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and subtraction (which are commutative & associative), scalar multiplication is associative I guess, etc. i.e. vector spaces include set of polynomials of degree n, , M(m,n) (the set of m by n matrices), etc… ** do not include things not closed under addition and subtraction, like positive values of R^n or whatever Gaussian Elimination and such: - Basically write out the augmented matrix (coefficients + constants) Echelon form: the first nonzero entry in any nonzero row occurs to right of first entry in the row DIRECTLY above it - All zero rows grouped together at bottom Row-Reduced Echelon form: - A is in echelon form - All pivot entries are 1 - All entries above pivots are 0 Theorem: (More Unknowns): If there are more unknowns than there are equations (rank of m by n matrix is m, m<n) there are either no solutions or infinitely many If it’s consistent, it’ll have nonpivot variables that can be arbitrarily set Theorem: linear system is solvable IFF constant vector B belongs in column space of coefficient matrix Subspace: 1) is a span of linearly independent vectors 2) is a collection of elements that contains the zero element/vector, and is closed under linear combinations (for x, y Higher dimensional analogues of lines, planes through the origin The fundamental subspaces include: Rowspace – the subspace spanned by the pivot rows of an echelon form of the matrix M Column Space – the column space spanned by the pivot columns of the original matrix (constant vector B, AX = B, is always in the column space of A, if equation is solvable) col sp. Mxn matrix A is the set of X for which AX = 0. Subspace of Rn. Also the set of vectors B where AX = B is solvable.

D

General solution: X = T + Z.e.if the kernel of a linear transformation is {0} then the map is surjective – onto . v2. T is any solution to AX = B . the number of nonzero rows in an echelon form of matrix A. Z belongs to the nullspace T can be any arbitrary solution to the system Solution to AX = B is unique IFF zero vector is the only element of the nullspace (t) nullspace of an m x n matrix is a subspace of Rn def: LINEAR INDEPENDENCE a set of vectors { v1.if the nullspace is 0.subspace of the domain space (Rm) . Notes on rank: rank A = rank corollary: rank A <= m.c. … RANK of a matrix: Can be found by: the number of pivot variables.A is an m x n matrix. dimension of row space = dimension of column space = rank .given by the spanning vectors in the general solution .d… are not all 0 a set of n linearly independent vectors is a basis for an n-dimensional space and spans the space i. a set is linearly dependent if one of its vectors can be written as a linear combination of the others i. 0 vector is dependent on other vectors testing for linear independence: consider the dependency equation: multiply out the A1.Nullspace or Kernel – the subspace of solutions to the equation Ax = 0. consists of all inputs that will get mapped to the zero vector. v4… } is linearly dependent if there * + and a. v3. A2.general solution to system: translate of nullspace (t) translation theorem . there is a unique solution to Ax = B (and matrix is of full rank) . is always within the column space of matrix A . <=n D .b.e. for a linear transformation.

T – image of S under T given by T(X). all are in span of the column space 3) if rank A = n. produces T(X) in V (target space) .By the way. though) to arrive at an upper triangular matrix [echelon].**GIVEN: linear transformation T.T: U -> V represented by a m x n matrix A .S is subset of domain of the transformation. domain.SoT(X) = S(T(X)) ( ) .Diagonal matrix: numbers along the diagonal .you go through a series of EROS (no row swaps.Notes on solvability and rank. That’s your upper triangular matrix.Linear transformations: transformations of linear combinations = linear combinations of transformations . . finds its matrix MATRIX MULTIPLICATION: really the process of forming linear combinations of the columns of the coefficient matrix . null A = 0 c. by the way.. . it’s probably invertible. that’s your U . unipotent D . AB = I .Inverse of your other matrix (used to be identity) will be lower triangular. A is square n by n: a.A is invertible IFF A is nonsingular LU Factorization: . where .Leads to composition of transformations. rank n. n linearly independent vectors in the column space – so they are a basis and span all of R^m.If we say multiplying by the inverse of A solves AX = Y: o A(BY) = Y -> (AB)Y = Y. system is always solvable and solution is always unique b. given A the m x n matrix: 1) if rank A = n: 2) if rank A = m: system is always solvable (is it?) (n unknowns and n equations) a.( ) INVERSES: .transformation T: takes elements from U. n x n matrix Rank-nullity theorem: rank A + null A = n (# columns) LINEARITY PROPERTIES: . the L matrix is def..

where U is upper triangular/in echelon form. permute A first LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS: BASES: a set of linearly independent vectors that spans an n-dimensional subspace.- If you need a row swap. A which is m x n T = A(X) \ Coordinate vector: vector X’ = [x’. and its inverse is that Determinant: Laplace/cofactor expansion: expanding along any row/column [EXAMPLE] Expanding down an even-numbered row/column gives you – det (A) by row-exchange property General formula: ( ) ( ) D . [A | I ] is row-equivalent to [ U | B ]. B = 0.. and B is mxm. similarly for upper triangular and pf: dot product of ith row and jth column of A. given by Scalar multiples. for I < j Theorem/prop: A is m x n matrix. y’] where (just a linear combination of the bases) Note this is dependent on the order of the bases Uniqueness of the coordinates depends on linear Facts: product of two lower triangular matrices is lower triangular. A = LU Getting this L matrix: identity matrix except for one element Linear combinations of rows: denoted by And therefore its inverse: . I is identity. B is invertible and A = B-1U. . B-1 = L. has n elements Minimally spanning set – maximally linearly independent set 1) finding the first basis – from RREF a. second basis can just come from any echelon form (EROs are fair game) LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS Def of linearity: T(X) + T(Y) = T(X + Y) Maps from a vector to another vector space: This can be written as a matrix.

a3] = det [U. product theorem ( Theorem 5: for all nxn matrices.a2. Additive Property: det [U+V.a3] + det [V. coeficients are the same matrix but multiply a row by a scalar c.Scalar property: If you take = X.a3] Reduction of determinants: Any nxn matrix with 2 equal rows has determinant – (by row exchange) *row equivalent matrices have the same determinant (decompose into addition with matrices – 2 equal rows which cancel out) (factor out scalars) (remember.a2. det A = det At ) ( ) ( ) D . if RREF is not I. adding/subtracting scalar multiples does nothing **nxn matrix is invertible IFF determinant A != 0. subtract them. you need to multiply the determinant by the same factor c (follows by laplace expansion) Row Exchange Property: exchanging 2 rows of a matrix gives the negative of the determinant (determinant of an upper triangular matrix is the product of the entires on the main diagonal. then det = 0 **determinant function is unique Theorem 4.a2. there are no nonzero rows – full rank nxn matrix proof: determinant of any nonzero matrix is a nonzero multiple of its RREF. e.g.

multiplying by it produces the coordinates of a point.X = Pb*X’ – where point matrix is the nxn matrix whose columns are the basis vectors Multiplying coordinate vector X’ by Pb generates point X Pb invertible – inverse is Cb. D . coordinate matrix.

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