Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.



GENERAL Division 2, site work, of the Uniform Construction Index (CSI format) includes a wide variety of subject areas. The following major areas of division 2 will be covered in this handout: sitework, building excavation, backfilling, and related earthwork activities. Financially, earthwork is one of the most risky phases in the construction of a project because of the multitude of unknowns. Weather and subsurface conditions such as rock, underground water, and soil type add to the uncertainties. These variables not only affect labor productivity but also equipment selection and production. Excavation can be by hand or by the use of large tractors, scrapers, or draglines. Measuring sitework and excavation work is different from measuring most other work of a construction project because tender drawings usually provide very little detail about the specific requirements of sitework operations. The drawings will give details of the new construction required for the project, but information about what is currently to be found at the site of the proposed work may not be provided. Furthermore, the size and depth of foundations may be defined in detail on the drawings, but there is typically nothing disclosed about the dimensions and shape of the excavations required to accommodate these constructions. The exact amount of excavation is sometimes difficult to determine because of the varying field conditions. The materials purchased for the project (sand and gravel) are also difficult to determine because of variations in moisture content, material consistency, and waste factors.

The quantity takeoff of excavation is in cubic feet and converted to cubic yards. The estimator needs to establish if bank yards or swelled yards are being used in the calculations. A bankyard is the measurement of the soil, as it lies undisturbed in the ground. When the soil is excavated it will expand and assume a larger volume. This expansion is called the swell factor. It is measured as a percentage increase above the undisturbed volume. Once excavated soil is placed and compacted on the project, it will be compressed into a smaller volume. The degree of compaction and the type of soil will affect the amount of shrinkage. The estimator needs to compensate for swell and shrinkage when hauling earth off the site or bringing additional material and compacting it on the site. The swell and shrinkage factors vary greatly depending on the type of material. The estimator should refer to the soils report to determine the exact swell and/or shrinkage 1 of 25

Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK


factors for each specific project. Fine and coarse aggregates are taken off in cubic feet and then converted to tons.

Sitework Takeoff Most construction projects require the movement of earthwork on site. This will result in altering the existing elevation to a different or finish elevation. To determine the amount of soil to be moved, the estimator needs to have a plot plan or topographic survey. This drawing is developed by plotting the readings (elevations) obtained from a topographic field survey usually performed by a licensed land surveyor. The different contour lines represent changes in elevation. The dashed lines usually indicate existing elevations; the solid lines represent proposed or finish elevations.

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3 of 25 . The next step is to determine how the sections will be cut. the estimator can determine how much land needs to be cleared. or stations. cutting a series of sections at each 50-ft N-S grid line will result in six cross-sections. DOCUZIP CENTER Before the excavations can begin the site will have to be cleared of unwanted trees and underbrush. It is usually less cumbersome in developing the necessary calculations to select the shortest overall dimension. and the grid method is usually used for building construction.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222. AREA AVERAGE END METHOD The first method in the area average end method is to divide the plot plan into a series of grids. The area average end method is normally used for heavy and highway work.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. The existing and finish elevations are noted at the intersection of grid lines. Two methods are used to calculate the quantity of earth to be moved on a site. The estimator can select a north-south or east-west direction. It will be necessary for the estimator to visit the site to determine the extent of clearing and grubbing. By visiting the site and using the drawings. Any interval can be used for this. In the figure shown below.

Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. The following relationship can be used to calculate this volume: V12 = A1 + A2 × Perpendicular distance between stations 2 4 of 25 .: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222. the next step is to find the volume of earth to be moved between any two adjacent stations. determining the area in square inches. and converting it to square feet using the designated scales. the estimator plots a cross-section at each station and calculates the respective areas. DOCUZIP CENTER Using the existing and final elevations. Finding the areas may be a simple task of dividing the total cross-section into a series of simple figures to remove the need to use trigonometry or calculus. The “planimeter” can also be used to determine the area from the scaled drawing. Once all areas have been determined. Other methods. can also be used. such as plotting each cross-section to scale.

Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. 5 of 25 .: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222. The volumes are then summed to obtain the total volume to be moved. DOCUZIP CENTER This process is repeated for each set of cross-sections.

: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222. The first step in this method is to draw grid lines on the site plan. the interval of the contours. and the close proximity of one contour line to another. a grid of 1-inch square could be used to start the evaluation. If no contour lines fall within the grid the size should be increased. The size of the grid is a function of the scale of the drawing. but it should be kept within the relative accuracy of the total earthwork. but it can take the shape of rectangles or other geometric figures.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. This method does not require section drawings or complicated area formulas. 6 of 25 . Generally. The grid used is normally square. A small grid will produce a more precise cut-fill estimate. DOCUZIP CENTER GRID METHOD A much easier method for calculating cut and fill requirements for general building and sitework is the grid method.

25. 7 of 25 . The elevation contour lines marked 77 and 78 are closest to the center. In grid B5 (above) the proposed contour of the land is in a relatively consistent slope from the southeast to northwest. By visually drawing the shortest line that will touch these two contour lines and go through the center of the grid. The readings are the average elevations for each grid. then the visual center of the grid is established and the reading is an interpolation between the two closest contour lines.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. DOCUZIP CENTER The next step is to make readings of the existing and proposed elevations and record them on a chart. The average elevation can be obtained by one of two methods. If the grid has a relatively consistent slope. A judgment is made that the center is one-fourth of the distance between 77 and 78.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222. the interpolation will show that 77 is closer to the center than 78. The reading is then recorded as 77.

the average existing elevation of the total building area can be used to establish the top of the excavation. This line can help the contractor establish the traffic patterns on the site for the cut and fill operations. 8 of 25 .: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222. The center of grid C6 for the proposed contours may not represent the average elevation of the grid. This line can be established by simply interpreting the location point of grids that show little or no cut or fill. The lowest point is normally the bottom of the granular material under the concrete slab. the grid will have to be filled and the number recorded in the fill column. DOCUZIP CENTER The second method of obtaining the elevation is calculated by averaging the four corners of the grid. the grid will have to be cut and the number recorded in the cut column. The sum of the volume columns will give the total cut and fill on the project. mass excavation may be required. The grid area is then multiplied by the cut or fill columns and recorded in the appropriate cut or fill volume column in cubic feet.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. The overall size of the building and the size of the footings need to be known before the size of the excavation is calculated. whereas for others trenching for foundation walls or footings may be needed. A cut-fill line is then drawn between the points. MASS BUILDING EXCAVATION The quantity of mass excavation is obtained from the details of the design. The figure above also shows a cut-fill line. For most building sites. If the difference is negative. If the earth slopes a great deal in the area of the building. it may be necessary to break the building down into smaller sections. it may be necessary to take several readings and find the average. The construction method and the safety of the workers will also need to be considered when determining the size of the excavation. The existing and proposed elevations are recorded in a chart. The next step is to record the area of the grid in square feet. at which neither cut nor fill is required. The proposed elevation is subtracted from the existing elevation and recorded in the appropriate column. The depth of the excavation is the difference between the existing elevation and the lowest point of the materials to be placed. Readings are made and recorded in the same manner as the previous method for each of the corners of the grid and an average is determined. BUILDING EXCAVATION QUANTITY TAKEOFF For some buildings. If the difference is positive. If the land is not at a constant slope.

00 ft -000.33 ft 10.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222. The length and width of the excavation can be determined by adding the outside dimensions of the building.50 ft -000.50 ft -311.33 ft It should be noted that additional finish hand excavation will be necessary to excavate to the bottom of the footings. DOCUZIP CENTER For the figure shown above the total depth of the excavation will be: Existing Average Elevation Strip Top Soil Elevation – Top of Footings Under – Slab Gravel Total Depth of Excavation 322. and the amount of working space 9 of 25 . the footing projections.

The amount of working space required depends on the work activity. This method is expensive. and so on. waterproofing. For example for the figure above. When the estimator encounters the need to lay back the sides of the excavation. 2 x 6 in Working room. To calculate the total quantity.064 cft or 1373 cyd 32 ft – 0 in 1 ft – 0 in 6 ft – 0 in 39 ft – 0 in 85 ft – 0 in 1 ft – 0 in 6 ft – 0 in 92 ft – 0 in CAVE-INS There are several ways to protect against cave-ins. This is known as “laying back” the sides of the excavation. the estimator can either divide the entire volume into simple figures or consider the entire volume as one figure. walls.0 ft X 39.33 ft X 92. In the figure above. The angle of repose (also known as the angle of internal friction) is the angle between a horizontal line and the sloping surface of the earth at which it will generally remain stable (or not slide) unless disturbed. 2 x 6 in Working room. the overall plan dimensions of the excavation are LENGTH Outside dimensions of the building Footing projections. 2 x 3 ft Length of excavation The total mass excavation quantity is 10. the extra soil to be excavated must be taken into consideration. The angle of repose depends on the type of soil and its moisture content. DOCUZIP CENTER required to safely install the footings.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222. but it is sometimes required because of the close proximity of other structures. the volume of the “prismoid” can be obtained from the following relationship: 10 of 25 .Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. A more common method is to slope the edges of the excavation back to the angle of repose. depth of the excavation. One is to drive metal sheet piling around the perimeter of the building before the excavation begins. and the method of protecting against cave-ins. type of soil.0 ft = 37. 2 x 3 ft Length of excavation WIDTH Outside dimensions of the building Footing projections.

0) + (2)(10.0 ft2 Area of midsection = ((39. If the footings are earth-formed. If the sides of the footings are formed.0)(92.0) + (2)(5.0 ft2 Area at top = ((39.33/6)(3588 + (4)(5048) + 6722) = 52. Earth-formed footings One is to carefully excavate the footings and let the sides of the excavation serve as the form (earth-form). it is necessary only to excavate for the footings. The depth of the excavation is determined similar to the depth of determining mass excavation. Formwork formed footings The other is to build a side form of wood or other appropriate material and then remove it after the concrete has been placed and cured.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.515 cft or 1. it will be necessary to carefully shape the sides of the footings. additional excavation is necessary to allow for a larger working space. 11 of 25 .0) + (2)(5. Two procedures can be used for this. In whichever way the footings may be formed. the sloping of the sides of the excavation is necessary to prevent cave-ins.33/tan 450)) X ((92. The estimator then has to decide how the sides of the footing are to be formed to hold the concrete until it has cured. The procedures for wall footing excavation are similar to those of mass excavation. Total Volume = (10.0) + (2)(10.16/tan 450)) X ((92.945 cyd BUILDING WALL AND FOOTING EXCAVATION If the project does not have a floor level below grade. The best procedure is to use the centerline dimensions of the foundation around the perimeter of the building.33/tan 450)) = 6722. The thickness of the topsoil must be subtracted from the existing elevation if it has been removed during the site work. Area of base = (39.16/tan 450)) = 5048.0) = 3588. The first step is to determine the length of the footings.0 ft2 Thus. Figure below shows the calculations required for footing excavation. DOCUZIP CENTER Volume = (h/6) (area of base + 4(area of midsection) + area of top) Where.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222.

Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. DOCUZIP CENTER 12 of 25 .: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222.

DOCUZIP CENTER BACKFILLING After the foundation has been completed.3 cyd = 277.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222.5/]/27 Total Backfill = 1450. soil must be placed in the void that remains.0 cyd = . Two methods are commonly used to calculate the quantity of material required for backfilling.2.7 cyd The second method is to calculate the actual volume of backfill required. foundation system. This method is particularly used for buildings that do not have a basement and the material used for backfilling is different on either side of the foundation wall. This operation usually takes place after the building has been substantially completed. Volume of excavation Volume of building (45 x 78 x 9)/27 Volume of footing projection [(45/ + 45/ + 78/ + 78/) x 0.0 cyd = . The estimator should produce a detailed sketch prior to calculating the amount of backfill required. 13 of 25 .5/ x 0.1170.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. The first method is to subtract the volume of the building below grade (including the basement. and any fill under the building) from the volume of the soil removed during the building excavation. Consider the figure below and assume that 1450 cubic yards of excavation is required for the building.

00 sft = 42. DOCUZIP CENTER Area of A and D Area of B and C Area of E and F Total Area And the volume of backfill is (2)(1/2)(4)(6.75 sft = 02.75 sft 165 ft x 42.00 sft = 15.5)(5.75 cft or 261.25 cyd 14 of 25 .25) (2)(1.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.75 sft = 7053.25) (2)(1)(1) = 25.

00 165 HP DOZER $675. Transportation of major items of equipment – backhoes. etc.00 1. which is then leveled and compacted. 15 of 25 .75 CYD TRACK BACKHOE $450. bulldozers. EXCAVATION EQUIPMENT ITEM PRICE PER DAY (APPROX.00 BOBCAT LOADER $175.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.00 Site Cut and Fill Operations The equipment used in cut and fill operations depends mostly upon the scale of the project.are better to be priced on an item-by-item basis taking into account the cost of loading. . small rollers. bobcats. and graders.. by a second team of rollers.5 CYD TRACK LOADER $425. Extensive operations call for large size earth moving scrapers and bulldozers often working in teams excavating and depositing large quantities of materials.00 12 CYD DUMP TRUCK $225.00 0.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222.00 WATER TRUCK $250. and small tractors to and fro from the site is normally priced on the General Expense Sheet under the item “Trucking and Material Handling”.00 MOTOR GRADER $550.00 0. trucking and any rental charges levied while the unit is in transit. water trucks.) 105 HP DOZER $400.00 3T ROLLER $300. power shovels. loaders. unloading.00 10T ROLLER $600. DOCUZIP CENTER PRICING EARTHWORK (EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL) EARTHWORK EQUIPMENT Equipment transportation expenses The cost of transporting minor items of equipment such as plate compactors. Small cut and fill operations can be undertaken with no more than a small dozer and grader or even with just a bobcat and a “walk behind” roller.5 CYD TIRED BACKHOE $300.

larger units of to one or more cubic yard capacity are usually mounted on crawler tracks. Pit and Sump Excavation Pit and sump excavation is mostly performed using backhoes. Larger trenches are often dug using backhoes. DOCUZIP CENTER Basements are often excavated using a track backhoe of between 0. backhoes mounted on rubber-tired tractors are generally favored because of their superior maneuverability over track-mounted machines. Where there are many small pits to be dug over the area of the site. Because the soil left at the bottom of the excavations when mechanical excavators 16 of 25 . The excavation of large size basements may be undertaken using one or more track loaders of up to 2 or 3 cubic yard capacity loading fleets of trucks that access the bottom of the basement by means of ramps down the sides of the excavation. One particular situation that calls for hand excavation is the situation where the work is to be done in confined spaces. This hand excavation is necessary when contract specifications call for footing concrete to bear on undisturbed soil. there are circumstances where hand excavation methods offer a more effective means of obtaining the desired results.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. A second common requirement for hand excavation arises where the bottom few inches of trenches or pits for concrete footings has to be dug by hand. The particular type and size of backhoe used in any situation depends mostly upon the size of the holes to be excavated.5 and 1 cubic yard capacity filling dump trucks that dispose of surplus material. Large backhoes are used for excavating deep trenches and typically they side-cast excavated material to either side of the trench where it remains until required for backfilling. Trench Excavations For smaller trenches such as those required for shallow pipes and cables trenching machines are available which attach to rubber-tired tractors and provide a highly maneuverable and efficient trench excavating setup. Small backhoes are available as attachments to tractors. Large-scale excavations of this type may call for the pricing of grading and maintenance of these access ramps.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK Basement Excavation File # 222. Hand Excavation While it is almost always more economic to use appropriate items of equipment to excavate rather than to perform the work by hand.

hand trimming is needed to remove this loose soil. 4. 5. Job factors and Labor factors that can particularly influence excavation and backfill operations could include the following: Job Factors 1. 2. 6.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. 4. 3. the cost of labor and equipment used in completing the work depends upon the productivity of the project labor crews and the equipment they use. 5. 2. Quality of job supervision Quality of job labor Motivation and morale of workers Type and quality of tools and equipment Experience and records of similar projects in the past 17 of 25 . Type of material excavated or backfilled Moisture condition of material Weather conditions expected Access to and around site Project size and complexity Distance to haul materials for disposal Availability of gravels and fill materials Wage and price levels at the job locations Labor and Management Factors 1. EXCAVATION PRODUCTIVITY As discussed earlier.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222. 7. The amount of work excavation and backfilling crews can perform per hour is highly variable due to the various factors that can affect efficiency of the labor and equipment involved. 3. 8. DOCUZIP CENTER are used is usually loosened by the action of the teeth on excavator buckets.


00 25.00 2.00/hr 0.00/hr 0.00/8 1.00/8 1.91 Labor.0 x $25.00 Labor.5 BASIC HOURLY WAGE $25.00 $22.00 Price per cyd (Productivity of 40 cyd/hr) Equipment.00 105 HP Dozer Operator $400.25/hr 3.00 66. $ 25.00/hr 1.00 25.0 x $400.00/hr 2.0 x $300.00 Price per cyd (Productivity of 50 cyd/hr) Excavate to Reduce Levels Prices 105 HP Dozer Operator $400.00 50. $ 50.00/hr 1.0 x $22.625 105 HP Dozer Motor Grader 3 Ton Roller Foreman/Operator Operator Laborer 1.00 Price per cyd (Productivity of 40 cyd/hr) Granular Fill Prices Equipment.00/8 1.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222.00 25.0 x $25. $ 50.00 50.25 Labor. $ 25.00 68.75 37. EQUIPMENT OPERATOR TRUCK DRIVER LABORER LABOR FOREMAN Strip Topsoil Prices Equipment.0 x $25.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.50 156.00/8 1.0 x $550.00 3.00/8 1.00 119. $ 28.0 x 28.00 $18. DOCUZIP CENTER PRICING EXAMPLE – OFFICE BUILDING – EARTHWORK Considering the equipment rates as listed earlier and considering the following wage rates.00 $28. $ 50. the pricing of the earthwork activities can be computed.975 19 of 25 .

00 Price per cyd (Productivity of 50 cyd/hr) Hand Trim Bottoms of Excavation Prices Equipment.00 94.875 37.72 Foreman Laborer 1. $ 21.97 Labor.0 x $22.50/hr 1.50 37.50 59.00/8 1.00 0.0 x 28.00 66.0 x $28.95 20 of 25 .0 x $450.5 x $22.00 66.627 0.0 x $25.00/hr 0. $ 37.00 Bobcat 3 Ton Roller Foreman/Operator Operator Laborer 1.50 cyd Backhoe Operator 1. $ 28. $ 28.00/8 1.25/hr 1.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK Excavate Trench for Footings Prices File # 222.0 x $25.00/hr 0.50 Labor.00 3. $ 56.75 cyd Backhoe Operator Laborer 1.0 x $300.00/8 1.375/hr 2.00 11. $ - Labor. $ 25.0 x $22.00 Price per sft (Productivity of 150 sft/hr) Excavate Isolated Footings Prices Equipment.0 x $175.00 2.125 Labor.00/8 1. $ 25. DOCUZIP CENTER 0.00 3.00 Price per cyd (Productivity of 25 cyd/hr) Backfill Trench Prices Equipment.0 x $25.00 Price per cyd (Productivity of 20 cyd/hr) Equipment.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.00 25.00 25.00/hr 5.00 36.25 56.00/hr 1.0 x $300.00 119.

0 x $175.00/8 1.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222. Backfill Pits Prices Equipment.00 66.96 Labor.0 x 28.95 Bobcat 3 Ton Roller Foreman/Operator Operator Laborer 1.00 cyd per hour = (Unloading Time/Loading Time) + 1 21 of 25 .50 59.875 37.00 119. productivity is less than backfilling trenches.00/hr 7.00 25.00 Price per cyd (Productivity of 20 cyd/hr) Remove Surplus Material Prices First of all the truck requirement.00/8 1. Assuming the following data: Truck Capacity Distance to Dump Time to off-load Trucks Average Truck Speed Output of Loader Number of Trucks required = 9.00 25.00/hr 5.00 Price per cyd (Productivity of 15 cyd/hr) Because the crew has to move from pit to pit.375/hr 2.0 x $22.0 cyd bank measure = 5 miles one way = 5 minutes = 15 miles per hour = 100.00 66.00 119.97 Labor.00/8 1.0 x 28.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.375/hr 3. DOCUZIP CENTER The productivity of the above item will greatly depend upon the amount of compaction required. $ 21.00 2.0 x $300.0 x $25.933 Bobcat 3 Ton Roller Foreman/Operator Operator Laborer 1.00 3.50 59.875 37.00 3. $ 28. Gravel Under Slab-on-Grade Prices Equipment.0 x $22.00/8 1. has to be established.0 x $25. $ 28. $ 21.0 x $175.00 2.0 x $300. for removing the surplus material.

0 x $225.00/8 10.50 per ton delivered to the site Price per cyd = (Price per ton)(weight of loose cyd in lbs)/(2000 lbs/ton) = ($12.00 Price per cyd (Productivity of 100 cyd/hr) Pit Run Gravel Prices Equipment.00 11.00 0.34 Labor. Number of Trucks Hence allow for 10 Trucks = (45)/(5.31 22 of 25 . $ 25.00 216.125 281.375/hr 3.50)(3250)/(2000) = $20.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK Where.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.4) + 1 File # 222.00/8 1.00/hr 2.0 x $25.16 Assuming a pit run gravel price of $12.00 10.33 1.00 180.4 minutes = 9. DOCUZIP CENTER = Travel Time + 5 minutes to off-load = (10 miles)(60)/(15 mph) + 5 = 45 minutes = (Truck Capacity)/(Excavator Output) = (9 cyd)(60)/(100 cyd/hr) = 5.5 x $22.25 334. Unloading Time Loading Time Thus. $ 53.0 x $18.5 cyd Track Loader Operator Laborer Dump Trucks Drivers $425.

00 22.624.087.147.13 372.50 2.50 810.60 1.00 SFT 0.00 CYD 20.95 3.63 2.00 CYD 2.00 0.848.00 CYD 1.00 5.16 462.220.50 1.072.630.00 CYD 10.95 7.177.499.970.40 286.125.17 5.88 3.00 1.63 1.00 MATERIALS 11 3-IN PIT RUN GRAVEL 1.97 3.00 CYD 1.90 9 361.087.01 6 7 8 13.32 610.126.00 1.86 8.50 2 3 153.38 0.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO.844.848.76 2.34 714.25 3.91 191.00 CYD 504.75 TOTAL 29.30 32.00 CYD 273.435.96 19.70 5 2.63 1.04 4 331.64 0.97 1. DOCUZIP CENTER PRICING SHEET JOB ESTIMATED NO DESCRIPTION QUANTITY UNIT EQUIPMENT UNIT PRICE $ SUBTOTAL $ SHEET DATE OF LABOR UNIT PRICE SUBTOTAL $ $ TOTAL $ EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL 1 STRIP TOPSOIL EXCAVATE TO REDUCE LEVELS GRANULAR FILL EXCAVATE TRENCH FOR FOOTINGS HAND TRIM BOTTOMS OF EXCAVATION EXCAVATE ISOLATED FOOTINGS BACKFILL TRENCH BACKFILL PITS GRAVEL UNDER SLABON-GRADE 1.00 CYD 1.470.35 79.844.12 REMOVE SURPLUS EXCAVATED 10 MATERIAL 214.00 CYD 1.01 1.98 95.00 0.55 23 of 25 .95 2.00 0.50 2.50 543.547.941.75 0.93 13.16 118.69 37.674.72 238.81 39.24 1.: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222.00 CYD 3.31 22.25 1.

: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. DOCUZIP CENTER 24 of 25 .

: 4300-471 Topic: MEASURING EARTHWORK File # 222.Course Title: “Construction Administration” Course NO. DOCUZIP CENTER 25 of 25 .