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# Matter

Appreciating the Use of Properties of Matter in Everyday Life
Rushil Rajendra Bhatt, I Elit 6/24/2013 SMK BUKIT JAMBUL Science/B6D3E1/Pn. Zuriyana

Density
The density of a substance is the mass per unit volume of that substance. The SI unit of density is Kilogram per cubic metre(kg/m3).Another unit that is often used is gram per cubic centimetre(g/cm3).For example,1cm3 of copper has a mass of 8.9g.This means that the density of copper is 8.9g/cm3. The density of a substance is calculated by dividing the mass of the substance by its volume:

Density = Mass / Volume
When mass of a 1cm3 of iron, wood and aluminium resopectively are measured, the mass of iron is the heaviest,followed by that of aluminium and wood.For the objects of the same volume,the heavier the object is ,the greater the density will be.Therefore, we can compare the density of the objects by measuring the mass of the objects of the same volume .After weighing the three objects,we can infer that the density of iron is the highest , followed by that of aluminium and wood. The density of a substance can tell us whether the substance is pure or not. This is because the densities of pure substances are fixed. The density eqation can be written as follows:

Density= Mass / Volume Volume= Mass / Density Mass = Density X Volume

Applying the Concept of Density
1. Transporting logs : Timber is less dense than water .Timber logs can float in water. Rivers are used to transport timber from the hills to factories built near rivers. 2. Floats : A float helps a swimmer to float in water.The air in the float will make it less dense than water. 3. Buoys : Special floats called buoys float in the sea.Buoys guide ships to sail safely in the ocean. 4. Fishing Nets: Plastic balls and metal balls are attached to fishing nets.These help the nets to stay afloat in thesea.The plastic balls can be seen easily so fisherman can locate their nets by these plastic balls. 5. Bubbles : Bubbles are air trapped by a layer of water . air is less dense than water .So air bubbles are used to supply enough air for fish and plants in an aquarium rise to the surface. 6. Submarines : To make submarines rise to the surface of the sea, water is pumped out from balast tanks. This makes the summarine less dense that sea water. It will float. To enable the submarine to dive deep into the sea, water is pumped into the balast tanks. This increases the density and makes it denser than sea water. It will sink. 7. Raising Sunken Objects from Sea Bed : A big balloon is attached to a sunken ship or an object lying on the sea bed. Air is than pumped into the balloon. The balloon which is less dense than sea water will raise to the surface of the sea. As it raises, it will lift the sunken ship or the object. 8. Using Hot Air Balloons : Hot air balloons and meteoroligical balloons are filled with helium. They flaot in the atmosphere as the helium is less dense than air. The air is heated so it expands. The balloon raises because hot air is less dense than cool air.

Relationship Between Buoyancy (the ability to float) & Density
The buoyancy of an object in a liquid is determined by its density: a) An object will sink in a liquid if the density of the object is greater than the density of the liquid. Pebbles and nails sink in water because they have a higher density than the density of water. b) Objects that are less dense will float in a liquid that is denser. A piece of wood or ice which is less dense than water will float in it.

A Model of Submarine
List of Materials Used:
     Plastic Bottle Rubber Tube Coins Balloon Water Tank with Water

Steps Needed to Build the Model of Submarine:
1 Take an empty plastic bottle and make some holes in the bottle to let the water go inside the bottle. 2 Attach some coins arround the bottle to increase the mass of the bottle.

3 Take one balloon and attach a rubber tube to it. 4 Tie it tightly with the balloon.

5 Make a hole in the bottle lid and insert the rubber tube into it. Seal it with plastacine.

6 Put the balloon inside the bottle and close the lid.

7 Pull the rubber tube through the hole in the lid.

How It Works: 1. Put the bottle inside the water tank with water. 2. The bottle will be filled with water and it will sink to the bottom of the tank. 3. Blow the air in the balloon through the pipe and as the balloon inflates the bottle will raise in the water.

The Reason Why the Model Sinks

When the bottle is filled with water, the mass of the model will increase and it becomes denser than the water. So, the model sinks in the water tank. When the submarine’s ballast tank is filled with water, the mass of the submarine will increase and it becomes denser than sea water so it dives in the sea water. The Reason Why the Model Floats

When the air is blown into the balloon thru the rubber tube, the water is drained out of the bottle and it is replaced by air. The model becomes less dense than water, so it will float in the water. When the water is drained out of the submarine’s ballast tank, it becomes less dense than sea water so it floats in the sea water.

End of Report