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An excellent methodology when requirements are thoroughly and accurately defined. We've had great success using this method to build large and complex applications.
The Waterfall Model The waterfall model was first defined by Winston W. Royce in 1970 and has been widely used for software projects ever since. Royce's original model is shown on the right. It differs from the agile development model by seeking to fully describe the application in written documents before any code is written (the implementation phase). Our own implementation of the requirements/design phase is to produce a Functional Specification (detailing what the application will do) and a User Interface Specification (detailing how it will do it). Only when these documents are signed off can the actual process of building the application commence (the implementation phase). When using this methodology it is vital that all requirements are captured during the Requirements/design phase as it can be very expensive to re-visit requirements once implementation (coding) has begun.
Testing is easier as it can be done by reference to the scenarios defined in the functional specification. We've had great success with large projects using this method and can show potential clients excellent functional specifications produced for previous successful projects. The model does not cater for the possibility of requirements changing during the development cycle. Excellent technical documentation is part of the deliverables and it is easier for new programmers to get up to speed during the maintenance phase. Disadvantages of the waterfall method Clients will often find it difficult to state their requirements at the abstract level of a functional specification and will only fully appreciate what is needed when the application is delivered.When done well the waterfall method is excellent for large projects and there are no surprises when the application is finally delivered as all features and even the appearance of the application has been fully specified and understood by future users of the system. The approach is very structured and it is easier to measure progress by reference to clearly defined milestones. . If the requirements phase is done badly (and this is often the case when the business confuses shoddy requirements with faster progress) the waterfall method delivers failure as the end result will only ever be as good as the specifications. It then becomes very difficult (and expensive) to re-engineer the application. Advantages of the waterfall method Design errors are captured before any software is written saving time during the implementation phase. The total cost of the project can be accurately estimated after the requirements have been defined (via the functional and user interface specifications).
Users are far better able to provide feedback when they can touch. What is Waterfall Iterative Model? Waterfall Model is one of the most widely used Software Development Process. It is called so because here. A project can often take substantially longer to deliver than when developed with an iterative methodology such as the agile development method. water flows down to from the upper steps. In order to create the functional specification we talk to business experts and examine the business processes currently being catered for by manual or legacy computer systems. When the functional specification is signed off we produce a non working prototype application along with a user interface specification. This often begins life as a very abstract requirements specification provided by the client. The non-working application shows business experts how the screens will look and how the functionality defined will be delivered. When the functional specification is final we often convey a meeting of business experts and work through the final copy together to iron out any errors prior to signoff.0.It is also called as "Linear Sequential model" or the "classic life cycle" or iterative model. Any bugs found are rapidly repaired. like in a waterfall. When we have a full understanding of the business the functional specification is published and distributed to as many business experts as possible for feedback. When everybody is happy that the screens will deliver the functionality required the application can be developed and tested. When no significant bugs remain and the client is happy with the application it can go live as release version 1. we move to next phase(step) after getting input from previous phase. When the application is complete a beta release is published and provided to the business for testing. In this iterative waterfall model Software Development process is divided into five phases:a) SRS (Software Requirement Specifications) b) System Design and Software Design c) Implementation and Unit testing d) Integration and System Testing e) Operation and Maintenance . Waterfall development in action Our first step is to create the functional specification. It is widely used in the commercial development projects. feel and see the screens that they will use.
The document which contains all this information is called SRS. Code generation is conversion of design into machine-readable form. Testing of units can be done separately. to ensure defined input produces actual results which agree with the required results. At the same time test plan is prepared. functionality of hardware and software is separated-out. code generation can be done easily. test plan describes the various tests which will be carried out on the system after completion of development. and it clearly and unambiguously indicates the requirements. So we have a complete software at hand which is tested to check if it meets the functional and performance requirements of the customer. This document is verified and endorsed by the customer before starting the project.The design process translates requirements into representation of the software that can be assessed for quality before generation of code begins. Software Requirements Specifications: This is the most crucial phase for the whole project.e. System design included designing of software and hardware i.Iterative Waterfall Model with its stages Let’s discuss all these stages of waterfall model in detail. system design is done. Testing is done. A unit is a logically separable part of the software. . Integration and System testing: Now the units of the software are integrated together and a system is built. Implementation and Unit Testing: Now that we have system design. If designing of software and system is done well. in detail. After separation design of software modules(see what is modularity) is done. System Design and Software Design: Using SRS as input. Software modules are now further divided into units. A small amount of top-level analysis and design is also documented. A test report is generated which contains test results. The project team chalks out the functionality and limitations(if there are any) of the software they are developing. as per the steps defined in the test plan. code generation begins. SRS serves as the input for further phases. here project team along with the customer makes a detailed list of user requirements. to ensure that there are no defects. In this phase unit testing is done by the developer itself.
html#ixzz2R63VPXUs Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike Follow us: ianswer4u on Facebook . are made in this phase.if required.ianswer4u. we deliver it to the client. His feed-backs are taken and any changes. Keep Reading : http://www.com/2011/11/waterfall-model. This phase goes on till the software is retired.Operation & maintenance: Now that we have completed the tested software.
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