Are There Sufficient Natural Resources on Mars to Sustain Human Habitation?

Methane and Carbon Dioxide Hydrates as Raw Materials to Support Colonization
Robert E. Pellenbarg; Michael D. Max; Stephen M. Clifford [2000] Abstract There is a good possibility that long-term production of deep biosphere methane (CH4) has occurred on Mars. Resultant methane would tend to rise buoyantly toward the Martian surface. This methane would have been captured over a long period of time and will now be stored in methane hydrate, which has the potential to concentrate methane and water. Both CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2, a predominant gas in the Martian atmosphere) are stable as gases on the Martian surface but probably lie within the hydrate stability field as vast resource deposits in surface-parallel zones that reach close to the Martian surface. In order for humankind to establish itself on Mars, colonies should become self-sustaining there as soon as possible. With hydrates of both CO2, (oxidized carbon, C, at +4 oxidation state) and CH4, (reduced C at -4 oxidation state), Mars would contain the basic elements for human habitation: fuel, potable water, and industrial feedstock in a near-surface situation suitable for controlled extraction. With the addition of nuclear- or solar-electric energy, the synthetic organic chemistry necessary to support human habitation on Mars is an exercise in miniaturized, innovative chemical engineering. Instead of transporting fuel for the return journey and all the items needed for human habitation of Mars, optimized standard industrial chemical plants would be designed for operation on Mars in order to manufacture a variety of plastic objects, such as shelter, habitats, vehicles and other apparatus, in addition to synthetic liquid high energydensity fuels. Thus, identification and quantification of methane hydrate and carbon dioxide hydrate, or proof of their absence, must be regarded as one of the emerging questions about Mars which must be answered in order to allow for effective planning and preparation for human travel to Mars. The actual presence of these hydrates may prove to be the key to colonization of Mars. Introduction The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States, along with other national and international space agencies, is planning for planetary exploration. Although this exploration is making use of information-gathering robots at present, planning for human travel to the planets is under way. Mars should be the first planet selected for direct human investigation because of its relative nearness, the possibility that it once had, and could still have, life, and because surface conditions are within a range that present technology can provide for sustainable human habitats, at least for short periods. Any attribute of Mars that could be exploited to provide for longer-term human habitation and possible planetary terraforming in the future, however, is very important to consider at this time. Better knowledge about the natural resource base of Mars is fundamental to organizing both visits and colonization, much the same as any of the historical exploration that has been carried out on Earth. Where natural resources are varied and abundant, colonization has a greater chance for success. If most supplies and materials must be transported oneway to Mars, the planet may only be an outpost rather than a colony. To become a true, viable colony, human habitation on Mars must become self-sustaining as rapidly as possible. Indeed, if long-term habitation on Mars is to be contemplated, the atmosphere and surface of Mars must be remediated and the climate made milder. Present conditions on Mars would seem to support a Stone Age existence. That is, the raw materials on the surface of the planet would appear to allow dry masonry construction, but little else. Materials science must be brought to bear to engineer materials that will allow implementation of the technology to permit colonists to prevail. Although there may not be a wide variety of materials on Mars, what is there may provide a sufficient, but small, list of resources, present in staggering quantities. Relatively basic chemical engineering can be used to convert these natural resources into the
Robert E. Pellenbarg; Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6101, Washington DC 20375 / Michael D. Max; MDS Research, Suite 302, 1211 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington DC 20036; Stephen M. Clifford; Lunar and Planetary Institute, 3600 Bay Area Blvd., Houston TX 77058 –1–

Are There Sufficient Natural Resources on Mars to Sustain Human Habitation?

materials to assure colonial success; if the colonists are bold and clever, and the course to human habitation of Mars has been properly mapped and implemented by Earth-based agencies, then there is a high probability for success for permanent human habitation of Mars. Methane on Mars and its Potential Significance If the early evolution of the Martian surface followed that of Earth, then abundant methanogenic bacteria were likely present in the aqueous environment of the young Martian surface. During the transition to the present cryogenic Martian crust, this life would probably have adapted to deep biosphere form, along with existing deep biosphere, similar to that we now recognize in the warm, deep sediments and rocks of Earth. Deep microbial biosphere on Mars would almost certainly also have been methanogenic, as it is on Earth. Long-term production of deep biosphere methane, if it in fact occurred, has enormous implications for the potential of human travel to Mars and occupation of the planet. If no significant deep methanogenic biosphere ever produced large amounts of methane, then fuel and other basic requirements for human habitation would have to be imported. If methane is available, however, the entire situation regarding the likelihood of human habitation of Mars becomes radically more favorable. A mechanism for the long-term concentration exists on Mars as it does on Earth (Max and Lowrie, 1996). Biogenic methane produced as a waste product tends to migrate buoyantly upward in pore water rock porosity until it reaches the Hydrate Stability Zone (HSZ), which is a temperature / pressure region in which methane hydrate is stable. One m3 of methane hydrate contains about 164 m3 methane (Earth STP) and 0.87 m3 of fresh water. On Mars, the particular pressure-temperature and thermodynamic equilibrium associated with the cold Martian surface is favorable for the formation of a substantial HSZ (Max and Clifford, 2000). Methane hydrate and water-ice form a mixed cryogenic zone in which water-ice is stable from the surface to about 0°C at depth and hydrate is stable from some depth below the surface (depending on average surface temperature, total pressure, and geothermal gradient) to some depth below the base of the water-ice stability zone. Under current ambient conditions on Mars, methane hydrate is stable close to, but not at, the surface. Since the dominant constituent of the Martian crust appears to be basalt (or basalt-derived weathering products), the difference in lithostatic pressure at any depth between Mars and the Earth simply scales in proportion to the ratio of gravitational accelerations for the two planets (i.e., ~0.38 g). At the 200ºK average surface temperature of Mars, hydrate is not stable at less than about 140 kPa (data in Sloan, 1997), which corresponds to a depth of ~15 m (assuming an ice-saturated permafrost density of 2.5x103 kg/m3). Given a reasonable estimate of the thermal properties of the crust, the base of the Martian HSZ should then extend to depths that lie from several hundred meters to as much as a kilometer below the surface of Mars. Thus, the total thickness of the HSZ on Mars is likely to vary from ~3 km at the equator, to ~8 km at the poles (Max and Clifford, JGR-Planets, in press). If concentrated methane in the form of methane hydrate can be found in the near subsurface of Mars, then all the elements necessary for the human habitation of Mars exist there. Altering the pressure-temperature conditions of hydrate will release both abundant methane (held in a compressed form) and water simultaneously. Additional water from occluded permafrost ice will supplement the water produced from dissociation of methane hydrate, but may not be necessary. Water, of course, is the most basic requirement for human habitation of Mars and it is likely that water (as ice) is present in the Martian cryosphere. Water will support a human-supportive biosystem for both plants and animals, under controlled conditions. But other elements are required for a self-sustaining of human habitation. Oxygen and hydrogen (fuel) can be produced by electrolysis from the water using electricity produced either from small nuclear reactors and/or solar power. Combustion of methane, however, produces both water and CO2 either in fuel cells or by high temperature chemical reactions. This CO2, or gas from CO2 hydrate, would amend the atmosphere in enclosed biomes to be constructed on Mars.
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Are There Sufficient Natural Resources on Mars to Sustain Human Habitation?

In addition to its utility as a fuel, however, methane is a basic hydrocarbon building block and is a primary feedstock for the manufacture of plastics and other synthetics (including higher energy-density liquid fuels) from which virtually every object necessary for human habitation of Mars can be manufactured. Existing chemical engineering technology can be miniaturized, optimized for Martian conditions, and used to fabricate virtually everything necessary in-situ, on Mars. This fabrication potential would be the final element required for the permanent human habitation of Mars. Fuels for returning to Earth and exploring further would be produced on Mars itself. The transport requirements to support human habitation on Mars would be reduced by the ability to produce many, if not most, of the physical objects required on Mars, from Martian materials. The ability to produce pressurized habitats, clothing, vehicles, etc. with only the import of a relatively small amount of specialized equipment or materials (e.g., chemical catalysts) from Earth would greatly change the support economics and enhance the likelihood of successful long-term occupation of Mars. The possible existence of methane hydrate in the shallow subsurface of Mars offers extraordinary potential to support and sustain the human habitation of Mars. Thus, identification and quantification of methane hydrate, or proof of its absence, must be regarded as one of the key questions about Mars that must be answered in order to allow for effective planning and preparation for human travel to Mars. Indeed, the question of availability of methane hydrate on Mars may prove to be the key to human occupation of Mars. “Mining” Hydrate Mining carbon and oxygen compounds on Mars will follow techniques being developed for recovering gas and water from hydrate on Earth where the newly recognized methane hydrate resources in permafrost and oceanic environments constitute an emerging major energy resource (Max, 2000). From the outset, recovery of methane or carbon dioxide from hydrate will require application of secondary recovery techniques because the hydrate is present in the form of solid permafrost hydrate. Methane recovery from hydrate will involve forced dissociation. In addition, knowledge about the dispostion of hydrate in the Martian cryosphere is required before recovery scenarios can be envisaged; comparison with permafrost hydrate on Earth provides only a first order estimation of hydrate disposition on Mars because of the profound differences in geological and biological attributes. On Earth, hydrate is most stable in the upper part of the HSZ and least stable near the HSZ base and recovery scenarios usually target the base of the HSZ (Max and Chandra, 1998; Max and Dillon, 1999). On Mars, where the base of the HSZ will likely occur below the water-ice cryosphere (Max and Clifford, 2000), this may be found at a considerable depth. Because drilling capability on Mars will be limited initially, shallower hydrate deposits would provide the first drilling and recovery targets. Methane can be derived from hydrate by melting the hydrate. This melting can be accomplished in three major ways. Firstly, heat in the form of hot water or steam can be applied directly to the buried hydrate through drill holes. This technology is well known to the hydrocarbon industry and is often used with heavy oils. Secondly, hydrate can be decomposed, by altering the position of the hydrate stability phase boundary via introduction of inhibitor fluids containing suitable dissolved ionic material, which functions similarly to antifreeze and lowers the melting temperature. Thirdly, dissociation can be induced where hydrate is present close to its pressure-temperature limits of stability where free gas is in contact with the hydrate. Lowering the pressure in the gas deposit will cause hydrate in contact with the gas to dissociate, drawing heat from the environment. It is likely that commercial recovery of methane from hydrate on Earth will use a combination of the three methods, optimized for the characteristics of individual deposits, and lessons learned here can be applied on Mars. The closer the pressure-temperature position of the hydrate body is to the stabile phase boundary, the less thermal energy needs to be introduced or the less chemical inhibitor is required to cause dissociation. Both hydrate and associated gas deposits of methane and carbon dioxide may prove to be recoverable resources on Mars. Permafrost hydrate deposits will be capable of holding considerable gas pressure because of the strength of the bounding geological rocks and regolith. Thus methane hydrate deposits on Mars are likely to be similar to conventional hydrocarbon traps on Earth, for which both natural occurrence and methods for recovery are well understood. Recovery should be possible using modified conventional drilling and recovery technology.
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Are There Sufficient Natural Resources on Mars to Sustain Human Habitation?

Little is now known about the subsurface character of the Martian geology. Virtually nothing is known about the likelihood or location of structural or stratigraphic traps, or their Martian equivalents. The sedimentary and lithic material from which the upper strata of Mars is composed is also poorly characterized. Nonetheless, the cryosphere on Earth exhibits many features that could be important to providing pathways for gas accumulation and migration, which are vital to recovery of significant volumes of gas on Earth, and provide further insight to the parallel situation on Mars. In addition to primary porosity extensive secondary porosity in the form of faults, fractures, and ‘frost heaving’ volume changes owing to ice and hydrate formation may produce pathways for fluid and gas migration in rocks that are otherwise too tight to allow significant internal flow. Extensive faulting has been observed in gas hydrate bearing strata in many areas, and the faults show evidence of fluid flow (Dillon et al., 1998). Where gas will not spontaneously flow, mechanical fracturing (fracking, a standard procedure used now on Earth) is also possible on Marsh, but this approach would introduce additional operational problems and requirements. Chemical Opportunities and Constraints on Mars There is no question that the Martian atmosphere contains CO2, (C, at +4 oxidation state) albeit at very low concentrations. It is highly likely that CO2 hydrate also occurs on the planet. Thus, Mars possesses fixed, but oxidized, carbon. If, as seems increasingly probable, the Martian crust contains CH4 (C at -4 oxidation state) trapped as hydrate, the planet would thus also posses fixed, reduced carbon. In addition, CO2 and CH4 hydrate concentrate fixed carbon and water (H2O) at the same place. These chemically fixed carbon species are important in that they are gases under current surface conditions on Mars. Specifically, gases are readily moved, from source to use site, from well to chemical processing plant. With both oxidized and reduced species of carbon-bearing gases available on Mars, and with the addition of nuclear- or solarelectric power energy, the synthetic organic chemistry is merely an exercise in chemical engineering. The carbonbearing source gases are available, and the chemical engineering technology to transform the carbon gases to useful end products currently exists. Needed only is the design, deployment and operation of fairly routine chemical processing plants on the Martian surface, factories which will yield a cornucopia of on-site organic matter of crucial value to the Martian colonists. Consider reaction (1) below, which uses the constituents of methane hydrate as starting materials: 3CH4 + 3H2O —> 2CO + CO2 + 9H2 (1)

(1) is desirable because it converts reduced carbon (CH4) to oxidized carbon (CO and CO2); oxidized carbon is a necessity for further organic chemical manipulations. However, the enthalpy of the system does not favor the reaction a written. Indeed, the reaction would absorb some 80 kcal of energy to proceed, without proper manipulation. Now, the reaction could be catalyzed, and/or run in a reactor permeable to hydrogen so that the reaction is driven to the right. More than likely, the reaction would be run under high temperature and pressure, requiring power. Alternatively, the water from methane hydrate could be electrolyzed, again requiring power, as in (2): 2H2O —> 2H2 + O2 the resultant oxygen (O2) could be reacted with the methane from the hydrate, as in (3): 2CH4 + 3O2 —> 2CO + 4H2O (3) (2)

(3) is energetically favorable, IF oxygen is available. The net desirable result of reactions (1) and (3) is to produce carbon monoxide. Keep in mind that carbon dioxide could be available on Mars directly from CO2 hydrate, but it is desirable to have the chemical technology to convert / utilize the available CH4, even if abundant CO2 were present on Mars. Thus, it may be useful, depending on actual feedstock gases, to consider encouraging the following reaction (4): CH4 + CO2 —> 2CO + 2H2 (4)

The net desired result is to obtain CO and H2 as pure as possible, so that the Fischer-Tropsch Process (FTP) can be brought to bear. The FTP is a reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide, generically as follows (5, intentionally unbalanced):
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Are There Sufficient Natural Resources on Mars to Sustain Human Habitation?

H2 + CO —> CH3(CH2)nCH3 + CH3(CH2)nOH + H2O

(5)

carried out with an appropriate catalyst, and under suitable conditions of temperature and pressure. With proper selection of these three parameters, the FTP will yield liquid hydrocarbon fuels, oils, waxes, or a variety of other organic chemicals. Catalysis based on cobalt, nickel, ruthenium and iron is widely and effectively employed. In summary, the presumed abundant methane, carbon dioxide, and water, from hydrates on Mars, can be chemically converted to carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). These gases can be easily converted to higher molecular weight organic matter using the Fischer-Tropsch Process. Thus, we have a basic process that would yield motor fuels, for example. Utilization of these on Mars will be discussed later. For the purposes of colonization of Mars, access to a synthetic structural material, such as a plastic, will be critical. We will consider the case of synthesizing polystyrene as a structural plastic. The “water-gas” reaction (6) is useful in this context: C + H2O —> H2 + CO (6)

Note that hydrogen and carbon monoxide (obtained as outlined earlier) can be reacted in the reverse of (6) to give elemental carbon. Carbon will react with calcium oxide in an electric furnace to give calcium carbide (7): 3C + CaO —> CaC2 + (CO + CO2) and calcium carbide will react with water to give acetylene (8): CaC2 + H20 —> C2H2 + CaO and acetylene and be condensed to benzene (9): 3C2H2 —> C6H6 (9) (8) (7)

which will react with ethylene (from dehydration of ethyl alcohol [10] from the FTP) to give styrene (11). Styrene can be polymerized to a rigid plastic (12): CH3COH —> C2H4 +H2O (10) C6H6 + C2H4 —> C2H3C6H5 [Styr] + H2 n(Styr) —> (Styr)n [polystyrene plastic] (11) (12)

These few examples demonstrate the concept of creating useful materials for application on Mars. Beginning with very simple, essentially inorganic forms of carbon, it is possible to engineer a variety of useful organic-based materials that can be fashioned as required to support human habitation of Mars. Please refer to any organic chemistry text book for more detail, and other potential synthetic pathways, on the discussion immediately above. Energy Sources on Mars There must be an energy source to support the chemical engineering discussed above and to provide power in general. Synthetic chemistry, even on the restricted industrial scale required by the initial Martian colonies, will require power for heating, pressurizing, and irradiating chemical reaction vessels, for example. Dependable high-energy-density power sources, at first, can be provided either by a nuclear or solar installation. Once a colonial industrial capability is available, distributed power systems (e.g., small combustion engines or fuel cells based on engineered fuels and oxidizers) could become widely utilized. Although nuclear power is attractive from the standpoint of power density and dependability, the reactor and its nuclear fuel would have to be transported from Earth. However, the reactor need not be brought to the planet’s surface. It could be placed in a stable orbit around Mars, or emplaced on either Deimos or Phobos, from where power could be beamed

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Are There Sufficient Natural Resources on Mars to Sustain Human Habitation?

to the surface of Mars via microwave radiation. However, nuclear power has several drawbacks. There are three prime concerns that must be dealt with. Firstly, is the cost of transporting a relatively heavy reactor from Earth-vicinity to Mars. Secondly is the possibility of a nuclear accident in the Earth’s atmosphere or in the vicinity of Mars. Thirdly is the problem of what to do with the spent nuclear fuel, an issue that has yet to be dealt with satisfactorily on Earth. If the colonization of Mars is operated similar to research activities in Antarctica (a possible precedent), then nuclear power may be prohibited on the planet. If concerns about nuclear power are overwhelming, solar energy is likely to be the initial power source for a Martian colony. A key factor in this energy equation is the fact that Mars is roughly twice as far from the sun as is Earth, and thus receives roughly one-quarter the energy per unit area as does Earth. Solar collectors on Mars would thus need to be some four times as large as they would need to be on Earth for the same energy output. This situation may at first appear to be a significant and costly transportation problem if one were contemplating bringing bulky and heavy solar panels to Mars. New technology lightweight panels may solve the weight concern, but not necessary the bulk problems of transport. However, an alternative approach would be to use light-weight plastic-film-based solar radiation collectors to boil water to give high pressure steam fed to electrical generators. If abundant methane hydrate occurs in suitable proximity to the planet’s surface, then synthetic FTP fuels can be manufactured. These fuels could be used to drive conventional turbine or reciprocating engines. Stirling (external combustion) engines, however, may provide an optimal solution for Mars because they operate under very low stress, and could be constructed from indigenous materials (e.g., plastic and ceramic materials), as opposed to internal combustion engines that require high-technology metallurgy (assuming the availability of metallic ores). On the other hand, hydrogen stripped from the methane may be used in fuel cells to provide electricity. Discussion Here, then, is an emerging challenge for the chemical industry. In order for successful colonization of Mars to occur, potential colonies should be self-sustaining there as soon as possible. Instead of transporting all the items needed for human habitation of Mars, standard industrial chemical plant must be designed to be carried to Mars and optimized for operation on Mars itself. This apparatus would have to be relatively small and energy-efficient, as well as being able to manufacture a variety of plastics and objects, some of them complex in form. Development of this capability, involving development of nanotechnology, MEMS, and other new processes is now possible. The chemical industry should become part of the planning and development process for space research, human space travel, and extraterrestrial colonization ventures. Indeed, there has recently been reported a quantum leap in this direction. The Virtual Engineered Composites (VEC) process is discussed at length in a recent TIME magazine article. The VEC is likened to a “3-D fax machine” in which moldable plastics are formed on-site using new technology controlled from a remote location via an electronic link. In essence, the design goes in one end of the electronic line, and a finished product pops out of the fabrication unit on the other end! One needs only supply semi-finished plastics (as discussed above) to the fabrication unit; software and the VEC unit do the rest (Gibney, 2000). Fuel is vital for both energy and byproduct production on the Martian surface and for fueling the return trip to Earth. If energy-dense fuel can be produced on Mars, then Mars will be a true stepping stone to exploration of the entire Solar System. Artificially produced FTP has been shown to be motor fuels. These hydrocarbon fuels, or hydrogen, which would have to be liquefied for use in a rocket vehicle, could be combusted using gaseous oxygen, from the electrolysis of water, as the oxidizer. The benefit of FTP-liquids over hydrogen is that they are naturally liquid under a wide range of pressure-temperature conditions and does not need special cryogenic handling or storage facilities, as does hydrogen. In this paper, discussion of organic chemical engineering has been confined to producing useful organic compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are myriad other organic materials which incorporate such atoms as chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus or nitrogen, for instance, which would allow for very sophisticated materials to be manufactured. Martian colonists may wish to engineer polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a structural material. For PVC, the colonists would need a source of chlorine, which is easily produced by the electrolysis of salt (NaCl). Are there salt
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Are There Sufficient Natural Resources on Mars to Sustain Human Habitation?

deposits on Mars? If there was standing water on Mars there may well be salt deposits related to ocean evaporation. Such deposits could also contain nitrate (e.g., NaNO3) or phosphate (e.g., K3PO4), which would provide readily usable industrial feedstock. And, of course, both nitrate and phosphate are required as fertilizer for any attempts to grow plant biomass on Mars. In the longer term, use of methane as a fuel and in other chemical processes will produce CO2 gas. This will increase atmospheric CO2 and will aid the greenhouse effect over time even without a planned atmospheric remediation plan, although initially there will be little impact. Increasing atmospheric density and enhancing the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere should render Mars more amenable to habitation in the longer term. Both methane and carbon dioxide are strong greenhouse gases, and if released in sufficient quantities, could lead to marked warming on the planet. Of course, it is highly probable that enough CO2 and other greenhouse gases would be released into enclosed space (e.g., large greenhouses) to allow the cultivation of biomass on Mars without remediating the atmosphere as a whole, at least initially. If the correct woody plants were to be cultivated, colonists would have access to wood, a superb engineering material. Further, the wood would probably be cultivated from essentially sterile cuttings or seeds, so that the importation of serious plant diseases, rot fungus, or termites, which would compromise the wood, could be precluded. Whereas it seems potentially useful to produce synthetic carbon-based chemicals and materials for short term objectives, biomass would supply a cellulose-based byproduct for the long-term. If methane hydrate concentrations can be located on Mars, their location may provide the determining factor in selecting habitation and colonization sites there because they will contain the basic elements necessary for human habitation: water, power, food, shelter. In addition, any locally derived materials used in the inhabited installations will not accrue the transport costs of bringing such materials from Earth. For true colonization to be contemplated, the inhabitants of Mars must be as self-sustaining as possible. Mars beckons constantly. Since even before ancient astronomers noted a “red wanderer” among the fixed stars, Mars has beckoned. As a race, we have always been called to the planet, at first only visually, but now as a defining challenge. Now, it is time, and increasingly possible, to seize the elevating opportunity offered by the Red Planet. Technology in hand will permit us to travel to Mars, to establish beachheads, to prevail. The authors have given a brief sketch of some available technology, to be applied to Martian natural resources, which will undergird colonial success after the pioneering explorers and soon-to-follow colonists create footprints, and more, on Mars. Needed only is the will to fulfill our interplanetary destiny. References
1. Dillon, W.P., Danforth, W.W., Huthchinson, D.R., Drury, R.M., Taylor, M.H. & Booth, J.S. 1998. In: Henrtiet, J.-P., & Mienert, J., (eds). Gas Hydrates: Relevance to World Margin Stability and Climate Change. Geological Society London Special Publication 137, 293-302. 2. Gibney, F., Jr. 2000. The Revolution in a Box. TIME Magazine, V. 156 #5, 55 - 61. 3. Max, M.D. (ed). Natural Gas Hydrate: In Oceanic and Permafrost Environments. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, Boston, Dordrecht, 414pp. (in press). 4. Max, M.D. & Chandra, K. 1998. The dynamic oceanic hydrate system: Production constraints and strategies. OTC 8684. In: Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, 4-7 May 1998, Houston Texas, 217-226. 5. Max, M.D. & Dillon, W.P. 1999. Oceanic methane hydrate: The character of the Blake Ridge hydrate stability zone and the potential for methane extraction: Author’s correction. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 22, 227-228. 6. Max, M.D. & Clifford, S. 2000. The state, potential distribution, and biological implications of methane in the Martian crust. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 105/E2, 4165-4171. 7. Max, M.D. & Clifford, S.M. Initiation of Martian outflow channels: Related to the Dissociation of Gas Hydrate. Geophysical Research Letters (in press). 8. Max, M.D. & Lowrie, A. 1996. Methane hydrate: A frontier for exploration of new gas resources. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 19, 41-56. 9. Sloan, E.D., Jr. 1997. Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York and Basel, 730pp.

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Terraforming Mars And Greenhouse Gases
M. M. Marinova; C. P. McKay [2001] Introduction Imagine walking through a forest of tall trees, with a blue sky and white clouds overhead, and one-third gravity. This is the concept behind terraforming Mars: to bring to life a planet that is now cold, dry, and very inhospitable to living organisms. The process of terraforming a planet can mostly be described as the warming of the surface and the thickening of the atmosphere so that liquid water can persist on the surface. Beyond these requirements, the desired surface temperature and composition of the atmosphere are determined by the types of organisms which are to live there. Terraforming commonly refers to creating a “second Earth” – creating conditions allowing both plants and animals to survive. An important step in the process of terraforming is ecopoiesis, where the planet is just clement enough to allow only some types of life to survive. For example, Mars would be suitable for microorganisms and plants if it was warm and wet, even if its atmospheric composition remained mostly carbon dioxide, and was not capable of supporting higherorder Earth animal life. The initial warming of Mars (ecopoiesis) is likely to take on the order of a hundred years. Trees and grasses on Mars would produce oxygen that might naturally make a breathable oxygen-rich atmosphere, but simple energy considerations show that this would take on the order of a hundred thousand years (McKay et al., 1991; McKay and Marinova, 2001). Numerous reasons have been used to support the terraformation of Mars. The reasons can be grouped into three broad categories: (1) terraforming for scientific and practical knowledge about how planetary scale biospheres work; (2) terraforming as part of the human expansion beyond Earth; and (3) terraforming as a way to spread life – the gift from Earth to the rest of the Solar System. Terraforming Mars will be spurred by all of these motivations, and new motivations that we cannot glimpse but will become important in the future. We can learn about how a habitable planet works by considering how to reconstruct one. The terraforming of Mars is certain to teach us about the warming processes that are currently taking place on the Earth. While there is still much controversy about why the Earth is warming up, it is certain that at least some part is due to human activities such as the release of more carbon dioxide and other super greenhouse gases (e.g., CFCs) into the atmosphere. Perhaps by warming Mars we will learn how to start the reversal of such warming, and overall how to take better care of our planet. However, scientific curiosity is generally considered an insufficient reason by itself for carrying out such a large project as terraforming, which is very demanding technologically, economically, and ethically. As humans advance scientifically and technologically, we are bound to step out towards other worlds. Mars is the next logical step, and terraforming the planet may be a natural part of that expansion. Terraforming Mars will certainly give humans and life from Earth a second home, and will make Mars more accessible to the broader public. A newly terraformed Mars may be the place that forward-looking people go to in search of a new start in a new land. Indeed, the human need for frontiers and the importance of expansion in invigorating human culture is often cited as a key motivation for making Mars a new home for life. A third, new, but profound reason for terraforming Mars is to spread life beyond the Earth. Looking out into the Universe, we see many curious and interesting phenomena. But the phenomenon that is the most interesting from a scientific and human-value perspective is life: life right here on Earth; the assortment of plants and animals that we take for granted every day. While present in various forms, all life on Earth shares the very same origin. And when we look out into the Universe we have as of yet not found any signs of extraterrestrial life. In terraforming Mars, we will be spreading life to another planet, increasing the diversity of life we currently see, and watching the evolution of a new biosphere, as life

M. M. Marinova; Massachusetts Institute of Technology and NASA Ames Research Center, mmm@mit.edu C. P. McKay; NASA Ames Research Center, cmckay@arc.nasa.gov
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Terraforming Mars And Greenhouse Gases

adapts to its environment, and as life changes its environment. The terraforming of Mars is not incompatible with the search for life on Mars, and with the finding of life on Mars. Mars is believed to have had very much the same initial conditions as those on the Earth. Therefore, if life developed on Mars, it would have been under conditions similar to those on early Earth, that is on a warm planet with a thick CO2 atmosphere and with liquid water present on the surface. The initial terraforming of Mars will recreate just such a place. If there are Martian organisms in the subsurface or dormant in the permafrost they would be able to expand and flourish in this recreated Martian biosphere. It is important to dispel one impractical reason sometime given for terraforming Mars. This is making Mars habitable as a way to solve the overpopulation problem on Earth. For better or worse, Mars is not a solution to these Earthly concerns. Even advanced technology would not be capable of sending people to Mars at a rate even close to the rate of population growth, much less moving the entire population in the event of ecological collapse on Earth. It is also unpractical, and we think unethical, to think of Mars as a back-up in case we make the Earth uninhabitable, and to use that as a justification for polluting the Earth. Magic versus Current Technology in Terraforming Mars Numerous papers have discussed various methods for terraforming Mars (Figure 1). Some of these methods fall within the bounds of current technology, while others are much further into the future. Unfortunately, proposals based on futuristic technology outnumber those based on current or foreseeable technology. One proposal calls for the placing of giant mirrors in orbit around Mars, thereby increasing the average solar insulation. One reason why Mars cooled much more drastically than the Earth, since the forming of the Solar System, is that it is further from the Sun than the Earth and therefore receives 2.3 times less solar energy, causing it to be cooler. By increasing the average amount of energy hitting the surface of the planet, the surface temperature will increase. However, the making of large mirrors in space is currently beyond our technological capability, and in order to increase the solar insulation by even 2% (equivalent to a temperature increase of about 1ºC (2ºF)) would require a mirror the size of Texas (McKay, 1999). The temperature resulting from a certain solar insulation depends on the albedo of the planet (how dark the planet is and therefore how much of the incident energy is absorbed). The polar caps, covering a significant portion of the planet (~ 1%; Kieffer et al., 1992) have a very high albedo, thereby reflecting a substantial fraction of solar energy rather than absorbing it. It has been proposed (Fogg, 1992) to sprinkle dark dust over the poles, thereby decreasing their albedo and warming them. This will serve a two-fold purpose of both warming the planet directly, but perhaps more importantly the warming will cause the targeted release of carbon dioxide and water, which will significantly help in further warming Mars. While this method seems rather attractive, it has as drawbacks the difficulty of aerial platforms (as dust sprinklers) due to Mars’ thin atmosphere, as well as the sinking of the warmed dust into the ice which would lead to the need for frequent dust replenishing. A method to increase both the volatile inventory of Mars, and also warm up the planet is through the impacting of icy (comet) objects into Mars. This type of impact will most notably cause a local increase in temperature, creating a small oasis. This method is again out of our reach since we do not have the capability of moving, much less accurately aiming, very large objects through large distances. Furthermore, the impact may impact erode more volatiles than are imported, if the impact velocity is not sufficiently small (Fogg, 1992). As well, the lack of precision in targeting the impact site may be unsettling to the Martian settlers. The most viable technique for warming Mars, so far, appears to be the use of super greenhouse gases. The technology has been proven – it is currently being demonstrated on the Earth. Since the gases can be manufactured on Mars and do not need to be brought from the Earth, it is a viable near-term method. The Inside Workings of Super Greenhouse Gases The most commonly known greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, water vapor, ammonia vapor, and CFCs (chloroflourocarbons). Of these, CO2 and H2O vapor are responsible for keeping the Earth at a comfortable average temperature of 15ºC (59ºF), which is ~30ºC (54ºF) above what it would be otherwise. While greenhouse gases on the
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Terraforming Mars And Greenhouse Gases

Earth are crucial in keeping the Earth habitable, too many greenhouse gases (in conjunction with a close proximity to a star) can also render a planet uninhabitable, as exemplified by Venus. Super greenhouse gases derive their name from being more efficient than the more common greenhouse gases; in particular compared to CO2. Greenhouse gases are transparent to visible light. Sunlight passes virtually unobstructed through the atmosphere, and is absorbed by the ground, which is then warmed up. The warm ground radiates out in the infrared (IR) spectrum. Greenhouse gases are very effective at absorbing light in the IR, thus they block it form escaping into space and instead warm the atmosphere, which in turn warms the ground. Greenhouse gases can be thought of as a blanket around the planet; the thicker the blanket the warmer the surface. The effectiveness of a greenhouse gas is dependent both on what fraction of the IR energy it absorbs for a certain gas amount at a specified wavelength, and by where the absorption bands are placed in the IR spectrum. Every object radiates at various wavelengths depending on its temperature (Figure 2). The placement of the absorption bands is crucial – if they are placed at where the body radiates most of its energy then that gas will have a very strong warming effect. If the bands are placed on the outskirts of the blackbody curve, the gas will not be as effective. Super greenhouse gases have been very efficient partly because their absorption bands fall in the “window region” – the area between 8 12 µm (1250 - 830 cm-1) where CO2 and H2O vapor are not effective absorbers and the thermal radiation is still strong. Since different gases absorb at different wavelengths (Figure 3), if only one greenhouse gas is used, large transmission holes become apparent in the IR spectrum and the planet is not warmed efficiently. Furthermore, the warming due to a particular gas increases with diminishing return with the amount of gas. Therefore, in order to warm a planet efficiently, a cocktail of various carefully chosen super greenhouse gases should be used, keeping all the gases at low concentrations. Going back to the blanket analogy, this is a very similar effect to that of wearing many layers, rather than one very thick layer – that is using small amounts of many different gases rather than a large amount of one gas. Super greenhouse gases have earned a bad reputation on the Earth, where the increase in temperature is undesirable. The most common artificial super greenhouse gases on the Earth are CFCs, which are also very effective at destroying the ozone layer, further harming the environment on the Earth. However, on Mars the increase in temperature will be desirable! In addition, if PFCs (perfluorocarbons, very similar to CFCs but do not contain chlorine or bromine) are used, then the ozone layer will not be harmed. PFCs have no harmful effects to living organisms, especially at low concentrations. Criteria for Greenhouse Gases When deciding on greenhouse gases to be used in terraforming Mars, factors such as efficiency, easiness of manufacturing, long lifetime against destruction by solar UV light, presence of all necessary elements on Mars, no harmful effects to life, and ability to be incorporated into biological cycles must be considered. The efficiency of a greenhouse gas is measured by the increase in temperature for a given amount of gas produced. The higher the increase in temperature, the more desirable the gas. As stronger greenhouse gases are discovered, the terraforming of Mars becomes increasingly more viable since the energy requirements for the process decrease with the decrease in the amount of gas that needs to be manufactured. It is not practical for greenhouse gases to be carried to Mars from the Earth. Even though super greenhouse gases are to represent only a very small fraction of the atmosphere (about 0.1 to 1 part per million), this is still a very significant mass to be carried across space. Therefore, the gases will need to be manufactured on Mars. This should not be exceedingly difficult since the gases are commonly made on the Earth, and similar processes are likely to be applicable to Mars. In order to manufacture the gases on Mars, all the required elements must be available in significant quantities in the soil or atmosphere. Since the goal of terraforming Mars is to make the planet more habitable to life, using gases that have negative effects on life would be counter-productive. Most super greenhouse gases are not toxic. However, gases that contain chlorine
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Terraforming Mars And Greenhouse Gases

or bromine, such as CFCs, are very destructive to the stratospheric ozone layer, and therefore are harmful to life. Ideal gases would not contain chlorine and bromine and would be inert in the atmosphere. Candidates include PFCs (perfluorocarbons; which are made up only of carbon and fluorine) and some sulfur containing compounds such as SF6. An ideal situation in the terraforming of Mars would be to make the emerging biosphere capable of keeping its own environment warm and comfortable. In terms of the use of super greenhouse gases, this translates into bioengineering microorganisms which themselves produce the super greenhouse gases until the temperature reaches a certain threshold. Organisms have been found which do produce halogenated compounds (Tokarczyk and Moore, 1994; van Pee, 1996; Wackett, et al., 1994); it is likely within the near-term capability of biotechnology to transform the organisms so that they stop producing the greenhouse gases when a certain temperature is reached. Thus, it is desirable to use super greenhouse gases, which can be incorporated into biological cycles. Putting together all the requirements for super greenhouse gases and the resources that could be reasonably devoted to terraforming Mars, the project remains a practical possibility. Several super greenhouse gases satisfy all of the above requirements. Furthermore, because of their strong greenhouse potential, these gases need to be manufactured to low concentrations in order to produce a very strong greenhouse effect. Because of their long lifetimes, several thousand years (Fogg, 1995), the rate of production remains reasonable. Still, it must be realized that the energy requirements for manufacturing the gases are not trivial. On the order of 4x1020 Jules, equivalent to about 75 minutes of Martian sunlight, will be required to produce enough PFCs to raise the temperature of Mars by about 5ºC (9ºF) (McKay and Marinova, 2001). This is equivalent to 250 facilities consuming 500 MW (the size of a small nuclear reactor) working for 100 years. While these energy requirements are large, they are certainly not unachievable. In addition, the predicted temperature increase is likely low since it does not take into consideration various feedback effects, as well as optimizing the mixture of greenhouse gases. Analyzing the Greenhouse Potential of Super Greenhouse Gases The greenhouse potential of gases can, at first look, be compared by their transmission spectra; the more absorption bands that the gas has (the less energy it transmits), the more efficient it will be. The placing of the bands is also important, specifically covering the 8 - 12 µm (1250 - 830 cm-1) region. Figure 3 (a) and (b) compare the transmission spectra of CO2 and C3F8 for the same concentration of gas. In order to be able to use the transmission data in numerical analysis, the change of transmission with increasing gas concentration should be described by an exponential sum fit. Figure 4 shows the transmission for a strong C3F8 absorption band, fitted using a 3-term exponential fit. Once the exponential term fits are obtained, they are incorporated into a model calculating the downward flux generated by the presence of a gas amount in the atmosphere, as described in Marinova et al., 2000. The results of this analysis for current Mars are shown in Table 1; only gases which are good candidates for terraforming Mars are shown. While the results look very promising, it is important to note that the real-life warming will likely be somewhat higher. As the planet warms up, CO2 will be released from the melting polar caps and from the regolith. Once the planet warms up above about 0°C, water vapor too will become an important part of the atmospheric gases. With time, CO2 and water vapor will become the dominant greenhouse gases, with artificially or biologically produced super greenhouse gases providing a warming effect primarily in the window region. In present models, the source of CO2 is regolith outgassing or melting of the polar caps (McKay et al., 1991; Zubrin and McKay, 1994; Fogg, 1995). The temperature increases shown in Table 1 corresponds to individual gases. Using only one gas is not efficient since the warming effect is not linearly related to gas amount; the absorption bands become saturated and are no longer effective. In order to plug up all parts of the spectrum and avoid the saturation of bands, a carefully chosen mixture of gases should be used. Currently the model does not calculate the warming due to a mixture of gases.

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Terraforming Mars And Greenhouse Gases

Current work is focused on making a radiative-convective model of the Martian atmosphere, thereby providing a more accurate calculation of the warming due to greenhouse gases. Taking into account the CO2 released from the polar caps and the regolith as the planet warms will add another dimension of realism to the calculations. Using a Synergetic Approach Results from the analysis of greenhouse gases have shown that they are a viable method for the warming and terraforming of Mars. However, the energy requirements are not trivial. Like the nonlinear warming due to greenhouse gases discussed above, other methods for warming the planet are also more effective when conducted in a limited, but targeted, manner. Therefore, the use of a synergetic approach to terraforming is likely to be the most effective and efficient (Fogg, 1992). Super greenhouse gases are likely to lead such an effort, but the use of various other techniques should not be underestimated. The Ethics of Terraforming Mars No discussion of terraforming Mars would be complete without consideration of the ethical and social questions raised. Foremost of these is the question of indigenous life. If Mars had an early Earth-like epoch then it is likely that life arose during this early period and it is possible that there are still subsurface ecosystems or frozen dormant organisms in the ancient permafrost. The ethical issues are reduced or even eliminated if the Martian life is the same as Earth life, indicating that both planets share a common biological history – the Martians are our cousins. However, if Martian life does indeed represent a second genesis of life, then the ethical issues are profound. There are three possible approaches to dealing with alien Martian life. First, we could capture a sample for scientific study and preservation and proceed to introduce life from Earth. Second, we could decide to leave it alone – neither helping nor hurting it. Third, we could study the life and alter the Martian environment so as to allow that life to create a global biosphere – a Mars full of Martians. These three approaches touch on deep ethical questions. We suggest that the best approach is the third one, which maximizes the richness and diversity of life in the solar system (McKay, 1990; 2001); this approach is consistent with the terraforming of Mars. If there is no viable life on Mars, it is probable that if there was ever life on Mars its genetic information is still preserved in the frozen ground. Even if over time this Martian genome has become fragmented and non-viable, with future biotechnology it may be possible to reconstruct it from the pieces. Thus, humans might play a role not just in restoring the Martian environment but also restoring the Martian genome. If there was never life on Mars then the ethical issue deals simply with the choice between a rich, beautiful, scientifically interesting world devoid of life and a rich, beautiful, scientifically interesting world full of life. To us the choice is clear: life. Conclusion Planets that are good for life are hard to find. In our solar system we have only our Earth. However, Mars appears to be a world that could be made a friend for life using the unique capabilities of human technology and the powerful forces of evolutionary biology. Our present knowledge of Mars is not sufficient to be certain that we can terraform Mars or to show the final path to terraforming. However, the data collected so far and the studies done to date indicate that altering Mars to allow for a plant-based biosphere is a possibility, and one that could begin in our generation and be completed in the life-times of our great-grandchildren.

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Terraforming Mars And Greenhouse Gases

Figures

Figure 1. Several of the methods proposed for warming Mars and re-creating habitable conditions on that planet. Of the methods shown, greenhouse warming is the one approach that has already been demonstrated on Earth.

Figure 2. Thermal radiation (black body curves) from the surface of Mars and Earth corresponding to temperatures of -60°C and +15°C, respectively. Also shown are the main spectral regions for the absorption of thermal radiation by atmospheric water vapor, carbon dioxide, and super greenhouse gases. Super greenhouse gases can absorb in the “window” region where neither water vapor nor carbon dioxide absorb.

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Terraforming Mars And Greenhouse Gases

Figure 3. Transmission spectra for (a) CO2 and (b) C3F8, at a concentration of 10% in Argon (Ptot=101.3kPa).

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Figure 4. Exponential sum fit for a C3F8 strong band: 700-752 cm-1. The values in the fit are: a1=0.456, k1=2.43 x 10-23 m2 molecule-1, a2=0.342, k2=3.31 x 10-25 m2 molecule-1, a3=0.2, k3=1.27 x 10-24 m2 molecule-1; C is the column concentration of the gas in units of molecules m-2. A three term exponential sum is a convenient way of expressing the transmission in a band as a function of increasing concentration of the gas molecules that contribute to the band.

Table 1. Warming of Mars due to greenhouse gases. Only gases suitable for terraforming Mars (no Cl or Br) are shown (atmosphere on Earth = 101,300 Pa).
Table 1. Temperature increase from greenhouse gases on Mars.

References
1. Fogg, Martyn J., 1992. A Synergic Approach to Terraforming Mars. J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc 45, 315-329. 2. Fogg, M. J., 1995a. Terraforming: Engineering Planetary Environments. SAE, Warrendale, PA. 3. Marinova, M.M., C.P. McKay and H. Hashimoto, 2000. Warming Mars using artificial super-greenhouse gases. J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc. 53, 235-240. 4. Kieffer, H.H., Jakosky , B.M., Snyder, C.W., and Matthews, M.S., 1992. Mars. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 5. McKay, C.P., 1990. Does Mars have rights? An approach to the environmental ethics of planetary engineering. In Moral Expertise (D. MacNiven, Ed.), pp. 184-197. Routledge, London and New York. 6. McKay, C.P., 1999. Bringing Life to Mars. Scientific American Presents, 10, spring, no. 1, 52-57. 7. McKay, C.P., 2001. Martian Rights: Prioritizing Martian Life Over Human Settlement, The Planetary Report, in press. 8. McKay, C.P. and M.M. Marinova, 2001. The physics, biology, and environmental ethics of making Mars habitable, Astrobiology, 1, 89-109. 9. McKay, C.P., O.B. Toon, and J.F. Kasting, 1991. Making Mars Habitable. Nature 352, 489-496. 10. Zubrin, R.M. and C.P. McKay, 1997. Technological requirements for terraforming Mars. J. British Interplanet. Soc. 50, 83-92. 11. Tokarczyk, R., and R.M. Moore, 1994. Production of volatile organohalogens by phytoplanktonic cultures. Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 285-288. 12. van Pee, K.-H., 1996. Biosynthesis of halogenated metabolites by bacteria. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 50, 375- 399. 13. Wackett, L.P., M.J. Sadowsky, L.M. Newman, H.-G. Hur, and L. Shuying, 1994. Metabolism of polyhalogenated compounds by a genetically engineered bacterium. Nature 368, 627-629.
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“Thinking Long Term” – Investing Today for a Mars Future Tomorrow
Thomas Andrew Olson [2000] Abstract In 1944, a New York woman invested $5000 – one time – in a stock portfolio. At the time of her death 51 years later, her estate, based on that growth of that single managed investment, was worth $22 million. A $4000 investment in Coca-Cola in 1919, just after it’s reorganization, would today be worth over $600 million. These are not “fluke” data. Despite a major depression, a world war, 3 other major conflicts, a Cold War, and several recessions, the US stock market gained an average of 10.4% per year over the entire 20th Century. It is the nature of governments to spend wastefully, rather than truly invest for the future. All government bureaucracies, NASA included, are forced by the D.C. budget process to spend their allotted budget, in order to maintain funding commitments the following fiscal year, in a “use it or lose it” policy. Could such “waste” be measured, and had it been consistently invested in growth equity markets over the last 30 years, NASA could be almost self-sustaining today! Despite a record-breaking period of economic growth, the author will show figures to prove why the cost of the colonization of Mars will never be borne by the U.S. government alone, heralding the call for global partnering, and as quick a move as possible to private sector entrepreneurial firms and investments. The author will show common-sense methods by which small investments made now, by increasingly larger groups of people, can yield vast rewards for future generations – such as seed funding for a Martian colony. The key, as in any worthwhile endeavor, is patience and perseverance. Part One: Colonization – Can the U.S. Government “Go It Alone”? One of the prime missions of the Mars Society is to help mobilize public support for missions to the Red Planet. This is a laudable goal and should, of course, be pursued. But this pursuit should also include a clear picture of all the obstacles we face in taking that road, and the history behind them. This paper will attempt to provide that picture here, and offer a compelling supplement – if not an outright alternative – to that strategy. If our shared goal was merely exploration of Mars, NASA – having first been blessed and budgeted by Congress – as it initiates nothing without Congressional approval – could no doubt achieve that goal by 2012-2014. But our purpose is Mars settlement – a functioning series of self-sustaining colonies, as a spearhead for the next phase in the evolution of human civilization. Settlements cost a lot more than exploration missions, and no one government could foot that bill alone – not even the US, by far the wealthiest and most powerful nation on Earth today. “What,” you say? “The US economy is larger than at any time in history, boasting an astounding 9 Trillion dollar Gross Domestic Product for 2000. If we only shifted a few national priorities, we could afford it easily!” I can silence that argument with one word – one I will employ later. For now, though, let’s look at some more history: Although I have data from the Archives going back as far as 1934, I have chosen to concentrate on the last 30 years only for purposes of presentation. The first line in the chart I wish to address tracks total US tax receipts as a percentage of GDP. As you will notice, that line is relatively flat, only varying between 17.5%-20.6% over the last 3 decades. This is actually rather an interesting discovery – regardless of the growth of government taxation and spending (and people’s complaints about it), the growth of tax receipts is not in any real way disproportionate with the US economy as a whole. It was 20% as far back as the

Thomas Andrew Olson; CEO, The Colony Fund LLC, New York, NY, USA; E-mail: info@colonyfund.com; web: www.colonyfund.com
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“Thinking Long Term” – Investing Today for a Mars Future Tomorrow

height of World War II in 1943, and hit its only low point of 14.4% in 1953. Other than that exception, the line for the last 50+ years is pretty much as you see here, relatively flat.

Source: Office of Management and Budget

Now let’s add the next line:

Source: NASA

The second line in the chart depicts the NASA budget, as a percentage of the Federal budget as a whole over the last 30 years. Here, also, that line is relatively flat, varying between a 1970 high, at the height of the Apollo program, of 1.9%, to an all-time low of 0.7% in 1986, in the wake of the Challenger disaster. This averages out to be 1.02% of US
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“Thinking Long Term” – Investing Today for a Mars Future Tomorrow

expenditures annually. Since that flat line runs relatively parallel to that of total tax collection relative to GDP, it can be said that NASA’s budget has grown at an almost linear pace with that of government as a whole. Many would claim we are getting a lot of bang for that buck, considering. But we’re far from finished… Now let’s add Defense spending:

Sources: Office of Management and Budget, General Accounting Office, NASA

Hey, looking better, isn’t it? The green line in the chart shows the Defense budget, also as a percentage of the Federal budget, over the last 30 years. Here, we have a definite downward trend. Remember the “peace dividend” we were supposed to get from the end of the Cold War? This line would suggest that’s finally happening. Of course, remember that it’s only the percentage of military spending out of the budget as a whole that has dropped. Keep in mind that when you think about the red line, government budgets have grown at a tremendous rate, right along with the economy, and federal outlays today are 9 times what they were in 1970! If you are the Secretary of Defense, which would you rather have, 41% of $280 billion, or 16% of $2.5 Trillion? Even so, with all that huge economy and drop in real defense spending, federal funding of Mars colonization should be a snap, right? Not so fast…remember, spending in real dollars grew from 280 Billion to 2.5 Trillion in the last 30 years. So, if taxation has remained constant, NASA spending has remained constant, and Defense spending has dropped, where is all the money going? Therein lies the rub…and the “one word” that could shoot down all our government-funded Mars dreams: “Entitlements” . . .

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“Thinking Long Term” – Investing Today for a Mars Future Tomorrow

Source: IBID

Here is the Great Budget Killer that everyone in D.C. is too politically correct to talk about, the overwhelming burden on the body politic. I gave the line a gold color and a thicker weight for that reason. Entitlements, or “direct payments to individuals” (by GAO definition), is indeed, for 10’s of millions of Americans, the “golden goose.” Entitlement spending was only 27% when John F. Kennedy committed us to the race to the Moon. It had only grown to 33% by 1970. But with Vietnam winding down, and interest in lunar adventures waning, the social pressure was on to increase funding for all the Great Society programs initiated by Lyndon Johnson. The tap continues to increase it’s flow, projected to reach the 67% mark by 2005 – think about it – by 2005, a full 2/3 of the taxes you pay goes directly into someone else’s pocket, with government being the great middleman. If that goes on, the government of the US will be totally bankrupt by 2030 – unless, of course, that 50-year, 1-to-5-ratio history of taxation-to-GDP, that “hidden covenant” with the American people is dramatically altered. That could cause the economy the tax-base depends upon to spiral down dangerously, thus killing the proverbial Golden Goose. That huge number of entitlement recipients also amounts, today, to a large and powerful lobby and voting bloc. At the risk of being labeled cynical, I must conclude that Congress would shut down NASA completely before allowing that voting bloc to lose its meal ticket. The dream of Mars will die with it. Part Two: Is Nasa Worthy? Even is we could somehow craft a salable Mars-settlement strategy to the US Congress, is the only space agency we have – NASA – capable of carrying the ball? Again, let’s look at some figures:

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“Thinking Long Term” – Investing Today for a Mars Future Tomorrow

Here is the history of NASA’s budget, in adjusted-1999 dollars, from 1970 to the present. In that time we have seen the end of Apollo, then Skylab, Pioneer, Viking and Voyager, the Shuttle, the Hubble, Pathfinder, and now the ISS. Since Apollo, all manned space activities have been limited to low Earth orbit. Are we getting bang for our space buck? Again, in inflation-adjusted dollars, NASA has spent over the last 3 decades over $409 Billion. In “reverse inflation,” that’s $88 Billion Apollo-era dollars – or, the equivalent of spending 3 2/3 total Apollo program budgets! For that kind of spending, we should have stood on Mars at least once, in all that time. $409 Billion spent over the last 30 years should have definitely given us more than we currently enjoy as a society, not to mention the fact that private space ventures should have been encouraged, rather than stonewalled, by the Agency. Where does NASA’s money go? A significant chunk, nearly half, goes to the costs of expensive and sophisticated machinery for the Shuttle missions. According to NASA Chief Dan Goldin, $5 Billion/year is spent on launch alone. The shuttle itself has been criticized for years as being too complicated and expensive to maintain, and has kept the cost of space flight at $10,000/pound, which was exactly the same amount we were paying, in constant dollars, during Apollo. Part 3: The Power of the Market In 1995, Ms Anne Schreiber of New York City passed away quietly. She had a long, full, but rather unremarkable life. Like most people, she left behind an inheritance. In fact, the only reason we ever heard of her was that she deeded her entire estate to New York’s Yeshiva University. Ms. Schreiber’s personal net worth at the time of her death was approximately $22 Million. A little research uncovered that 50 years earlier, Ms. Schreiber had taken $5000 meticulously saved, and invested it in the US equity markets. She, along with the assistance of her broker, had conservatively and conscientiously traded and managed that single, one-time investment, through 4 wars, 3 recessions, and decades of political upheaval and change, to reach that 1994 valuation. Immediately after World War I, the Coca-Cola Company was considered all but dead. It’s product, a green colored, uncarbonated, cocaine-laden concoction, having been packaged as a health elixir since the 1880’s, had lost its appeal in the marketplace, in the light of tastier competition. On the verge of bankruptcy, they had two options: change or perish. So they changed. Almost overnight their product evolved from the “substance” described above to the product we know today, and their marketing plan refocused itself towards the product merely being a tasty, refreshing mass-market thirst
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“Thinking Long Term” – Investing Today for a Mars Future Tomorrow

quencher. They reorganized the company, and floated a new stock offering in 1919 to raise the initial capital for the product relaunch. Had your grandfather or great-grandfather made a $4000 investment in that stock offer in 1919, your inheritance would today be worth an astounding $622 Million! These examples are by no means “flukes.” There are millions of unsung stories out there, told by hundreds of companies and millions of individual investors over the last 80 years, concerning the power of equity markets in the US, and how investing long-term yields incredible benefits for those who are willing to think long-term and stay the course. The chart on the next page indicates why. While over a short term (like this year) the market may appear to fluctuate dramatically and cause short-term investors fits, the long term is a very different story. In 1972, the Dow broke 1000 for the first time. 29 years later, it’s averaging around 11,000. The point is, that despite short-term problems, the general trend of the markets is – always – upward. In the 20th Century, the Dow rose an average of 10.4% annually – despite depression, recessions, wars, and significant sociopolitical change. Unless western civilization collapses entirely, and with it, the rest of the global economy, there is no compelling reason to believe that this trend will not only continue, but also even improve during the 21st century – particularly if we can manage to stay out of the aforementioned global wars and depressions.

Okay. We’ve established that markets are good things, and relatively safe places to invest for long-term growth. Now, what does this have to do with Mars? In any major human endeavor, fiscal commitments must be made long term. Governments have shown that, given the political will, large-scale projects can be successfully achieved, from the Suez Canal, to Hoover Dam, the invasion of Normandy, the Manhattan Project, and Apollo. Most of these projects were crash programs, with little or no budgetary constraints, Herculean tasks performed in response to a specific challenge, be it the threat of Hitler or the threat of Communism. In most cases, however, there was a societal threat involved. Once the task was accomplished, the threat vanquished, the public political support rapidly dwindles, priorities change, funding shifts – sometimes dramatically. What I am attempting to promote here is a major paradigm shift: changing our thinking about how mass-scale projects are funded and accomplished. The USA no longer has any major threats to its security and stability. Given that, political will to accomplish grand-scale projects via the public purse is far more difficult to gather and retain than it would be under conditions of threat or crisis. The American body politic has devolved into competing subgroups of special interests, all vying for their piece of the pie. The only major bloc left consists of all those receiving entitlement payments. Fortunately, we can bypass all that D.C. infighting and use the power of the strongest economy ever created to our advantage. Lets take another look at the NASA numbers, in the chart on the following page:
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“Thinking Long Term” – Investing Today for a Mars Future Tomorrow

The first like is the NASA budget, 1970-2000, adjusted for inflation. The second line is 10% of that budget. For the sake of argument, I am positing that ANY government bureaucracy’s budget has, at minimum, a 10% “fluff factor” built into it. This is not cynicism – this is the conclusion of many DC-watchdog groups and think tanks such as the Heritage Foundation, Taxpayers Union, Common Cause, and the Cato Institute. The third line is the result, when I take 10% of NASA’s annual budget, and invest it in the equity markets, at an average rate of 11%. It is a relatively simple compound interest calculation, not accounting for market fluctuations, or changes in capital gains tax laws. Even so, the results are impressive. After 30 years of relatively mundane investing, NASA would be able to fund itself entirely for 6 years, without taxpayer contribution of any kind! If we begin to manage those assets far more aggressively, using Peter Lynch’s Dow Dividend approach, or David and Tom Gardner’s “Foolish Four” strategy, long-term returns as high as 23% annually can be achieved – and indeed, ARE being achieved today by millions of savvy investors. Of course, this sort of thing is not going to happen with a government agency in our lifetimes. This was a sort of thought experiment to prove a point. We can’t even compel NASA to set aside 1% of it’s annual budget to research humans-toMars technologies, although R & D is part of it’s mandate! Governments simply don’t think that way – and that is why we must. Staying in the game for the long haul is the only reasonable way that humanity will ever have an opportunity to settle a new world. So what should we do? Simply put, we should invest – as many of us as possible – all over the world, any way we can. We should get involved in commercial funds, investment clubs, whatever it takes. One example: Introduced at the Mars Society Convention in Toronto in 2000, was a concept called the Ares Fund. Its proponent, Clifford McMurray, suggested that although the Mars Society should always seek out and develop whatever sources of funding that make themselves available, that the membership as a whole might set a great public example by paying for it themselves, i.e., by investing a small amount of dollars in a long term fund, as a sort of ultimate backup plan. 4000 members times $250 per member – one time – for a total of $1,000,000 – into an investment pool, managed over the course of the entire 21st Century, if need be. The result at the end, however, would be enough cash to enable future Mars Society members to mount their own commercial missions!
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“Thinking Long Term” – Investing Today for a Mars Future Tomorrow

Our own “Colony Fund” venture capital initiative is also moving forward. When it is in place (by 2003), millions of small investors all over the world will be able to invest a small amount over a long term, to help build the commercial and technical infrastructure necessary to one day – perhaps 30 years hence – support planetary colonization. But overall, as I have shown above, success always depends on three things: Dedication, Faith, and Patience Resources
1. NASA 2. U.S. Office of Management and Budget 3. U.S. General Accounting Office 4. The Motley Fool (David and Tom Gardner) – for their 30-year stock market chart

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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home
Gary C. Fisher And members of the Independence Chapter of The Mars Society [1999] Abstract Many traditional above ground Martian colony designs have used dome structures, usually constructed from a flexible spherical membrane and inflated, to enclose the buildings of the colony. This paper will compare inflated spherical structures to inflated toroidal structures from the standpoint of internal volume, surface area, stresses, material requirements, stability, radiation shielding and safety. I. Space Architecture as Imagined In Figure 1 we see an example of how space colonies were envisioned to look. This picture, from Islands In Space The Challenge of the Planetoids1 published in 1964, is indicative of the role domes have been imagined to play in sheltering humans on alien worlds.

Figure 1

Note the huge size of these domes. They must be several kilometers in diameter and several hundred meters high. Note also the separation of residential, industrial and recreational spaces. Pictures such as this have inspired a generation of hopeful space colonists. Unfortunately, they do not represent a realistic future for Mars for reasons to be discussed shortly. II. Design Criteria for a Mars Habitat We can divide the important considerations for a successful design into three main areas: • Environmental • Habitability • Construction

Gary C. Fisher; P.O. Box 694 Bryn Athyn, PA 19009; E-mail: gcfisheris@aol.com
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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

Figure 2

Note: The lower density of the Martian atmosphere (1% of Earth’s) means that the wind loading on Mars for a given wind velocity corresponds to an Earth wind velocity roughly 10 times smaller and a wind loading 100 times smaller. Environmental Considerations Let us consider the effect these various environmental factors have when designing a surface habitat. Figure 2 gives some comparisons between the environment of Mars and Earth. In Figure 3 the pictures of the Earth, Moon, and Mars give their relative diameters.

Figure 3. The relative diameters of the Earth, Moon, and Mars

The lower gravity of Mars must be considered to be an overall benefit allowing for easier transport of building materials, and erection of structures, with a lessening of the innate dead loads.

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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

The low Martian atmospheric pressure dictates that for all inhabited structures the internal pressure loads exceed the static or live loads and therefore dictate the overall engineering of the structure. This inevitably leads to designs that serve well as pressure vessels, e.g., spheres, and spherically end capped cylinders. The intense radiation environment of Mars rules out many materials that deteriorate in a harsh ultraviolet, Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) and Solar Proton Event (SPE) radiation environment. It also means that a sufficient thickness of the chosen materials be used to shield the inhabited space from dangerous levels of radiation. For inflated structures the application of shield material to the outside of the structure has the benefit of countering the internal pressure. Townsend and Wilson2 have shown that a covering of around 20 g/cm2 of Martian regolith provides sufficient GCR and SPE shielding. The extreme cold of Mars dictates materials that do not become brittle at the low temperatures and remain dimensionally stable across the large range of temperature. Mars is a world of strong winds with a light touch. Wind loading is not a design consideration; the internal / external pressure differential is by far the most important structural loading concern. Of more concern, is the abrasive nature of Martian dust and the effect this may have on rotating machinery, e.g., air lock door mechanisms. When dealing with inflated structures, which is the focus of this paper, the planet’s surface texture is an important consideration. The Viking and Pathfinder probes have both revealed a world with a very rocky surface. To avoid puncture it appears that some site preparation, consisting of removing large sharp rocks, may be necessary before inflating any large structure on Mars. Habitability Considerations Habitability considerations mean those factors that affect the psychology and physical well being of the inhabitants. People are territorial and require a space of their own. In order to maintain social order it is essential that people be able to have dominance over some territory of their own. Factors that are important include the size of spaces; spatial variety, which is essential to our sense of freedom; views, which make spaces feel larger and provide a depth of field; natural light and fresh air, which counter depression and the illnesses associated with “sick building syndrome.” Volume, and lots of it, is what is needed. Current estimates are that people need the following minimum number of square feet of space per use per person: Private space – 250, Work – 100, Recreation - 150, Assembly – 50.3 In addition we can expect that a Martian habitat will require additional space for food production and life support as well as common space, e.g., corridors and stairs. We must also consider that ceiling height and door heights may need to be higher in a low g environment. Inflatable habitats appear to have the edge in providing the largest, undivided interior volumes per unit mass of structure (excluding shielding). The interior environment of the habitat can be severely degraded by a bad choice of materials. Out gassing of dangerous or noxious chemicals, or the production of secondary radiation are two critical factors when choosing materials. Construction Considerations The final consideration is construction requirements. Here I list a few construction constraints, some originally identified for the Moon, but of relevance to Mars as well.4 These apply either to a structure imported from Earth or developed locally: • Minimize need for heavy equipment (probably not available, and excavation and grading are difficult because of lack of traction) • Minimize need for power • Avoid hydraulic systems because out gassing can contaminate surroundings and because the near vacuum is hard on seals • Design with as few field joints as possible • Each component must be designed to be handled by one or at most two astronauts
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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

• Components must be compatible with astronaut’s gloved hands • EVA time is limited • Easy to integrate life support, power and lighting systems, and other architectural elements such as, floors, walls, airlocks, windows, etc. In addition inflatable structures have certain material requirements: • High strength – need to be able to withstand a pressure differential of probably a maximum of 15 psi • Durable • Easily folded • Low Cost • Low Mass • Do not change properties or age excessively in the Martian atmosphere • Withstand radiation without causing secondary radiation • No off-gassing to interior • Withstand Micrometeoroids (rip stop, easy to patch) III. Review of Space Inflatables Uses: Until the advent of the TransHab project inflatable habitats had not gone much beyond the paper design stage. However, inflatables have a long history in space dating back to some of the earliest space projects. Some of the uses of inflatables include: Atmospheric studies – Upper Atmosphere Density Obtained from Falling Sphere Drag Measurements – Dec. 1962 Antennas – Echo I – 1960, Echo II – 1964; Project Big Shot (the first phase in the NASA program leading to a global communication system using rigidized inflatable spheres equidistant and in orbit around the Earth) – 1961; Design and Investigation of Low Frequency Space Antennas – Jan. 1964; Inflatable Antenna Experiment on STS-77 – 1996 Solar Collectors – Deployment and Rigidization Test of a Large Inflatable Solar Collector – 1967 Propellant Bladders – RCA MPU Bladder Development program Apr.-July 1963 Trusses / Tunnels / Hangers / Solar arrays, etc. – Vacuum Deployment Tests on an Expandable Crew Transfer Tunnel – 1966; Inflatable Torus Solar Array Technology (ITSAT) Program – 1991 Decelerators – Investigation of an Attached Inflatable Decelerator System For Drag Augmentation of the Voyager Entry Capsule at Supersonic Speeds – 1968; Deployment and Performance Characteristics of Attached Inflatable Decelerators With Mechanically Deployed Inlets at Mach Numbers from 2.6 to 4.5. – 1972; Pathfinder 1997 Habitats – TransHab module for attachment to the International Space Station Decoy – Inflatable decoys have been used in ICBM tests. Details on these projects remain mostly classified. One of the major manufacturers of space inflatables is L’Garde Inc. of Tustin, CA, which has been making decoys since 1971. Technology The materials used in inflatable technology depend a lot upon the end use of the structure. Early on, aluminized polyester, e.g., Mylar, was used for the Echo communications satellites. Later on, resins that harden in the space environment, such as developed for a project to create an inflatable self-rigidizing space shelter and solar collector from honeycomb sandwich in 1963-1964, were created. Inflation for these types of structures was only required to achieve the final shape, after which the material would harden to maintain the shape even if the initial, low pressure, inflation
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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

gas escaped. This includes technologies such as plasticizers that boil off, and reactions that result in the final crosslinking in a matrix resin of a fiber reinforced composite. For habitats such as TransHab, laminated materials are being considered. The primary concerns being resistance to micrometeorite penetration, and retention of the internal pressure. There was even a metal bellows concept developed by Tracor, Inc in 19925 that combined traditional aerospace design with inflatable concepts. The pneumatically erected habitat was constructed like a bellows with the skin made of very flexible and thin (.0007”) titanium foil attached to rigid stringers. Other technological advances include dual wall construction.6 A dual wall structure achieves its final shape by inflating the space between to membranes or walls, rather than the interior space. The two major designs are pile fabric, called “Airmat” by Goodyear and “Rigidair” by Air Inflatable Products Corporation and “Wing tab” or I-Beam rib. In pile fabric many threads, in basically a drop stitch method, connect the membranes where the thread lengths are controlled to maintain a predetermined distance between the membranes. Wing tab fabric incorporates attachment flanges for the web as integrally woven portions of the membrane material. Wing tab fabric looks like a large air mattress with I-Beam webs holding the two membranes parallel. The stresses are evenly distributed and wing tab construction allows shaping of the structure into compound curves. Inflatable Habitats – Advantages • • • • • • • More volume per pound: 30-50% lighter than Hard Aluminum structures Greater flexibility of interior arrangement Large, continuous volume Automated deployment / Simple assembly Lower cost? Structural dead loads and occupancy live loads are negligible May better handle thermal stresses caused by temperature changes

Inflatable Habitats – Disadvantages • Credibility: Unproven technology • Cost: Requires longer lead time to develop, little manufacturing infrastructure exists • Complexity: Need to resolve issues of durability, manufacture, deployment, maintainability and repair IV. Sphere / Dome Designs Case For Mars Designs (a) Dome from half buried sphere. (b) Dome with lower half with twice the radius of curvature of the upper half. (c) Anchored tent dome. (d) Sphere held in place by berm with interior suspended decking. Figure 4, from The Case For Mars,7 illustrate the fundamental problem with a dome. The pressure in a dome acts as a force trying to tear the dome from the Martian surface. The forces acting on the circumference of a 50-meter diameter dome pressurized to 5 psi is 44 tons per meter! Dr. Zubrin has proposed several ways to address this. One is to create a domed space by filling a sphere half full of dirt in order to provide the inflated sphere with stability and a flat floor. Alternatively, to avoid such
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Figure 4

Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

massive excavation (with the corresponding problem of transporting a massive quantity of regolith into the sphere) the sphere can be held stable by a berm, or the radius of curvature of the lower half may be twice that of the upper half. If a dome is to be used, then a significant amount of excavation is required in order to bury a skirt deep enough to counteract the lifting force. To provide radiation protection all these designs include an additional external unpressurized Plexiglas shield. Dr. Zubrin proposed two basic sizes: 50 and 100 meters in diameter. Author’s Proposed Sphere / Dome Designs Here are three design concepts by the author for an inflated spherical habitat. The Chinapas Sphere: The first is based upon the idea of Chinapas, the floating gardens built by the Aztecs. In this design the flat floor of the dome is created as a floating floor, the regolith that would have had to be imported into the sphere being replaced by water, which could be inserted by a through-wall fitting and a hose. As in the Aztec Chinapas, plants are allowed to grow roots through the floating floor into the water below. Figure 5 is a sketch of such a sphere. The floating floor is supported by pressurized gas tanks containing supplemental air in case of a loss of pressure. The floor is made like a woven mat, perhaps regolith treated to act like soil. Plants of bamboo, covered with can grow their roots through the floating floor to reach the nutrient rich water below. Occasionally mud must be pumped up from the bottom of the sphere to be spread on the floating floor.

Figure 5

This design is probably limited to greenhouse spheres because of the high humidity. Some form of flexible skirt must be attached at the interface of the floor and the sphere dome to minimize evaporation around the edge of the floor and to prevent the floor from tipping if excess weight is placed near the periphery. For residence-type spheres the membrane of the lower half of the sphere may be designed to be thermally conductive while the upper half is thermally insulating. Under these circumstances the water will freeze and the installed, nonfloating, floor should also be highly insulating so that the water below does not melt. Given a ready supply of water, filling a sphere by pumping in water is much simpler than importing regolith. Lacking water, liquid CO2 could be pumped in and allowed to freeze into dry ice. Cliffside Sphere: This next design, figure 6, simplifies the excavation required for the sphere. A site is located on a crater or cliff wall where explosive charges are placed into holes drilled in a semicircular pattern. When exploded the charges cause a semicircular depression along the crater wall or cliff to be created; the material being removed is blasted into the crater or onto the land below the cliff. Some minor shaping of the depression created will need to be done before the sphere is inflated into it. Rather than a flat floor, a terraced interior is created by tunneling into the regolith at the back of the sphere at multiple levels. As the mine tailings are dumped into the sphere and bulldozed into a terrace level, additional inhabitable space is being created in the tunnels. By locating the sphere in this manner significant radiation shielding is provided by the adjacent regolith.

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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

Figure 6

After inflation, crews use pressure doors incorporated into the membrane to begin excavating tunnels into the cliff face. Beginning with the lowest level regolith is excavated and the tailings dumped into the sphere to create the first terrace. Higher terraces result in shorter tunnels since less material is required. The tunnels provide additional inhabitable space and a refuge in case of loss of sphere membrane integrity.

Hydrosphere: This next design, figure 7, is a variation on the Chinapas design. It utilizes the pressure differential between the exterior and interior of the dome to fill the space between the two walls of the sphere full of water. The principle being applied is that of the U-tube barometer. The interior air pressure forces the water below the floating floor through a hole in the bottom of the inner wall up into the space between the two walls. The interior air pressure also supports the weight of the water in the wall above the floor. The space between the two walls is chosen to provide the optimal radiation shielding while transmitting sunlight. A rigid wall, rather than a flexible wall may be preferable for this design. A simpler structure might consist of a dual wall rigid cylinder with a flat roof covered with regolith. The pressure of the hab atmosphere pushes out in all directions including pushing on the floating floor and the water beneath it. This forces water through the hole at the bottom center of the inner membrane and into the space between the two membranes. The outer membrane has a hole at the top that puts the water into communion with the exterior, low, pressure Martian atmosphere. In order to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium the water column will rise above the floor of the sphere providing a water radiation shield.
Figure 7

The height, h, that water will be raised by the pressure differential can be calculated as: h = (H2 – H1) = (P1 – P2) / (rho*g) = p / (rho*g) where: h = the height difference H2 – H1 P = the pressure difference P1 – P2 rho = the density of water = 1000 kg/m3 (at 0 degrees Celsius) g = the acceleration of gravity on Mars = 3.711 m/s2

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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

If the internal pressure is P1 = 8 psi = 55 kPa and the external pressure is P2 = .07 psi = 0.49 kPa the resulting height h is 14.7 meters! Other Designs Cylindrical Fabric-Confined Soil Structures: Richard Harrison, of TRW, Inc. has proposed8 creating fabric tubes that are filled with dirt in order to create arches, which help counteract the internal pressure, hold the inflated structure in place and provide some radiation shielding. A number of such arches can be used to confine, and in cases of loss of internal pressure, support an inflated sphere. Note: The reader is directed to the source paper for illustrations of this concept. Hexmars-II: Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical College’s Hexmars-II concept9 consists of six inflated spheres partially buried. Shaped charges are used to do the initial excavation. An interior telescoping core post is put in place followed by inflation of a Kevlar membrane. The crater is back-filled with regolith, the exposed upper portion of the sphere covered with rigidized foam and then covered with sandbags. This concept includes an ingenious non-penetrating connector for connecting cables to anywhere on the inside of the dome. Three floors are attached to the central core post. Note: The reader is directed to the source paper for illustrations of this concept. Inflatable Lunar Habitat: The inflatable lunar habitat design10 from a joint NASA / Texas A&M university study of 1989 came in two designs, both incorporate a 16-meter diameter inflated sphere, one third below grade and the upper two thirds covered with a layer of regolith for radiation and meteoroid shielding and thermal insulation. One design provided an exterior aluminum frame to support the regolith shield in case of loss of internal pressure, the other design assumes the regolith shield is self-supporting. The interior was designed to have 5 floors and accommodate a crew of 12. This study primarily looked at the mass requirements of the aluminum structural elements. A rough calculation of the effect of Mars gravity on the design was done. Note: The reader is directed to the source paper for illustrations of this concept. LUNAB: The LUNAB design,11 developed at the Italian Affiliate Campus for Space Architecture of the International Space University in association with the Shimizu Corp. of Tokyo and Binistar Inc, of San Francisco, began with the same design requirements of the Texas A&M 1989 study but addresses the excavation question in a unique way. In this design of a self-constructing space system the 16-meter diameter sphere has a central core post containing an Archimedean screw. By some undefined method the screw is rotated and penetrates the regolith transporting material up the central core and then expelling it through a cupola at the top over the inflated sphere providing a radiation shielding coating. Some additional excavation would probably be required, but the Archimedean screw would anchor the structure and automate the covering with regolith. Five levels of floors are ingeniously folded up against the central post from which they deploy. Note: The reader is directed to the source paper for illustrations of this concept. V. The Torus A torus, figure 8, is a geometrical shape familiar in everyday life as the shape of a doughnut or bagel. In fact, it was while sitting by a swimming pool and observing a beach ball and an inner tube floating by that the thought first came to the author that the inner tube (toroidal) shape might be preferable to the beach ball (spherical) shape for an inflated habitat. Geometrically the standard torus is parameterized as a surface of revolution: a circle is revolved around an axis.

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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

The general equations for such a torus are: f(u,v) = [(a+b*cos(v)) * cos(u) , (a+b*cos(v))*sin(u) , c*sin(v)]

Radius r of revolving circle. Distance R from center to axis of rotation. Area = 4p2Rr Volume = 2p2Rr2

u cut

v cut
Figure 8

The stresses (σ), Figure 9, on a torus can be calculated using the following formula:12 Circumferentially around the torus the stress is the same as in the surface of a sphere: σ = Pr/2 where P is the internal pressure For the stress around the membrane from the outside to the inner hole the stress is calculated as: σq = (Pr/2)((2+r sin q/R) / (1+ r sin q/R))

Figure 9

VI. Torus Designs The torus shape was adopted for the 1975 Stanford University space colony design for a large space habitat for up to 10,000 people. The 1975 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design sponsored by NASA and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), convened at Stanford University and the NASA Ames Research Center. Nineteen professors of engineering, physical science, social science, and architecture, three volunteers from academe, industry, and government, six students, a technical director, and two co-directors worked for ten weeks to design a system for the colonization of space. The technical director was Gerard K. O’Neill. Their final report appeared in 1977 as NASA Special Publication SP-413.13 Their prototype colony is known as “the Stanford Torus.” The Stanford torus was designed as a rigid, not an inflatable, structure. However, the final report of this project represents the best, most detailed discussion of the issues facing a large space habitat with particular reference to a toroidal-shaped structure. The torus, as a shape for an inflated habitat, appears to have been originated by Peter Kokh14 and, independently, by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under a project led by Dr. Lowell Wood. ILC Dover did a follow on configuration analysis and design study for Livermore.15 This study resulted in two toroidal designs for the development of standardized modules that could be combined to create larger stations similar to the ISS. The TransHab module, developed at the Johnson Space Center, built upon the Livermore / ILC Dover studies. TransHab was designed to provide additional livable space on the Moon, Mars, or as an attachment to the ISS. The author’s pool side epiphany resulted in roundtable design effort by members of his Mars Society Chapter that lead to the design of the Independence Torus designed to accommodate a small settlement on Mars.
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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

The Lunar Hostel, a.k.a. Moonbagle Peter Kokh’s seminal paper discussed the concept of a lunar hostel, “an inexpensively equipped habitat with lots of elbow-room that needed only to be hooked up to the cranny-jammed expensive equipment of a docked visiting vehicle in order to function as a complete base.” This concept is not limited to “hostel” use. The core could contain all the “works” needed for a full-function base.

Figure 10 (Reproduced with permission)

Figure 10 shows a shielded Moonbagel (the name given by David A. Dunlop) deployed in a suitably sized crater to ease placement of shielding overburden. A core module in the center contains the electronics, power, plumbing, heating / cooling, air / water recycling, communications, and galley. The hollow ribs are filled with a rigidizing foam. The torus is for sleeping, recreation, dining, exercise and other functions needing lots of space. A rigid central core extends upward through the regolith shield and provides an exit for suited EVA. A tunnel through the regolith shield provides a place for vehicles to dock. TransHab The concept for TransHab, figure 11, originated at NASA’s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in 1997 as a possible design for an inflatable living quarters on future Mars-bound spacecraft. The structure is, like the Moonbagel, a hybrid having a rigid core with an inflated toroidal outer component. TransHab’s foot-thick inflatable shell has almost two dozen layers. The layers are fashioned to break up particles of space debris and tiny meteorites that may hit the shell with a speed seven times as fast as a bullet. Debris protection is achieved by successive layers of Nextel, spaced between several-inches-thick layers of open cell foam, similar to foam. The Nextel and foam layers cause a particle to shatter as it hits, losing more and more of its energy as it penetrates deeper. The outer layers protect multiple inner bladders, made of a material that holds in the module’s air. The shell also provides insulation from temperatures in space that can range from plus 250 degrees Fahrenheit in the Sun to minus 200 degrees in the shade. Many layers into the shell is a layer of woven Kevlar that holds the module’s shape. Three bladders of Combitherm, a material used in the food-packing industry, hold the air inside. The innermost layer, forming the inside wall of the module, is Nomex cloth, a fireproof material that also protects the bladder from scuffs and scratches.

Level 4 – Pressurized tunnel Figure 11 (Courtesy of NASA) Level 3 – Crew health care Level 2 – Mechanical room and crew quarters Level 1 – Wardroom and galley
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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

Independence Torus The Independence Torus, figure 12, is the result of a design project of the Independence Chapter (Philadelphia, PA) of the Mars Society. The design assumes an R of 15 meters and an r of 10 meters for an overall diameter of 50 meters. The structure is segmented into quadrants, each of which may be isolated by interior pressure doors from the adjacent quadrants. The whole structure is protected from UV and other radiation by a Plexiglas shield supported on guy wires descending at an angle from a central mast. The Plexiglas panels can be hoisted, like sails, to the top of the tower by pulling on lines for that purpose. In the illustration two rovers are cooperating in “hoisting the shields.” The shield also provides minimal micrometeorite protection as well as protection from dust. A more temperate microclimate should develop under this tent. The mast can be used as a radio tower, weather station, or even, as shown, a mooring mast for a lighter-than-air craft. While not shown in the illustration, a layer of regolith could be applied over the structure. One quadrant, the one that would receive the most sunlight, is designed with transparent membranes and functions as a greenhouse. The greenhouse quadrant may function like an Aztec Chinapas and have a floating floor. The crew living quarters would be divided between two separate quadrants. One quadrant would contain apartments for half the crew along with the galley space; another quadrant would contain the apartments for the other half of the crew along with the recreational space. The final quadrant contains the mechanical systems, the main air lock, working space, and storage.

Figure 12. The Independence Torus – Rendering by Tim Bauer

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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home

VII. Advantages of the Torus The torus has a number of advantages over a sphere. • • • • • • • A torus has a stable footprint (will not roll away) More easily segmented for safety Provides a natural shape for circulating the interior air Not as tall for its volume allowing for easier covering with regolith for radiation or other shielding More floor area with the maximum headroom Less inflation gas required for comparable floor area Less regolith must be imported into the structure to create the level floor

While for a given diameter a sphere has a greater volume, much of this volume is not usable unless additional floors are created. As table 1 shows, the amount of floor area can be similar for sphere and torus of the same diameter; however, a torus may have significantly less surface area. While this reduced surface area, nearly a third in the case of the 100 meter diameter comparison in the table, translates into reduced mass, it does come at the expense of less interior volume. However, the lost volume is not usable in a large diameter sphere unless a structure is built in the sphere to create additional floors. This flooring will also add mass that will need to be imported from Earth and that will require additional construction time. The breathable gas mixture that must be created to inflate a sphere is correspondingly much greater because of this additional volume.
Table 1

Note: Floor Area is the surface area created by filling the torus or sphere half full of regolith. The sizes were chosen to correspond to the sphere sizes discussed in Zubrin’s The Case For Mars. VIII. Conclusion While not yet as developed as the sphere (dome) from a conceptual standpoint, the torus, particularly an inflated torus with a solid core, appears to have been accepted as the preferred configuration for at least small habitats. A torus has significant advantages over a sphere, most importantly, for structures transported from Earth in the mass to floor area ratio. Significant savings are also to be had in construction time and difficulty, due to the innate stability of the torus and the significantly less inflation gas that must be used to inflate, and the regolith that must be imported into, a torus versus a sphere of similar floor area. Safety is enhanced by the relative simplicity of segmenting a torus into separate pressure compartments. References
1. D. M. Cole and D. W. Cox with Forward by Willy Ley, Islands In Space Chilton Books, Philadelphia, 1964). 2. L. W. Townsend and J. W. Wilson, “The Interplanetary Radiation Environment and Methods To Shield From It,” in Strategies For Mars: A Guide To Human Exploration, ed. Carol R. Stoker (American Astronautical Society by Univelt, San Diego, 1996), pp. 315-16. 3. R. Pfeifer, “Lunar Habitats – Places for People,” in Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space III, Vol. 1, (American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, 1992), pp. 183-88.

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Torus Or Dome: Which Makes The Better Martian Home
4. S. W. Johnson, K. M. Chua, M. Schwartz, and J. O. Burns, “Architectural Considerations In Design of Lunar-Based Astronomical Observatories,” in Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space V, Vol. 2, (American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, 1996), pp. 871-79. 5. S. Bradley (Tracor, Inc.), “Pneumatically Erected Rigid Habitat,” in Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings, (NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1992), pp. 592-596. 6. H. Q. Bair, W. H. Fischer (Air Inflatable Products Corp.), “Dual Wall Inflatable Structures For Space Oriented Applications,” in AFSC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio Aerospace Expandable Struct., 1966) pp.785-802. 7. R. M. Zubrin, The Case For Mars: The Plan to Settle The Red Planet and Why We Must, (The Free Press, New York, NY, 1996) 8. R. A. Harrison, “Cylindrical Fabric-Confined Soil Structures,” in Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space III, Vol. 1, (American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, 1992), pp. 123-34. 9. I. Sabouni, Prairie View A&M University, “Design and Development of the Second Generation Mars Habitat,” in USRA, Proceedings of the 8th Annual Summer Conference: NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program, 1992), pp. 228-36. 10. P. K. Yin (Texas A&M Univ.), “A Preliminary Design of Interior Structure and Foundation of an Inflatable Lunar Habitat,” in NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program Vol 2, (NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1989), pp. 26-1 – 26-10. 11. D. Bedini, “Self-Constructing Space Systems,” in Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space V, Vol. 2, (American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, 1996), pp. 1032-37. 12. M. Roberts, “Inflatable Habitation for the Lunar Base,” in The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, Vol 1, (NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1989), pp. 249-253. 13. R. D. Johnson and C. Holbrow, editors. Space Settlements: A Design Study. NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1977. Special Publication 413: authored by the participants of the 1975 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design at Stanford University and NASA Ames Research Center. 14. P. Kokh, D. Armstrong, M. R. Kaehny, and J. Suszynski, “The Lunar “Hostel” An Alternate Concept for First Beachhead and Secondary Outposts,” presented at ISDC ‘91, (San Antonio, TX, 1991) http://www.lunar-reclamation.org/hostels_paper1.htm 15. D. Cadogan, J. Stein, M. Grahne (ILC Dover, Inc.), “Inflatable Composite Habitat Structures for Lunar and Mars Exploration,” 49th International Astronautical Congress Sept 28-Oct 2, 1998, Melbourne, Australia http://www.ilcdover.com/WebDocs/habitats.pdf

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The Effects of Upright Lower Body Negative Pressure Cycle Ergometry Training on Vo2max and Endurance
Joe O’Saben; George D. Swanson [1999] Abstract Travel to and residence at Mars may require the use of a Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) training device to maintain fitness. The LBNP device pulls body fluids into the lower body so as to simulate an Earth-like gravity vector. The purpose of this study was to determine if a cycle ergometry training program using LBNP would cause a greater increase in VO2max and endurance, than an identical training program that did not use Lower Body Negative Pressure. VO2max and endurance were determined on a cycle ergometer and on a treadmill using the Bruce protocol. The subjects were matched according to VO2max and divided into experimental and control groups. The subjects then trained three times per week for 8-weeks at about 70% VO2max. Following the eight weeks, they repeated the pre-test protocol. Eight volunteers began the program, and 5 (3 study / 2 control) completed it. The results of the post-testing showed greater increases in VO2max in the study group compared to the controls, although the low number of subjects precluded statistical analysis. The study group showed increases in VO2max of 4.8%, 16.25%, and 7%; while the control group showed increases of 5.9% and 2.4%. The results from the endurance test did not show improvement in either group. These results suggest that training under LBNP conditions may be useful to enhance fitness in 1 G. Similarly, in 0 G or 1/3 G, training with LBNP may simulate a more Earth-like training condition because fluids are shifted to the legs as they are in 1G. The consequence may be an increase in blood and plasma volume – the traditional Earth-like training effect. A higher level of aerobic fitness may be possible using the LBNP training device while in and traveling to the Martian environment thus increasing Martian work capacity and facilitating reentry into a 1 G environment. Introduction Traveling, living and working in outer space creates physiological and medical concerns for astronauts. Short stays into space affect the astronauts’ fitness levels, and long stays in microgravity leave returning astronauts unable to stand. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) devices have been used to mimic the influences of gravity on the body for studies using extended bed rest to simulate microgravity, in efforts to find ways that would allow astronauts to maintain their fitness levels while in space (Lee et al. 1997; Hargens et al. 1994; Murthy et al. 1994). These studies have shown that supine LBNP exercise simulates upright exercise in maintaining submaximal exercise responses. Furthermore, in 1968, Cooper and Ord observed that upright exercise under LBNP conditions might produce a training effect. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if an eight-week upright LBNP cycle ergometry training program would produce a training effect on VO2max and endurance and relate these results to long term space flight. Review of Literature This section will examine the literature associated with Lower Body Negative Pressure training, and its effects on VO2max and endurance. Astronauts returning from space flight lasting one to two weeks typically find themselves to be orthostatically intolerant upon returning to Earth (Hargens and Watenpaugh, 1996). In an attempt to maintain, or even improve, the physical conditioning of astronauts exposed to a microgravity (space) environment, researchers have tried to train subjects in a simulated microgravity environment on Earth, due to the difficulty of performing this research in space. The two most common ways that microgravity is simulated are bed rest and Head-Down Tilt (HDT). With these methods, fluid redistribution and cardiovascular deconditioning approximates that found during space flight. Subjects undergoing bed rest can be placed supine into a Lower Body Negative Pressure chamber to exercise without returning to a standing
Joe O’Saben & George D. Swanson; California State University, Chico, CA 95929-0330; Phone 503-898-4841; Fax 530-898-4932; dswanson@csuchico.edu
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The Effects of Upright Lower Body Negative Pressure Cycle Ergometry Training on Vo2max and Endurance

position effectively maintaining the simulated effect of microgravity. While supine within the LBNP chamber, fluids and blood pressure gradients are redistributed in the body to approximately that of a 1G (Earth) environment. Exercise in the chamber can be on a vertically mounted treadmill or cycle ergometer. In the case of the treadmill, pulleys are used around the legs to remove the vertical gravity vector, which is not present in space. It has been demonstrated that training responses under supine LBNP conditions closely resemble the training responses of an upright 1G training program. Hargens et al, (1991) compared footward forces produced in a supine LBNP environment to standing, and found them to be similar, thus showing the effectiveness of supine LBNP to approximate those forces when standing. If supine LBNP forces are similar to normal upright forces, then it may follow that upright LBNP forces will be greater than 1G, and that upright LBNP exercise will place an additional stress on the body. Murthy and co-workers (1994) found that supine LBNP exercise closely resembles that of upright exercise. They measured footward force, muscular pressure of the soleus and tibialis anterior, calf volume, heart rate and blood pressures in both supine LBNP and upright 1G conditions. They concluded that supine exercise against 100 mm Hg LBNP provides similar muscular stress as the same exercise upright against 1G. Additionally, they found that supine LBNP provides greater cardiovascular stress than upright 1G exercise, evidenced by a significantly higher heart rate (99 + 5 to 81 + 3 beats per minute). Also, and possibly related to the increased heart rate, the calf volume was significantly increased by 3.3 + 0.5% during LBNP exercise, while it did not increase significantly during 1G exercise. Eiken (1988) also observed significantly higher heart rates during supine LBNP cycling exercise than supine exercise without LBNP, in addition to significantly lower blood lactate levels in the LBNP group. Oxygen uptake was found to be 10% lower in the LBNP group, and it rose at a much lower rate than the control group. Cycling endurance was found to be higher in the LBNP group, but still less than similar upright exercise. He concluded that supine LBNP exercise is a “valid and useful model of upright exercise” (p. 775). Lee and co-workers (1997) found that supine LBNP exercise is able to maintain the exercise responses as well as upright exercise in subjects undergoing five days of bed rest. Pre- and post-bed rest exercise testing showed significant elevations in heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio and minute ventilation in the control group, who did not exercise, but similar values between the upright exercisers and those who exercised supine with LBNP in all variables tested. While this is useful for the space program, it also suggests that supine LBNP exercise occurs at a simulated 1G. In comparing supine exercise with and without LBNP, Eiken and Bjurstedt (1985) found that exercise with LBNP did not have a significant influence on heart rate compared to exercise without LBNP during graded exercise on a cycle ergometer at workloads of 0, 50 and 100 watts for four minutes each. Significant decreases were found however, in cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean systolic ejection rate at all workloads. This study also showed that leg exercise aids in returning blood to the heart, as stroke volume with LBNP increased considerably from resting values, and continued to increase during exercise, whereas, during exercise without LBNP, stroke volumes decreased with increasing loads. Submaximal VO2 and ventilatory thresholds were found to be lower in supine LBNP exercise when compared to upright exercise, however, the difference was not significant (Hughson et al, 1993). Significant decreases were found in VO2max and ventilatory thresholds between supine LBNP and upright exercise. At low or high work rates, heart rates were found to be similar in supine LBNP and upright exercise. Cooper and Ord, in 1968, compared upright and supine exercise during submaximal exercise with and without LBNP, and found significantly higher heart rates (184 to 173) were attained during the upright LBNP exercise. Cycling without LBNP had slightly higher, but not significant, VO2max and minute ventilation values. These cardiorespiratory changes are similar to those seen in a loss of physical fitness, or deconditioning. This study suggests that upright LBNP exercise can produce a training overload that may accelerate a cardiovascular training response when compared to training without LBNP.
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The Effects of Upright Lower Body Negative Pressure Cycle Ergometry Training on Vo2max and Endurance

The research presented suggests that supine LBNP exercise is similar in training responses to normal upright exercise. Additionally, cardiovascular responses to supine LBNP are similar to, or even slightly higher than, normal upright exercise, and it was observed that upright LBNP exercise produces higher heart rates and a deconditioning-like effect. The next logical step appears to be to try to ascertain the effects of an aerobic training program under upright LBNP conditions, to see if the LBNP induced deconditioning-like response will lead to an increased training response that can be measured with VO2max and endurance testing. This may lead to an additional method for improving cardiovascular fitness that may be more effective than current methods. Methodology During the first week of the study, all the subjects underwent 3 pre-tests: (1) a cycle ergometry VO2max test, (2) a cycle ergometry endurance test, and (3) a treadmill VO2max test. The cycle ergometry (Monark mechanically braked cycle ergometer) VO2max test used the Chico cycle (similar to a Bruce treadmill test) protocol, which terminated when the subject was unable to continue or maintain 60 rpm for 15 seconds. During the last thirty seconds of each stage a Rating of Perceived Exertion, from the Borg revised scale (ACSM Guidelines, 1995) was obtained. Heart rate was measured with an EKG, and respiratory gases were measured with the metabolic cart (ParvoMedics TrueMax 2400, Parvo Medics, Inc., Sandy, UT) automatically during the test. Endurance was measured fifteen minutes after completion of the VO2max test. The test began with a 60-second warmup at 60 rpm and 1 kp, then increased to 90 rpm and 2.5 kp. The test ended when the subject could no longer continue or maintain 90 rpm for 15 seconds. The treadmill test took place two days later and used the Bruce protocol (ACSM Guidelines, 1995). The same procedures were used as during the cycle testing. After all subjects had been tested, they were ranked according to their cycle VO2max, and then divided into experimental and control groups. To distribute them evenly, the subject with the highest VO2max was placed into the experimental group and the subject with the second highest VO2max was placed into the control group. This procedure was continued until all subjects were assigned to a group. The subjects were then contacted and training times were arranged that fit their schedules and preferred times. Times were scheduled that allowed one control and one experimental subject to train together to best utilize the lab time. A researcher was present for all training sessions to ensure compliance with the program and increase safety. The training program was individualized to the subjects, based on 60-70% of their cycle VO2max test. Training protocols were estimated using the leg ergometry calculation from the ACSM handbook (pg. 282). VO2 ml/min = 3.5 ml/kg/min x kg BW + kgm/min x 2 Calculating 60, 65, and 70% of the individual’s VO2max and using a 60-rpm standard predicted the required workload. The subjects trained thirty minutes a day, three times per week for the next eight weeks starting at 60%, then increasing to 65% in the fourth week and 70% in the seventh week. The vacuum was maintained at 30 + 5 mm Hg, after it was discovered during the first ride of each study subject that the planned 50 mm Hg vacuum resulted in dyspnea, lightheadedness, and dizziness during the exercise period. Following the eight weeks of training, the subjects repeated the cycle VO2max, cycle endurance, and treadmill VO2max testing, following the same protocols as the pre-test. Results Table 1 shows the subjects characteristics and Table 2 shows the results from the pre- and post-tests. 8 subjects began the program, and 5 completed the 8 weeks of training.

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The Effects of Upright Lower Body Negative Pressure Cycle Ergometry Training on Vo2max and Endurance
Table 1. Subject Characteristics

* 24 possible

Table 2. Study Results

The number of subjects completing the study was not suitable for a statistical analysis. However, the data imply that training in the LBNP box did have an effect on VO2max. The control group did not achieve improvements in VO2max anywhere close to those in the study group. Subjects 4 and 5 were the most closely matched pair in the group. They also trained at the same time and had similar attendance. Comparing their changes shows a three-fold increase in the study partner compared to the control. Subject 3, the most improved, also has nearly a three-fold increase over the highest improvement from the control group. The LBNP box did not appear to have an effect on endurance, as only 2 subjects showed any improvement. This may be because the endurance test is more a test of power output, rather than cardiovascular fitness, or that the subjects were more fatigued during the VO2max test because they cycled for a longer time. Cardiovascular fitness improvements made while training on a cycle ergometer translated into an improved VO2max on the treadmill as well. 3 of the 5 subjects had similar gains in VO2max on the treadmill test as they did on the cycle. This shows a lack of training specificity between the cycle and treadmill, and suggests that either a cycle ergometer or treadmill could be used for training in the LBNP box. Conclusions This study was designed to determine if upright training in a Lower Body Negative Pressure environment could produce an ergogenic effect. Lower Body Negative Pressure training on supine bed rest subjects has been shown to approximate upright training, and that a supine LBNP environment produces similar gravitational-like forces when compared to a normal 1G upright environment. It had also been previously suggested that upright LBNP exercise might produce a cardiovascular training effect.
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The Effects of Upright Lower Body Negative Pressure Cycle Ergometry Training on Vo2max and Endurance

Eight subjects volunteered to be a part of an 8-week training program. They began with a pre-test to measure their current VO2max and endurance times on a cycle ergometer, followed 2 days later by a Bruce treadmill test. The subjects were then allocated to a study group with LBNP cycle training and a control group with normal cycle training. At the end of the 8-week training program, the subjects repeated the pre-test protocols. Five subjects (3 study / 2 control) completed the program. The cycle and treadmill VO2max scores of the study group were higher than those of the control group, however the endurance times did not show any differences between the groups, and were improved in only 2 subjects. The low number of subjects precluded a statistical analysis. From an observational analysis of the results, it is apparent that statistical significance will require a larger study. The nearly 3-fold difference in the study group suggests that an ergogenic effect did occur while training in the LBNP box. The lack of improvement in endurance times could be accounted for by the increased time the subjects went during the VO2max test, and that if not already fatigued, those times may also be increased. It could also show a difference in training methods needed for aerobic capacity and power, because the endurance test is more a measure of power than aerobic capacity. These results suggest that training under LBNP conditions may be useful to enhance fitness in 1 G. Similarly, in 0 G or 1/3 G, training with LBNP may simulate a more Earth-like training condition because fluids are shifted to the legs as they are in 1G. The consequence may be an increase in blood and plasma volume – the traditional Earth-like training effect. A higher level of aerobic fitness may be possible using the LBNP training device while in and traveling to the Martian environment thus increasing Martian work capacity and facilitating reentry into a 1 G environment. References
1. American College of Sports Medicine. (1995) ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (5th ed.) Media, PA: Williams & Wilkens. 2. Cooper, K. H. & Ord, J. W. (1968). Physical effects of seated and supine exercise with and without subatmospheric pressure applied to the lower body. Aerospace Medicine, May, 481-484. 3. Eiken, O. & Bjurstedt, H. (1985). Cardiac responses to lower body negative pressure and dynamic leg exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 54, 451-455 4. Eiken, O. (1988). Effects of increased muscle perfusion pressure on responses to dynamic leg exercise in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 57, 772-776. 5. Hargens, A. R., Fortney, S. M., Ballard, R. E., et al. (1994). Supine treadmill exercise during lower body negative pressure provides equivalent cardiovascular stress to upright exercise in 1 G. Aviation and Space Environmental Medicine, 65, 463. 6. Hargens, A. R. & Watenpaugh, D. E. (1996). Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, (8), 977-982. 7. Hargens, A. R., Whalen, R. T., Watenpaugh, D. E., Schwandt, D. F., & Krock, L. P. (1991). Lower body negative pressure to provide load bearing in space. Aviation and Space Environmental Medicine, 62, 934-937. 8. Hill, A. V., & Lupton, H. (1923). Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply utilization of oxygen. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 16, 135171. 9. Hughson, R. L., Cochrane, J. E., & Butler, G. C. (1993). Faster O2 kinetics at onset of supine exercise with than without lower body negative pressure. Journal of Applied Physiology, 75, (5), 1962-1967. 10. Lee, S. M. C., Bennett, B. S., Hargens, A. R., et al. (1997). Upright exercise or supine lower body negative pressure exercise maintains exercise responses after bed rest. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, (7), 892-900. 11. Murthy, G., Watenpaugh, D. E., Ballard, R. E., & Hargens, A. R. (1994). Supine exercise during lower body negative pressure effectively simulates upright exercise in normal gravity. Journal of Applied Physiology, 76, (6), 2742-2748.

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Viewing the Martian Sunset
George A. Smith [1999] Introduction [Image: “pale blue dot in a sunbeam” – Earth viewed by Voyager, from beyond the orbit of Neptune] Once upon a time, in a certain medium-sized spiral galaxy, there existed a world that was mistakenly called “Earth.” The name was mistaken in the sense that even from a great distance away one could immediately see that the place had a characteristic blue color. In Earth’s case, the blue indicated the presence of vast water oceans sloshing around much of the planetary surface. It really should have been called not Earth, but “Oceania,” “Aqua,” or the like. The fact that the planet was misnamed did not make it unusual. In fact, one might expect any planet that evolved highly-complex life forms to be misnamed, for the simple reason that the place would be named long before its inhabitants could make meaningful comparisons to neighboring worlds and thereby understand what makes their world somewhat different. Nor was there anything very unusual about the way Earth came into existence. About eight or nine billion years after the Big Bang, a cloud of interstellar gas and dust formed a protoplanetary disk. Over the course of about 150 million years the disk evolved into a star with a mix of rocky and gas planets revolving around it. Nothing very remarkable here – just physics as usual, leading to typical planet formation. What happened next was also routine: for about one billion years the Earth’s solar system was the scene of chaotic violence, as the planets swept up leftover rocky debris. For a thousand million years, Earth was rocked by spectacular collisions, including one giant impact that splashed debris into orbit around Earth, eventually forming the Moon. Finally, the frequency of collisions diminished, and some interesting things began to happen. Namely, biological history began – about 3.7 billion year ago. This is not to chauvinistically imply that only biology is interesting. But the focus on biology highlights what does seem to be somewhat remarkable about Earth – the sudden emergence of a relatively high-technology civilization; one sophisticated enough to realize that it’s living on a misnamed planet. Life in a Day To appreciate the abruptness with which high-tech civilization emerged on Earth, consider the time frame. Let’s call the period when simple life forms began in Earth’s oceans time zero. (In other words, we are putting aside the roughly 10 billion years that preceded this point.) From time zero to the present is about 3.7 billion years. Let’s think of this 3.7 billion years as a single day – a day representing the entire biological history of Earth. Nothing much happened until 1.1 billion year ago, i.e., until nearly 5:00 in the evening of the day of life: single-cell floating plankton developed the ability to sexually reproduce, a pivotal point in the “evolution of evolution.” The Cambrian explosion, a proliferation of life forms that some call the Big Bang of biology, took place 500 to 570 million years ago – 8:30 p.m. The dinosaurs developed, then disappeared in the fallout from the Chicxulub asteroid or comet impact, 65 million years ago – 11:30 p.m. Finally, hominids we would recognize as human – creatures with primitive tools and the ability to use fire – appeared on the scene roughly 150,000 years ago – the last four seconds before midnight! And what have we advanced hominids been doing for the past 150,000 years? Hunting and gathering, almost the entire time. Finally, around 10,000 years ago – the very last 1/3 second of the day, we began to cultivate cereal grains and roots, i.e., we invented agriculture.1 What we call the Enlightenment – the elevation of reason working through science – really began gaining momentum just 300 years ago – the final 1/100th second of the day of life. Even if we consider only the most recent 150,000 years during which creatures recognizably like us have existed, the entire rise of high-tech civilization – beginning about 300 years ago – took place in the last 1/500th of that period of hominid existence.

George A. Smith; 23 Lexington Ave No.1739, New York, NY 10010; GeoSmith@msn.com
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Viewing the Martian Sunset

The point of this perspectivizing is this: Our high-tech civilization has virtually exploded onto the scene, from out of a long, slow biological history. If our minds and bodies are still deeply affected by biological processes that have been shaping us for eons – and few would deny this – then the explosion of technological information is presumably somewhat disorienting. At the very least, it seems reasonable to think we may need some extra help in order to take in and process this new information. Pathfinder In 1997, barely a century past the horse-and-buggy era, we put Pathfinder on the surface of Mars. Somehow, we got our human eyes up there, and were able to see panoramas like this one [Image: Pathfinder panorama, with Twin Peaks on horizon], and this one [Image: Full sunset panorama, Twin Peaks to left] How did we manage to do this? First, get a sense of the physical dimensions. Shrink the Sun to a 1-meter globe – the size of a large beach ball. Earth then becomes a large pea, 110 meters away – the far end of a soccer field. Mars becomes a small pea, 1-1/2 soccer fields away in the other direction (at conjunction). And of course nothing is static: the peas are moving constantly in giant elliptical orbits, moving at high velocity relative to the sun and to each other. On December 4, 1996, from this pea-sized planet Earth, a Delta II launched Pathfinder from Cape Canaveral. About a year and a half later, Pathfinder reached Mars. This sums up in a few words a mind-boggling technical feat, made possible through computerized guidance and communications systems which arose through decades of cumulative advances in many disciplines. At Mars, on July 4, 1997, Pathfinder executed its spectacular bounce-down landing, and came to rest on a rocky plain. The air-cushion bags deflated, Pathfinder began to stir and unfold, science instruments emerged, and soon the images were coming back to Earth. Pathway of an Image To say “the images were coming back to Earth” sums up in seven words a process of astounding technical finesse and complexity. What really happened – to give a slightly more accurate summation – is this: Light from that sun, and the Martian horizon, passed through the Pathfinder lens and color filter and fell onto a charge-coupled device (CCD). The CCD divided the incoming light into a grid of hundreds of thousands of picture elements, and for each of these pixels recorded the brightness value. The process was repeated for a number of different color filters. The Pathfinder computer then took these millions of pieces of information, converted them into digital code, and a radio transmitter then relayed this bit stream back toward Earth. Minutes later the bit stream reached one of the Deep Space Network’s giant antennas (in California, Australia, and Spain). The data was relayed to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Image Processing Laboratory. Here, computers reformatted the bits into a two-dimensional image (again, think of the logistical complexity!), and the image was recorded on film and made available in digital form on the web. (And of course I printed out the image from the web, walked it over to my neighborhood print shop, and had it printed onto this transparency.) So that’s how we got this image. Simple as that. Meanings of the Image Now, let’s think about what is probably an even more complex question – what this image means to us. One thing that contributes to the complexity is the theme noted earlier, namely the sheer abruptness of the rise of high-tech civilization on Earth. In the blink of an eye we’ve had a veritable Cambrian explosion of technology, the result being virtuoso feats such as the production of this image. But when the image passes into our brains, an exquisite and very expensive product of high-tech civilization enters the consciousness of hunter-gatherers. For more than 90% of our humanoid existence, our brains, our thoughts, and our emotions have been evolving to make us very effective hunter-gatherers on the surface of Earth. For images that come to us through our own eyes on Earth, we are very good at attributing appropriate meanings.

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Viewing the Martian Sunset

But a view like this is something else. It confronts us with an image from what we know is an utterly unfamiliar place. And yet, it has elements that are very familiar. Faced with such a disorienting conflation of the familiar and the strange, we might almost be tempted to dismiss it as a dream landscape. But we know it’s not a dreamscape, but a very real place. If we’re going to make sense of it, we may need some extra help. The Overview Effect A book that explicitly addresses some of the complicated effects of the views available to us in the space age is The Overview Effect by Frank White. White explores the ways in which our mental perspectives are shaped by our physical points of view, in particular views from space such as this one [Image: Story Musgrave fixing the Hubble, with Australia in background]. He extensively interviewed astronauts, trying to gain a vicarious sense of how their space flight experience – in particular their view of Earth from a great distance – may have affected their thoughts and attitudes. White concludes that astronauts often experienced what he calls the “overview effect.” The Overview Effect is essentially a human reaction – mental, emotional, and psychological – to seeing the home planet from a great distance. It typically includes a sense of “transcendence,” for lack of a more specific word. According to White, the experience “varies with the individual, but typically includes a realization of the unity and oneness of the planet, a strong emotional response to its beauty and fragility, and a shift from identity with specific countries to an identification with the whole.2 Astronaut Russell Schweickart reported that, “[W]hen you come back there’s a difference in the world now. There’s a difference in that relationship between you and that planet and you and all those other forms of life on that planet.”3 Schweikart’s sense of renewed allegiance to “all those other forms of life on that planet” sounds a theme that is essentially environmentalist. Not surprisingly, the organizers of the first Earth Day, which took place less than a year after the Apollo moon landing, chose as their emblem an Apollo photo of the whole Earth. [Image: Earthrise (Apollo 8)]. Mythic Images Aside from environmentalist use, the image of the Earth suspended in space has also been important as a pure symbol of exploration. The South African explorer and writer Laurens van der Post, in an essay he wrote when he was in his eighties, suggested that we need a new symbol of exploration. He wrote that during the great seafaring ages, the image of the profile of the Cape of Good Hope served as an important emblem, a sign that explorers had rounded the horn of Africa and were on their way back into familiar waters. In our time, wrote Van der Post, the image of the Cape of Good Hope is being supplanted by its psychological equivalent – the image of the whole Earth as viewed by the homeward bound Apollo astronauts. Van der Post was a student (and biographer) of the great Swiss psychologist Carl Jung. Jungians tend to stress the power of myths, symbols, and images, so perhaps it’s not surprising that van der Post seized on the Apollo image. Other Jungians have as well, most notably the writer Joseph Campbell, whose work was deeply influenced by Jung. In Campbell’s book The Mythic Image,4 the very last illustration is the now-familiar image of the Earth photographed from Apollo 8. The power of mythic narratives has always been reinforced by certain powerful images. Certain images seem rich enough to contain intimations of the mythic narratives, and to prod our imaginations into adding further dimensions. It’s as if these images – due to their ability to conjure up mythical stories – start to function as stand-ins for the mythical stories. For we humans, who thrive on mythic narratives, the images alone can thereby take on the power to organize our experience and motivate our actions. The Disappearing Solar System We’ve been looking at the whole Earth image for 30 years now. Might it be time for some new iconic images of exploration? If so, what would they be? Frank White suggests that the next step, beyond the Overview Effect, is what he calls the “Copernican Perspective.” If the Overview Effect is a realization of how the parts of the Earth fit into a single integrated system, the Copernican
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Viewing the Martian Sunset

Perspective takes things to the next level – a deep understanding that the Earth in turn is a part of the solar system. It is an intuitive realization that Copernicus was right: We are a part of the solar system as a whole. The solar system is our basic frame of reference. This surely sounds plausible and potentially very powerful, but is there an image to go along with it? If the Overview Effect is captured by the image of the whole Earth, what single image might capture the Copernican Perspective? A natural tendency would be to simply pull the camera farther back, to encompass a grander, more spacious view. That’s what Carl Sagan did in 1994 when he chose this image [Image: “pale blue dot in a sunbeam” (first image above)] for the inside cover of his 1994 book, Pale Blue Dot. He captioned the image, “The Earth: a pale blue dot in a sunbeam. Photographed by Voyager 1 from beyond the orbit of Neptune.” But compelling though an image like this may be, there’s not much of the solar system in it. Just Earth, and a beam of sunlight. The problem is that there’s so much empty space in the solar system that it’s awfully hard to get much into a single frame. Recall that if we shrink the Sun to the size of a large beach ball, the inner planets become small peas at the other end of a soccer field. And the outer planets? Neptune would be the size of a marble, two miles away. There is simply no way to capture these sizes and distances in a meaningful image. Of course we could distort the sizes and distances, as textbooks often do. But this wouldn’t be satisfying. Paradoxically, our belief that an image is an accurate rendering of the world, and not merely our fabrication, is part of what gives it mythic power. Viewing the Martian Sunset If we’re unable, then, to visually capture the solar system in a single potent image, what can we do instead? One thing we can do is focus on images like the Pathfinder sunset images, or better yet improved versions of these images that we’ll hopefully get from upcoming Mars missions. [Image: Closeup view of yellowish sun on horizon] Because look what we have here. Right there in the center, we have the Sun. The Sun retains its pride of place – the center of our attention. This is a Copernican Perspective, with the Sun as the basic frame of reference. We know it’s a sunset, but we’re immediately aware of the strangeness of this particular sunset. The Sun is too small. And, assuming the image has not been overexposed [Image: Full horizon sunset, with paler sun] it’s too whitish, even bluish. The hills on the horizon look familiar, but then we remember that those rocks are unlike anything we could find on Earth, and indeed are the product of an utterly different geological history. The pattern of fading light in the sky looks familiar, but something about the color and texture of the sky reminds us that we’re looking through an entirely different type of atmosphere – thin, unbreathable carbon dioxide, often laden with dust. So the image is full of familiar elements, yet ones that are clearly out of kilter somehow. And it seems that this mixture of the utterly familiar and the utterly strange is one of the things that gives the image a particular power. We have no doubt that we’re looking at a Martian landscape. Yet it becomes partially transformed into an Earthly landscape, because we can’t help but freight the image with familiar connotations. Even if this is Mars, the horizon conjures up something similar to an Earthly horizon – namely a sense of boundedness, and simultaneously a sense of the beyond, of unknown territory that might be explored some other day. And even if this is the hostile physical world of Mars, we tend to project onto the scene an atmosphere of stillness and quiet. In our mind’s eye it becomes a hushed landscape, one imbued with peacefulness, perhaps even with a sense of the sacred. We have no doubt that we’re looking at a scene of the future. After all, this is Mars, one of the prime destinations on the space frontier, a new world waiting to be explored. But when we look at this image, we’re also looking at a very ancient scene, because we can’t help but invest it with certain age-old connotations. This is a very primitive tableau, one that Earthly hunter-gatherers have been gazing at for many thousands of generations. And it’s not only about stillness and the sense of the sacred. It’s also about fear: fear of the night, fear of the oncoming darkness and cold, and fear of animals in the night that can turn hunters into the hunted. Of course these chilly connotations quickly transform
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into warmer ones: a band of people gathered around a fire, finding safety in solidarity, surviving the night, coming to feel they really belong in this place because they’ve learned to survive the night here. High-Tech Hunter-Gatherers In thinking about what this image means, I want to make clear that I have not been trying to make a case for planetary chauvinism, i.e., the possibly sentimental belief that the surface of a planetary body is the only proper abode for human life. In opposition to planetary chauvinism, we have the views of people like Gerard K. O’Neill, who suggested that the surface of a planetary body probably is not the best place for a high-tech civilization. My point is not to take sides in such a debate. Rather, the point is merely to analyze a Pathfinder image and make a case that it has a certain inherent power. It’s an image of Mars, but it also connotes the Earth; it’s an image of the future, but it also connotes the past. When we look at it, we know we’re the inheritors of the Enlightenment, living in a time of exploding knowledge and possibility. At the same time, it makes us remember that for practically all of the past 150,000 years, we’ve been successful huntergatherers roaming the surface of Earth. It addresses us on many levels. Such an image conceivably has the power to connect us to a mythic narrative. What sort of narrative? It’s a story about people who have been hunter-gatherers for almost their entire evolutionary history, but who have now very quickly developed a high-tech civilization. Moreover, it seems inconceivable that they will abandon this high-tech civilization. Their technology has allowed them to begin – in very rudimentary ways – to explore the surface of other worlds. The mythic narrative, then, is the story of an emerging spacefaring civilization that takes with it ancestral memories that reach far back into it’s origins on planet Earth. When we view the Martian sunset, therefore, we’re looking at an image that conjures up a mythic narrative of high-tech hunter-gatherers.

Mid-Presentation Break, for a Message from one of our Sponsors It is more than merely fanciful to consider R. Buckminster Fuller one of the “sponsors” of the Mars Society. Fuller has been described as “a romantic visionary who had few commercial instincts, little use for accepted wisdom, and extraordinary foresight.”5 One month ago – after several years of planning and negotiating – Fuller’s daughter and grandson decided to have his enormous archives transferred from the Buckminster Fuller Institute in Santa Barbara, California, to Stanford University. Stanford hopes to enhance the recent signs of renewed interest in Fuller by organizing and cataloging the archives. Fuller had a powerfully original mind, which among other things gave rise to 25 patents, 28 books, and 47 honorary doctorates. Even those of us who can’t claim even a tiny fraction of his originality can still hope to imbibe some of his spirit. Fuller believed that technology and inventiveness can solve our common problems, and he disliked the impediments to such problem-solving. Chief among those impediments, according to one commentator, were “tradition and cultural legacies, which thwarted the clear-eyed thinking needed to invent efficient ways of improving people’s lives.”6 No doubt many people would find this lack of respect for tradition and cultural legacies to be disturbing, perhaps even arrogant. The wisdom of the ages may not always be that wise when applied to the present, but doesn’t culture and tradition at least connect us firmly with our past, giving us a sense of continuity and stability that enriches and deepens the present? Irrespective of how Fuller might respond, consider this: The November 1997 Atlantic Monthly featured a cover story by Freeman Dyson on colonizing the solar system. An editorial preface noted, “In a nation as selfconsciously aware of potential as ours has been, contemplation of the future possesses some of the stabilizing function of tradition.” If this is true – if thinking about the future can lend a stabilizing effect – than someone like Fuller might in fact be showing a real respect for one of the underlying purposes of culture and tradition even as he rejects it when it seems to hold us back.
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In any case, this brief digression on Buckminster Fuller, culture, and tradition serves as a good segue into the next part of this presentation. It will essentially consist of a catalog of some of the cultural resistances that impede more energetic space exploration. It’s cast in the form of a message addressed to the future, to the first people to stand on Mars and see the Martian sunset. Fuller, by the way, referred to people as “Earthians,” and sunsets as “sunclipses.” In his terminology, then, the rest of this presentation is a message addressed to the first Earthians to view a sunclipse from Mars.

A Message for the First to View the Martian Sunset Live Many years before you even arrived on Mars, we first viewed the sunset you’re now looking at. We first saw it in 1997, back before the turn of the millennium. In reminding you of this, we are not trying to upstage you in any way. That would be inconceivable anyway, because we saw only a crude facsimile of what you see now. We are merely trying to deepen our vicarious pleasure in your success by noting that we contributed to it, indirectly. Even before the turn of the millennium, we had the technological sophistication to put humans on Mars. We had put humans on the Moon in 1969, so we’d completed the basic training for a more ambitious voyage. But then, unaccountably, we grew sluggish and distracted. It was a time marked by certain entrenched cultural resistances, often on the part of influential opinion leaders. We had to overcome these cultural resistances. Before we could garner the critical mass of public support needed for energetic space exploration, we had to confront and deal with the following: We had to deal with the distracted. Distracted by what? By “down to Earth” matters of various types. And of course it’s always easy to find these. Even at a time like the late 20th century, when in the economically developed world ordinary people were living like kings had recently, and when approximately 2% of the people were producing all the food – even in such flush times people persisted in thinking that life was tough and full of problems. And of course there were plenty of problems and challenges: confronting perpetual evils like sickness, death, and crime; preventing warfare; spreading the technological wealth more uniformly; avoiding environmental degradation. So we had to remind people, again and again, that serious space exploration required only a tiny fraction – perhaps a mere 1 or 2 percent – of the funds they were willing to spend on other worthwhile projects. Moreover, we had to remind them again and again that it’s precisely when a high-tech civilization pushes its limits with new challenges that there arise innovations that invigorate the entire society in unpredictable ways. We also had to deal with those who were caught up in compelling scientific endeavors. In the late 20th century, two areas were particularly absorbing: genetics and computers. Geneticists were exhilarated by progress in deciphering the DNA code, promising not only medical breakthroughs but also perhaps eventually the power to guide our own evolution. Computer scientists steadily advanced electronic capabilities, producing drastic changes in the way people worked, communicated, and exchanged goods. These were heady and exciting developments, but we also had to keep in mind the bigger picture. To the geneticist, we said: “By all means, keep your nose to the sequencing machines. But even before you finish analyzing the genome of many of the complex life forms on Earth, wouldn’t it be nice to have a sample from another world? Just think what you could learn from one small strand of genetic material from a microbe found in a subsurface vent on Mars, or in an ocean beneath the icy surface of Europa.” And to the computer scientist, we said: “Cyberspace is intriguing, but there’s very little ‘there’ there, compared to outer space. Besides, let’s assume you wire the entire world – realizing DesJardin’s ‘noosphere’ of electronic interconnectedness. What then? Doesn’t this giant collective consciousness need some new information, some input from elsewhere? Today, information is streaming in to us steadily from other worlds in our solar system and beyond. To construct a “world-wide web” that focuses mostly on the information from just one of these worlds seems awfully unambitious. Why, it even verges on cybersolipsism. You need facilities and terminals on Mars.”

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Viewing the Martian Sunset

We had to deal with the deniers Deniers were those who thought and acted as if all possible sources of meaning, wonder, and value were tucked away beneath the atmosphere that envelops planet Earth. It may seem paradoxical that there could have been so many deniers in the late 20th century. After all, this was the era of the first great interplanetary probes, which unleashed a stream of information and images that brought alive the details of the solar system for the first time in human history. How could people have denied the power and impact of such compelling visual evidence? It’s tempting to ascribe it to accidents of birth. Perhaps, as more and more people were raised in urban settings, fewer were likely to have had a formative early experience of looking at a night sky and wondering what’s out there. Maybe it takes repetitive experience with the night sky to have it suddenly hit home that the stars really are very distant Suns, and that our presence on Earth – a spherical rock hurtling through black space – is really quite extraordinary. Or maybe it necessarily takes some time for drastically new understandings to sink into our general consciousness. The twentieth century was an eye-opening time. In all the years leading up to it, we had no idea of the Big Bang – no conception of something as basic as an expanding universe. We knew very little about stellar evolution, hence didn’t realize that our star too will eventually turn into a Red Giant that will render Earth uninhabitable. Perhaps such basic facts about the world take some time to really hit home (perhaps because when they do hit home they can at first be disconcerting, disorienting even). But in any case we had to convince the deniers. We had to keep showing them the images coming in from interplanetary probes: the bizarre Jovian moons, the storms visible on Saturn, the close-ups of Martian cliffs and sand dunes, the snapshots of those strange little worlds we call asteroids. With deniers, these pictures were worth thousands of words. We had to deal with earthbound environmentalists Space exploration and environmentalism are practically joined at the hip – the twin progeny of 20th century technological advance. The Apollo image of the whole Earth helped launch the international environmental movement. Some have even suggested that space exploration – which in essence is about understanding Earth’s larger environment – should really be thought of as a species of environmentalism, as environmentalism on the grand scale. But some environmentalists persisted in acting as if they thought Earth’s environment ended abruptly at the margins of that famous Apollo photograph. Part of their resistance to space exploration may have been a lingering suspicion of technology per se, not to mention an aversion to the noisy pyrotechnics of rocket launching. More importantly, their elevation of the concept of wilderness led them to think that untouched parts of the solar system should remain untouched, particularly by we who have environmentally sinned on Earth. We had to try to convince these people that we can put footprints on other worlds and still retain a reasonable cautiousness about how we might affect potential ecosystems on those worlds. We had to stress the emerging views of environmentalists such as William Cronon, who argued in 1995 that an unexamined idealization of wilderness was in fact a threat to responsible environmentalism. We had to point out that space exploration in actual practice forces environmental awareness of the most intense sort. After all, there can be no more dedicated recyclers than a band of humans trying to preserve limited resources in the unforgiving environment of a place like Mars. We had to declare that we can hold certain things self-evident: that we live amidst a shooting gallery of crisscrossing asteroids and comets which occasionally dip into near-Earth space; that solar winds and flares can affect Earth’s upper atmosphere, climate, and even our communications infrastructure; that some of the meteorites which fall onto Earth from Mars conceivably contain fossils of microbial Martian life; that evidence is mounting that small shifts in the shape of Earth’s orbit have produced dramatic climate changes on Earth; that the solar system itself may be moving toward a region of interstellar gas and dust of a density that could eventually have far-reaching effects on the inner solar system; that other stars have their own planetary systems, ones which shed great comparative insight on our own system; finally,

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that we learned these things – many of which have crucial implications for understanding our Earthly ecosystem and its long-term prospects – precisely because we made the effort to look and explore beyond the Earth.. In sum, we had to make the case that our true environment is the solar system. Earth is dynamically interrelated with a wide variety of solar system physical processes, and the fate of our Earthly ecosystem is hitched to the fate of our star system. We had to make the case that environmentalists whose vision is confined within the frame of that Apollo photograph, no matter how sincere their expressed concern for Earth, remain intellectually confined to an earthbound environmentalism. We had to deal with various strains of anti-Enlightenment thinking The Enlightenment first gathered momentum in Europe in the late 1700s, but by the turn of the millennium it had become part of world culture. At the core of Enlightenment thinking is the idea that human powers of rationality, working through the empirical methods of science, can lead to material and even moral progress. However, even in those societies that most energetically transformed Enlightenment ideas into material comfort and prosperity – in fact, especially in such societies – there remained some entrenched resistance to the ideas themselves. Some of the resistance stemmed from superstition and wishful thinking. Astrological forecasts that link our daily affairs with certain stars, aliens who surreptitiously swoop down to abduct us and mate with us, gods who grant us health and wealth only if we perform the proper rituals: such notions are very responsive to our human need to feel significant. Science, with an outward-directed gaze that seems to find nothing but more questions, further immensities, and more cosmic indifference, simply can’t compete when it comes to delivering certain types of ego gratification. With the superstitious and the wishful thinkers, we had to try to find imaginative ways to convince them that the real mysteries of the cosmos are at least as awe-inspiring as any imagined wonders. And we had to argue that it’s more than a little ego-gratifying to think of ourselves as creatures possessing astounding intelligence, remarkable inventiveness, and courage enough to keep asking questions, unintimidated by apparent cosmic indifference. Some of the anti-Enlightenment resistance stemmed from religious conviction. This was much less significant than it had been in the past, when scientists had sometimes run up against the official disapproval of an established and influential Church. But still it persisted, for example in the tendency to see human attempts to explore and possibly even alter other worlds as arrogant, as examples of human “hubris,” as attempts to “play God.” We had to try to convince such believers that our little forays into neighboring regions of our solar system – far from fostering arrogance – were in fact quite humbling. Moreover, by helping us really understand our homeworld, they aligned squarely with traditional notions of stewardship of our world. Some of the most perplexing anti-Enlightenment resistance came from professors and other influential thinkers, people whom one might think would be the most ardent proponents of the Enlightenment. Many of these people identified with “postmodernism,” which included at its core a deep suspicion of rationalism, science, progress, and other Enlightenment articles of faith. Much of their suspicion was a type of post-traumatic stress – a lingering shock at the realization that allegedly enlightened civilizations had produced the horrors of the World Wars, the Holocaust, the Bomb, and a host of environmental problems. We had to try to convince these people that nevertheless we seem to have muddled through, and that our high-technology civilization may not self-destruct after all. The poet Randall Jarrell, knocking the optimism of the Enlightenment, wrote, “Most of us know, now, that Rousseau was wrong: that man, when you knock his chains off, sets up the death camps.” To those who shared Jarrell’s deep pessimism, we had to say, “Look at the world with both eyes open. When our chains are knocked off, we also invent antibiotics, save millions of infants from early death, interconnect the world, and begin to reach out to other worlds.” Part of the postmodernist program was an insistence that science and technology is a complicated cultural system. According to Wolf Lepenies, for example, science should not be seen as faithfully reflecting reality: “What it is, rather, is a cultural system, and it exhibits to us an alienated interest-determined image of reality specific to a definite time and place.”7 To those who held such views, we had to lay down a postmodernist challenge: “Mr. Lepenies, let’s put aside
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unproductive debates about reality. Let’s speak now about a definite time and place. The time is 1999 (by one arbitrary calendar system), and the place is planet Earth. At this time and place, a remarkable cultural system has recently emerged, and moreover has spread – albeit not yet uniformly – all around the planetary surface. Let’s call it the Transportational Culture. You have some familiarity with it already, because when you travel to academic conferences you rely on its cultural artifacts – e.g., the airplane, the train, the bus, and the automobile. You are also aware that the Transportational Culture makes a habit of transporting voices, images, and personalities apart from bodies – via the cultural artifacts called radios, telephones, televisions, computers, and satellites. Well, Mr. Lepenies, some members of the Transportational Culture think that one of our interests lies in transporting ourselves to other specific places, i.e., to non-Earth worlds. We have already begun to do so – by transporting robotic proxies that are bringing back images and information from other places. We believe that experiencing such places gives us a deeper experience of the Other – not to mention a more literal and more useful kind of alienation – than can be found anywhere within the Transportational Culture’s home turf, i.e., planet Earth. Will you come with us? Will you let us transport you, at least in your imagination?” We had to deal with biological pessimism Even some of our greatest pro-Enlightenment champions were prone to biological pessimism. Consider Edward O. Wilson, whose influential 1998 book Consilience was an unapologetic celebration of an updated Enlightenment vision. Near the end of the book, Wilson proposed two competing self-images. Homo proteus, the “shape-changer,” has the following characteristics: “Indeterminately flexible, with vast potential. Wired and information-driven. Can travel almost anywhere, adapt to any environment . . . Thinking about the colonization of space . . .” The contrasting image is that of Homo sapiens, who is, “Basically a primate species in body and emotional repertory . . . Runs on millions of coordinated delicate biochemical reactions. Easily shut down by trace toxins and transit of pea-sized projectiles . . . Dependent in body and mind on other earthbound organisms. Colonization of space impossible without massive supply lines . . .” Wilson thought his Homo sapiens – a biologically constrained primate – was the more accurate human self-image. And he went on to discuss the 1991 Biosphere 2 experiment as having shown us the vulnerability of our species. He quoted the conclusions of the senior biologists who reviewed the Biosphere 2 data: “No one yet knows how to engineer systems that provide humans with the life-supporting services that natural ecosystems produce for free . . . despite its mysteries and hazards, Earth remains the only known home that can sustain life.” We were profoundly grateful to Wilson for his celebration of Enlightenment values at a time when they were somewhat unfashionable, at least in the academy. Nevertheless, we had to counter his biological pessimism. We had to insist that the operative word in “No one yet knows how to engineer systems . . .” is yet. We had to argue that Biosphere 2 proved the need for Biospheres 3, 4, and 5, and moreover for more generous funding for research into regenerative life support systems and environmental monitoring and control. We had to point out the growing interest in what was initially called “astrobiology,” but which really was just biology from a broader purview. We had to read and promote serious scientific explorations of astrobiology, e.g., books like Robert Shapiro’s Planetary Dreams, Paul Davies’ The Fifth Miracle, and Michael Lemonick’s Other Worlds. And we had to repeat again and again all the arguments against a strictly earthbound environmentalism. Finally, we had to suggest that with all due respect to Wilson’s competing self-images, for continuation of the species the best choice is a hardy Homo sapiens / Homo proteus “hybrid” with the following characteristics: “Basically a primate species in body and emotional repertory, but with astounding powers of imagination and intellect. Runs on millions of coordinated delicate biochemical reactions, yet is able to understand and deliberately affect those reactions to a remarkable degree. Knows that colonization of space is presently impossible without massive supply lines. Also knows that systematic and persistent exploration will make the supply lines progressively less massive. Insists on spending at least 3% of overall budget on such exploration. Irrepressibly curious about other worlds, and the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe. Becoming increasingly aware of possibility of another Earth-asteroid collision, and resulting environmental destruction. Gradually coming to conclusion that for wise stewardship of Spaceship Earth, should start creating Spaceship Mars.”
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References
1. But note that leaf-cutting ants had learned to tend their fungus farms 50,000,000 years earlier. 2. Frank White, interview in Ad Astra magazine (March/April 1999), p.46. 3. Frank White, The Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution—2nd Ed. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1998), p. 12. 4. Joseph Campbell, The Mythic Image (Bollingen Series C, Princeton University Press, 1974). 5. “The Face of the Future is a Thing of the Past,” feature article by James Sterngold in New York Times, Saturday July 17, 1999 (Arts & Ideas, B7). 6. Ibid. 7. C.P. Snow, The Two Cultures (Cambridge University Press, 1993), Introduction by Stefan Collini, p.l.

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A Proposed Design for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Utilizing Living Machine Technology
D. Blersch; E. Biermann; D. Calahan; J. Ives-Halperin; M. Jacobson; P. Kangas [2000] Abstract This paper presents a second-generation wastewater treatment design for the FMARS habitat. The system discussed is a modified recirculating living machine in which recycling and recovery of water is accomplished. The primary purpose of the design is to treat the black and gray water waste streams from the FMARS habitat. However, biomass is also produced by the system that shows potential for the provision of other life support functions. The system is designed to recycle for reuse all wash water and toilet waste from the FMARS habitat. Options are presented for both full recycling to potable use and for partial recycling to non-potable use. The design comprises a sequential system of treatment unit processes, beginning with an anaerobic digester, followed by a trickling filter, constructed wetland, and then a disinfection and purification step. It is intended that the system will attach via appropriate plumbing to the exterior of the FMARS structure; hence the system is designed to be modular and transportable. The system could be located in either a greenhouse or a closed structure with artificial lighting, depending upon energy budget considerations. A scaled design is presented as a possible floor plan with quantitative sizing of unit process components based on a hypothetical crew number and loading rate. While the focus of the analysis is on a design for wastewater treatment and reuse, discussion is provided on ways of expanding the system to provide additional life support functions desirable for actual Mars habitation. Introduction The Mars Society’s Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) was designed, fabricated, and constructed over the course of 10 months from August 1999 to June 2000. Sited in the NASA research site in Haughton Crater in Devon Island of Northern Canada, the FMARS serves as a living research laboratory for investigating technological and human factor considerations for preparing for a manned mission to Mars. The austere landscape and severe Arctic conditions make Haughton crater one of the best Martian analogs on Earth, and thus the FMARS is poised to be a primary contributor of knowledge to the ever-progressing effort of mission planning for a manned Mars mission. Despite the intention of being an analog Mars mission, the remoteness of the FMARS facility, combined with the regulatory climate that surrounds its location, contribute to the short-term logistical difficulties of resupply and waste management. Haughton Crater on Devon Island is quite remote, located at about 75 degrees north latitude in Canada’s Nunuvut territory (Mars Society 2000a) and hundreds of miles away from the nearest village (Resolute on Cornwallis Island). Resupply of provisions is performed by way of airlift, a difficult operation even in the best of conditions. Also, Canadian environmental regulations recognize the fragility of the local environment on Devon Island and therefore forbid the discharge of untreated wastewater. Past research expeditions to Haughton Crater have managed waste by sealing it in drums and periodically airlifting it out, a difficult and costly operation. Because of the potential high-use of the FMARS in future research seasons, it is desirable that the FMARS have a system to recycle some or all of the wastewater it produces that in some way is analogous to a system that might accompany a manned mission to Mars. Project History The Maryland subgroup of the Mars Society’s Life Support Technical Task Force has been looking at various ways to address the issue of waste management and recycling at the FMARS facility. The subgroup coalesced as part of the larger task force originally formed via electronic communication in December of 1999. With over 32 members from various technical backgrounds and geographical locations, the technical task force organized in spring of 2000 to address issues of life support design for the FMARS facility. As its design guidance, the Technical task force adopted for itself the following mission statement:

D. Blersch, E. Biermann, D. Calahan, J. Ives-Halperin, M. Jacobson, P. Kangas; Mars Society Life Support Technical Task Force, Maryland Subgroup; University of Maryland, College Park, MD; Web site: http://home.marssociety.org/tech/htm
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A Proposed Design for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Utilizing Living Machine Technology

“The Life Support Project of the Technical Task Force will design a wastewater processing system for the FMARS station, capable of being deployed in summer of 2001. It will be an ecologically engineered sequence of biological unit processes, with the capability of adding further functions in subsequent years.” (Mars Society 2000b) With this as the overarching guidance, considerable electronic communication and idea sharing ensued. A core set of brainstorming topics arose that stand as valid considerations in designing and constructing the FMARS waste treatment system. A selection of these topics is presented in Table 1. Many topics are important design considerations and operational constraints that arise from the biological nature of the proposed system. It is assumed that these topics will be addressed in future design iterations. Other topics arise from concerns over the physical location of the FMARS station and the severity of the physical environment as well as the regulatory environment. Design iterations will have to take these considerations into account as well. With these in mind, the task force chose to lay out a conceptual design that could work for the FMARS facility, pursuing solutions to detailed design and regulatory challenges only after sanctioning of the project by the larger Mars Society organization.
Table 1. Selection of Technical Task Force e-mail / brainstorming topics for possible consideration in the detailed design of the FMARS wastewater treatment system.

Design Approach Philosophy: The design philosophy pursued by the Maryland subgroup of the technical task force was within the context of existing life support systems for space, past or present, and proposed systems. It was recognized that life support systems for any mission could be described by its placement on at least three categorical gradients (Figure 1). The first gradient describes the degree to which a system is regenerative versus non-regenerative – that is, the degree to which the cycles for life support necessities of air, water, and food are closed (Eckart 1996). A life support system that relies upon storage of food, water, and oxygen, and stores waste products as they are produced for transport or disposal is generally nonregenerative, whereas a system that recycles air and water and produces food is regenerative. The second gradient describes the degree to which a system employs biological versus physical / chemical operations for various life support processes. Physical / chemical life support systems have a long history of engineering design and implementation and have proved reliable in many space mission applications; however, it is generally agreed upon that long-term missions require some degree of biological components besides the human occupants, especially for the function of food production (Beyers and Odum 1993). The third gradient describes the degree to which a system relies upon integrated subsystems to perform multiple functions versus separate systems to perform separate functions. For example, a life support system that incorporates photosynthetic vascular plants is inherently multifunctional, as it addresses both atmosphere management (oxygen production and carbon dioxide consumption through photosynthesis) and water management (potable water production through transpiration). Past and present existing and conceptual systems might be categorized by each of these three gradients. Life support systems for the Apollo space capsules recycled some air and water, but relied upon stored foods: it thus can be
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A Proposed Design for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Utilizing Living Machine Technology

categorized as moderately regenerative, completely physical / chemical, and comprising processes with separate functionality. Odum (1963) proposal for two acres of enclosed complex ecosystem per person to supply all the human life support needs, powered by nothing but the sun, serves as an extreme on all gradients: completely biological (except for its container), completely regenerative, and completely integrated functionality. It was recognized that the current life support “system” employed by the FMARS stands at the opposite extreme on all gradients; relying upon airlifting in all food and water, airlifting out all solid and liquid waste, and on the in situ atmosphere for respiration needs, the current FMARS life support is completely non-regenerative, completely physical processes, and completely separate functionality. Focusing on the waste treatment needs of the FMARS facility, the technical task force chose to pursue a design to maximize the regenerative, biological, and multifunctional nature of the system. However, recognizing the constraints imposed by the seasonally harsh environment of the FMARS location and by possible budgetary considerations, the task force strove to produce a design that was comparable to current state of the art in regenerative life support technology: moderately biological, moderately regenerative, and moderately multifunctional. To accomplish this, the task force chose to design a waste treatment system using concepts of ecological engineering (Mitsch 1993; 1996). An ecologically engineered system is one that is based upon complex communities of micro- and macro- organisms. It is essentially a controlled ecosystem in which energy inputs are kept within bounds to maximize certain functions of the ecosystem. Biological by definition, ecologically engineered systems are inherently multifunctional, as the system complexity provides multiple pathways for resource processing and recovery. Ecologically engineered systems are also inherently stable as a system, with the complexity providing internal homeostatic Figure 1: Categorical gradients to be considered in the design regulation that dampens out the system’s responses to dynamic perturbations. Some ecologically engineered of the total or components of a mission life support system. systems such as algal turf scrubbers (Adey et al. 1993; Craggs et al. 1996) and constructed wetland system (Reed et al. 1995; Kadlec and Knight 1996) have been well developed and studied for application in wastewater treatment. In previous papers, members of the technical task force analyzed various ecologically engineered systems for wastewater treatment and showed that they could be reasonably scaled for use in a Mars mission life-support scenario (Blersch, et al. 1999; 2000). Pursuing an ecologically engineered design for the purpose of wastewater treatment at the FMARS facility provides a platform with inherent multifunctionality which might be capitalized upon in the future for other life support functions (i.e., food production, atmosphere revitalization). Model systems The technical task force decided to base its design for the FMARS system upon existing systems for small-scale municipal wastewater treatment, and modify as necessary to conform to limitations imposed by the unique situation of the FMARS facility. While other candidate systems were investigated (Parker et al. 2000; Kok 1999), the Maryland subgroup decided to use as its model the Second Nature® Wastewater Treatment System, designed by Natureworks in Virginia (Ives Halperin and Kangas, 2000). The Second Nature system was designed and installed for the Midland Masonic chapter in rural Midland, VA, approximately 50 miles outside of Washington, DC. Original plans for the chapter’s recently completed community lodge facility called for a standard residential septic tank / leach field system, but regulatory restrictions imposed by the State of Virginia Department of the Environment prevented this because of low soil permeability and proximity to the lodge wellhead. Nature Works, Inc., of Alexandria, Virginia, hired by the lodge to investigate alternatives, designed and built the Second Nature waste treatment system, a closed-loop wastewater treatment system that recycles black and gray water back to the lodge toilets. The Second Nature® system is effectively a modified “living machine” (Todd and Josephson 1996; Todd 1991), a series of ecologically-based unit processes that
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A Proposed Design for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Utilizing Living Machine Technology

rely on natural processes of aquatic and wetland ecosystems to accomplish secondary and tertiary treatment of the septic tank effluent (Figure 2). The entire biological treatment process is contained within a small greenhouse (Figure 3) and effectively treats household sewage to bring it within the permitted standards of 10:10:10 mg/L of biochemical oxygen demand: total suspended solids: total nitrogen (BOD:TSS:TN). Effluent from the system is held in a clean water storage tank for reuse on demand in the lodge toilets, following carbon deodorizing and ultraviolet disinfection. Discharge to an underground rock-sand infiltration bed occurs only in times of high flow.

Figure 2. Second Nature wastewater treatment system flow diagram that served as a model for the design of the FMARS wastewater treatment system (from Ives-Halperin and Kangas 2000).

Figure 3. Greenhouse containing the Second Nature™ biological wastewater treatment system designed and constructed by Natureworks in Midland, VA.

Design Approach Waste Stream Characterization: After selection and study of a model for the design was complete, scaling a wastewater treatment system adequate for the FMARS facility required characterization of the hypothetical habitat waste load. Because of data on the waste produced at the FMARS facility had not yet been compiled, the task force made assumptions about the volume and concentration of wastewater generated from the FMARS station. Hall and Brewer (1987) present volumes of wastewater produced for two mission scenarios: a mission relying entirely upon food stores, and a mission that includes
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A Proposed Design for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Utilizing Living Machine Technology

food production. Assuming that the FMARS missions will replicate food production mission scenarios, the assumed volume of wastewater generated is 67.3 L (17.8 gal.) per man per day (Hall and Brewer 1987). Assuming a six-man crew for the FMARS facility, and multiplying by a safety factor of 1.5 yields a wastewater flow rate of 625 L/day. To characterize the constituent makeup of the wastewater, it was assumed that the wastewater to be treated at the FMARS facility includes all but laboratory wastewater (it was assumed that laboratory waste is generally considered hazardous and therefore poses a special disposal situation not to be immediately addressed by the technical task force). Thus wastewater would include most constituents found in standard household waste: human metabolic solid and liquid wastes, food preparation water and waste solids, wash water and waste solids (including mild detergents), and inedible plant biomass. Metcalf and Eddy (1991) give unit waste loading factors for various component constituents for standard household wastewater, in units of mass produced per man per day. Assuming conservatively that wastewater generated at the FMARS is generally more concentrated than average household wastewater, the upper bound of the range given for each of the waste loading factors by Metcalf and Eddy (1991) was used for subsequent design calculations. Multiplying these wasteloading factors by the assumed daily flow rate yields average constituent concentrations, shown in Table 2. Additionally, target levels for the effluent of the treatment process are listed, assumed from information given by Eckart (1996).
Table 2. Assumed waste stream characterization for the FMARS design

Description of proposed system With this information for the waste load characterization, calculations were performed to scale the selected unit processes for the system. A schematic flow diagram of the proposed system is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Proposed design concept for the FMARS wastewater treatment system (Mars Society 2000b)
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A Proposed Design for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Utilizing Living Machine Technology

A description of the system is as follows (Mars Society 2000b). All water and toilet waste generated within the FMARS habitat is collected in the anaerobic digester for treatment of the complex organics. Anaerobic bacteria significantly reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), producing carbon dioxide and methane. Control and stream separation may be necessary for most laboratory and some kitchen waste, in which case the digester might have multiple chambers to deal with complex waste streams. The anaerobic digester will be airtight and have a flexible bladder for its top to collect methane for possible refinement and use within the habitat. Additionally, most solids settle out here. Solids production will be low with a crew of only six, and might be minimized even further by maintaining the anaerobic digester at an optimum temperature of 35°C. However, periodic disposal of the solids (i.e., once per year) might be necessary. For the design calculations, a standard hydraulic residence time of 48 hours was assumed, and standard sizing equations based upon desired BOD reduction were used (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). Water exiting the anaerobic tank is pumped to the top of the trickling filter via an airlift pump in a screened filter vault. An airlift pump is a simple way to move fluid compared to most other pumps, as it requires little power and low maintenance. Airlifted effluent trickles over the filter media and is thereby aerated. Filter media is typically a lightweight corrugated plastic construction with a high surface area per volume. The aerobic microorganisms that colonize the media utilize the energy and organic compounds that remain in the water, quickly reducing BOD and COD (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). Additionally, the aerobic environment induces nitrification by the attached bacteria, converting ammonia nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen. The trickling filter might be designed as a waterfall for aesthetic purposes and thus contribute to the “livability” of the habitat. The effluent leaving this filter is relatively clean with a significant amount of the nitrogen and carbon compounds removed. Effluent from the trickling filter flows via gravity into the next unit process. To size the trickling filter, standard sizing equations were used assuming a desired BOD removal efficiency of 80% and an ambient temperature of 20°C (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). Effluent from the trickling filter flows into the constructed wetlands for nutrient removal and final polishing. Wetlands for waste treatment are constructed with complex, stable communities of emergent plants. The plant roots and rock substrate of the constructed wetlands provides a large surface area for attached biofilm growth. Many wetland plants have adaptations to transport oxygen to their roots, thus creating a complex subsurface environment of mixed zones of aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This environment supports both nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms that convert organic nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrate to plant and microbial biomass and nitrogen gas (Kadlec and Knight 1996). The effluent from the wetland will be recycled back through the trickling filter two times per volume flow rate from the anaerobic digester. This recycle flow provides another nitrification-denitrification cycle, further reducing the total nitrogen coming through the system and allowing the wetland size to be smaller than a system with no recycle. The wetland also acts as a filter for any suspended solids that have made it through the trickling filter. To size the wetland unit process, equations were used with a desired TKN removal to 10.5 mg/L, assuming a well-developed subsurface root zone and an ambient temperature of 20°C (Reed et al. 1995). Following the wetland step, the water ends up in clean water storage, having been treated to advanced standards. Following disinfection by ozone or ultra-violet light is acceptable for recycling for non-potable reuse applications in and around the habitat. These applications might include showers, laboratory wash water, plant irrigation, laundry, and toilet flushes. Water suitable for drinking would require additional sterilization and filtration and will not be addressed in the initial system installation. Water for irrigation of agricultural or ornamental plants (as part of an atmosphere management system) would probably not need to run through an advanced sterilization cycle, and a single-time ozonation would be adequate. Design Analysis Comparison with model system: It is helpful for visualization and physical layout purposes to compare the scaled unit processes of the proposed FMARS system with those of the existing model system. Table 3 summarizes the scaled parameters for the proposed FMARS system with parallel parameters measured from the Second Nature system. The comparison is not entirely a parallel one: the Second Nature system is designed for a much larger loading rate and thus has extra volume capacitance. The
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A Proposed Design for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Utilizing Living Machine Technology

numbers presented for the FMARS design represent the smallest possible complex biological wastewater treatment system given the assumptions and safety factors described above.
Table 3. Comparison of proposed FMARS wastewater treatment system with existing system

With this scaling information, it is possible to begin conceptualizing possible layout arrangements for the unit processes proposed here. One possible layout is presented in Figure 4. This layout assumes installation of the system in a greenhouse, double paned to provide maximum insulation from the outside arctic environment. The anaerobic tank is constructed into the structural greenhouse wall adjacent to the FMARS habitat, providing the tank with the best possible thermal insulation between the two structures. A distribution manifold following the trickling filter ensures a steady flow rate and constant delivery of water to all parts of the treatment wetland. A recycle line following the wetland unit process recycles up to twothirds of the flow back to the start of the wetland step to ensure adequate nutrient removal. Flow for nearly the entire system is gravity feed; a 1½ Figure 5. Design schematic of proposed hp pump provides biological wastewater treatment system pressure head for attached to the FMARS habitat. delivery of water within the FMARS, and a small, low power, maintenance free airlift pump recirculates water to the storage tank via a disinfection step. Note that this schematic assumes recycle of water to nonpotable applications. Potable use of recycled water requires additional disinfection, filtering, and polishing steps that can be pursued in future design iterations if interest warrants.
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A Proposed Design for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Utilizing Living Machine Technology

Conclusions Design of a biologically based wastewater treatment system for reuse and recycling of water is difficult even for temperate climates, so the Arctic environment of the FMARS habitat poses unique challenges to the design process. Table 4 is a summary of many of the major design topics and steps that must be systematically addressed to bring the conceptual design proposed here to the point of construction and implementation. One of the major analyses yet to be performed is a detailed power consumption and cost analysis for the system. Design for harsh Arctic conditions undoubtedly increases the expected cost of the system - perhaps prohibitively beyond what is desirable by the Mars Society. However, biological processes are easily adaptable to warmer climates with a steady annual light regime: the Mars Society’s proposal for other Mars habitat analogs installed in more temperate environments would provide excellent opportunity to test ecologically-designed life support technologies within analog mission scenarios.
Table 4. Design topics, analyses, and steps required prior to implementation of the FMARS wastewater treatment system concept proposed here

An unavoidable drawback to a system of this design – and often of certain ecologically engineered systems – is the large area requirement to maximize photosynthetic unit processes. This is generally unavoidable if higher plants are desired for use in the life support system. However, pursing a treatment wetland concept in this design offers distinct advantages. The wetland might be constructed using in situ rock and regolith for its growth substrate, essentially providing a major contribution to the water treatment process with little or no investment in transportation costs. The wetland area might also be expanded and employed for production of agriculturally valuable crops, adding to the multifunctional value of the system. Additionally, with its complex community of emergent plants, a wetland area has an aesthetic appeal that can contribute to crew morale. Expansion of this system’s size and complexity approaches the scale of biospheres that might be desirable for long-term human habitation on Mars. While the design presented here is preliminary and conceptual, the examples provided by existing systems show the advantages of the ecological engineering approach to wastewater treatment design for the FMARS mission. The ecological communities provide complex stable systems with considerable biological diversity and multiple pathways for nutrient sequestering and removal. The complex biological structure is also inherently multifunctional: in addition to cleansing wastewater for reuse, the system proposed here has the potential for food production scenarios while providing an aesthetically-pleasing environment. Additionally, this multifunctionality might be capitalized upon in the future through expansion into larger food-production operations or through integration of photosynthetic unit processes

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A Proposed Design for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Utilizing Living Machine Technology

designed for atmospheric management. In this way, the system proposed here stands as a basic platform upon which future FMARS missions might study and explore various scenarios for life support. References
1. Adey, W., Luckett, C., Jensen, K. 1993. Phosphorus removal from natural waters using controlled algal production. Restoration Ecology 1: 29-39. 2. Beyers, R.J., Odum, H.T. 1993. Ecological Microcosms. Springer Verlag, New York. 3. Blersch, D., Biermann, E., Kangas, P. 2000. Preliminary design considerations on biological treatment alternatives for a simulated Mars base wastewater treatment system. SAE Technical Paper Series 2000-01-2467, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA. 4. Blersch, D., Biermann, E., Kangas, P. In press. Preliminary design considerations for the M.A.R.S. wastewater treatment system: Physicochemical or living machine? Proceedings of the Second International Convention of the Mars Society, August 12-15, 1999 University of Colorado, Boulder. 5. Craggs, R.J., Adey, W.H., Jessup, B.K., Oswald, W.J. 1996. A controlled stream mesocosm for tertiary treatment of sewage. Ecological Engineering 6: 149-169. 6. Eckart, P. 1996. Spaceflight Life Support and Biospherics. Torrance, CA: Microcosm Press. 7. Hall, J.B., Brewer, D.A. 1986. Supercritical water oxidation: concept analysis for evolutionary space station application. In: Aerospace Environmental Systems: Proceedings of the Sixteenth ICES Conference P-177. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. 8. Ives Halperin, J., Kangas, P.C. 2000. Design analysis of a recirculating living machine for domestic wastewater treatment. 7th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. International Water Association, Orlando, FL. pp. 547-555. 9. Kadlec, R.H., Knight, R.L. 1996. Treatment Wetlands. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 10. Kok, T. 1999. Biostar-A: A first year report: Living with a home-scale biological life support system. Proceedings: 1998 Third International Conference on Life Support and Biosphere Science, Orlando, Florida. 11. Mars Society. 200a. Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS): Project Background. Internet publication: http://arctic.marssociety.org/about/background.html. 12. Mars Society. 2000b. Technical Task Force Life Support Project, FMARS Wastewater Treatment System Conceptual Design version 1.0. Internet publication: http://home.marssociety.org/tech/life_support/htm/design/design1.htm. 13. Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. 1991. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment Disposal Reuse. New York: McGraw-Hill. 14. Mitsch, W.J. 1996. Ecological engineering: A new paradigm for engineers and ecologists. In: Engineering Within Ecological Constraints. Schulze, P.C. (ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 111-128. 15. Mitsch, W.J. 1993. Ecological engineering – A cooperative role with the planetary life-support systems. Environmental Science & Technology 27: 438-445. 16. Odum, H.T. 1963. Limits of remote ecosystems containing man. Am. Biol. Teach. 25: 429-43. 17. Parker, L., Sanders, T., Edeen, M. 2000. A water reuse system for Pike’s Peak, Colorado. Life Support and Biosphere Science vol.7 no. 1. 4th International Conference on Life Support and Biosphere Science, Baltimore, Maryland. 18. Reed, S.C., Crites, R.W., Middlebrooks, E.J. 1995. Natural Systems for Waste Management and Treatment. New York: McGraw-Hill. 19. Todd, J. 1991. Ecological engineering, living machines and the visionary landscape. pp. 335-343. In: Ecological Engineering for Wastewater Treatment. C. Etnier and B. Guterstam (eds.). BokSkogen, Stensund Folk College, Trosh, Sweden. 20. Todd, J., Josephson, B. 1996. The design of living technologies for waste treatment. Ecological Engineering 6: 109-136.

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Applications of Wearable Computing to Exploration in Extreme Environments
Christopher E. Carr; Dava J. Newman [2000] Abstract Wearable computing technologies have the potential to enhance human exploration in extreme environments by serving as multifunctional tools, including serving as cognitive aids, communications tools, research assistants, and real-time health and performance monitors. Future planetary explorers may also use wearable systems to provide “just in time” training or to serve as an entertainment device or virtual abode of privacy while living in cramped quarters. This paper discusses potential uses of wearable computing technologies for planetary exploration on Earth and Mars, as well as potential uses in weightlessness. A wearable computer-based biomedical monitoring and cognitive aid experiment, tested via ground studies and in simulated weightlessness on the NASA KC-135 aircraft, demonstrates some potential uses for wearable computing by astronauts, and indicates necessary areas of improvement for wearable computing technologies. Lessons learned and future opportunities are also briefly discussed. Introduction During exploration in extreme environments, lowered performance can have ultimate consequences such as mission failure or loss of life. Lack of awareness or knowledge about the environment can lead to disaster. Minor health problems can become seriously debilitating. Cognition can be impaired due to environmental conditions or health. Group communication and coordination may suffer. Task proficiency may become degraded due to lack of practice. Skills outside of previous training may be needed. Finally, psychological needs may go unmet – contact with family or friends may be impossible, creative or entertainment outlets may not be available, and privacy may be difficult or impossible. Many of these problems can be mitigated through timely access to information, including information relating to the state of the explorer. Wearable computers have the potential to mitigate some of these problems by serving as multifunctional tools that function as both monitoring devices and information delivery devices. Wearable computing technologies can enhance self-sufficiency, autonomy, and human / machine teaming by enhancing local human performance and mediating outside interactions. Background A wearable computer can be roughly characterized as a computing device that is portable while operational, capable of hands free use, able to sense characteristics of its environment, is “always on,” and is capable of augmenting human capabilities (Rhodes, 1997). In a more abstract fashion, a wearable computer can be thought of as a human-centric device that performs information processing for or in cooperation with a user. Using this definition, one might consider as relevant the first mention of the eyeglasses in 1268 or the following expression of Robert Cooke in 1665 (Wearables, 2000): The next care to be taken, in respect of the Senses, is a supplying of their infirmities with Instruments, and as it were, the adding of artificial Organs to the natural . . . and as Glasses have highly promoted our seeing, so ‘tis not improbable, but that there may be found many mechanical inventions to improve our other senses of hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching. Other important events in the history of wearable computing include (adapted from (Wearables, 2000)): • Invention of the pocket watch by John Harrison (1762). • Development of the first wrist watch by Louis Cartier (1907). • Proposal of the idea of augmented memory by Vannevar Bush (1945).

Christopher E. Carr & Dava J. Newman; Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Emails: chrisc@mit.edu; dnewman@mit.edu
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Applications of Wearable Computing to Exploration in Extreme Environments

• • • • • • •

First stereoscopic head-mounted display (HMD) produced (1960). First wearable computer (built to predict results of a spinning roulette wheel) built by Thorp and Shannon (1966) First computer-based HMD developed by Sutherland (1966). S. Mann develops backpack-mounted computer for photography (1981). Student Electronic Notebook demonstrated by G. Maguire and J. Ioannidis (1990). T. Starner starts constantly wearing his computer (1993). Rapid advances in wearables research and technology; commercially produced wearable computers; strong interest in military and aerospace markets (1994-2000).

Wearables and Exploration Wearable computers can enhance human exploration in extreme environments by serving as multifunctional tools. A wearable computer may function as an information capture tool, a health and performance monitor, a cognitive aid, a communication and coordination tool, a tool for education, training, or retraining, or as a tool to provide psychological support. A wearable computer can serve as an information capture tool via automated information capture or by directed (userinitiated) information capture. The wearable computer may act as a recorder, binding context to information (such as position or time information, or other relevant data related to user activity) so the user can focus on the task at hand. The wearable computer may also have the capability to share that information over a network to other users or machines. Directed information capture might be enabled using multiple interfaces such as haptic input devices, gestures, voice commands, or direct manipulation interfaces (i.e., for visual input, a camera is a direct manipulation interface). Recording of audio, images, video, or text might be appropriate for a large number of applications. Wearable computers can also serve as biomedical monitors. A wearable computer may non-invasively monitor a series of physiological parameters such as heart rate (or a full electrocardiogram), blood oxygen saturation, blood sugar, blood nitrogen, respiration rate, or walking gait. The wearable computer might contain a physiological model, potentially tailored to the individual user, and might be able to provide real time physiological feedback or intervention or suggest a remote consultation with medical personnel. Measurements could be made during normal daily activities of an explorer in an attempt to reduce the number of perceived extraneous medical tests required in some environments (such as during long-duration space flight). In addition, wearable computers might provide environmental safety assurance by using wearable sensors to monitor atmospheric gasses such as O2, CO2, CO, NO, or potential airborne toxic chemicals. Temperature or pressure monitoring might also be appropriate in some environments. Biomedical monitoring using wearable computers raises important privacy issues that must be considered in conjunction with the technical advantages that might be achieved by such monitoring. Wearable computers might serve as cognitive aids by functioning as information gatherers and presenters, providing users with procedural checklists or technical references (“interactive electronic technical manuals”), or functioning as “expert systems” for troubleshooting of equipment or other problems. A wearable computer might also serve as a signal processing system with data visualization or enhancement capabilities. Past wearable computing systems have been used as visual information processing platforms with features such as spatial and tonal enhancement (Mann, 1998). These cognitive aids might function as decision aids or planning tools, and may have personalized interfaces tailored to an individual. Using a wearable computer as a mediation tool might enhance communication and coordination between users or machines. The wearable computer might function as an attention access regulator, or as an interface to experiments or equipment (thereby reducing the need for experiment-specific or equipment-specific displays except as desired for redundancy). This mediation tool might provide information about other users or machines to the user (such as position, status, conditions, or plans), and could be used to coordinate group activities. Communications could also be stored for later review or reference, and translation between communications formats (synchronous / asynchronous, or audio / text conversion) could be performed.

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Applications of Wearable Computing to Exploration in Extreme Environments

Wearable computers could support continuing education and training, or just-in-time learning. For example, during a long-duration space flight, a doctor might need to perform a surgical operation not covered in previous training, or not recently practiced. Wearable computers could be used to provide access to domain specific databases (i.e., a soldier hiding out behind enemy lines uses his wearable computer to confirm what plants in the area are edible). With the right interfaces, wearable computers can provide augmented reality or virtual reality for training and simulation. Retraining or simulation capabilities are especially important during long-duration space flight: the complexity of space missions requires the crew to be proficient in the use of a huge number of complex systems. For example, on-orbit astronauts may need to refamiliarize themselves with a particular piece of equipment through simulation due to a long period of time between their original training and operation of the equipment during a critical phase of a mission. One of the factors involved in the crash of a Progress supply vehicle into the Mir Space Station in 1997 may have been the significant procedural changes made prior to the attempted rendezvous and a lack of recent training with the rendezvous systems. Many of the serious challenges encountered during exploration in extreme environments are psychological in nature (Stuster, 1996). Wearable computers have the capacity to provide psychological support by serving as a creative outlet: explorers might use a wearable computer as a tool for music composition, writing, drawing, imaging, photography, or video capture. A wearable computer might also function as a game playing machine or a multimedia display device (for private or shared displays of movies or music, for example). This may help users cope with the boredom that is often encountered in extreme environments during periods of inactivity. Such a device could also serve as a virtual private space, customized to an individual. Explorers might use such a device to communicate with family or friends in privacy, or to store personal documents or keep a personal journal. A Case Study: Wearable Computing in Simulated Weightlessness

The authors began a project in 1998 to build and test a flexible wearable computer system for astronauts that serves as a biomedical monitoring device and multipurpose tool. The specific aim of project NIMBLE (a Non-Invasive Microgravity Biomedical Life-sciences Experiment) was to measure the effects of micro-gravity and hyper-gravity environments using pulse-oximetry and electrocardiography, while providing a cognitive aid for the user (the use of the wearable computer as a checklist was compared with the use of a paper checklist). The wearable computer system was based upon a commercially available wearable computer from Xybernaut Corporation, the Mobile Assistant IV, and included a wearable central processing unit (CPU), a head-mounted display,
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Applications of Wearable Computing to Exploration in Extreme Environments

and a wrist worn keyboard. The wearable computer performed data collection for an electrocardiography system, and for a serial-port-based pulse-oximeter sensor. A general block diagram of the experimental setup and analysis approach is shown below:
Data Collection and Analysis Block Diagram

The system was built, ground tested, and later flown on the NASA KC-135 aircraft as part of the NASA Reduced Gravity Student Flight Opportunities Program in March 1999. Two flights on the KC-135 with four sets of 10 parabolas per flight yielded a total of 80 parabolas for testing of the system in simulated weightlessness. About 20-25 seconds of simulated weightlessness was available during each parabola, and while continuous biomedical monitoring was being performed, checklist evaluation sessions (each 15 seconds long) were performed. Tight choreography of activities during the experiment was made possible only by experiment management and data collection software that had been written and developed for the wearable computer. Two flight-crew members (acting as subjects) flew on the KC-135 per flight, each with a wearable computer system. The author is shown on the next page wearing the wearable computer system during flight. Heart rate recordings obtained during repeated parabolas clearly demonstrated the dynamic response of the cardiovascular system to repetitive exposure to simulated weightlessness and 2-g conditions: Further analysis of the biomedical data illustrated the importance of reducing the effect of outside disturbances (such as movement artifacts or drug effects on biomedical sensors. In addition to successfully demonstrating wearable computer-based biomedical monitoring, the system also allowed subjects to simultaneously perform a series of simple tasks (such as pushing buttons, turning dials, etc.) with guidance from either a paper checklist or the wearable computer. Biomedical monitoring and cognitive aiding functions could
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Applications of Wearable Computing to Exploration in Extreme Environments

therefore be performed by the system in a simultaneous fashion. The chart below illustrates checklist completion times for subjects using the wearable computer checklist or the paper checklist under all experimental conditions including pre-flight, simulated weightlessness (0-g), 2-g, and post-flight testing.

While the task completion times were lower for the wearable computer than for the paper checklist, the differences in task completion times were not statistically significant. Post-flight results also indicated that a significant learning effect was at play. Subjects’ subjective ratings suggested that the wearable computer checklist was easier to use in the simulated weightlessness and 2-g environments.
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Applications of Wearable Computing to Exploration in Extreme Environments

Overall, the system demonstrated the need for lower-mass, lower-profile, and lower-power wearable computers. The commercially available Xybernaut system was quite bulky, and on one occasion tangled wires resulted in a hard landing on the padded floor of the KC-135 aircraft by two of the subjects at the end of a parabola. In order to provide future astronauts with wearable computing platforms that do not interfere with their mobility, future wearable systems must be significantly less encumbering and more body conformal. Future Wearable Computing Technologies Wearable computing technologies are undergoing rapid advances. Conductive fabrics, sensor mesh fabrics, and washable wearable computers have been designed or demonstrated (Post, 1997a). Smaller, lighter wearable computers have been developed, such as a 360 gram prototype, developed by IBM (see figure). Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) sensors have been developed for noninvasive biomedical monitoring, and wireless sensors are under development. The MIT Media Laboratory has demonstrated data and power distribution using the body electric field (Post, 1997b). Humanbased power generation for wearable computing has been demonstrated using piezoelectric materials embedded in shoes, and other power generation mechanisms for human-powered wearable computing have been proposed (Starner, 1996). See-through micro-displays, or micro-displays embedded in glasses have also been developed. A Vision For The Future Wearable computers have the potential to evolve into systems about as encumbering as clothing, and ultimately may be partially or completely human powered. Wearable computers will be used in extreme environments here on Earth and in microgravity. Researchers may use wearable computers to support science activities and operations research at Mars analog sites such as Devon Island or the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. Wearable computers may be used to study
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Applications of Wearable Computing to Exploration in Extreme Environments

and support the exploration process, to coordinate research activities or observations, and to support distributed collaboration during real or simulated extravehicular activities between a field team and “base camp.” Wearable computers will help take humans to Mars, and will ultimately be in everyday use, in one form or another, by many people on Earth.

Wearable computers have the potential to improve the everyday lives of people around the planet, and those people fortunate enough to journey off the planet. In extreme environments, wearable computing technologies have the potential to make the difference between mission success and failure – because they help empower the strongest link in the chain: the humans. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program. References
(Gutterman, 1999) (Mann, 1998) (Ockerman, 1997) (Post, 1997a) L. Gutterman, PC-Based Test Systems in Harsh Environments, IEEE, 1999. S. Mann, Humanistic Computing, MIT Media Laboratory, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 86, No. 11, November 1998. J. Ockerman, L. Najjar, and J.C. Thompson, Wearable Computers for Performance Support, IEEE, 1997. E.R. Post, and M. Orth, Smart Fabric, or Washable Fabric, IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1997. (Post, 1997b) E.R. Post, M. Reynolds, M. Gray, J. Paradiso, and N. Gershenfeld, Intrabody buses for data and power, IEEE, 1997. (Rhodes, 1997) B.J. Rhodes, “The wearable remembrance agent: a system for augmented memory,” Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Wearable Computers, Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 1997, pp. 123-128. (Rogers, 1997) E. Rogers, R. Murphy, and C. Thompson, Outbreak Agent: Intelligent Wearable Technologies for Hazardous Environments, IEEE, 1997. (Starner, 1996) T. Starner, Human Powered Wearable Computing, IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 35, Nos. 3&4, 1996. (Stuster, 1996) J. Stuster, Bold Endeavors, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1996. (Thorp, 1998) E. Thorp, The Invention of the First Wearable Computer, IEEE, 1998. (Wearables, 2000) Wearables, MIT Media Laboratory Wearables Group (http://www.media.mit.edu/wearables/).

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WB-B2B – A Web-Based Tool For International Project Management
Christian Breu; Norbert Meckl; Patricia Shiroma-Brockmann; Michael Bosch [2000] Abstract For the development of the first manned mission to Mars, thousands of industrial contractors, universities, and research institutions will need to work closely together. Important project data, such as project progress, performance, deadlines, costs and cash flows, will need to be transferred between contractors and their subcontractors. The technical implementation of these interfaces will be quite challenging, because the project participants often use different project management software. This makes the automatic integration of data much more difficult. As a result, costly and timeconsuming manual integration is usually necessary. In order to alleviate this problem, the European Space Agency (ESA) requires all contractors to use the same software: ECOS (ESA COsting Software). With ECOS, the electronic invitations to tender can be distributed electronically by the contracting agencies. Subcontractors send their proposal bid data electronically to the next higher contractor, who can then integrate these data in their proposal bid automatically. Other software packages have extended this philosophy to include completion of all phases of the entire project. The disadvantage of this method is that one particular contractor could be forced by each of their different customers to use a special software package for project management. WB-B2B (Web-Based-Business-to-Business) is a software system, which solves the conflict between internal and external integration. This tool integrates all project data over the entire project life cycle across enterprise boundaries and over multiple hardware and software platforms by using the Internet. Both the call for proposals as well as the development of proposal bids on each contractual level can be conducted over a B2B platform. Furthermore, the eprocurement interface makes it possible to connect to already existing virtual B2B market places. In this paper, WBB2B and its possible application in an international Mars mission will be presented in detail. Introduction The development and production of interplanetary space flight systems present challenges, which can hardly be compared to other branches. Especially for manned missions, technically perfect system solutions need to be developed in order to assure safe missions. Even for missions carried out by a single country, an organization which guarantees cooperation between main contractors and subcontractors, government agencies, universities and research institutes is necessary. A project as large and as complex as a manned Mars mission requires a division of labor among highly qualified specialists, departments, enterprises and scientific institutions. In addition to technicians, experts in the natural sciences, computer sciences, medicine, business, law, and in their operation and utilization are also necessary. If the first manned mission to Mars is carried out as an international program, additional management efforts due to the following characteristics are required: Development and finances must be regulated by contracts between the participating countries; different languages, cultures and legal systems must be taken into account; therefore, the project information system must guarantee an interdisciplinary integration of different countries, companies, specialists and contractors (Bosch, 1999). In this paper, the disadvantages of traditional project information systems during the following phases will be discussed: invitation to tender, preparation of proposal bids, project planning and project execution. Next, a prototype for the WebBased B2B System developed by the authors will be presented. This system uses new, Internet-based technology to solve the problems discussed previously.

Christian Breu and Norbert Meckl; University of Regensburg / Patricia Shiroma-Brockmann; University of Applied Sciences Nuernberg Michael Bosch; University of Applied Sciences Albstadt Sigmaringen; Anton-Guenther-Str. 51; D-72488 Sigmaringen; Email: bosch@fh-albsig.de
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WB-B2B – A Web-Based Tool For International Project Management

Invitation To Tender And Tender Integration On multinational projects, the external cooperation between project partners is organized according to contracts between industrial prime contractors, main contractors and subcontractors. The signing of contracts between prime contractors and subcontractors is preceded by a multi-hierarchical proposal phase. During the invitation to tender phase, the goal is to use a competitive environment in order to either find potential contractors who can provide certain systems and services for the lowest possible costs, or to receive the maximum amount of systems and services for a given budget. The geographical return rule is an additional reason for the inclusion of subcontractors within the jurisdiction of the European Space Agency (ESA). Most of the time, the space agency for a given international partner names a prime contractor who is responsible for the completion of a given project. The prime contractor holds a turn key contract and is thus fully responsible for the leadership and management of the entire project, for supervising the subcontractors and for the development, integration and delivery of the system (Korbmacher, 1991). The invitation to tender and proposal integration phase is conducted as follows. First, the space agency issues an invitation to tender to all potential prime contractors. Project requirements, cost and schedule plans are also sent along with this invitation to tender. While putting together their proposal bids, the potential prime contractors decide whether they will outsource portions of the project to subcontractors. If subcontractors are chosen, they also have to make corresponding decisions. Each potential subcontractor puts together a proposal bid and submits this bid to their contractor. The contractor then evaluates these bids and selects the best one. The selected bid must then be integrated into the contractor’s proposal bid. Finally, the contractor’s bid is submitted to their contractor on the next higher hierarchical level. This recursive process continues until the potential prime contractors have submitted their bids to the space agency. The space agency then selects one of the prime contractors. Figure 1 shows a graphical representation of this process.

Figure 1. Invitation to Tender and Tender Integration
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WB-B2B – A Web-Based Tool For International Project Management

The external project organization for each of the international partners is specified in the contracts between contractors and subcontractors. As shown in Figure 2, each subcontractor serves in turn as contractor for their subcontractors.

Figure 2. Multi-hierarchical Relationships Between Contractors and Subcontractors

The process described above originally required a tremendous amount of time and money, because everything was done on paper. Schedule delays and additional costs were incurred by sending the invitations to tender and the proposal bids by mail. Unjustifiably high costs and error rates were caused by having to manually reenter data from one system into another. In order to combat these problems, during the 1980’s the European Space Agency (ESA) introduced the ESA Costing Software (ECOS). ECOS makes it possible to process the invitations to tender and the integration of the proposal bids by computer. The goal of this system is to allow contractors to submit proposal bids either on a diskette or via modem. This is especially helpful for space projects where several industrial subcontractors are involved. ESA requires their industrial contractors to use ECOS for certain projects (ESA, ECOS User’s Manual, 1992). Worldwide, ECOS was the first system of this type. During the proposal phase, ECOS helps with the development of the Product Tree (PT) and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Under certain conditions, each subcontractor can extend the PT and WBS from their contractor, simply by adding additional nodes. In this manner, stepwise refinement of the project structure is achieved. The WBS is generated in ECOS together with the Invitation To Tender (ITT). An ITT is an invitation to potential prime contractors to submit a proposal for a given project. Space agencies start the proposal phase by sending ITT’s to potential prime contractors. This process continues recursively down to the lowest level of the project organization. Each subcontractor participating in the proposal can extend the systems structure and the WBS to reflect their
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contribution. When a contractor decides to outsource work packages to a subcontractor, he is responsible for defining ITT’s for each of the potential subcontractors. Because each contract can be subdivided into a contracted part and an own part, ECOS also requires the definition of an ITT for the part completed by the contractor himself (ESA, ECOS User’s Manual, 1992).

Figure 3. Definition of ITT

ITT 1 is defined for Subcontractor 1; ITT 2 is defined for Subcontractor 2. The contractor is solely responsible for the integration of the entire system; he does not participate in the development of the subsystems. After the ITT’s have been defined, the contractor uses ECOS to generate ITT files. These ITT files are then sent, either on diskette or via modem, to the responsible subcontractors. WBS nodes within the jurisdiction of one subcontractor can not be worked on by the contractor. Once the contractor has defined an ITT as ready for Data Entry, then the system structure and the WBS can not be changed by a subcontractor. The subcontractor is only allowed to enter technical specifications, costs and schedule data for existing nodes. Once a contractor has defined an ITT as ready for ITT-Handling, this implies that it would be possible to include additional subcontractors. Once the ITT’s have been sent to potential subcontractors, then the contractor has completed their handling of the ITT’s. The next process step consists of the integration of the tender bids from the subcontractors (tender integration) within the contractor’s own proposal bid. The contractor’s bid is then, in turn, integrated into the proposal bid at the next higher level (ESA, ECOS User’s Manual, 1992). The proposal process can only be conducted as described above if all of the participating enterprises utilize ECOS. If a contractor has other customers in addition to ESA, then the contractor would be required to use different proposal systems for each customer. This could lead to an unmanageable number of different systems for each contractor. Project Execution During the project execution phase, many different types of data need to be exchanged between the contractors and subcontractors shown in Figure 2: schedule data, performance data, technical data and financial data. Furthermore, data from each subcontractor has to be aggregated for the contractor on each of the next higher levels, all the way up to the prime contractor. If all contractors for one project are allowed to choose their own project management software, then different data formats and different integration methods lead to incompatible systems. The result is costly manual integration work at the interface between contractor and subcontractor. Special project management systems which can integrate multiple enterprises and which have adapted ECOS methods for project execution already exist. The ISPMS prototype, which was developed at the University of Regensburg in the middle of the 1990’s, is an example of such a system. If all project participants are required to use ISPMS, then completely automatic integration of project management data for multiple enterprises can be achieved without any additional manual data entry. During the project planning phase, the plan data for each subcontractor can be transferred to the contractor on the next hierarchical level. These data can then be integrated into the contractor’s project plan. This
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WB-B2B – A Web-Based Tool For International Project Management

continues on each higher hierarchical level, until a complete project plan has been developed on the prime contractor level. Data for the technical and administrative project control (technical performance control, task performance control) can be aggregated and integrated in the same way, for each of the hierarchical levels. During project execution, data about the actual state of the project progress can be compared with the project plan. Furthermore, the original plan can be revised and adjusted to reflect the current project situation. The implementation of the software necessary for this concept is relatively simple and inexpensive. All of the programs necessary for the ISPMS project management system run on a standard PC. ISPMS can be installed for each of the project participants (Bosch, 1997). Problems With Traditional Systems As stated previously, the problems associated with data redundancy and the integration of data between enterprises can be avoided. This can be achieved if all project participants use the same standard, unified project management system for both the proposal phase as well as the project execution phase. On the other hand, though, each contractor is confronted with a problem: each of their customers could theoretically require them to use a different project management system for each project. This could result in an unacceptable number of different project management systems (PMS) on the level of a certain contractor. Figure 4 illustrates this problem graphically.

Figure 4. Customer Software Requirements from the Perspective of a specific Contractor

The challenge is to develop a standard information system that can be used for multiple enterprises, without limiting the software independence of a single contractor. Web-Based B2B Concept WB-B2B is an Internet-based project management platform that runs on a Web-server. It is based on a centralized database with a Web interface, which means that data input and output is performed with a Web browser over the Internet. Each user sees his own special views of the database, generated by dynamic, individually generated forms. User authorization is conducted by a unique login password. The proposal phase is conducted in the following manner. First, on each hierarchical level of the project, a contractor enters all of the necessary information into the central database. Potential subcontractors are invited to submit their proposals. This invitation to tender can be transferred over several different electronic media and does not need to contain the project details. The detailed information can be obtained by logging into the specified address on the Internet. Potential subcontractors can log into the system and are identified by a login password specified by the contractor. They then can see the detailed information about the invitation to tender and can submit their proposal bids over the Internet. Once a proposal has been received, then the appropriate contractor is automatically notified either via E-mail or via cellular telephone using the Short Messaging System (SMS). The contractor can immediately view the proposal bid over the Internet with the WB-B2B system. In addition, WB-B2B performs an analysis and suggests a preliminary selection of the proposal bids.

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WB-B2B – A Web-Based Tool For International Project Management

Contractors can generate additional project nodes on lower hierarchical levels for multiple subcontractors. The result is a project structure, where each subcontractor is only allowed to view data for their respective subproject. The contractor retains control over both their own data as well as that for the hierarchical level directly beneath them. Once a contractor has all of the project documents (e.g., technical specifications, schedules and planned costs) in digital form, then these data can also be stored in the database. These data can then be viewed at any time by the contracting agency. After a contract has been awarded, data and user rights that are no longer needed can be deleted. During the project execution phase, each participating contractor is assigned a client certificate. Client certificates serve as an additional guarantee of authenticity when used together with a login password. WB-B2B also offers a communication platform. Messages can be posted to project nodes. Electronic documents can be discussed and suggestions for improvements can be made. Comparison of data during the project execution phase occurs on the contractors’ respective internal information systems, using their preferred database and project management software. The necessary data transfer can be conducted using either the Internet-based forms interface already presented or using other agreed upon universal interfaces, such as ASCII files or SQL (Structured Query Language). The results of the data comparison can then be uploaded to the Internet (according to the “push” principle). Alternatively, if the enterprise is willing to allow the WB-B2B system access, can be directly accessed by the WB-B2B system (“pull” principle). Changes in planned schedules, costs or products which may occur at any point in the project structure during the project execution phase are sent to the next higher level contractor, either via E-mail or via SMS. At the same time, these changes are immediately recorded in the database and automatically included in the aggregated data on the next higher level. Technical Implementation The logic of the application software is embedded in a Java program, which runs on the centralized Web server. This program handles the interface between the database and the Web application. It is responsible for verification of users, database access, data processing, the application logic and the generation of Web content. The system is organized according to the “thin client” principle. This means that the server is responsible for performing all of the program processing. On the client side, all that is necessary are relatively inexpensive PC’s, Macintoshes or UNIX computers with Internet connections and relatively recent browser software (e.g., Internet Explorer, Netscape Communicator, version 3 or higher). As a result, the enterprises usually will not have to buy any additional hardware or software. Requests from client computers are handled by Java Servelets and Java Beans (Sun Microsystems), which translate these requests into database queries. The resulting data are then sent to Java Server Pages (JSP). The JSP convert these data into HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) pages, which can be viewed with the browser software. These HTML pages are then sent to the client computer. By using the programming language Java, the Web server is independent from any platform. This means that the same software can run on a number of different operating systems, for example, Windows NT, LINUX and Solaris. Access to the centralized database is done with the standard database interface, SQL. The advantage of using SQL is that for each project the best-suited database management system can be selected. For example, Oracle could be used for larger projects and MySQL could be used for smaller projects. Javascript is used on the client side only for the navigation of web sites, error messages or for input validation checks. Input validation checks ensure that the user is informed of input errors before the data is even sent to the server. As an alternative to simply displaying the data in a browser, WB-B2B also offers additional data transfer modes. XML (eXtended Markup Language) is becoming increasingly important as a meta-data definition language. XML is a
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WB-B2B – A Web-Based Tool For International Project Management

universal, platform-independent data format. WB-B2B offers the option of creating and sending project data in XML format. WB-B2B’s WAP service, used to send especially time-critical project data to a cellular phone, is based on a variant of XML, called WML (Wireless Markup Language). In the near future, the transfer of voice-based Web content based on Motorola and IBM’s VoiceXML standard is also planned. Security Issues WB-B2B fulfills the current security standards for e-business applications. Once a user has logged into the system, the session is automatically closed if the user hasn’t sent any requests for 10 minutes. After each session, the user’s personal data are stored in order to generate the specific Web content he is authorized to view. During each session, encoded, a temporary “cookie” is stored, which is then deleted when the session is closed. Hostile, external accesses to the database are prevented by a firewall. Thus, it is not possible for unauthorized persons to read, change or delete data. A “Man in the Middle Attack” is when an unauthorized person attempts to listen in on or to falsify data transfers. In order to prevent this from happening, a secure Internet connection will be established using SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) encryption. SSL technology takes a message and runs it through a set of steps that “scrambles” the message. This is done so that the message cannot be read while it is being transferred. This “scrambling” is called encryption. When the message is received by the intended recipient, SSL unscrambles the message, checks that it came from the correct sender (authentication) and then verifies that it has not been tampered with. SSL uses digital certificates (or just certificates) to bundle important information together to identify a server or a user. This identification comes in the form of things like the organization name, the organization that issued the certificate, the organization’s email address, country, and of course their public key (the part that “scrambles” a message) (www.ssl.com, 2000). Bibliography
1. Bosch, Michael, Commercialization of Management Know-How Generated by the ISS-Program, in: International Space Station: The Next Space Marketplace (Space Studies Series Vol. 4), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1999. 2. Bosch, Michael, Management internationaler Raumfahrtprojekte, Gabler Verlag, Deutscher Universitätsverlag, Wiesbaden, 1997. 3. European Space Agency, ECOS User’s Manual, DRAFT VERSION, PSS-06-101, Issue 2, Cost Analysis Division, ESTEC, ESA, Noordwijk, 1992. 4. Korbmacher, Eva-Maria, Organisationsstrukturelle Problemfelder im überbetrieblichen Projektmanagement, Steuer- und Wirtschaftsverlag, Hamburg, 1991. 5. Secure Sockets Layer, Homepage, www.ssl.com, 2000.

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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications
Roderick Hyde, Muriel Ishikawa, John Nuckolls, John Whitehead & Lowell Wood [1999] Abstract Water and its major constituent, oxygen, in large specific quantities are essential for maintenance of human life. Providing them in adequate quantities is widely believed to be a major challenge for human exploration and settlement of Mars. The Martian regolith isn’t known to bear either water or hydrogen, the ice-rich Martian polar regions are thermally inhospitable, and the measured water content of Mars’ thin atmosphere represents a layer of liquid water of average thickness only ~1% that available on the Moon, or ~0.001 cm. Crucially, however, the atmospheric Martian water inventory is advected meteorologically to every place on Mars, so that the few cubic kilometers of liquid waterequivalent in the atmosphere are available anywhere, merely for the effort of condensing it. Well-engineered apparatus deployed essentially anywhere on Mars can condense water from the atmosphere in daily quantities not much smaller than its own mass, rejecting into space from radiators deployed over the local terrain the water’s heat-of-condensation and the heat from non-ideality of the equipment’s operation. Thus, an optimized, photovoltaic-powered water-condensing system of ~0.3 tons mass could strip 40 tons of water each year from ~104 times this mass of thin, dry Martian air. Given a 490 sec Isp of H2-O2 propulsion systems exhausting into the 6 millibar Mars surface atmosphere and the 5.0 km/s Martian gravity well, ~40 tons of water, two-thirds converted into 5:1 O2/H2 cryogenic fuel, could support exploration and loft a crew-of-four and their 8-ton ascent vehicle into Earth-return trajectory. The remaining H2O and excess O2 would suffice for half-open-cycle life support for a year’s exploration-intensive stay on Mars. A Mars Expedition thus needs to land only explorers, dehydrated food, habitation gear and unfueled exploration / Earthreturn equipment – and a water / oxygen / fuel plant exploiting Martian atmospheric water. All of the oxygen, water and propellants necessary for life-support, extensive exploration and Earth-return can be provided readily by the host planet. Crewed exploration of Mars launched from LEO with only 2 Shuttle-loads of equipment and consumables – a commercial total cost-equivalent of ~$650 M – thereby becomes feasible. The most challenging current problem with respect to human expeditions to Mars is escape from Earth’s deep, 11.2 km/s gravity well, and is largely an economic issue. Living on Mars, exploring it extensively and returning to Earth, each hitherto major technical issues, are actually much less difficult, thanks in no small part to the effective “wetness” of Mars. Similar considerations apply to other water-rich locations in the Solar system, e.g., Europa. Introduction and Summary Water is the sine qua non of human life. Not only is it essential per se for use in preventing eventually-fatal dehydration of our tissues, but its major constituent, oxygen, is essential in molecular form as the ultimate electron-sink in the chemical reactions which power all human metabolic processes. We die without molecular oxygen gas for respiration in a matter of minutes, without liquid water for tissue-rehydration in a handful of days. To stay alive then, we must immerse ourselves in environments that aren’t completely devoid of water, just as our distant ancestors required enormously water-rich ones. Off-Earth human exploration and settlement appears especially challenging, then, for liquid water is known to be present in very few locations of near-term interest for exploration of the inner Solar system – actually, precisely none. The general mind-set has been that Mars is exemplary of such water-starved, innately inhospitable locales, for the very modest quantities of water which exist on its surface – by terrestrial standards, at least – seem to be tightly locked-up in polar caps of forbiddingly low temperature. Even the vacuum-enshrouded Moon, from our current, relatively poorly-

Corresponding author. Also Visiting Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305-6010. All authors are affiliated with the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551-0808
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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

informed perspective, might seem more attractive to water-addicted life forms such as our own; for its generally finepowdery surface is known (from Apollo studies) to have several ppm of solar wind hydrogen implanted in it, which can be released by moderate-temperature roasting of this “soil.” The corresponding amount of water-equivalent hydrogen in the top 10-20 meters of continually meteorically-churned lunar regolith is a liquid sheet of about 0.1 cm thickness, or 1000 metric tons of water per square kilometer of mare surface – everywhere! The dusty, wind-swept Martian surface seems desert-like in comparison. The purpose of this paper is to invite general attention to the facts that Mars is actually reasonably water-rich; that the entire surface of Mars is truly covered with a very low-density, albeit deep, ocean of water; and that human exploration and settlement of Mars are therefore much less technically challenging – and far less economically demanding – than has been generally believed. This general point applies in a comparably compelling manner to other water-rich locations in the Solar system, e.g., the outer Galilean moons of Jupiter. In particular, as specialists have long understood, the thin (~6 millibar surface-pressure) Martian atmosphere has the same specific water content as is found in the Earth’s air over Antarctica – about 1 milliTorr vapor pressure, in the Martian case. Also, the pertinent transport properties of the Martian atmosphere are particularly conducive to condensation of this atmospheric moisture with modest specific quantities of equipment. Deployment and operation of remarkably small amounts of optimized equipment may readily extract enough liquid water to not only provide the feedstreams of oxygen and water to life-support systems for human explorers or settlers, but can also provide the few-fold greater quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen needed to support vigorous rocket- and ground-vehiclesupported exploration of Mars, as well as supply the far-larger quantities of cryogenic propellants required for rocketpowered return-to-Earth from the Martian surface. Martian explorers and settlers thus need bring to Mars little more than themselves, life-support and habitation equipment, dehydrated food (sufficient until greenhouse operation provides adequate foodstuffs), a Water Plant (with internal power-supply) and exploration and Earth-return vehicles. Water extracted from the Martian atmosphere – and products readily derived from it – will fill in the rest of the traditional expedition’s mass budget – and this mass budget fraction characteristically is the dominant one, as Table 1 and Figure 3 indicate. Exploration and settlement of Mars thereby may be several-fold easier, in terms of required mass leaving the Earth in trans-Mars trajectory, than has been estimated hitherto – and thus may be made to commence significantly sooner. Specifically, as little as 2 Shuttle-loads (or commercial space-launch-equivalents) of equipment and supplies positioned in LEO may suffice to launch a fullfledged manned mission to Mars with a crew of 4. In the following sections, we first review salient properties of the Martian atmosphere, including aspects of its meteorological repertoire. We then consider the form-and-function of equipment mass-optimized to extract water from it, note the quantities of water of interest to support the full spectrum of activities of early exploration teams, and suggest the steps to be taken toward the reasonably near-term implementation and demonstration of these prospects. We conclude by noting the rather striking implications of these results for initial Mars exploration mission-architectures. Pertinent Properties of the Martian Atmosphere Our present knowledge of the pertinent features of the Martian atmosphere is derived from the Viking Lander 1 and 2 data sets, supplemented by the Pathfinder results of 1997. The Viking data set is of primary interest, as it represents essentially all that we know of a quantitative nature about Martian atmospheric seasons, and because it sampled atmospheric properties at two quite different locations on Mars. At that, it’s quite imperfect, as surface-level water vapor concentrations were measured only indirectly, and only two sites on Mars – a planet whose meteorology is apparently not much less rich than that of the Earth – were studied only over a single full year’s variations, i.e., over an interval of 650 sols. The primary data of present interest are summarized in Figure 1, which, at the “bottom line’’ (represented by the “New Houston” plot, which is the best-estimate of the globally-averaged value-vs.-time of the Martian atmospheric water
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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

content) indicates that the global annual average of water content of the Martian atmosphere is about 2x10-6 kg/m3. This corresponds to a bit more than 1 milliTorr vapor pressure. The right vertical axis of this Figure indicates the saturation temperature for the corresponding water vapor pressures / gas densities on the left vertical axis. As may be readily appreciated, the saturation temperature for the global annual-averaged water vapor pressure is about -74ºC, or 199ºK, while an order-of-magnitude lower vapor pressure is seen at -88ºC, or 185ºK, and another order-of-magnitude reduction is seen at -100ºC, or 173ºK. In somewhat more familiar terms, the average relative humidity of the Martian wintertime atmosphere is about 5-10% – not much less than mid-continental wintertime terrestrial conditions. Stripping water out of the ‘’average’’ Martian atmosphere thus consists of cooling it to a temperature of no more than about 185ºK, providing a convenient surface onto which this now-supersaturated Martian “air” can deposit and/or grow ice crystals, and maintaining this condition sufficiently long (in the particular cooling geometry employed) for essentially all water molecules in the parcel of chilled air to ‘’see’’ the ice-covered surface via diffusive-and-convective transport. This whole process really isn’t very complicated – splotchy hoar frosts on the nearby Martian surface were imaged regularly during local wintertime shortly after dawn at the Viking Lander sites, i.e., the Martian surface cooledby-radiation sufficiently most every winter night to condense visible quantities of water from the overlying atmosphere. Mass-Optimized Water Extraction from the Martian Atmosphere The issue of present interest is the design of equipment of minimum mass with which a unit quantity of water can be extracted from the Martian atmosphere per unit of time. As we will also mention quantitatively below – but which is intuitively obvious to those who have considered these matters in any detail – the present and near-term specific (i.e., per-kg) cost of soft-landing equipment on the Martian surface is so great that it exceeds the specific cost on the Earth’s surface of virtually every type of human artifact. Simply stated, the per-kg transportation cost from Earth-surface to Mars-surface is so huge that it exceeds the purchasecost here on Earth of a kilogram of almost everything. It is therefore ‘’good engineering practice’’ in the Mars-mission architecture and design processes to drive the mass of any equipment that needs to go to Mars to as low a value as ever possible; no matter how expensive it may then be to fabricate here on Earth. The total cost to create and then transport it to the Martian surface will thereby be minimized. This is the approach that we take toward the optimized design of equipment for extracting water from the Martian atmosphere. Our basic design approach is to use counter-current airflow through the water-extracting apparatus, and cool-as-required the coldest spot (T = 180ºK) in the system radiatively. As noted above, water starts condensing from the most moist Martian air at ~200ºK, and 95+% (global- and time-averaged) of the Martian atmospheric water is stripped out at 180ºK. This water-condenser’s incoming and exhaust airflows are cross-coupled thermally with heat-pipes terminating on each side on super-high surface-to-volume metal-to-gas finned / spiked surfaces. Photovoltaically energized electric motordriven fans make up condenser-internal aero-drag losses (with ~1.5 kWe of H2/O2 fuel cell-derived power being employed during nighttime and milder dust storms). See Figure 2. The core technical issue in overall system design is trading off condenser drag-loss vs. condenser mass vs. condenser air-blower electrical power (i.e., photovoltaic array or PVA, power-conditioning and fuel-cell masses) vs. condenser irreversible delta-T (the temperature differential between the exhausted air relative to the incoming air arising from finite air flow-speeds and imperfect heat-exchange), in order to minimize total system mass (including that of the system’s radiator, which sizes and masses nearly linearly in proportion to delta-T – exactly linearly, after the “base” 2.5x108 J/day, or ~2.5 kW – of heat-of-condensation of 100 kg of water/day, or ~1 gm/sec, is subtracted off the bottom of the system’s thermal radiation budget). The only major constraint on the radiator is that its working-surface be shaded, if it’s going to be operated in daytime, as well as nighttime; it may thus be split into AM and PM sections (if it’s deployed in east-west symmetry; splitting is less necessary if deployed in north-south symmetry at a higher-latitude location in either Northern or Southern Hemisphere). A minor constraint on the radiator’s design is that it’s operating in 6 mbar “air,” so that it needs some “standard” thermal decoupling from the local atmosphere, e.g., a transparent film-bounded layer or two of trapped still air, which involves some (modest) associated mass-expenditure.
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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

Our estimate is that the ~109 gm/day of Mars-air – processed through the ~102 m2 condenser system inlet-aperture at 10 m/sec mean speed – will require of the order of 109 J/day (or ~10 kW, CW) of heat stripped from it, net. This corresponds to a flow-stream irreversible delta-T of 1 J/gm-equivalent, or 44 J/mole (of CO2), or ~10 cal/mole, or a ~1.5 K delta-T, split into two roughly equal portions, in the metal-to-air interfaces on each side of the counter-current flow (with the interposed heat-piping being taken to be a thermal superconductor, a quite good approximation). This is ~5% of the total temperature change through which the processed air typically (i.e., in the diurnal-average) will be cycled, so that the mean-reversibility of the condenser system is taken to be 95%. (We expect that this inlet-air flow-speed will suffice for centrifugal separation of all but the smallest dust particles from the inlet air-stream, given the low density of the airflow. Electrostatic precipitation will then serve to ‘’polish’’ the inlet flow with respect to very small dust particles, so that minimal solids-removal processing (e.g., by a regenerable, multi-stage filter and ion-exchanger) of the extracted water will be required prior to its storage or electrolysis. We therefore expect that this system may be made to work effectively in all Martian dust storms of sufficiently low optical density that PVA-derived electrical power will be available.) If the Martian air-mass exits the 100 m2 aperture condenser with the reference entry-speed of 10 m/sec, this represents only 850 W of kinetic energy, a modest fraction of the total power budget of the system, as will be seen below, so that use of pressure-recovery features probably isn’t indicated. A simple electrically powered blower system provides the necessary ventilation of the condenser. An electrical-watt-to-flow-watt efficiency of ~0.71 is realistic for powered, optimized airfoils operating in the high Reynolds number conditions characteristic of the Martian surface atmosphere. Electrical power input to the condenser’s air-moving system thus is ~1.2 kWe, assuming use of a 95% efficient fan-motor. The system’s radiator, working at 175ºK at an emissivity of 0.85 (i.e., with a radiator system-internal mean delta-T of 5 K), sheds (into 2π steradians) about 50 W/m2, so that 250 m2 of open-sky-equivalent radiating surface is required to shed 12.5 kW. The radiator’s area thus is comparable to the sum of the entry and exhaust port-areas of the condenser. (The Martian atmosphere is radiatively reasonably thin in the thermal IR – the current Martian “atmospheric greenhouse” delta-T is only ~7ºK, compared to ~35ºK for Terra – so the radiator performs almost like it’s radiating directly into space, except that only one side of it is available to shed heat, and the ambient air-&-soil must be kept out of effective thermal contact with the radiator’s cold surface). As noted above, the radiator’s operating surface also must be shaded from direct or indirect illumination by either the Sun or the Martian surface. For example, it will be north facing in northerly latitudes, with suitably thermally decoupled baffles-&-shades positioned to keep it ‘looking’ only into non-Sun-bearing space; the Martian equatorial inclination to its orbital plane of 24° (very similar to Terra’s 23.5°) is usefully large in this respect. If it’s deemed too tedious to shield the radiator from the Sun-&-surface, the condenser may be operated only when the Sun is below the local horizon, and then may heatpipe-couple to a simple radiator lying on the local surface, looking into the entire 2ð of the dark sky. In this case, the entire [condenser + radiator + fuel cell] subsystem must be oversized by two-fold, relative to the operating-all-the-time baseline system, and the photovoltaic array (PVA) simply ‘pumps up’ the store of cryogenic H2 and O2 during daytime, for nocturnal use by a ~3 kWe fuel-cell (which also provides ~1.5 kWe to the Base during nighttime intervals). This variant is considered likely to be off the mass-optimum, however; it’s of interest if total system simplicity – and (perceived) technical risk – is at a premium. Periodically – e.g., diurnally – the system will (hermetically) close its entry-and-exit hatches and electrically heat its ‘’cold-spot’’ to ~275ºK, so as to liquefy the condensed H2O and gravity-drain it into a sump for pump-transport to electrolysis-&-cryogen storage, to water storage, etc. (The molten-H2O vapor pressure at 2-3ºC will add only ~6 mbar to the condenser-internal pressure, so that a high-strength shell around the condenser and its hatches is quite unnecessary to contain the internal gases during the system’s ‘’defrost cycle,” during which interval the dust-scavenging surfaces at the condenser inlet are also mechanically brushed-&-air-blown clean.) The system then radiatively re-cools to working temperatures (in order to scavenge internal liquid water and water-vapor), its hatches re-open and atmospheric watercondensing resumes; the daily defrost-&-regeneration cycle has been completed.

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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

The actual condenser system likely will be implemented with many identical small modules working in parallel, for reasons of economy in Earth-side prototyping and testing, of simplicity of packaging-for-transit, of ease-of-erection and of system-level reliability-in-operation – although this is likely to be somewhat off-mass optimum. Thus, the condenser per se, the radiator and the PVA functions may well be fully-integrated in each module, so that there will be precisely no single-point failure-sites in the total system – and so that the system’s capacity can be readily ‘’cut-to-length’’ to meet varying mission requirements. Insolation at Mars diurnally-averages about 150 W/m2, or about 15 W/m2 electrical converted with a-Si – or 30 W/m2 converted with high-efficiency, thinned Si – photovoltaic arrays (PVAs). Electrolyzing the (time-averaged) 1 gm/sec of water condensed from the Martian atmosphere will require ~15 kW electrical power (time-averaged), or the output of 500-1000 m2 of such PVA. The best-current a-Si offers about 1 W/gm at 1 AU AM0, and the comparable value for high-efficiency 4-mil Si is ~0.5 W/gm, so that a 15 kW average-power (i.e., 50 kWe initial peak-power) requirement entails ~115 kg of a-Si PVA, or ~230 kg of PVA implemented with thin-crystalline Si, at Mars AM1; a-Si PVA usage is therefore preferred. An option that we consider interesting but haven’t examined in detail features double-use of oneand-the-same large-area deployed surface: as a PVA during daytime and as a radiator-surface at night. If this is done, ~500 m2 of effective surface area is required if we condense-and-radiate only at night, which is comparable to the 5001000 m2 of PVA needed during daytime. If we were to employ a 1000 m2 area, the 2.5X larger radiator surface area would permit us to operate with a condenser-internal irreversible delta-T which is 2.5X greater, i.e., ~4 K, realizing a corresponding savings in condenser system mass. However, such double-use doesn’t come free; we would have to provide adequate thermal decoupling of both top and bottom surfaces of the entire radiator-PVA area during nighttime. Thus, unless suitable (atmosphere + soil) insulation of quite modest areal density – <0.05 gm/cm2 – is available, we might be better off with employing a crystalline-Si PVA and working with the smaller 1.5 K delta-T in the condenser’s air-flow – if we were to pursue this double-use option at all. All these are instances of second-level design issues that may be resolved only by comparison of the details of several alternate point-designs, which we have not yet done. These then are the essential considerations upon which our baseline-design Water Plant mass-estimate of 300 kg (0.3 ton) is based. We allocate 115 kg to the PVA, 85 kg to the condenser per se, 50 kg additional to the radiator (-function), 10 kg each to system fluidics (fans, piping, meters, valves and pumps) and to a 45 kWe electrolytic cell, 5 kg each to power conditioning, 3 kWe fuel-cell, cryogen liquefaction, and control system, and 10 kg to a flex-wall-implemented, bladder-type water storage module of 0.5 ton capacity. The cryogens, LH2 and LO2, are stored in the same multilayered, flex-walled bladder-tanks as are employed for primary propellant-storage for the mission propulsion-plant, which have cylindrical symmetry with multi-coaxial-walls with intra-positioned lofted-fiber insulation interleaved with standard aluminized-plastic multi-layer insulation (MLI), and operate with ullage pressurization only modestly (deltaP~0.3 bars) above ambient pressure. Roughly 70% of this total tankage is not required for the return-to-Earth mission, and thus is left at the Mars Base. See Table 1. Obviously, we contemplate the pervasive use of the highest strength-to-weight structural materials (e.g., polyaramid fabrics and carbon fiber-composites) and highly mass-economized (e.g., thin-walled) fins, heat-pipes, etc., all employed in optimal designs, in which mass of carefully-selected properties is employed only in amounts actually required for transport performance or to bear structural loads. We exploit the facts that Martian winds, though of very high peak speed (~200 km/hour), have only the peak momentum flux density of a brisk Terran breeze, and that there is no Martian rain. At that, our baseline design for all expedition hardware, specifically including the Water Plant, requires the use of nothing which isn’t commercially sourced – COTS, or commercial off-the-shelf – at the present time. (Nonetheless, we aren’t inclined to argue extensively with those who might choose to design in a less mass-economized manner, and thus to realize a Water Plant with even 2-3 times the mass of our baseline one; the mission-architectural gains realized from a Water Plant of 40 tons-of-H2O/year output capacity are so great that it doesn’t matter greatly whether the Plant’s mass is 0.3 ton or 1 ton – so long as it’s quite small compared to 40 tons.) In concluding this section, we feel obliged to note briefly a lower-likelihood but high-payoff alternative to the approach that we’ve just outlined. It proposes to exploit the meteorological prospect of reliably-appearing nocturnal fogs on the
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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

Martian surface, which naturally raises the corresponding technical prospect of erecting large-area, Cottrell-type electrostatic precipitators through which the ambient 2-4 m/sec Martian nocturnal breeze would blow the ice / waterdroplet-laden Martian atmosphere. The fog would be condensed on the precipitator plates, and the whole precipitator assembly would button itself up in a gas-tight manner at local dawn; later in the day, it would electrically heat the precipitator plates to melt the deposited ice-film and transport the resulting liquid-water into a sump. It seems entirely possible that such a system, with an aperture of ~1000 m2 – 10 X that of our baseline design-value of 100 m2, one factorof-3 due to the average wind speed being lower than our forced-convection speed and the other due to only 33% dutycycle, i.e., during the coldest third of the local diurnal cycle – might be quite mass-competitive overall with the baseline system just outlined. If such a system were implemented in a very highly mass-economized, Venetian-blind-like format, it might be feasible to deploy it by simply unrolling its base across the local landscape, and then erecting it from this base, all perpendicular to the prevailing diurnal breeze direction. Although the electrical power required to operate such a system would be far smaller than that for the baseline system, a good-sized PVA would still be required in order to convert the large majority of the electrostatically-stripped Martian atmospheric water to cryo-propellants / fuels and to O2 for the life-support system of the Mars Base. Thus, if nocturnal fogs appear reliably at the expedition’s landing-site, then God graciously condenses the water from Martian atmospheric water vapor most every night, and harvesting it from the air by the figurative waving of electrostatic wands is all that Man need do for his mundane purposes. Early Expedition Water Budgets and Sizing of Water-Supply Equipment We employ basic results from our previous work on the Space Exploration Initiative – i.e., the Great Exploration Program proposal – for reference mass-budget numbers for a first manned expedition to Mars. See Figure 3. These indicate the above-assumed requirement for of the order of 0.1 ton – 100 kg – of water per day, or 1 gm/second, in the time-average, over the duration of the 400-day stay of the expedition crew on the Martian surface, or 40 tons of water total. This rate of water-production will suffice for all life-support system needs, all energy requirements for vigorous, long-distance surface Rover- and rocket-performed exploration of the Martian surface – see Figure 4 – and for all fueling requirements for the ascent stage of the crew’s return-to-Earth vehicle. It represents over 90% of the total mass which leaves LEO in a conventional Mars exploration mission whose mission-architecture specifies powered descent of Earth-derived life-support water and oxygen and Earth-return propellants down to the Martian surface – and 70% of the total leaving-LEO mass of a more advanced mission-architecture which aerobrake-lands the expedition onto the Martian surface. See the three basic mission architecture comparisons in Table 1. The first-level breakdown of the baseline mission mass-budget is as follows: each of the crew-of-four needs about 1.2 kg/day of (~0.8 kg respiration consumption + ~0.4 kg leakage make-up) oxygen for 725 days after Mars-touchdown (400 days on Mars and 325 days of Mars-to-Earth return journey in a Hohlmann minimum-energy transit-trajectory) and 0.5 kg day of water (for system + pressure-suits leakage make-up, assuming nearly-full water-recycling, including partial metabolic water recovery, but with no carbon or nitrogen recycling). The ascent-stage propulsion-plant is taken to be RL-10-based, and exhausts a 5:1 (by mass) O2/H2 propellant-mix with a near-vacuum Isp of 490 seconds (expansion ratio of 200:1); it’ll require about 21 tons of this propellant mix to inject an 8-ton return-to-Earth module into a trans-Earth trajectory from the Martian surface. Martian surface exploration is assumed to require another 5 tons of this propellant-mix to fuel the 0.5 ton (dry-mass + Rover + crew-of-two) Hop-About for ~5 rocket-liftoff / ballistic flight / aerobrake-landing forays to sites roughly equally-spaced all over the Martian surface. These requirements aggregate to a total post-Mars touchdown mission demand of 24.5 tons of O2, 4.2 tons of H2 and 1.4 tons of H2O per se. This is equivalent to about 39 tons of water, with 10.3 tons of O2 to spare (e.g., for use in Base, pressure suit and Rover crew-module leakage make-up, at a mean rate of ~25 kg/day). It’s therefore appropriate to scale the Water Plant to produce 40 tons of water during the 400 day stay-duration, i.e., to average a daily production of 100 kg, or ~1 gm/second – all as foreseen above.

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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

Implications for Manned Mars Exploration The present work represents another step down the path charted by Zubrin – with his proposal for a landed methanegenerating plant carrying its own liquefied hydrogen feedstock – of innovatively exploiting indigenous Martian resources to drive down the mission-mass cost – and thus the total mission dollar cost – of mounting even the first human expeditions to Mars. Ours is a more ambitious, ‘’philosopher’s stone’’ gambit, which aims at generating essentially all the consumables ever needed thereafter by the as-landed expedition from readily available local feedstreams – Martian air and ambient sunlight – with a single Water Plant consisting of a handful of readily-available or – fabricated components: water-condenser, radiator, water-electrolytic cell, H2/O2 liquefaction unit, cryogen and water storage-tanks and a photovoltaic array. (We emphasize use of PVA power sources over alternate, e.g., nuclear, ones purely for their current “commercial off-the-shelf”’ availability characteristics.) The beauty of the present gambit is that it substitutes equipment having about 1% of the mass of the materials generated for the far greater mass of the materials themselves. This attractiveness is accentuated by the fact that the therebysubstituted-for mass comprises about 70% of the total leaving-LEO mass-budget of a large set of innovative, aerobrakeintensive architectures for the Mars exploration mission – and 90% of the leaving-LEO mass of conventional initial exploration architectures involving powered descent to the Martian surface. The immediate implication of this is that the lifting-to-LEO challenge for mounting even the first Mars Expedition – one which benefits not-at-all from legacies from previous expeditions – can be reduced from a few dozen Shuttle-equivalent payloads to 2 such cargoes, i.e., <50 tons total mission-mass, staged within a single year. A set of comparable mission mass-budgets for the three basic types of missionarchitecture – conventional powered descent to the Martian surface, conventional aerobraked descent and aerobraked descent with Water Plant – is shown in Table 1. Figure 2 graphically depicts these basic differences, in a toe-to-toe comparison of two aerobrake-descent Mars manned mission architectures, one with and the other without a Water Plant. The incremental cost of the lifts-to-LEO required to mount an initial manned expedition to Mars is reduced by Water Plant usage to ~$100 M, at NASA’s quoted marginal cost of a Shuttle launch of ~$50 M – or a cost of ~$1.1 B, at OMB’s estimated full average operational cost of $550 M for a Shuttle-flight. (Lifting 41 tons of payload into LEO via commercial space-launch services would entail a present-day cost of ~$450 M, at a cost of $5,000/pound.) The cost of the 10 tons of mission hardware, estimated-in-bulk using the usual rule-of-thumb of $10/gm, would be roughly $100 M. RDT&E costs should be (at most) comparable to the purchase-cost of the mission hardware, due to the basic COTS character of the materials and equipment chosen, so that total attributable mission costs should aggregate to $300 M $1.3 B, depending on whose Shuttle-mission cost estimates you prefer to believe – and assuming that 2 Shuttle launches are employed. Alternatively, the cost of preparing and executing the baseline mission in a purely commercial mode would be ~$650 M – $450 M for the space-launch services procured to lift-to-LEO $100 M of hardware and consumables, after ground-side RDT&E of $100 M. The realistic prospect of a Mars Expedition realized at a cost of significantly less than a single year’s Station construction budget of ~$2.5 B is surely one that most reasonable political leaders couldn’t long resist – even in an era when the two major political parties effectively differ on civil-space policy only by how much the NASA budget should be cut each year. Moreover, and quite importantly, sponsorship of the first human expedition to Mars thereby is brought well within the means of a single exceptionally wealthy individual – this in an era when no one yet lives forever, and means of “taking it with you” have yet to be perfected. Full, innovative exploitation of Martian water thus might be a make-or-break issue for manned Mars exploration this side of the indefinite future. Expedited Exploration of the Mid-Solar System: The Jovian and Saturnian Systems Aggressive exploitation of indigenous water resources for realization of life-support and cryogenic propulsive liquids may be the key to relatively near-term manned exploration of the Solar system, particularly its “middle” portions, e.g., out to the Jovian and Saturnian ice-bearing moons. The basic point, of course, is that leaving-LEO mass-budgets for effectively one-way missions – ones which fully exploit water at their destination-point for life support there, and for
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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

return-to-Earth propellants – are exponentially smaller than for round-trip ones. Now it is currently unfashionable to send even volunteers on one-way, i.e., settlement-committed, Government-sponsored space missions, in the manner in which the East Coast of the United States was initially settled. Thus, it is necessary at present to consider mission architectures that return expedition crews to Earth after comparatively brief stays at their outbound destinations. The corresponding Gordian knot may be slashed by equipping expeditions to places such as Ganymede and Europa (and icebearing asteroids, and icy Saturian moons, and . . .) with equipment quite similar to the Mars Water Plant which we discussed above, so that they can re-equip themselves for the return segment of the trip – as well as support their local living and exploration activities – entirely with products derived from local water at their destinations. It might appear difficult to photovoltaically energize the equivalent of a Mars Water Plant for a location as distant from the Sun as Europa, let alone Titan, simply because the intensity of sunlight is 1-4% of that on Earth at the Saturnian and Jovian orbits, respectively, and use of photovoltaic arrays for generation of the required electric power thus would appear to be impractical. Actually, this isn’t the case, since direct band-gap semiconductors, e.g., GaAs, are more than two orders-of-magnitude more mass-efficient than indirect band-gap ones, such as Si, in photovoltaic conversion, i.e., = 1 micron thicknesses of GaAs are optically thick to most of the solar spectrum whereas >100 microns is required for equivalent solar-spectrum photo-opacity of Si. Very thin sheets of direct band-gap semiconductor, strengthened appropriately with an underside polyaramid layer, thus may be expected to provide practical, =1 W/gm specific photoelectric electric power production as far out as Saturn’s orbit, i.e., in 14 W/m2 sunlight. A manned mission to Europa is challenged by the nominal 6.3 km/sec trans-Europan insertion delta-V from LEO, which has added to it the 6.8 km/s of delta-V required to brake to a soft-landing on the near-vacuum surface of Europa upon entering the Jovian system on a Hohmann transfer trajectory. Even the use of RL-10-based propulsion systems, with their restartability and their 4.9 km/s exhaust speeds, seemingly implies mass-ratios of 14.5 for such one-way missions. Actually, a Minovitch (gravity-assisted) Earth-Venus-Jupiter trajectory can reduce the outbound insertion delta-V to 4.4 km/s without a significant increase in outbound trip-time and a Jovian-system capture-burn at Io’s depth in the Jovian gravity-well, followed by more Minovitch maneuvering among the Galilean moons before a powered touchdown on Europa can trim the total circum-Jove maneuvering delta-V to 5.1 km/s. The total outbound mission delta-V can be thereby reduced to no more than 9.5 km/s. This, in turn, implies a Rocket Equation multiplier of 6.95 on the leavingLEO mission-payload mass of ~25 tons (corresponding to a total mission-time of about 7 years, including a year on the Europan surface), so that the reference Europan expedition’s total leaving-LEO mass is only 173 tons. The numbers for a crew-of-four expedition to Callisto or Ganymede are essentially the same. (Of course, the same expedition might care to average down its outbound-and-return “travel overheads,” and touchdown successively on more than one icy Galilean moon, “while in the neighborhood,” refueling at each stop.) The corresponding leaving-LEO delta-V on a Minovitch trajectory to Titan is only 4.7 km/s (!), reasonably assuming use of aerobraking for a Titan touchdown (although use of highly mass-economized photovoltaic arrays on the Titanian surface, where wind momentum flux densities might be quite large, cannot be assured until confirming meteorological data, e.g., from the Huygens probe of Cassini, is in-hand). Soft-landing on a vacuum-shrouded, ice-bearing Saturnian moon naturally would be significantly more expensive in delta-V, unless the first stop in the Saturnian system were made at Titan, thereby sinking the interplanetary delta-V. In this case, refueling could be done first at Titan, and then the tanks could be “topped off” as indicated at successive stops on other icy-albeit-vacuum-shrouded Saturnian moons prior to Earth-return from the final one of them. The corresponding Rocket Equation multiplier for the Titan expedition is (only!) 2.6 on a characteristic Saturnian mission-payload mass of ~40 tons, so that the leaving-LEO mass for a manned expedition to the surface of Titan is (only) 104 tons! The total mission time would be about 14 years; assuming 1.5 years were spent on the surface of Titan (as well as skipping among the icy Saturnian moons). In both the Europa and Titan expedition cases, the total impulse required for lift-off of the surface and insertion into a trans-Earth trajectory isn’t larger than the total outbound impulse, so that propellant tankage reuse is entirely feasible: the expedition’s transitvehicle touches down at the icy destination with dry cryopropellant (and water, and oxygen) tanks and lifts off with (in the case of cryopropellants, partly-) full ones reloaded with local water products. These Jovian and Saturnian system exploration data are summarized in Table 2, along with those of the baseline case for Mars.
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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

These relatively very modest leaving-LEO masses for round-trip manned expeditions to Solar system destinations hitherto considered to be unattainably distant relative to contemporary human technology should motivate serious thought about mounting such expeditions during the next few minimum-energy “launch windows.” That most all of the leaving-LEO mass in all of these cases is comprised of water products – LH2 and LO2 – and thus of material which may be Earth-orbited in convenient-sized parcels with high-acceleration, potentially low-cost means, should be especially thought provoking. Moving Out From Here What’s a reasonable path to follow along the lines just sketched, leading from the present to a first crew return from the Red Planet – or to launching of an manned expedition to the Jovian or Saturnian systems? It might be reasonable to first design, then to prototype in sub-scale, and then to build in full-scale such a Water Plant for Earth-side evaluation. Such evaluation presumably would culminate in an environmental chamber that duplicates the key features of the Martian surface, atmosphere and sky – and likely would involve a Water Plant implemented in something like 1% of full scale, i.e., a 1-meter scale-size, producing 1 liter/day of water. Once the basic design had thereby been qualified and a full-scale one had been deployed satisfactorily in Earth-surface simulation from an aslanded package, it would be appropriate to send the full-scale system to Mars for real field trials. Even the first such trial could lay the Martian logistics foundation for a follow-on manned expedition in the next launch window 25 months thereafter, if it were adequately successful. It’s readily feasible to send a full-scale Water Plant of the type sketched above to the Martian surface on a single AtlasCentaur-class launch inserting an aerobraked descent package into trans-Mars orbit, to deploy it and put it into operation robotically once it’s landed, and then to operate it until its water and cryogenic propellant tanks all are full. A manned expedition, perhaps carrying a back-up Water Plant as well as a Mars Greenhouse, could thereafter leave for Mars in a far smaller – and corresponding less expensive – total mission-package than any currently contemplated. A program of this type seemingly would fit aptly within a NASA Discovery programmatic time-and-dollar envelope – if it were planned and executed in a thoroughly competent and reasonably innovative manner (e.g., involving collaborations between major technical universities and aerospace primes). As such, it would constitute a notably lowcost, short execution-time technology-demonstrator and mission-enabler of remarkably large proportions for the first manned expedition to Mars. Eventually, sustained-and-concatenated exercising of human ingenuity will reduce the cost of a first human expedition to Mars – and to the icy Jovian and Saturnian Moons – to levels such that even non-governmental resources will suffice readily to sponsor it. We offer the Martian Water Plant sketched in the foregoing as a stone for use in raising this great edifice of technology-and-intellect, moreover in our time. Acknowledgments We thank our many colleagues who have discussed with us over the past third-century various aspects of the manned exploration and settlement of Mars; we regret not being able to acknowledge them individually. No claim is made for originality, either of the basic concepts or the specific technological approaches, discussed in the foregoing, any number of which may have been anticipated by others unknown to us.

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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

Tables
Table 1. Comparable Mass Budgets For Three Manned Mars Missions

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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

Table 2. Mission Parameters For Manned Expeditions “Watering” At The Destinations

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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

Figures

Figure 1. Water content of the Martian surface-level atmosphere versus time in Martian days (Sols) measured indirectly by the Viking Lander 1 (VL1) and Viking Lander 2 (VL2). The VL1 data-set is significant more consistent with other measurements of Martian atmospheric water content, and thus is used as the basis for the calculated seasonal variation of the inferred globally-averaged atmospheric water content, which is labeled ‘New Houston.’ The globally- and seasonally-averaged single-value is labeled ‘Global Average.’ [After Grover and Bruckner, “Water Vapor Extraction from the Martian Atmosphere by Adsorption in Molecular Sieves,” AIAA Paper 98-3302 (1998).] The vertical right axis indicates the temperature at which the water vapor content on the left vertical axis is the saturation vapor pressure, i.e., below which temperature water vapor will condense from the air.

Figure 2. A diagrammatic representation of the major components of the Water Plant.

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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

Figure 3. The time-evolution of the mass budgets of two manned expeditions to Mars consisting of a crew-of-four, which stays on Mars the 400-day fraction of the synodic period corresponding to minimum-energy trajectories from Earth-to-Mars and then from Mars-to-Earth. [After Hyde, Ishikawa & Wood, “The GREAT EXPLORATION Plan For The Human Space Exploration Initiative,” UCLLNL PHYS-BRIEF 90-402 (1990).] The “No Martian Water Usage” mission-architecture is a ‘neoclassical’ one which aerobrakes the Mars landing-package but brings all mission-required consumables from the Earth, and is the second of the three cases of Table I. The “Martian Water Exploitation” mission-architecture fully exploits Martian atmospheric water via a Water Plant of the type discussed in the text, and thus is the third, “baseline” case of Table I, and thereby realizes = 3-fold savings in the leaving-LEO mass-budget, relative to the mission involving no Martian water exploitation. The “wet Mars” mission-architecture also readily extends to include a flex-walled Mars Greenhouse of 2 ton/ 500 m2-scale, the principal item in whose in-use mass-budget is Martian water, in =10 kg/m2 - illuminated specific quantities; manned Mars expeditions of indefinitely great duration and self-sufficient Martian settlements are thereby enabled.

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Wet Mars: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

Figure 4. An artist’s conception of the two primary types of Mars surface-exploration vehicles. A RL-10-based rocket propulsion unit – dubbed a ‘Hop-About’– is used for launching into a ballistic trajectory – aerobraked at its terminus – a pair of expedition crew-members enclosed in a flex-walled cabin and a Mars Rover (a technological descendent of the Apollo Lunar Rover) from the expedition’s Mars Base to any other site on the Red Planet. At any such secondary exploration site, the H2/O2 fuel-cell-powered Rover is roll-on / roll-off-deployed from its stowage-point on the Hop-About to carry the crew-pair and their light equipment around for local exploration, sample-gathering, etc.; the return-to-Base flight has the same characteristics as did the outbound one. [After Hyde, Ishikawa & Wood, “The GREAT EXPLORATION Plan For The Human Space Exploration Initiative,” UCLLNL PHYS-BRIEF 90-402 (1990).] All of the consumables of the exploration transportation system – propulsive mass, H2/O2 fuel-cell feedstreams and all life-support fluids – are derived from Martian atmospheric water via the Water Plant discussed in the text, so that such intensive all-planet exploration, even on the first manned Mars mission, is cost-free with respect to all consumables.

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