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ESSENTIALS ORGANIZATIONAL

OF BEHAVIOR
tenth edition

Stephen P. Robbins
San Diego State University

Timothy A. Judge
University of Florida

Seema Sanghi
FORE School of Management

Chennai Delhi Chancligarh

----PEARSON

Brief Contents
Part I
Chapter 1

PROLOGUE

1
1

Introduction to Organizational Behavior

Part II
Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7

THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE ORGANIZATION


Personality and Values Job Attitudes 55 Motivation Concepts Emotions and Moods 17 39 Perception and Individual Decision Making 71 90 107

17

Motivation: From Concepts to Applications

Part III
Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13

GROUPS IN THE ORGANIZATION


Foundations of Group Behavior Understanding Work Teams Communication 172 Leadership Power and Politics 156 197 211 124 141

124

Conflict and Negotiation

Part IV
Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16

THE ORGANIZATION SYSTEM


Foundations of Organization Structure Organizational Culture Organizational Change 247 263

228 228

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Contents
Preface
Part I
XIX

PROLOGUE

1 1
3

Chapter 1 Introduction to OrganizationalBehavior


The Field of Organizational Behavior 2 Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field Psychology 4 SodalPsychology 4 Sodology 5 Anthropology 6 Few Absolutes in OB 6 4

Challenges and Opportunities for OB 6 Responding to Globalization 7 Managing "Workforce Diversity 7 Changing Demographics 9 Improving Quality and Productivity 11 Improving Customer Service 11 Improving PeopleSkills 12 Stimulating Innovation and Change 12 Copingwith Temporariness 12 Helping EmployeesBalance "Work-LifeConflicts Improving Ethical Behavior 13 Creating a Positive "Work Environment 14 The Plan of This Book Implications for Managers
Part II THE INDIVIDUAL

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14 15
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IN THE ORGANIZATION

Chapter 2 Personalityand Values

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Personality 17 What Is Personality? 17 The Myers-Briggs rype Indicator

Contents The Big Five PersonalityModel 21 Other PersonalityTraits Relevant to OB Values 25 The Importance of Values 26 Terminal VersusInstrumental Values Generational Values 27

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26 29

Values and Ethical Behavior in Asian Countries India 29 China 31 Thailand 32 Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace 32 Person-JobFit 32 Person-Organization Fit 34 Global Implications 34 37

Implications for Managers

ChaPte~PtiOn
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and Individual Decision Making


40

39

What Is Perception? 39 FactorsThat Influence Perception

Person Perce~~: Making Judgments About Others Vltf'ributton Theory 40 F: quently UsedShortcuts in Judging Others The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making 43 Decision Making in Organizations 44 Th Kational Model, BoundedRationality, ~ and Intuition 44 '-./~mon Biasesand Errors in Decision Making 45 Organizational Constraints on Decision Making What About ~ics ~Decision Making? 49 ~ Ethical DecisionCriteria 49 ~proving Creativity in DecisionMaking Global Implications 52 53 48

40

42

50

Implications for Managers

Chapter 4 Job Attitudes


Attitudes 55

55

Contents
What Are the Main Components of Attitudes? Does Behavior Always Followfrom Attitudes? What Are the Major Job Attitudes? 59 56 57

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Job Satisfaction 62 Measuring Job Satisfaction 63 How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 63 What CausesJob Satisfaction? 64 The Impact of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees on the Workplace 65 Global Implications 69
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Implications for Managers


'\ C) ~

Chapt

tivation Concepts
Defining Motivation

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Early Theories of Motivation 72 Hierarchy of Needs Theory 72 Theory X and Theory Y 73 ~o-Factor Theory 74 ~cClelland's Theory of Needs 75 Contemporary Theories of Motivation Cognitive Evaluation Theory Goal-Setting Theory 78 Self-Efficacy Theory 80 -vEquity Theory 82 Expectancy Theory 86 Global Implications 87 88 76 76

);mplications for Managers

Chapter ~tivation:

V;\....

From Concepts to Applications


The Job CharacteristicsMotkl How Can Jobs Be Retksigned? Alternative Work Arrangements 91 92 95

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~otivating by Changing the Nature of the Work Environment

Employee Involvement 97 Examples of Employee Involvement Programs

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Using Rewards to Motivate Employees 98 What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 99 How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees Through Variable-PayPrograms 99 What Benefit to Offer: Flexible Benefits 102

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Contents Intrinsic Rewards:How to ConstructEmployee RecognitionPrograms 103 Global Implications 104 106

Implications for Managers

Chapter 7 Emotions and Moods

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107

What Are Emotions and Moods? 108 The BasicEmotions 109 The BasicMoods:Positiveand Negative Affect The Function of Emotions 110 Sourcesof Emotions and Moods 111 Emotional Labor 114

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Emotional Intelligence -' 115 The Casefi EI 116 The CaseAgainst EI 117 OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 117 Selection 118 DecisionMaking 118 Creativity 118 Motivation 119 Leadership 119 Negotiation 119 Customer Service 120 Job Attitudes 120 Deviant WorkplaceBehaviors 120 Forgivenessin Organizations 121 How Managers Can Influence Moods 121 Global Implications 121 123

Implications for Managers Part III

GROUPS IN THE ORGANIZATION

124 124
124 126 126

Chapter 8 Foundations of Group Behavior


Defining and Classifying Groups ~es of Group Development The Five-Stage Model

~up Properties: Roles, Norms, Status, Size, and Cohesiveness 127

Contents Group Property 1: Roles 127 Group Property 2: Norms 128 Group Property 3: Status 132 Group Property 4: Size 133 Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 134 Group Decision Making 134 Groups Versusthe Individual 134 Groupthink and Groupshift 135 Group Decision-Making Techniques 137 Group Behavior: An Asian Perspective 138 Global Implications 139 140 Implications for-Managers

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Chapter 9 Understanding Work Teams

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141 142

Why Have Teams Become So Popular? Differences Between Groups and Teams

Types of Teams 143 Problem-Solving Teams 143 Self-Managed Work Teams 143 Cross-Functional Teams 144 Virtual Teams 144 Creating Effective Teams 145 Context: What Factors Determine Whether Teams Are Successful 146 Team Composition 147 Work Design 149 Team Processes 149 Turning Individuals into Team Players 151 153

Beware!Teams Aren't Alwaysthe Answer 152 Team Building and Team-Based Work Global Implications 154 154

Implications for Managers

Chapter 10~ommunication

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The Communication Process

Direction of Communication 157 157 Downward Communication 158 Upward Communication Lateral Communication 158

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Contents
Interpersonal Communication 159 Oral Communication 159 Written Communication 159 Nonverbal Communication 160 Organizational Communication 161 Formal Small-Group Networks
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T. e Grapevine 162 ElectronicCommunications 163 KnowledgeManagement 166

Barriers to Effective Communication 167 Filtering 167 SelectivePerception 167 Information Overload 168 Emotions 168 Language 168 Communication Apprehension 168 Global Implications 169 171

Implications for Managers

ChaPter~rshiP

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What Is Leadership? 172 Traditional Theories of Leadership 173 Trait Theories 173 Behavioral Theories 174 Summary of Trait Theoriesand Behavioral Theories 175 Contingency Theories 176 Contemporary Approaches to Leadership 180 CharismaticLeadership 180 Transformational Leadership 183 Authentic Leadership: Are Ethics the Foundation ofLeaders~? 187 ~t Is Authentic Leadership? 187 thic_s and Leadership 188 Challenges to the Leadership Construct 189 _,/"Leadership as an Attribution 189 ~stitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership Finding and Creating Effective Leaders 191

190

Contents Selecting Leaders Training Leaders

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191 191

Global Implications

192 196

Implications for Managers

Chapter 12Ower and Politics

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A Definition of Power

Contrasting Leadership and Power Bases of Power 198 198 199


Formal Power Personal Power

198

Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective?

199

Power Tactics

199
Politics

Politics: Power In Action 201 Definition of Organizational


The Reality of Politics

201 202 202 203

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to Political Behavior

Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior


Factors Contributing Impression
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How Do People Respond to Organizati01laI Politics? Management

205 208

Th~yof

Behaving Politically 208 210

Global Implications

Implications for Managers

Chapter 13 Conflictand Negotiation


A Definition of Conflict
The Traditional The Human The Interactionist

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211 212 212 212 212 213
View of Conflict

Transitions in Conflict Thought


Relations

View of Conflict View of Conflict

The Conflict Process


Stage I: Potential

213
Opposition or Incompatibility

Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Stage III: Intentions Stage IV: Behavior Stage V: Outcomes

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215 216 216

~egotiation

218

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Contents Bargaining Strategies 218 The Negotiation Process 221 Individual Differencesin NegotiationEffectiveness Global Implications 225 225

223

Implications for Managers Part IV THE ORGANIZATION SYSTEM

228 228

Chapter 14

dations of Organization Structure


What Is Organizational Structure? 228 Work Specialization 229 Departmentalization 230 Chain of Command 231 Span of Control 232 Centralizationand Decentralization Formalization 234 Common Organizational Designs 234 The Simple Structure 234 The Bureaucracy 235 The Matrix Structure 236

233

New Design Options 237 The Team Structure 237 The EmpoweredOrganization 239 The Virtual Organization 239 The BoundarylessOrganization 240 Why Do Structures Differ? 241 Strategy 242 Organization Size 242 Technology 243 Environment 243 Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior Global Implications 245 246 244

Implications for Managers

Chapter 15 OrganizationalCulture

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What Is Organizational Culture? 248 A Definition of Organizational Culture 248 Culture Is a Descriptive Term 248 Do OrganizationsHave Uniform Cultures? 232 Strong VersusWeak Cultures 249 Culture VersusFormalization 249

Contents

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What Do Cultures Do? 250 Culture'sFunctions 250 Culture as a Liability 250 Creating and Sustaining Culture 252 How a Culture Begins 252 Keepinga CultureAlive 252 Summary: How CulturesForm How Employees Learn Culture 257 Stories 257 Rituals 257 Material Symbols 257 Language 257 Creating an Ethical Organizational Culture Creating a Positive Organizational Culture Global Implications 260 262 258 259

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rganizational Change
Forces for Change 263

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Resistance to Change 265 ChangeAgents 266 OvercomingResistanceto Change

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Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 267 Lewin's Three-Step Model 267 Kotter'sEight-Step Planfor Implementing Change OrganizationalDevelopment 269 Creating a Culture for Change 271 Stimulating a Culture of Innovation 271

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Contemporary Issues in Organizational Change 272 Technologyin the Workplace 272 Work Stress 274 Creatinga Learning Organization 275 Organizational Change. in Indian Businesses Global Implications Epilogue 281 Endnotes 283 Glindex 313 278 279 Implications for Managers

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