONCEPTION OF AUTHORITY AND ITS ALTERATIONS Alena Vališová ............ 187 HOME-SCHOOL COLLABORATION IN PRESCHOOL: A MULTIPLE CASE STUDY OF CHINESE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION AND PRACTICES Eva Y.............................................................................. Butler .................................................................................................................................. Maja Ljubetić and Zorana Šuljug Vučica ...................................................................... 239 .................
................................................... 311 INDEX .................................................. 251 CHAPTER 17 SELF EVALUATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE IN EDUCATION Vesna Podgornik ........... 323 7 ...................................... 273 CHAPTER 19 TEACHERS’ BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT: DISCREPANCY OR CONGRUENCE? Marjeta Šarić .............. 301 CHAPTER 21 PROTESTANT SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SLOVENIA IN THE 16th CENTURY Tadej Vidmar .............................................................................................................. 261 CHAPTER 18 TEACHERS’ BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT: DISCREPANCY OR CONGRUENCE? Lilian Nga Lei Chau................................................................. Los Angeles 2011 CHAPTER 16 CONCEPTION OF THE RESOCIALIZATION PEDAGOGY BASIS OF THE SPECIALIZATION STUDY IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC Ilona Moravcová .... Jessie Ming Sin Wong and Hui Li ..........................................................Educational Studies and School........................... 287 CHAPTER 20 THE HISTORICAL APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM OF SUPPORT OF GIFTED STUDENTS IN THE USA Inessa Babenko ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................
The table of contents 8 .
they may have encountered some problems and challenges in incorporating Web 2. become more influential than ever (Anderson. Accordingly.0 Applications be Used in Education The bursting of the dot-com bubble in the fall of 2001 signified the end of the Web 1. they are relatively new to the early childhood practitioners in Hong Kong. Jessie Ming Sin Wong and Hui Li University of Hong King HONG KONG. possibility of individual production. Los Angeles 2011 CHAPTER 18 HONG KONG KINDERGARTENS IN THE WEB 2. and knowledge exchanges has been recognized as one of the important global trends in education by Hong Kong educational authorities (Education Bureau. This study investigated how Web 2. openness to participation. Although Web 2.0 era and the start of the Web 2. 273 .0 applications seem to fit well with the constructivist learning and progressive education promoted in kindergartens (Curriculum Development Council. The Web 1.0 applications had been used in the homepages of Hong Kong kindergartens and in actual classroom practices.0 ERA: PRACTICES. passive mode of delivery dominated the virtual world. Web 2. whereas the Web 2. and generation of knowledge in an epic scale. 2006). With characteristics like lightweight user interfaces. The implications for policymaking and teacher education in Chinese societies and beyond would be discussed in the end of this chapter. 2007). also known as “Web 2.0 applications as a Web-based environment for collaboration. sharing.0 applications”. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS Lilian Nga Lei Chau.0 era is the time when interactive web tools. and problems of such usage in classroom were also explored. 2007. Why Should Web 2.Educational Studies and School.0 applications into their teaching. Selwyn.0 era was the period when the web tools which adopted a topdown. The challenges. SAR CHINA Introduction The use of Web 2. 2005).0 era (O’Reilly. 2007). Facebook.0 applications. for instance. difficulties.
Kankaanranta. O’Reilly. 2007. Russell. Education Bureau. students are expected to become active problem-solvers and life-long learners. and disseminating information on the Web. The user-friendly and interactive Web 2. information sharing.0 Applications in Hong Kong Kindergartens In Hong Kong. coaches. The Usage of Web 2. users are no long passive recipients but have become the active participants of producing. Law. innovating.. where students can only participate passively in class. collaborating. 2006). “science and technology” is regarded as one of the key learning domains of the early childhood curriculum. To equip the next generation with these skills. 2007. analyzing. it is insufficient for teachers to instruct students simply by using didactic teaching approaches.Lilian Nga Lei Chau. accordingly. 2007. and all the societies have. and social bookmarking.0 applications have got the public more involved in knowledge building and sharing than ever. but also beyond their schools. It includes the introduction and the use of various “modern inventions”. 2009). Teachers need to adopt more constructivist and interactive approaches to promote students’ active learning and prepare them for the learning in the Web 2. YouTube. Wikipedia. by encouraging collaborative learning. the situation of the early childhood sector is very much different from that of the primary and secondary sectors. encourage collaboration. 2005). Jessie Ming Sin Wong and Hui Li: Hong Kong . Not only does this bring about a paradigm shift from a teacherdirected to a student-centered way of instruction. 2002). With the help of these applications as the platform. where there are sufficient hardware and software to support teaching and learning. and solving problems (International Society for Technology in Education. 2005. so as to help them develop an initial understanding of technology (Curriculum Development Council. However. blogs. All the kindergartens in Hong Kong are excluded from the compulsory education 274 . They allow students to learn not only within their own classrooms. 2005). creating. while teachers are considered as the facilitators. 2007). and knowledge exchanges among users (Anderson. and knowledge exchanges among learners at their own pace and at the time they wish to (Anderson. Flickr. valued very much the skills of communicating. 2007.0 applications offer technical support to teachers in the time of paradigm shift by providing them with suitable platforms for enhancing students’ collaborative learning and active construction of knowledge (Anderson. In this era. & Chow. Podcast. information sharing. but it also changes the roles of students and teachers. Web 2.0 era. organizing. Law et al.. such as computers and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) that match with children’s daily experiences. and guides of students’ learning instead of the sole knowledge transmitters (Lee..
2007. and parents. support from school administrators. teachers. whether a policy can be successfully implemented depends very much on a number of contextual factors. Siu & Lam.0 applications in education (Education Bureau. 2006).0 applications in classroom learning and teaching (Leung. even with the financial support from the Quality Education Fund (QEF)1 (Leung. 2003. 2003) and the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme (PEVS)2. Los Angeles 2011 system and are privately-owned. they are either too basic for any practical uses or relatively outdated. However. 2009). 1999). With limited technology education.Educational Studies and School. for instance. The major financial source for purchasing and maintaining ICT facilities in kindergartens comes from school fees. Rao & Koong. it is by-no-means for educators to stop the bewildering change and appearance of new ICTs and Web 2. Even ICT modules are either offered as compulsory or elective courses in all training institutions for future kindergarten teachers (The Hong Kong Institute of Education. thus have to survive in a highly competitive environment (Leung. in-service early childhood practitioners are provided with neither training courses nor guidance for integrating ICTs and Web 2. 2003).0 applications in classroom teaching. it is questionable whether the early childhood educators in Hong Kong have sufficient knowledge and skills to utilize the relatively new ICTs and Web 2. The dramatically falling birthrate and consequently decreasing rate of enrollment have forced Hong Kong kindergartens to suffer from substantial difficulties in raising funds to enable the construction of ICT infrastructure and the integration of ICT in teaching (Li. early childhood educators are facing huge challenges in incorporating any of these technologies into the curricula and classroom practices. 2009a. 2000). 2003. The aforementioned gaps led us to rethink a very fundamental question: can Web 2. new education policies with an emphasis on ICTs and Web tool usage in classroom practices have already been put forward. because these stakeholders are the important “catalysts of change” (Hargreaves & Lo. 1997. the situation has not improved much in a sense that many kindergartens are still not equipped with updated computers and related software and consequently. 2006. At the government level. by stating a clear stance of support. With the government’s enthusiasm of promoting the use of new technologies in education but without sufficient ICT facilities and teacher training. unlike primary and secondary school teachers who are offered tailor-made ICT modules and programs on the effective use of Web 2. Further.0 applications in the world. Lui. At the macro level. Today. which are directly affected by the rate of enrollment. 2009b). are unable to support the use of Web 2.0 applications as tools for meaningful learning.0 applications actually be used in the field of early childhood education in Hong Kong? 275 . Li.
especially when these new technologies may actually open ones up to new possibilities in teaching and learning (Yelland.Lilian Nga Lei Chau.0 applications in the Hong Kong early childhood sector. Li. The rationale for this research design is based on the following hypotheses: First. a relatively affluent kindergarten was chosen for the case study because it was expected to encounter far less problems when compared to the majority of kindergartens in Hong Kong which have less funding and fewer ICT facilities. Therefore. this study employed a mixed-method design to address the following two research questions: 1. The list of voucher-eligible NPMKs (N = 761) was obtained from the Profile of Kindergartens and Kindergartens-cum-Child 276 . would be likely to suffer from the same difficulties and problems. The qualitative part was a case study of a kindergarten which had a high rate of enrollment and sufficient funding to implement ICT facilities for educational use. in Hong Kong. it is impossible for early childhood educators to avoid technologies. particularly those less affluent ones. How common are Web 2.g. 2006. 2003. As children are exposed to computers and a vast range of new technologies in every aspect of their lives. 2005) did point out the lack of ICTs in classroom instruction. found in the sampled kindergarten. Jessie Ming Sin Wong and Hui Li: Hong Kong . What are the challenges. Second. and a channel of home-school communication. The quantitative study was an analysis of homepages of all the voucher-eligible non-profit-making kindergartens (NPMKs) (N = 761) to investigate the prevalence and availability of Web 2. Siu & Lam. Samples Quantitative study. online learning platform.0 applications on Hong Kong kindergarten homepages. difficulties. Therefore. if any. Leung.0 applications used in Hong Kong kindergarten homepages? 2. 2003. most kindergartens. kindergarten homepages are the main entrance for school information. and problems early childhood practitioners encountered in the use of Web 2.0 applications in classrooms? Method A mixed-method approach was employed to collect quantitative and qualitative data to address the two research questions respectively. Analyzing their homepages will generate authentic information about their ways of interaction or non-interaction by using different Web applications. Although a number of studies (e. 2005). Han.. none of them specifically addressed the use of Web 2..
However. Compared with other kindergartens serving middle or lower-middle families. Moreover. Qualitative study. there were thematic stories. there was a computer area on campus where children were allowed to use computers before a school day started. and one of them was 277 .0 elements. When infrastructures and technical support were no longer problems. such as applications supporting mind-map construction and educational games with the pre-set templates and flash function. the computer company updated and changed the interface of the Platform and added some interactive and constructive Web 2. and adequate professional support from the Platform produced a rather unique context. On the Platform. the kindergarten had sufficient funding to purchase enough ICT facilities for educational use. The kindergarten involved in this study was located in a private housing estate in Kowloon. Lui. some of the Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) available in the Profile actually linked to the Websites of the school sponsoring bodies rather than the official school homepages. the kindergartens would be categorized as having a “broken link”.Educational Studies and School. Li. There was also a technician to provide technical support to staffs. In this case. Los Angeles 2011 Care Centers Website (the Profile) published by the Education Bureau. enough ICT facilities. an overhead projector. In addition. In each classroom. All the 3 administrators (1 principal and 2 vice principals) and 19 frontline teachers in this kindergarten participated in this study. Only the homepages of the voucher-eligible NPMKs were involved in this study because those kindergartens which were not subsidized by vouchers were not obligated to report their information to the government. other factors affecting the use of Web 2. If all the searches found nothing. The principal had obtained Certificate of Education (CE). while the 2 vice principals both had obtained Bachelor of Education (BEd). local news. there were a computer with Internet connection. and internet service provider. 2003. a digital camera. and a visualizer. the kindergartens would be counted as having “no school homepage”. All the URLs obtained were accessed using the same browser software (Internet Explorer 8). computer. In the 2009/10 school year. If a URL was found but it was not accessible. The sufficient funding.0 applications would be more visible. this kindergarten was well-equipped with ICT facilities. and educational games to support daily teaching and learning activities. which made this kindergarten different from other local kindergartens (see Leung. serving both local and new immigrant families in the district. Yahoo! Hong Kong (http:// hk. this kindergarten had been using an online educational platform (the Platform) provided by a local computer company as a supplementary ICT resource since 2000. With a high rate of enrollment.yahoo. 2006.com/) was used to search for the direct URLs of the kindergarten homepages by inputting the Chinese names of the kindergartens. 1997).
They did not involve any interaction.. communication.. narrative. although there were still 24% and 14% of the teachers having 0 to 5 years and 5 to 10 years of experience. Blogs and online forums were some of the examples of these applications.0 homepages were those containing only descriptive. 2004). and exchange of information among users.Lilian Nga Lei Chau. These older children were presumably had more advanced cognitive and fine motor development and were potentially more capable to use ICTs for meaningful learning. If such external Website. Web 1. General information of the kindergartens. passive mode of delivery which aim at broadcasting information from one-to-many (Selwyn.0. and parents’ comments that were selected by the kindergartens are some of the examples of this group. downloadable worksheets. and 19% obtained BEd.& 3-year college education). then the nature of this external Website. then it would be considered 278 . The homepages were first classified as either “Web 1. Jessie Ming Sin Wong and Hui Li: Hong Kong . and 14% having more than 21 years of experience.. If a homepage was linked to an external Website. respectively. The term “external” means the Website had a URL domain different from that of the school homepage. Web 2. Therefore. 2007). so it may be too challenging for them to manipulate any indirect input devices while executing learning tasks on the computer at the same time (Wood et al.0 or Web 2. and thus were more interactive in nature (Anderson. however. Selwyn. 2007. Many of the teachers involved were aged between 31 and 40 (48%) and between 21 and 30 (33%). and distribution of shared content. only one K2 (4-year-olds) class and one K3 (5-year-olds) class (with 30 children each) were randomly selected by the school administrators to participate in classroom observation. Preschoolers have limited cognitive resources and are still developing their fine motor skills.0”. studying Master of Education (MEd) at the time of data collection. and noninteractive Web tools and adopting a top-down. Thus. Most of them were experienced teachers.0” or “Web 2. it would be rather unreasonable to expect K1 children (3-year-olds) to be able to use computers to engage in active exploration and construction of knowledge. 52% obtained CE (2. The types of Web applications available on the homepages of the 627 Hong Kong kindergartens were analyzed. 360-hour professional training). refinement. In contrast. with 29% of them having teaching experience of 11 to 15 years. Measures Content analysis. required users to login in order to access its information. 19% having 16 to 20 years of experience.0 homepages consisted of applications that allowed users to participate directly in the creation. was also analyzed. 29% of these teachers were Qualified Kindergarten Teachers (QKT. Only 19% were 41 year olds or above. photos of children’s work. 2007). whether it was Web 1.
One of the researchers conducted semistructured interviews with the principal and 2 vice principals in individual sessions in the kindergarten. The researchers observed the sampled classes in one day. How common were Web 2.0 Websites (e. the researchers focused mainly on the time when computers. 610 of them (97%) were more of Web 1.0 applications as educational tools. Classroom observation. Moreover. but only 1% 279 .0 applications in classrooms. In the interviews. Los Angeles 2011 as “unknown” because the nature of the Website content. The interviews were video-taped and transcribed. the participants were asked to describe the actual usage of ICTs and Web 2. express their opinions on the potentials and challenges posed by Web 2. while only 17 homepages (3%) contained Web 2.g. this study has collected both quantitative and qualitative data to systematically describe an authentic scenario of Web 2. All of the 19 frontline teachers and the 2 vice principals were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to tap teachers’ belief and actual practice on ICTs and Web 2. Survey.0 applications such as forums for online discussion of school affairs. and Web applications were used. Results and Discussion As the first empirical investigation on Web 2. The response rate was 100%.0 applications usage in the Hong Kong early childhood education sector. This classification was also applicable to Web tools located within the school homepages which required user-login.0 applications usage in kindergartens ever conducted in Chinese societies. ICT facilities. Semi-structured interview. she did not need to fill out the questionnaire.0 Applications Used in Hong Kong Early Childhood Sector Our results show that 627 kindergartens (82%) had homepages. was unknown to the public. The data obtained from classroom observation served as a means to triangulate the interview and questionnaire data. During the observations. Since the principal was not directly involved in classroom teaching. Among the 627 homepages. The details are discussed below.0 application usage in class. The processes of classroom observation were video-taped to capture any episodes of ICT or Web 2. whether it allowed users to interact or not.0 in nature. homepages of health-care centers). 26% of the kindergarten homepages were linked to external Web 1. 117 kindergartens (15%) did not have any homepages. All the responses were returned to the researcher on the same day as the questionnaires were given out.0 application usage.Educational Studies and School. Each observation lasted for three hours. and 16 kindergartens (2%) had broken links. and give the future developmental plan of the kindergarten in relation to ICTs usage.
0 nor Web 2. 16% of the homepages contained Web applications or were linked to external Websites that required user logins and were thus categorized as “unknown”. The limited usage of Web 2.0 applications in their homepages for disseminating information to the public. in which the administrators admitted that their teachers usually used ICTs and Internet as a means to obtain information. the integration of Web 2. Also.0 applications found in this study is in line with the existing literature. Li. and homework pages.. only 19% and 29% of the teachers had used online forums and other interactive Websites with the properties of Web 2.. the majority of Hong Kong kindergartens used Web 1. of kindergarten homepages were externally linked to Web 2. neither Web 1. In the survey. As a whole.0 nor Web 2. 2006). The inability to arrange computer activities for the K3 children was probably due to the overloaded curriculum and a hurried teaching schedule (Han. The prevalence of Web 1. to make worksheets and PowerPoint for story presentation.0 applications in the K2 classroom. In sum.Lilian Nga Lei Chau. Furthermore and surprisingly. The above observational finding is triangulated by the interview data.0 applications into the curriculum was found extremely rare in the present study. The teachers only used computer software. the survey results also indicated that while all the teachers had the experience of using traditional teaching mediums such as story books and story DVDs in class.0 applications (Brown & Hill. However. Although the children were allowed to play with a non-interactive (Web 1. 2003. which states that very few school homepages actually display the interactive features of Web 2. In fact. such as blogs and photo sharing platforms. and thought that these tools could effectively support children’s exploration and construction of knowledge. Some of the common examples of this category were school intranets. for example. in the classroom observations. 2009). photo albums. whereas the use of Web 2.0 applications were used in the period of observation in this K3 class.0 applications.0 era.0 applications were used to directly support classroom teaching and learning. Jessie Ming Sin Wong and Hui Li: Hong Kong .0 applications might reflect the fact that Hong Kong kindergartens have not yet stepped into the Web 2. school library systems. In brief.0) game on the online learning platform during free time. and the finding that Web 1. we found no usage of Web 2. the nature of their online platform is a one-way dissemination of information from the kindergartens to the public rather than an invitation of stakeholders’ active involvement.0 applications or Websites. neither Web 1. This view was validated by the administrators in the interviews.0 applications respectively during teaching.0 applications were used more often is in line with the results of previous 280 . the majority of respondents acknowledged the educational value and need of Web 2. the K3 children did not have a chance to use the computer at all. Microsoft Office.0 applications was rare.
Dif�iculties.0 Applications in the Kindergarten In the survey. This might reflect that the current preservice ICT training courses may be too basic and not good enough to support teachers’ use of the more sophisticated and newer technologies.0 applications were regarded 281 . 2003. only 29% and 14% of the teachers had the confidence of using interactive Websites and educational forums to teach. or other applications with Web 2. Challenges. and Problems in Using Web 2. The administrators expressed their concerns about the use of Web 2. This result is encouraging because it presented a successful case and a possibility to integrate ICT tools into early childhood education. Thus. not all teachers are familiar with them. However. Nevertheless.0 functions in the Platform. 67% of the teachers reported that they had taken ICT course during pre-service training and the remaining 33% stated that they had not taken any ICT courses. (Vice Principal B. 2005). Apart from the availability of more advanced teacher training on ICTs. Li. 2003. given enough time and support. parents’ ICT literacy would be an important factor to consider. Leung. Los Angeles 2011 studies that ICTs were usually used as a means for presentation and were used in isolation (Han. The insufficient ICT training received was a major obstacle which early childhood educators need to overcome. they often felt uneasy in using the Internet and Web 2. In general. while 95% of the teachers were confident in using story books and DVDs as a means to assist their teaching. Therefore. because Web 2. which had been used for nine years by the kindergarten at the time of data collection.0 applications are really to be used.0 applications in early childhood settings. It is also worth-noting that although a majority of the teachers had ICT training. Transcript # 3) Indeed. it was found in the survey and interviews that the kindergarten teachers actually lacked the knowledge on these new technologies. 2006. training will be needed to enhance teachers’ ability in this area.0 applications in class. Siu & Lam.Educational Studies and School. respectively. if Web 2. However. During the interviews. our teachers are well-trained and are proficient in ICT usage. It is notable that as many as 95% of the teachers were confident in using the Platform.0 applications. blogs and forums. However. such as blogs. when it comes to those new technologies. the new Web 2. was possible in early childhood settings. the administrators thought the use of some Web 2.0 applications: The ability of the teachers is one of the keys to successful integration of Web 2. for instance. it is understandable why they did not know how to integrate these technologies into their daily teaching. In other words. certain conditions had to be fulfilled before an implementation could become successful. this Web tool was as familiar to the teachers as the traditional mediums of instruction.0 functions were seldom used.
Only 33% attributed the impossibility to the low frequency of computer use by parents. Apart from being able to support children’s learning through ICTs at home. Although we do not have the formal statistics on parents’ computer literacy level in our district. we support the use of e-portfolio. the use of Web 2.0 applications can be used in practice or not.Lilian Nga Lei Chau. They usually have a lower level of computer literacy. such as telephone communication and face-to-face talks. becoming proficient users of various ICTs and Web 2. In the administrators’ perspective.0 applications per se would be an even greater challenge to this kindergarten: 282 . the teachers had different perspectives. Jessie Ming Sin Wong and Hui Li: Hong Kong . Kirinić. and 56% of them blamed the inadequate technical support. blogs. who argue the unavailability of technical support and heavy workload are of more concern for teachers on whether Web 2. where children are likely to spend hours playing and working with ICTs and various media (Vidaček-Hainš. Therefore. 2009). Many parents in our district do not even know how to read text messages on mobile phones. the socio-cultural background of the parents in this district should be taken into account when these new technologies are to be adopted as a means of communication.0 applications would be effective in enhancing home-school collaboration while the remaining 43% thought that it would not be feasible. all of them believed they were hindered by heavy workload and insufficient time. This result echoes the claim of Li (2006) about the importance of parents’ computer literacy in the implementation of ICT policies at schools.0 applications as a possible means to enhance home-school communication and considered the presence of technologically-literate parents as the significant factor to the successful integration of these applications in kindergarten. by the administrators as an effective means to enhance home-school collaboration and communication: In general.0 applications could keep parents and caregivers updated of the latest information of the schools.. However. and forums as means to enhance home-school collaboration because of its immediacy. Such results are largely in concordance with the findings of Powell and Patrick (2006). While the administrators regarded Web 2. Transcript # 4) The above transcript indicated that more attention should be paid to enhance the ICT proficiency of parents and caregivers. and allow them to actively participate in their children’s learning. & Dušak. authenticity. 57% of the teachers thought that Web 2. even though we may add the elements of ICT and Web 2. Among those 43% of the teachers..0 applications as alternative ways to support communication between families and school. In the survey. according to our observation. and environmental friendliness. many of the primary care-givers are new-immigrant parents and elders. (Vice Principal C. we would continue to keep the traditional methods of communication.
2006. common phrases. The factors she mentioned. In fact. The excerpt also highlighted a culturally-specific challenge in using Web 2. The existing input systems for Chinese. some of the Cantonese words used in colloquial speech cannot even be input onto computers. So & Swatman. 2006. some days ago. this kind of ICT usage will be needed to open our children to the world and to widen their horizon instead of bounding their learning in classrooms.0 applications in learning and communication on the Web. We agree and believe that by providing templates. which are the basic units of English words. we cannot imagine how we can make use of these technologies to support children’s construction of knowledge and communication with other learners. the difficulty in using Chinese input methods. however. The input system of English is more direct and easy for young children because all alphabets.0 applications for learning and teaching. our kindergarten has received an email from a kid from New Zealand who wanted to say “Hi” to us. Using writing pads instead of typing on the keyboard may not be a solution to this problem. which contained some templates and lists of words for children to choose from. (Vice Principal C. Worse. Transcript # 5) The above excerpt has provided a detailed description on the necessary conditions for the adoption of new ICTs and Web 2.0 applications to learn depends on the availability of teacher assistance. Either way it is a very difficult task for kindergarten children. to solve this problem. If we have enough time. that is. to encourage children to express their opinions orally has already been a key learning goal in our kindergarten. 2006).0 applications only provide us with an alternative form of expressing opinions. Actually.Educational Studies and School. children as young as K2 may be able to make use of Chinese Web 2. With such a global trend. require higher level of mental processing as computer users need to either break down the character strokes or distinguish the initials and finals of the Chinese characters. this type of e-learning may be possible. it would be likely for them to raise their opinions while the teachers help them do the typing. and availability of ICT facilities and time are also argued by many researchers to be the keys to the successful integration of ICTs in classrooms (Lee 2002. Since children do not know how to type [Chinese]. Los Angeles 2011 Whether children can use Web 2. and words. well-trained teachers. in the mean time.0 applications. Typing Chinese is too much a skill for children to master and using computer at this age should not be focusing on drilling of skills. because children’s hand-writing might not be recognizable by computers. 283 . Powell & Patrick. can be found on the keyboard by recognition. Li. we would agree that in long term. However. while Web 2. like Web cameras in every classroom. and most importantly good ICT infrastructure. in a local kindergarten like ours. Cohen (2005) has proposed using an Internet platform. such as teacher training.
Retrieved November 19. Guide to the pre-primary curriculum.jisc. Connecting media specialists. Educational Media International. (2000).0 applications rather than incorporating Web 2. pp. J. 109-115.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_6177/emb_eng_e. Conclusions In general. inadequate technical support. from http://www. from http:// www. 2009. 167–180. 284 . Challenges of using ICT in Hong Kong early childhood settings.pdf Brown. Retrieved November 19. V.0 technologies in Hong Kong kindergartens become possible in the future. the government should also invest into the investigation of a more user-friendly Web 2. C. N. L. Curriculum Development Council. 42(2). Jessie Ming Sin Wong and Hui Li: Hong Kong . heavy workload. W. the insufficient teacher training.0. and challenges of inputting Chinese had prevented them from putting such ideology into practice. C.edb.uk/media/documents/techwatch/ tsw0701b. & R.pdf Education Bureau.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_689/wg%20final%20report.0 applications was considered possible by the administrators and most of the teachers.ac. Education Bureau. (2009). apart from improving the quality of preservice training.. 211-229). the majority of kindergartens in Hong Kong was still using Web 1. Proceedings of the International Federation for Information Processing Working Group 3.edb. 34. An early literacy telecommunication exchange pilot project: The MMM Project..pdf Han. students and standards through Web 2. Prospects. technologies and implications for education. 30(2). What is Web 2.0 applications to enhance interactive information sharing and communication between the kindergartens and their stakeholders. The paradoxical profession: Teaching at the turn of the century. (2009). (2007).5 open conference: Young children and learning technologies.0 platform with developmentally-appropriate Chinese character input systems to support young children’s learning.Lilian Nga Lei Chau. K.. (2003). P. A. C. can the integration of Web 2.gov. J. & Hill. Branch (Eds. Cohen. 2009. lack of time. Right technology at the right time for the right task: Consultation document on the third strategy on information technology in education. (2005). Educational media and technology yearbook (pp. Orey. pp. & Lo. low ICT literacy of caregivers. A. February 2007. (2006). M. Working group on textbooks and e-learning resources development: Main report. References Anderson. Hong Kong: The Author. from http://www.gov. R. 2009. McClendon. Retrieved December 4.0? Ideas.). pp. Only by providing sufficient training and technical support to early childhood educators. The case study found that even the usage of Web 2. Hargreaves. 49-52. In M. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. (2007). Thus.
In M. 467-487. pp.Educational Studies and School. Early childhood education and care in Hong Kong. V.. Early Education and Development. Kankaanranta. E-learning readiness of Hong Kong Teachers. Taking care of business: Authentic use of Web 2. N. 1(2). & R. Branch (Eds. K. & Patrick. M. 25(1). Siu. S. C. S. from http:// oreilly. Early Childhood Education Journal. South Korea: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. Li.. (2006). S. 199-209. Feb. & Swatman. & Lam. 125-138.net/basecamp/partnershipfor21stcenturyskills/ supportretainer/SIPtechpaper. C. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong. Cheju Island. M. H. Effective teaching in the information era: Fostering an ICT-based integrated learning environment in schools.. M. pp. 143-150. T.picnet. from http://www. Technology education in Hong Kong: International implications for implementing the “Eight Cs” in the early childhood curriculum.. & Koong. M. Lee. 285 . The shift from a traditional to a digital classroom. P. Li. S. 5(1).8.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20. 6 . An international perspective of K-12 online learning: A summary of the 2006 NACOL international e-learning survey. Childhood Education. The effects of computer-assisted instruction and teacher-assisted instruction on preschool children’s learning of arithmetic tasks. W. (2009). S. Hong Kong: OMEP-HK. North American Council for Online Learning.. & Lam. Integrating information and communication technologies into the early childhood curriculum: Chinese principals’ views of the challenges and opportunities. 32(6). Technology-supported educational innovations in Finland and Hong Kong: A tale of two systems. (1997). What is Web 2. (2007). M. J. Russell. Web 2. 176-201. Wong. McClendon. (2003). & Wang. A. Maximizing the impact: The pivotal role of technology in a 21st century education system. pp. 353-358. W. Lui. (2002). (2010). Orey. Rao. N. Hong Kong Exhibition and Convention Centre. N. 2006. & Chow. M. T. Hong Kong IT in Education Conference 2006 “Capacity Building for Learning through IT”(HKITEC2006). Los Angeles 2011 International Society for Technology in Education. M. 17(3). pp. A. M.html Powell. (2003). M.. 2009. J. Asia-Pacific Journal for Teacher Education & Development. Human Technology. Selwyn. Retrieved November 30. Early Childhood Education Journal. accessibility. (1999). 2009..). pp. W. 80(1). pp. Educational media and technology yearbook. pp. (2005). So. Retrieved November 23.pdf Law. M. H. pp. 31(2). Leung. 12-17. (2007). (2005). Early childhood technology education: A sociocultural perspective. (2006). Siu.0: Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software.0 applications as alternative environments for informal learning – A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. M.. K. K.0 in schools. and accountability: Perceived impacts of the Pre-primary Education Vouchers in Hong Kong. T. (2006). 21-45. (2005). O’Reilly. OECD-KERIS international expert meeting on ICT and educational performance. Hong Kong. Affordability..
Yelland (Ed. New York: Open University Press. Notes 1 In Hong Kong. (2009b). pp. 224-242).. early childhood institutes can establish ICT infrastructure and outsource software development so as to support the integration of ICTs to daily teaching and learning.htm Vidaček-Hainš. the early childhood sector is allowed to apply funds to implement ICTs in their schools (Leung... 2009.. Retrieved December 10. Wood.hk/acadprog/ece/BEd_ECE_PT. T. Wong. Retrieved December 10. Yelland. L. Curriculum. 2003. Schmidt. Thus the eligible NPMKs can redeem the voucher and use a part of the money to purchase ICT facilities for educational purposes. 286 .Lilian Nga Lei Chau. N.. (2005). 2009. (2009). on the condition that they are attending local non-profit-making kindergartens (NPMKs) that do not charge more than US$3. (2009a).. In N. J. pedagogies and practice with ICT in the information age.. from http://www. Willoughby. 2003). 2 The PEVS aims to provide financial support to children aged between 3 and 6 for early childhood education. pp. Li. Hong Kong government established the QEF by allocating approximately US$64 million in 1998 to support all innovative developments in schools (Li. Porter.). as well as the school curriculum (Leung. With the funding support. 261-280. 42(1). Jessie Ming Sin Wong and Hui Li: Hong Kong . Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual.hk/curriculum/ module/ECCYP0023. 2006). E. Bachelor of Education (Honours) (early childhood education) (three-year part-time).ied. V. V. & Gilbert. and the QEF is one of these funds. 2004(1). Assessing the use of input devices for teachers and children in early childhood education programs. A.. 2010). Informatologia. (2004). J. 2006). The Hong Kong Institute of Education. & Dušak. Specht. Kirinić.194 for whole-day classes per student per annum (Li.edu.html The Hong Kong Institute of Education. Computer attitudes and computer literacy levels relationships. V. & Wang. from http://www.edu. Critical issues in early childhood education (pp. 30–37.. Module information-PPTCA0023.097 for half-day classes or US $6.ied.
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