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Philosophies of Education

INTRODUCTION It is a scientific, systemic inquiry about the ultimate reality in the universe; it is the basis for understanding man. Etymologically, the term, 'Philosophy' ha$ been derived from two Greek words: Philos means love, Sophia means wisdom. It is the loving and searching for wisdom and truth. Philosophy is the science of knowledge. Philosophy is the science of all sciences. - Coleridge Philosophy is the mother of all arts. -Cicero. Definitions 1. Philosophy is a search for a comprehensive view of nature, an attempt at a universal explanation of nature of things. - Henderson. 2. Philosophy is an unceasing effort to discern the general truth that lies behind the particular facts (i.e., the reality that lies behind the appearances). Meaning of Philosophy It is a search for a comprehensive view of nature, an attempt at a universal explanation of nature of things. It is a living force, a way of life, an attitude towards life and a search for truth and reality. It is a speculation about the nature and value of things. It is a search for deeper and finer values of life. Philosophy refers to a certain way of thinking. It arises out of an attempt: -Fitche

a) To arrive at the solution of a problem through the use of human reasoning and experience. b) To find the deeper meanings of the problems. Each individual should have a philosophy of life i.e., a set of standards, ideals which are based on the principles that he has chosen as being acceptable to him. Philosophy is the study of the general principles and understanding all i.e., God, the world, and man himself, of origin, nature and the activities that come in the range of human experience. It is a comprehensive view of nature. Through philosophy man tries to understand himself and the world in which he lives. It answers the inevitable questions. It is an inquiry into the wholesome of things. It is what we believe and the principle which governs our life. It is acting like a guide to have a concrete outlook on the world, life, human conduct, and actions. Philosophy is the earliest and the most original intellectual discipline. Plato said, 'he who has a taste for every sort of knowledge and who is curious to learn and never satisfied' may be just termed as philosopher. Questions of philosophical enquiry: o What is life? o What is man? o What is man's origin? o What is man's destiny or goal? Philosophers try to answer these questions according to their own mature reflection and thinking.

These difference answers lead to different philosophies lives of grate men prove that philosophy results in a certain way of life, beliefs, values and ideals formulated in terms of experiences and background of the person, who expresses them. It is mostly an idea of what is possible and not a record of accomplished facts. Hence, it is hypothetical (it mayor may not be proved true). There is no finality, it defines the difficulties and suggesting ways and means of dealing with them. Thus philosophy is described as generalised thinking'. Philosophy influences the Daily life of every individual, it is particular way of looking at things, e.g. everybody will have their own philosophy of life I.e., some are pessimists, some are optimists, me are realists, some are materialists, some believe in destiny; some are atheists don't believe in God and so on. Major Branches of Philosophy Metaphysics or discussion about the reality and the cosmos. Epistemology or the theory of knowledge. Ethics or the theory of morality. Aesthetics or the discussion of beauty. Logic or the study of ideal method of thought and reasoning. A well-marked attitude takes the shape of a particular school of philosophy or an 'ism'. There are different philosophical approaches, e.g. idealism, pragmatism, naturalism, realism, humanism etc. Philosophy, life and education are intimately linked with one another. Infact philosophy and education are like the two sides of the coin. While philosophy is the contemplative side, education represents the dynamic side.

All philosophers were also great educators. Thus philosophy is a major concern of education and there is, infact, an intimate relationship between philosophy and education. The truths and principles established by philosophy are applied in education. The arch of education will never attain complete clearness without philosophy. All the aspects of education are influenced by philosophy and there is a direct bearing between education and philosophy. Philosophy Points out the Way to be Followed by Education Education is the modification of child's behaviour, whereas philosophy shows the way to be followed by educators in the modification of child's behaviour. Education is a laboratory in which the philosophic theories and speculations are tested, thus education will be said as, 'applied philosophy'. Philosophy is wisdom, education transmits wisdom from one generation to the another. Education is the Best Mean for the Propagation of Philosophy A philosopher arrives at the truth after a great deal of contemplation on the real nature of the universe, man, his destiny and lays down aims, Relationship between Philosophy and Education

Relationship between Philosophy and Education Philosophy 1. It sets the ideals, principles, goals, standards, values thus it is in reality and truth. 2. It is the theory and speculative. 3. It is the contemplative side. 4. It deals with abstract ideas and ends the situations process. 5. It is the art. 6. Philosophy formulates the method. Education 1. Education works out those values. 2. It explains how to achieve the goals through man's educational efforts. 3. It is the practice. 4. It is the active side (dynamic) It is the applied philosophy. It deals with concrete and means. 5. It is the science. 6. It deals with the process of method.

ideals and values and then he tries to live in accordance with them. He wants others to be converted his beliefs and live according to them, thus it can be achieved through education, which is the best mean for the propagation of his philosophy. Education becomes more prominent than philosophy as action speaks louder than words or beliefs. Beliefs (philosophy) are vital, thus it results in a prominent educational efforts. All Great Philosophers are Great. Educators Philosophers reflected their views in their educational schemes. Most of the educational movements of the world own their origin to the philosophical schools of different philosophers. When a philosopher wishes to spread his ideals, beliefs, he formulates a scheme of education based on his philosophy, e.g. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, etc., European philosophers like Locke, Rousseau, Spencer etc., were great educators. The great thinkers and philosophers of India are Buddha, Tagore and Gandhi.

Philosophy Determines the Broad Aspects of Education Philosophy provides aims of education, it determines the curriculum (course of study) methods of teaching, school discipline, role of teacher, school problems etc., philosophy will continuously influences and determines both the matter and the method of education. Thus philosophy contributes to the development of the educational theory and practice.

INFLUENCE OF PHILOSOPHY ON DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF EDUCATION Philosophy and Aims of Education Philosophy is the determining force in laying down the aims of education. Aims of education (moral, vocational, intellectual and spiritual) are based on views and ideals, beliefs, values, standards of philosopher. The philosopher struggles hard with the mysteries of life and arrives at his solution after mature reflection and thinking. He will suggest the ways and means of dealing with them through educational efforts. The educator selects the material for instruction, determines the methods of procedures for the attainment of goals. Thus the entire educational system proceeds with its foundation on sound philosophy, e.g. Idealism believes in self-enhancement. Naturalism prefers self-preservation. Philosophy and Curriculum Curriculum is the sum total of all the activities and experiences provided by the school to its pupil to achieve the aims of education. The philosophy determines the content and discipline that subject will promote curriculum. It is not fixed at all times, it changes in accordance with philosophy. Thus curriculum differs with

different schools of philosophy according to their own beliefs. Thus education needs leaders, who hold a sound comprehensive philosophy through which they can convince others and who can direct its consistent application to the formation to the function of appropriate curriculum. The content of curriculum varies according to the philosophy it follows, e.g.: Idealists emphasise higher values of life and prescribe the study of religion, ethics, logic, literature, arts and humanities. Pragmatists advocate the study of functional subjects and social sciences, practical arithmetic, arts and crafts in their curriculum. . Naturalists are mainly concerned with physical sciences and direct experiences. The subjects are selected according to the aptitude and ability of the child. Philosophy and Textbooks The textbooks must reflect the prevailing values of life fixed by philosophy, an appropriate textbook must be in accordance with norms of knowledge which the children are expected to know and accepted ideals of the society and the prevailing philosophy of education and the nation as a whole. Then only it will serve the desired purpose. The persons who select the textbooks must have standard of judgment, which should enable them to select the right type of books based on standard, supplied by philosophy. Through textbooks the aims of education are realised. It will meet needs of ideals and principles. Philosophy and Method of Teaching Philosophy is a way of thinking and a way of working. Method is the process of establishing and maintaining contact between the pupil and the subject

matter. Every system of education has its own method of teaching based on its own philosophical background. Method is the procedure through which aims of education are realised. Thus different schools of philosophy have laid down their own methods of teaching, e.g. Idealism: advocates question, answer, lecture and discussion methods. Naturalism: emphasises child-centred methods of learning by doing and direct experience. Pragmatism: recommends project methods, problem-solving method and socialized techniques. Philosophy and Discipline Philosophy determines the nature and forms of discipline. Discipline is nothing but the conduct of the pupil. Internal discipline concerned with inner code of conduct of the individuals sustain a nation. Philosophy and education are inseparably linked, they exist together, philosophy leads and education follows the path shown by philosophy. Discipline is mainly governed by the aim of education. Spare the rod and spoil the child' was the maxim for the guidance of teachers. In the past, perfect order and silence 'prevailed in the educational institutions, now we insist on self government of students and free discipline. Philosophy and the Teacher Teacher is the backbone of the entire process of education. Philosophy of life should be in perfect consonance with the philosophy; the educational system is based on successful teachers. A teacher needs the study of philosophy as a person and as a teacher. A teacher is also having his/her own ideas and beliefs. Teacher

influences the personality of the child and instills in him a new outlook and a new way of life, e.g. Idealistic teacher is a person of high ideals, ethics and morals, he is rolemodel for the pupil. Naturalism sees the teacher as the stagesetter and works behind the screen. In pragmatism teacher is a friend and guide of the pupil, facilitating the process of the growth of individual. Philosophy and Evaluation Evaluation is the pivot of education system. It determines the extent to which aims and objectives are being attained, but also helps to bring about an improvement in the techniques and procedures of education. There is a close relationship between objectives, learning experiences and evaluation. It is therefore legitimate to ascertain how far our evaluation programme is in conformity with the philosophy that has determined the aims and objectives of education, its curriculum and its methodology. Evaluation takes into account the growth of the child as a whole individual and in his total environment. Philosophical analysis, which is responsible for the movement of objectivity in the field of relationship between philosophy and environment. General Impact of Modern Philosophies on Education Common elements in all modern philosophies: Education has been psychologised, instructions are based on child centred, individual differences have been recognized. The principle of activity i.e., learning by doing is the common watchword. Social discipline is a patent factor of educational development, the child is to be trained for community life.

Democracy has been developed and it is the guiding factor of educational practices. There is a scientific outlook on all matters of life. The concept of discipline in education has undergone a radical change. Importance of Educational Philosophy to a Teacher To understand and accept the prevailing values of the society. It results in intellectual development of the teacher. It helps to improve the standard of his life. It guides and improves the state properly. It helps to bring about changes in various aspects of education. It reforms the society. NURSING EDUCATION Philosophy of Nursing Education A philosophy of nursing education includes beliefs and values with regard to man in general and specifically man as the learner, teacher, nurse and the client and the beliefs about health, illness, society, nursing, and learning etc. Traditionally nursing education had adopted 'children philosophy' which was based on 'supernaturalism'. According to it, God is creator, redeemer and provider of man and the universe. The maxims of Christian philosophy are 'love of god' and 'love thy neighbour'. Every phase of nursing education will be influenced by the philosophy upon which it is based. Christian philosophy considers man to be dualistic in nature i.e., man was created by God as a unit, (a composite made up of a body and a soul, possessing intellect and the likeness of god) and he was created for the purpose of serving him

in heaven. Education based on this philosophy takes in all aspects of human life with the view in regulating and perfecting life in accordance with life of Christ, by which man may attain the eternal end for which he was created. It affects all aspects of the nursing student's life i.e., spiritual, moral, intellectual, emotional, physical and social as they relate to the preparation of a Christian nurse motivated by supernatural motives. According to Christian philosophy, nursing is considered as, 'profession of charity'. Spiritual Religion should serve as the primary integrating factor in the development of the curriculum in a school of nursing. The principles of religion and morality are unchanging. By this stable truth, the nurse will be able to meet intelligently the changing conditions of modern social living. Religion provides the motives for the nurse influenced by religious principles. Moral Through understanding of moral principles governing man's conduct and action leading to the nurses to study 'ethics' (it is the philosophic science of human acts) from the point of the view of the order they should have regarding one another and man's ultimate destiny which they ought to help him achieve and it also teaches the individual how to judge accurately the moral goodness or badness of any action. Nurse has to apply right conduct, in various situations of her daily life based on a sound moral character, adequate understanding and habitual application of proper moral standards. Nurse has to develop right conscience.

Intellectual To provide a systematic development and training of the intellect, so that it may be enlightened, disciplined and disposed to function in accordance with the purpose for which it was created. For the fulfillment of nursing functions, nursing education should give training in: Memory. Direction of imagination. Strengthening and expansion of the capacity for association. Cultivation and training of the intellect. Judge wisely. Reason soundly. Acquire prudence, wisdom and intellectual virtues. Imparts knowledge. Provide opportunity for the student to analyse nursing care situations and problems, to apply various theoretical knowledge and skills in the field of clinical situation. Development of communication skills to express their thoughts. Emotional Needs Nurse must be able to function as a mature, self dependent and responsible individual and must be able to relate well to other people. It shows emotional matl1rity where by all her emotional needs were met. The primary emotional needs are: Affection and love. A feeling of belongingness. Achievement or status i.e., prestige or self esteem.

Approval from the group and from the authority figures. These needs must be met, if the student is to mature into a well integrated personality and who can use mature judgment and make the decisions in professional life. Physical To promote the harmonious development physical needs also has to be met, to preserve her body and the essentials of her health. Nurse should have knowledge of how to guide the others, who need assistance in learning, how to keep well or how to improve health. Social Nurse is a social being, who must pass her life in society in relation to which, she has both privileges and obligations. Nursing is linked with social culture, in which nursing activities are carried out. The nursing student should be taught, to use her will power in gaining control of her own impulses. To acquire self-mastery and to be a virtuous member of a social group nurse practices democratic principles. Nursing is a service to individual, families and to the society. It is based upon art and science, which mold the attitudes, intellectual competence and teaching skills of the individual nurse, to help the people sick or well, to meet their health needs in medical direction. Nursing is a social institution where, An organised group of people working together toward a common goal directly concerned with the welfare of the people.

A way of acting, specific to the group for the accomplishment of a common goal. The responsibility of nursing includes: Prevention of illness. Promotion of health. Direct supportive and therapeutic care. Rehabilitation. Body-mind-spirit unity. During the course of time, changes have taken place in the field of education, health care, sociocultural aspects, science and technology. There was need for change in the existing value systems and beliefs; changes had taken place in the field of nursing and nursing education also. It is not advisable to adhere to only one type of philosophy so, the nursing also is following the path of electism i.e., to draw the best and useful aspects from various educational philosophies and make one's own philosophy. Nursing is concerned with human welfare, it acknowledges the uniqueness of each individual. It considers health as a fundamental human right. Nursing is a service to individual, people or community without any distinction between caste, creed, sex or color, rich/poor, age or religion. Hence nursing is concerned with a philosophical outlook i.e., 'the individual has intrinsic value and there is worth inherent in human life'. Nursing requires critical thinking, logic and judgment; it is a problemsolving and decision making process, nurse has to use a rational activity. Nurse is legally and morally accountable person. The learning experiences should equip the learner with skills in problemsolving, decision making and critical thinking.

Nursing actions are based on scientific principles, which are drawn from bio-psycho-social sciences. Nursing curriculum should include physical sciences, biological sciences, anatomy, physiology, microbiology and other relevant subjects. Nurse will have active voice as a democratic citizen has some control over and responsibility for the political, legal, and social milieu related to health care matters, in which she lives. Nurse is a socializing agent, consumer advocate and protector. She has to play active role in bringing social change. Nursing is a process to attain an end. It includes: a) Inherent purpose: The optimum level of wellness of health of the individual. b) Internal organisation: The series of actions to attain the aim of optimum level of wellness of health of the individual. c) Infinite creativity: The dynamics of evolving unique, effective, efficient nursing activities for the achievement of the goal of optimum health. Nursing is a crucial component of multidisciplinary healthcare system, it reflects the independent, dependent and collaborative positions of the nurse involving respective functions. Nursing evolves as a holistic process with central and common philosophy, purposes, knowledge and functions. Nursing is a profession and nursing practice must reflect professionalism, professional adjustment and research. Nursing roles in the order of priority are: Educative, Preventive, Promotive, Rehabilitative, Therapeutic, Supportive.

Democratic processes include in nursing role are: Authority by mutual consent, individual accountability, group activities, leadership and organizational set-up. The requirements for professional nursing care includes: Clinical knowledge, judgment, technical competency, health knowledge, teaching skills, realisation of professional responsibilities. Philosophy will determine the selection of students, preparation of faculty, development of curriculum, attitudes towards client and community, personal life and professional growth of students and faculty. It must be specific about the specialised functional roles and responsibilities within a profession and society. The purpose of nursing education is to prepare a person who can fulfill the role, functions and responsibilities of professional nurse within the society. The philosophy is developed by each faculty of individual school of nursing together with nurse leaders and nurse administrators. It should be clearly stated and directly related to the aims. Concept and Meaning of Nursing Education "The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery or to peaceful death thus he would perform unaided, if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge and to do this in such a way as to help him to gain independence as rapidly as possible". - The concept of nursing, according to Virginia Henderson(1958). The essential components of professional nursing practice (according to American Nurses Association) include; care, cure and coordination. Nursing is

based on scientific principles (systematized knowledge) and an art i.e., composed of skills that require expertisedness and proficiency for their execution. Nursing is a dynamic, therapeutic 'and educative process in meeting the health needs of the society. Assisting the individual or family to achieve their potential for self-direction. Education brings change in behaviour of the individual in a desirable manner. It aims at allround development of an individual to become mature, self sufficient, intellectually, culturally refined, socially efficient and spiritually advanced. Nursing education brings changes in the behaviour of student nurse so as to prepare her to play her roles effectively as an individual and as a good responsible citizen. Strategies Three phases are included in nursing education. Pre-nursing Education Spread information of nursing to the prospective candidates, publicity and guidance about nursing education, nursing services, working conditions of nurses, career development, job avenues, opportunities and responsibilities of nurses has to be given. Booklets or brouchers can be developed like 'nursing as a career' 'profile of a nurse'. The prospective students can introspect, think and make a right decision. Careful intelligent planning is required to develop personal and professional satisfaction.

Nurse Education Nurse educators have to take care to produce skilled and efficient nurses in order to provide qualitative care, select the candidate who is having interest for admission into nursing is the first step. Nurse educators monitor continuously; implement the curriculum which consists of theoretical and practical hours of training in a critical manner, give equal weightage to develop the right attitudes, social and moral values, human relations, skills, ethics, civic sense, professional etiquette to have perfect background in nursing. Along with the technical skills, the personal qualities of the students also have to be promoted. Evaluation of students' performance is essential. Post-nursing Education After completion of the nursing training, nurse has to register their names in professional organization. The nurse still needs to be educated either in the form of in-service or continuing education. The teacher has to develop teaching material and conduct of research to improve the standards of nursing. Post-nursing education consists of orientation, supervision, in-service education, evaluation and re-registration. New graduates need to have a well-planned and organised orientation to the area of their posting. They must be oriented to the staff, equipment, working conditions and clients with whom they have to work. They need guidance and supervision in achieving professional standards. Nurses on the job must be evaluated periodically in-terms of knowledge and performance and inservice education needs to be planned on the basis of their needs. Steps for improving nursing education are: Development of educational material. Conduct of research.

Historical Development of Nursing Education in India . In 1871, training for midwives were given for a period of six months with supervised nursing practice. In 1918, first Lady Health Visitors course was started in Lady Reading Health School, Mumbai. Later diploma in General Nursing and Midwifery course was started with 3 years 9 months and later it was condensed to 3 years duration. In 1946, 4 years basic nursing training programme started at RAK College, New Delhi and CMC Vellore. In 1953, post basic degree programme was started in Thiruvananthapuram. In 1959, the first master's programme in nursing was started at RAK College of Nursing, New Delhi. In 1986, M Phil at RAK College of nursing, New Delhi was started. In 1991, the first doctoral programme in nursing was established in Institute of Nursing sciences, MV Shetty Memorial College Mangalore. ' Pattern of nursing training programmes in India are: Vocational nursing (at 10+2 level)

Bibliography: 1. K.P. Neeraja Text book of Nursing Education 1st edition Jaypee brother medical publishers Pvt Ltd. New Delhi Pg No. 182-185 2. Basavantappa Text book of Nursing Education kornak publisher New Delhi Pg No. 156-161 3. Shankar Narayana Text book of Nursing Education 3rd edition Brain Brain Fill publishers calicutt pg No. 111-114 4. www.google.com 5. www.pubmed.com