Table of Contents

Numbers H.C.F & L.C.M of Numbers Surds & Indices Percentage Profit & Loss Ratio & Proportion Partnership Chain Rule Time & Work Pipes & Cisterns Time And Distance Trains Boats & Streams Alligation or Mixture Simple Interest Compound Interest Logarithms Area Volume & Surface Area Stocks & Shares True Discount Banker’s Discount Copyright Notice

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Numbers 1. ar 3 .) with first term ‘a’ and Common Ratio ‘r’ is given by: a. Results on Division: Dividend = Quotient × Divisor + Remainder 15. (1 3 + 2 3 + 3 3 + … … … + n 2 ) = [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)] / 6 ) = [n 2 3 (n + 1) 2 ] / 4 Page 2 of 12 .(a .b) = 2(a 2 + b 2 ) 11.b)(a 14.b) 9. if the number formed by its last two digits is divisible by 4 4. Tn = a + (n . or 8 2. ar. (a 2 – b 2 ) = (a + b)(a . ar 2 . Sn 2 2 .r] 17. starting from the RHS. P. (a + b) 2 =a 2 + 2ab + b . A number is divisible by 8. (a 3 – b 3 ) = (a .1)d Sum of first ‘n’ terms. A number is divisible by 3. (a 3 + b 3 ) = (a + b)(a 13.r n-1 n )] / [1 .) with first term ‘a’ and Common Difference ‘d’ is given by: [a]. A number is divisible by 2. … … …. 2. if its unit’s place digit is 0. (a .ab + b 2 ) ) + ab + b 2 = n/2 (First Term + Last Term) 16. (1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 + … … … + n 19. A number is divisible by 11. (a + b) 2 + (a .b) 12. (a + b) 8. An Arithmetic Progression (A. … … …. (1 + 2 + 3 + … … … + n) = [n(n + 1)] / 2 18.b) 2 = 4ab 2 10. A number is divisible by 4. ar n-1 nth term. [(a + 2d)]. A number is divisible by 9. if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by 8 5. [(a + d)]. if. Tn = ar Sum of first ‘n’ terms Sn = [a(1 . if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9 6. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 3.1)d] th n term. (Sum of its digits at the odd place) – (Sum of its digits at even place) is equal to 0 or 11x 7. [a + (n . P. A Geometric Progression (G.2ab + b 2 2 2 =a 2 2 . 4.

(ab) m =a P (1 m .p. then. not to increase the expenditure is 52. aTo: express x% as a fraction.c. : is a sub-duplicate ration ofwe a : have b a / b = (a / b × 100) % 33. then its value after ‘N’ years at a depreciation of (m . C. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. aIf ‘A’ more than ‘B’. which is called the reduction in consumption. a = 1 P / [(1 .b) / b = (c . F.R/100) bm N 39. the first and fourth terms are known as third are known as means . b 2 is a duplicate ratio of we a:b 32. C.d). d are in proportion. If the price of a commodity decreases by R%. then. have x% = x / 100 46.Loss%) × Cost Price] / 100 = [(100 ) =a Ratio & Proportion 27. Mean = proportion between a and b is 44.p. m 30. a 1/ 3If :b is a sub-triplicate ratio of a : b by R%. then the the price of a commodity increases to increase the expenditure is 49. If ‘A’ is R% less than ‘B’. ( ) = 42.C.n) 22. which is called the 35. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. (a . b. (c : d).R/100) N ] 1/n 26. To express a / b as a percent. 31. If (a the / b)value = a of a machine /b ‘R’ p. = (a 28. then its population after ‘N’ years is write x a 1 / y. = a 40. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. not componendo .M of Numbers 37. If a / b = c / d. Variation: We say that x is directly proportional to y if x = ky for some constant k and we write. Product of two numbers = Their H. If a / b = c / d.a = a is 23. OR 1/3 48. then its value ‘N’ years ago at a depreciation of 24. then. If a : b = c : d. then the increase in consumption. {100R / [100 + R] } % 50. 3 47. x a y. c. = 41.b) = OR (c + d) / (c . dividendo . Also. then ‘B’ is more than ‘A’ by 51.H. The compounded ratioof the ratios (a : Percentage b).c. (e : f) is (ac e : bdf) 2 45. {100R / [100 . a m ‘R’ / a np. If a / b = c / d. a m × a n = a 38. × Their L. m n isn ‘P’ in a year.d) / d. extremes .C. The equality of two ratios is called a proportion.F & L. : b 3is isR% a triplicate ratio of then a : b ‘B’ is less than ‘A’ by 34. P / [(1 + R/100) N ] Surds & Indices Profit & Loss (m + n ) 21. (a + b) / b = (c + d) / d.a is 0 25. we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a. (a + b) / (a . Product of extremes = Product of means 43. M.R] } % 53. we say that x is inversely proportional to y if x = k / y for some constant k and we 36. P (1 + R/100) N . which is called the componendo & dividendo . then its population ‘N’ years ago is 20. while the second and 29. Selling Price = [(100 + Gain%) × Cost Price] / 100 1/ n n. In=a /proportion.

then on opening both the pipes. u > v) in the same direction. Lengths of trains are ‘x’ km and ‘y’ km. Time & Work 59. Time taken to cross each other is [(x + y) / (u + v)] hrs 66. 60.v)] hrs 65. then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. the net part of the tank filled in 1 hour is (1/x – 1/y) Time And Distance 63. If a pipe can fill a tank in ‘x’ hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in ‘y’ hours (where y > x). Suppose a man covers a distance at ‘x’ kmph and an equal distance at ‘y’ kmph. The time (number of days) required to complete a job is inversely proportional to the number of hours per day allocated to the job. n. then average speed during his whole journey is [2xy / (x + y)] kmph Trains 64. Page 5 of 12 . then Share Of Partner = (Total_Profit × Part_Share / Total_Share) Chain Rule 55. If two trains start at the same time from two points crossing they take a and b hours in reaching A and B towards each other and after Band Arespectively. then A can finish the work in 61. Time taken to cover a distance is inversely proportional to the speed of the car. The work done is directly proportional to the number of men working at it. 56. 58. If A is thrice as good a workman as B. If A can do a piece of work in n days. If a number of partners have invested in a business and it has a profit. Ratio of times taken by A & B to finish a work = 1 : 3 Pipes & Cisterns 62.Partnership 54. then A’s 1 day’s work = 1/ n days. 57. then the time taken y the over-taker train to cross the slower train is [(x + y) / (u . If A’s 1 day’s work = 1/ n . The cost of articles is directly proportional to the number of articles. moving at ‘u’ kmph and ‘v’ kmph (where.

Speed in still water = ½ ( a+ b) km/hr. Rule of Alligation: If two ingredients are mixed. ) / ( P × T ). Page 6 of 12 . Rate of stream = ½ ( a . P = ( 100 × S. x kmph = (x × 5/18) m/sec. 72. Boats & Streams 69. We represent the above formula as under: 75. y metres/sec = (y × 18/5) km/hr. then: v hm/hr.b) km/hr. Then.m) : (m . 67. R = ( 100 × S.I.I. 70.v ) km/hr. Alligation : It is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mixed to produce a mixture at a given price. = ( P× R × T ) / 100 b.I. Alligation or Mixture 71. 68. A ’s speed : B’s speed = ( : ). then: 74. If the speed of a boat in still water is ukm/hr and the speed of the stream is then: Speed downstream = ( u + v ) km/hr. Rate = R % per annum and Time = T years. 73. Let Principle = P .I. c. a. ) / ( P × R ). If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr.Then.: (Cheaper quantity) : (Dearer quantity) = (d . . d. T = ( 100 × S. ) / ( R × T ). S.c) Simple Interest 76. Speed upstream = ( u . Mean Price : The cost price of a quantity of the mixture is called the mean price.

When base is not mentioned. The logarithm of a number contains two parts. namely characteristic and mantissa. log a am = x. but the time is in fraction. Page 7 of 12 . Log of 1 to any base is 0) (x p ) = p log x = 1 / log x = log a a a x x a a a x / log b a b = log x / log a (Change of base rule) h. x due nyears hence is given by: n year Present Worth = x / (1 + R/100) Logarithms 81. R 3 % for 1 st . Amount = P (1 + R /100) N II. The integral part is known as characteristic and the decimal part is known as mantis sa. say 3 years. Properties of Logarithms: a. Then. 2 nd . Then. other than 1 and and say that the value of log x to the base ais m .e. and 3 1 respectively. Let Principle = P . 82. log f. log d. Then. log e. When interest is compounded Quarterly: Amount = P (1 + R /4/100) 4 N 78. When interest is compounded Annually. Amount = P (1 + R/100) 3 T years. When interest is compounded Half-yearly: Amount = P (1 + R /2/100) 2 N III. log g. When Rates are different for different years.e. log c. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number. Amount = P (1 + R 1 /100) (1 + R 2 /100) (1 + R 3 /100) 80. Present worth of Rs. say R %. Rate = R % per annum and Time = I. it is taken as 10 i. Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms j.log a a a y x x = 1 (i. then we write m = log a x (xy) = log (x/y) = log a x + log a y x . Log of any number to its own base is 1) 1 = 0 (i. log b.Compound Interest 77. R 2 %. When interest is compounded Annually. × (1 + R/100) rd 79.

g. Rectangle: a. the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of decimal point in the given number. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2 (length + breadth) 84. IV. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 2 e. where s = ½ ( a+ b+ c ). e. Area of square = (side) 2 b. Case 1: When the number is greater than 1. Parallelogram/Rhombus/Trapezium: a. and a . Triangle: a. Number Characteristic 234.00234 -3 III. then antilog y = x . Antilog : If log x = y . b . In this case. For mantissa.56 2 23. Area of 4 walls of a room 2 = 2 (length + breadth) × height 86.34 0 0. Square: a.456 1 2. Area 83. Area of a triangle = . Area of a triangle = ½ × base × height b.I. c are the sides of the triangle c.234 -1 0. Area of a parallelogram = Base × Height Page 8 of 12 . Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 87. II. Case 2: When the number is less than 1. In this case.0234 -2 0. Area of a square = ½ (diagonal) 85. Area of an equilateral triangle = / 4 × (side) 2 d. we look through the log table. Area of a rectangle = (length × breadth) b. the characteristic is one more than the number of zeroes between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative.

units a) units b. Circle/Arc/Sector. units r(r+ h) sq. Surface Area = 2 ( c. Surface Area = 6a c.b. 3 l× b× h) cu units lb + bh + hl ) sq. Volume = ( b. cu units 2 sq. units h . Cylinder: Let radius of base = a. Volume = a b. Cone: Let radius of base = r& height = h . where R is the radius of the circle: a. Area of a rhombus = ½ × (Product of diagonals) c. Diagonal = ( × 91. The halves of diagonals and a side of a rhombus form a right angled triangle with side as the hypotenuse. d. Cube: Let each edge of a cube be of length a. Then. Total Surface Area = 2p 92. Then. Area of a sector = ½ (arc × R) = /360 × pR 2 2 Volume & Surface Area 89. breadth = b & height = hunits Then. Page 9 of 12 . units a . a. Circumference of a circle = 2pR c. Diagonal = units 90. Length of an arc = /360 × 2p R d. units rh) sq. Area of a circle = p R b. Curved Surface Area = (2p c. Area of trapezium = ½ × (sum of parallel sides) × (distance between them) 88. Then. Cuboid: Let length = l . Volume = (p r& height (or length) = r2 h) cu.

98. True Discount 100.P. annual interest is 9% of the face value and the market price of a Rs.W. Then. 9% stock at 95 ’. Then. When stock is purchased. brokerage is added to the cost price. 156 due 4 years hence.W. Sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be a.100) = (Sum due) – (P. Total Surface Area = (3p r. (156 . units rl) sq. 100 stock is Rs. Volume = (2/3 p b. 100. is Rs. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price. units Stocks & Shares 95. Clearly. b. units r2 ) sq. 100 now will clear off the debt of Rs. The selling price of a Rs.D. Volume = ( p l= units r2 h) cu. True Discount (T.a. units r2 ) sq.P. units r. c. 100. b.P. the payment of Rs. 99. 95. So. Volume = (4/3 p b. at par . if S. below par (or at discount ). When the stock is sold. Total Surface Area = p 93. Page 10 of 12 . units c. By ‘ a Rs. Curved Surface Area = (2p c. Surface Area = (4p 94. Hemi-sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be a. 96. is less than Rs. units r2 ) sq.) = Rs. Rs. r3 ) cu. we mean a stock whose face value is Rs. 100 stock is said to be: a. 100 at 14% will amount to Rs. units r(r+ l) sq. 156 due 4 years hence Present Worth (P.) . 800. We say that: Sum due = Rs. is more than Rs. above par (or at premium ). if S. Curved Surface Area = (p d. 100 exactly. 800. 156 in 4 years. r3 ) cu. Brokerage : The broker’s charge is called brokerage. 100. 97. 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. if S.) = Rs. Suppose a man has to pay Rs. Slant height.

D.I.D.D. on the face value for the period from the date on which the bill was discounted and the legally due date. When the date of the bill is not given. = S. = (B.D. × T.I. = (Amount × Rate × Time) / (100 + [Rate × Time]) 113.]) d.) × R × T / 100 = ([Amount] × R × T) / (100 + [R × T]) c.) – (T. on T.101.W. T. grace days are not to be added 108.D.D. Sum = ([S.D.) / (B.D. = (Amount × Rate × Time) / 100 112.I.W. Banker’s Discount (B.D. (S.D. T. When the sum is put at compound interest. = (T. 102.G. Then.) for the unexpired time 107.) + (T.] × [T.D. Banker’s Gain (B. 106.D. B. = Interest on P. a. = (100 × Amount) / (100 + [R × T]) = (100 × T.D.]) / ([S.W.G. – T. T.D.D. = 111.) = S. Amount = (B.G.) 103. = (B. B.I.D.) 114. Amount = (P. on T.I.) is the S. then P. × 100) / (Rate × Time) . e.D.D.I.] – [T. = (P.D. on bill for unexpired time 109.D. Let rate = R % per annum & time = T years.) = S. T. and true discount is reckoned on the amount 104.D. 110. B. = Amount / (1 + R/100) T Banker’s Discount 105.) 2 / P.W. T.W.W.I.) = (B.) – (T. P.D.) / (R × T) b.D.) – (T.W.D. Interest is reckoned on R.

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