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# 2011 The 6th International Forum on Strategic Technology

**Industrial X-Ray Image Enhancement Algorithm
**

based on Adaptive Histogram and Wavelet

L· J' W Y W ' W L ' 1 Il, ang an el' , ang el

l. Automation College, Harbin Engineering University,

2. Huarui College, Northeast Petroleum University

Harbin, China

Abstract-In this paper, we an industrial X-ray image enhance

algorithm based on histogram and wavelet is proposed in this

paper. The proposed technique is able to cope with low contrast

and poor feature details. Firstly, the original image is divided

patched by the contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization

algorithm in order to adjust whole contrast. Then a map is built

between the image and the detail scales by the wavelet ratio in

order to adjusting the local contrast. Finally, according the

enhance function radios, the reconstruct image is rebuild.

Compared with other image enhancement algorithms,

experimental results show that our algorithm can improve the

global image contrast effectively as well as overcome the these

visible artifacts of X-ray image, the x-ray image become more

clear, and a better perceptual image is acquired for the image

feature recognize and matching.

Keywords- X-ray; Wavelet; Adaptive; Image Enhancement

1. INTRODUCTION

The valid method to enhance X-ray image is histogram

enhancement. The histogram of industry X-ray in a small fled,

most of pixels in the low fequency areas, and there are hardly

few pixels in high fequency areas, Even the industry X-ray

image is an image seems like the black image. Therefore, it is

need a method to image enhancement. Recently, many people

researcher on this feld. Shu Yang and Cairong Wang proposed

an image enhancement algorithm based on multi-scale

morhological reconstuction [1]. STEPHANE O. MLLAT

researches the theory for multi-resolution signal decomposition

[2]. Pizer S M proposed adaptive histogram equalization and its

variations [3]. Tang Jinshan adopted a direct image contast

enhancement algorithm in the wavelet domain for screening

mammograms [4]. Wang Xiu-bi refers to image enhancement

based on lifing wavelet transfor [6]. Jinshan Tang and

Qingling Sun used contast measure in the wavelet domain for

screening mammograms image enhancement algoritm. Tn this

paper, we will investigate image-enhancement technology

based on adaptive histogram and wavelet.

II. LIMITED CONTRAST ADAPTIVE HISTOGRAM

ENHANCEMENTALGOmTHM

A. Hstogram Enhancement Theory

Histogram enhancement, the advantages of high speed and

better effect, wildly applied in X-Ray processing. Histogram is

the fnction of gray levels, which denotes the gray level of

978-1-4577-0399-7111/$26.00 ©2011lEEE 836

Wei Jie , Wang Da Da

3. Yunan power test institute (group) Ltd,

Kunming, China,

every pixel. Therefore, the contrast radio will be improved by

gray nonlinear tansform to adjust the accumulation fnction,

and the gray in small range will be tansfor in the whole fled.

Image histogram is an important tool to analysis image gray

distribution, which is a summary graph showing a count of the

data points failing in the data. Therefore, histogram is defmed

as follows.

(1)

Which n is the total pixels of X-ray image, ¿_ is the ,_ gray

level of coresponding pixels.

The X-ray is the low contast, which most pixels are in the

same gray level, thus it is hard to recognize. Histogram

equalization is a method to improve image contast it built a

nonlinear tansfer fnction to tansform the histogram of

original image. The processed image with equal gray scale in

the same gray level, at the same time, the maximum entopy is

acquire, it means that the image information is abundant.

Hypothesis that the gray tansfer fnction is s = fer) ,

which slope is the limited non-minus continuum decline

fnction, it can tansf input image A( ¹¡ y) to output image

B(x,y), the HA(r) is the histogram of input image, and

H

1

(r) is the histogram of outut image. According the

defnition of the histogram, the original image histogram and

processed histogram areas are equal:

H

1

(s)ds = H A (r)dr (2)

The relationship between H A (r) and H

1

(r) is the following:

,

R

Where r (r) = ¨ HA (r) is constant.

A

Afer transfored, every pixel of the image is tensile to

extend the image gray level areas, and the vision effect is

improved.

August 22-24,2011

B. Adaptive Histogram Enhancement Algorithm

Compared with the whole histogram equalization, the

adaptive histogram enhancement (AHE) has the advantage of

good local contrast. But the ARE algoritm will commute the

local histogram and accumulation distributing fnction of

every pixels, it is extremely computational intensive. Besides,

the AHE algorithm is sensitive for noises, which is liable to

bad enhancement for local area.

4

g

(x,

Y

)

= z7

(

r

(x,y))

(4)

i=

l

T(r(x,y)) is the gray transfor fnction, r(x,y) is the gray

value of pixel (x,Y) .this image enhancement algorithm based

on histogram, independent with the pixel position.

TIT. `-1YÍ^^OIÍlH^lCI^Il11IOCKI1H^H^5IICl

L Adaptive Histogram of Limited Contrast Algorithm

1I^!1INIÍI51COK^^^lIY^NIII1

AR algorithm improve the image contast, at the same

time magnifed the noise. Even the enhancement will lead to

image distortion in some detail area, which lead to noise

amplifcation and distortion, that affects the image diagnose.

The frst step of AHE algorithm is input image A(x,y) block.

and the local histogram in every block. Thus limit contast

fnction to AR in every block to generate tansform fnction

respectively. Then the adaptive bilinear interolation used to

joint output imageB(x,y).

It is need to preliminary adjustent before the image block,

Defmite the limit fnction to limit the gray level probability

density, and adjust the exceed histogram, fg.! shows the

processing.

pixel

pixel

gray level

��� ___ --

gray level

(a)original gray chat (b )adjusted gray chat

Fig.l limited function

To decrease the block effect, it is need to bilinear

interolation. The block gray value is the gray transfor

fnction of adjacent pixels,

( x,y)

WI

W2

W4 W3

F ig.2 adapative interpolation processing

Fig.2 depicts the bilinear interolation processing, (x, y) is

the center of the sub image, compute the areas scale in adjacent

areas, the value is the following:

öJ7

Wavelet tansfor based on fourier tansfor, appearance

in 80thof 20 cenry, with such better characters in time and

fequency felds, it is widely applied in image

processing ,model identif and robot vision and so on. In 1989,

Mallat promote the tower algorithm [7], which can disassemble

the image into some sub images according to different scale,

orientation and space feld. In particular, this material is used in

this book for image data compression and for pyramidal

representation, in which images are subdivided successively

into smaller regions.

A. Relationshi between the image and the wavelet

Image signal is the two-dimension signal, therefore

secondary wavelet to analysis multiple resolution is used in this

paper. Because of the image is disperse signal, the wavelet

transfor is the two dimension wavelet disperse tansform,

which is derived fom the one-dimension wavelet transform.

The principle of wavelet tansfor is multiple resolute

decomposing. The image is divided into some sub images in

different space and fequency, then quantization and coding.

The total of sub images data is equal to the original image data,

but the statistical characteristics of them are different. In this

processing, the key point is the best optimum wavelet base.

B. Selection and Optimization of Wavelet Base

Wavelet base collection is important for image compressing.

Image is different fom other images in quality, any losing

details will lead mistake diagnose. Wavelet tansfors can

comeback original image signal, but different wavelet bases

have different results, the compressed ratio is different. The

algorithm of wavelet base collection is not the unique, but

every wavelet base has it own characteristic.

If ¢(x) is a one-dimension scale fnction, I(x) is

coresponding wavelet quotiety. Then the two-dimension

wavelet transform fnction is like eq 1 to eq4.

I

l

(x, y)

=

¢(x)I(Y)

1

2

(x, y)

=

I(x)¢(y)

I

\

x,y)

= l

(x)

l

(y)

¢(x,y)

=

¢(x)¢(y)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

At the two dimension conditions, there is a scale

fnction ¢(x,y) , which fex and tanslation will become a

group of Í¸¸ orthogonal base. Assumption that ¢

2

i (x) is the

orthogonal base of the set

(r)

¢2, (x-r) n, y- r

}

m)) ,

(n, m)E Z20f the V2

)

'

For a cluster of detachable multi-resolution approximation

on L2 (R x R) , every vector space disassemble to the same

two subspace tensor product of L2 ( R) , while the V2i

compose the multi-resolution approximation of L2 (R) , the

vector sequence V2

}

compose the multi-resolution

approximation of L2 (RX R) . That is ¢

(x

, y) = ¢

(x

)¢

(y) is

true. Among this ¢ *

(x) is the coresponding one-dimension

scale fnction. Then the fnction is

!(x

,y) , among the 2j

resolution approximation, as follows.

The resolution is 1, which N is global pixel. Obviously, the

disperse image approximation have 2j pixel, liking the one

dimension circumstance, hypothesis the level and the

perendicularity is symmetry of the image. Afer 2j resolution,

the detail signal is the projection of orthocomplement space

Q2j of !(x,Y) of v2 , base.

The information difference between the A

f

, +

d

and A

f

,

!

IS equal to projection Q2f of !(x,y) , which can express by

inner product as following.

DL+

d

=

!(x,Y),I�

j

(x-r

}

n,y-r' m)

(10)

Di

} +

d

=

!(x,Y),I�

J

(x-r) n,y-r

}

m) (11)

D�, +

d

=

!(x,Y),I�

j

(x-r' n,y-r' m) (12)

Therefore, two dimension approach the Af

,

! , and the detail

is the convolution of

D1+1

!

' Di+l!

' D�+l!

'

} } }

D�J=f(x,Y)*I2j( -x)I2/-Y)¢2k2 in,-2 1m)

(16)

Where (n,mE Z

2

) , From the EQ.9 to EQ.l2, the two

dimension image can disassemble the main part of Af! and

,

the details of DL+l!

' DL+

d

and

D

L+d, which the

details can acquire by fltering along the x direction, y direction

and diagonal orientation, thus fltering disassemble is a group

of signals disassemble in fequency direction. Which resolution

fequency is lowest in 2j and AfJ' and then given the x and

y direction low fequency, while

DL+l!

' DL+l! and

838

D�

'

+l! given the level, perendicularity and the diagonal

direction high fequency separately. Finally, the image Af!

}

can disassemble the 3J+ 1 dispersed sub images.

(AfJ,/(DL!) - J<j<J,/(Di

j

!) - J<j<J,/(D�

j

!) - J<j<)

(17)

This is the processing of wavelet biorthogonal disassemble,

which 21 is sketchy approximation,

DL+

d

,

Di}+

d

and

D�} +d is the detail signal in the same resolution of different

directions. Tn this algorithm, the total pixel is invariability.

Fig.3 Algorithm fow chart

Fig.3 is the algorithm fow chart of image enhancement

based on adaptive histogram and wavelet tansfor. The main

idea is that founded a limited fnction to adjust the image

contast , then record the position and the gray value, then

wavelet transfor is used to adjust the enhancement ratio.

IV. EXPERIMENTS AND CONCLUSION

Fig4 (a) is the original input image, which IS the

noralized industial X-ray Image, which sIze IS

256*256.From the image.

(a) input image (b ).histogram

Fig.4lnput image of X-ray

From the FigA, we can see that the contast is very low

that it is hardly to see anything in the FigA (a). Fig.5 is the

wavelet transfored results.

(a) input image (b ).histogram

Fig.5 Wavelet enhacement transform

The processing time is 1.03600 I s. The enhancement is

poor, the processing image also with low contrast, and hardly

to recognize.

(a) input image (b ).histogram

Fig .6 r adjust enhancement

Fig.6 is the r adjust enhancement results. The processing

time is 1.705392s, and the image contrast is enhanced slightly.

Fig6 (b )is the histogram of r adjust enhancement algorithm,

we see that the gray feld is enlarged in a small feld.

(b ).histogra

Fig.7 AHE algorithm enhancement

Fig7 is the ALE algorithm results. The processing time is

8.676029s. The image contrast is enhanced. Fig7 (b) is the

histogram of ALE algorithm. From the Fig7, we see that the

gray feld is enlarged in different feld. But the back ground of

the fg7 is complied mixed with noises.

1

(a) input image (b ).histogra

Fig.8 Enhancement based on Adaptive Histogram and Wavelet

839

Fig8 is the algorithm results. The elapse time 4.68264 s. the

image contrast is enhanced. Fig8 (b) is the histogram of ALE

algorithm results. We see that the gray feld is enlarged. From

the results, we can conclusion that our algoritm can improved

the global contast, at the same time, it is obviously that image

enhanced between the detected element and background.

V. CONCLUTIONS

Industial X-ray widely applied in nondestructive

testing, Industial X-ray image has the characteristics of low

contast and more details, thus it is need to an image

enhancement algorithm. To enhance the image contast, limited

adaptive histogram equalization algorithm is used in the frst

step. We set the initial limit coeffcient of limit fnction then

building a map between the image and the detail scales by the

wavelet ratio, which is adjusted by the local contracting

information. According the enhance fnction radios, the

reconstruct image is rebuild. Compared with other image

enhancement algorithms, experimental results show that our

algorithm can improve the global image contrast effectively,

moreover, restrain the background and enhance the contrast

between the background and the detection element. Processed

image, with more details inforation and better vision, benefts

to frther identit and recognize.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The paper is supported by the Y unan power institute of

the Yunan power test institute (group) Ltd.

REFERENCES

[I] Shu Yang .Cairong Wang . Ligou Deng .A new Approach of Image

Enhancement Based on Multi-scale Morphological Reconstruction.

Hybrid Intelligent Systems. HIS09. Ninth International Conference

on.pp.II3-116

[2] STEPHANE G. MALLAT.A Theory for Multiresolution Signal

Decomposition:The Wavelet Representation.IEEE TRANSACTIONS

ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE. VOL

I I . NO. 7. pp. 674-693,JUL Y 1989

[3] Pizer S M. Ambtrrn E P. Adaptive histogram equalization and its

variations.[J].Computer Vision Graphics & Image

Processing ,1987,39(3):355-368.

[4] Jinshan Tang; Xiaoming Liu; Qingling Sun; A Direct Image Contrast

Enhancement Algorithm in the Wavelet Domain for Screening

Mammograms. Selected Topics in Signal Processing, IEEE Journal of

Volume: 3 , Issue: I ,pp. I

[5] Xiu-bi Wang. Image enhancement based on lifing wavelet transform.

Computer Science & Education, 2009. ICCSE 09. 4th International

Conference on : 2009 , pp. 739 - 741

[6] linshan Tang, Qingling Sun, Kwabena Agyepong. AN IMAGE

ENHANCEMENT ALGORITHM BASED ON A CONTRAST

MEASURE IN THE WAVELET DOMAIN FOR SCREENING

MAMMOGRAMS. Image Processing, 2007. ICIP 2007. IEEE

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