# MAXIMUM MATERIAL PRINCIPLE

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such as a hole. such as a shaft.MAXIMUM MATERIAL PRINCIPLE Maximum material size refers to that limit of size of a feature. which results in the part containing the maximum amount of material. or the minimum limit of size for an internal feature. 2 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . It is the maximum limit of size for an external feature.

but greater geometrical variations are permitted as the feature size approaches the minimum material limit 3 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION(MMC) Maximum material condition (MMC) is a condition wherein a geometrical tolerance applies when the feature is a everywhere at the maximum material size specified on the drawing.

within which the feature would just fit. is based on the maximum material size and the maximum permissible form variations. For an internal feature. it is the maximum measured size plus the effect of actual form variations. or roundness. such as straightness. which would include more material. The extreme virtual size. For an external feature. such as a hole.VIRTUAL SIZE Virtual size refers to the overall envelop of perfect form. 4 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . flatness. Therefore it always lies beyond the least material size in a direction. such as a shaft. referred to as the virtual condition. it is the minimum measured size minus the effect of such form variations. which are specified on the drawing.

with the abbreviation of MMC 5 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . Thus it is the minimum limit of size for an external feature and the maximum limit of size for an internal feature .LEAST MATERIAL CONDITION This refers to that size of a feature which results in the part containing the minimum amount of material. The phrase “least material size” is preferred than “minimum material size” to avoid confusion when maximum material is abbreviated to MM .

such as shafts and holes. where two parallel flat surfaces are considered to form a single feature 6 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . or rectangular or flat parts. which do have diameter or thickness.FEATURES OF SIZE Features of size are features. They may also be slots. tabs. These may be cylinders.

Tolerancing Features of Size If freedom of assembly of mating parts is the chief criterion for establishing a geometrical tolerance for a feature of size. Further geometric variations can then be permitted. as the features approach their least material size . the least favorable assembly condition exists when the parts are made to the maximum material size. with out jeopardizing assembly. 7 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

MMC & VIRTUAL SIZES 8 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

MMC .EFFECT ON FORM VARIATIONS 9 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

EFFECT ON LOCATION 10 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .MMC .

MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION(MMC) APPLICATION OF SYMBOL If a geometrical tolerance is required to be modified on an MMC basis. If it is required that the virtual size be kept within the maximum material boundary. it is specified on the drawing by including the symbol M immediately after the tolerance value in the feature control symbol This permits the feature surface or surfaces to cross the maximum material boundary by the amount of the form tolerance. the form tolerance must be specified as zero at MMC 11 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

in addition to the tolerance permitted at the maximum material limit.MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION(MMC) APPLICATION WITH MAXIMUM VALUE TOLERANCE WITH A MAXIMUM VALUE It is some times necessary to ensure that the geometrical tolerance does not vary over the full range permitted by the size variations. 12 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . For such applications a maximum limit may be applied to the geometrical tolerance.

REGARDLESS OF FEATURE SIZE (RFS) When MMC is not specified with a geometrical tolerance for a feature of size. no relationship is intended to exist between the feature size and the geometrical tolerance 13 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

the geometrical characteristic is best checked by means of a functional GO gage If the geometrical tolerance is zero at MMC.MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION MEASUREMENT AND GAGING Features controlled by geometrical tolerances. the feature must not cross the extreme virtual size boundary. If the geometrical tolerance is other than zero at MMC. and the limits of size are measured separately 14 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . can be checked only by individual measurements When a feature is controlled by a geometrical tolerance once modified on an MMC basis. the boundary of perfect form will be the maximum material size boundary. The functional GO gage will then check both the maximum material size and the geometrical tolerance simultaneously. In this case a functional GO gage can be used to check the geometrical characteristics only. to which MMC is not applied.

MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION SYMBOL 15 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .