OUTLINE
SERIES
THEORY and PROBLEM
of
TRANSMISSION
LINES
by
ROBERT
A
CHIPMAN
including
Ived
Completely Solved
in Detail
SCHAUM'S OUTLINE
McGRAW
HILL
SERIES
BOOK COMPANY
SCHAVM'S OUTLINE OF
THEORY AND PROBLEMS
OF
TRANSMISSION
LINES
BY
ROBERT
A.
CHIPMAN, Ph.D.
Professor of Electrical Engineering
University of Toledo
SCHAVM'S OUTLINE SERIES
McGRAWHILL BOOK COMPANY
New
York, St. Louis, San Francisco, Toronto, Sydney
Copyright © 1968 by McGrawHill, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
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34567890 MHUN
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Typography by Jack Margolin, Signs
&
Symbols
Inc.,
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York
Preface
There are two principal reasons for the existence of this book. The first is that after teaching the subject of transmission lines for several years, and assisting a few graduate students with thesis projects on transmission line problems, I have come to prefer certain specific ways of presenting many of the topics involved. The most direct
way
of
making these opinions
available to
my own
students
is
to put
them
in a book.
The second reason is that the Schaum's Outline Series, for which the book was planned from the beginning, has provided me with an opportunity to present the material in a style a little different from that generally used in today's textbooks. The inclusion of numerous worked examples and solved problems, and the supplying of answers to all nonsolved problems, makes it more feasible to learn the subject through independent study. This same objective has prompted a detailed statement of the premises of transmission line theory, and careful stepbystep derivations of most of the important expressions needed in solving problems.
for this book would be "The Steady State Analysis of Uniform High Frequency Transmission Lines". Although brief attention is given to the properties of telephone lines at kilohertz voice frequencies, the primary emphasis is on the behavior of typical transmission systems in use at frequencies from a few megahertz to a few gigahertz. There is no discussion of analytical techniques speciThe absence of any reference fically adapted to the study of 60 hertz power lines. phenomena on transmission transient investigating for to integral transform methods
An expanded
title
lines is explained in
Chapter
2.
The book is designed for use in a onequarter or onesemester course in electrical engineering or physics curricula at the junior or senior level. It assumes that the student has taken the usual undergraduate courses in differential equations and in electromagnetic fields and waves.
probably true that every separate item in this book can be found in some other book, but the coverage of a few of the central topics is more comprehensive than in most transmission line textbooks. These topics include the interpretation of standing wave patterns, solving transmission line problems with the Smith chart, determining the transmission characteristics of a line from its materials and geometry, and the design of transmission line resonant circuits.
It is
One visit and innumerable telephone conversations with Mr. Daniel Schaum and Mr. Nicola Monti during vhe writing of this book have been a very pleasant part of the process. Their encouragement, patience and tolerance have contributed much to
the final result.
Robert A. Chipman
Toledo, Ohio
October 1968
5 Waveguide modes and electromagnetic theory The H 12 TEM mode Distributed circuit analysis and electromagnetic theory Coordinates.3 4.7 2.2 3.4 Chapter 2.11 The characteristic impedance Z Q Nepers and decibels Phasor diagrams for 32 35 4.12 Chapter THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE UNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINE 3. coefficients and variables 12 12 1S 13 2.6 4.2 1.3 2.3 Page * Analytical methods * 3 8 The evolution of electrical transmission systems References 1.1 4.6 2.4 Equations in the frequency domain 22 Chapter 4 4.4 4.5 waves with no reflected waves 28 28 29 The line 4.3 3.9 Some implications of a and (i 4.1 POSTULATES.12 V and / 37 .8 Choice of coordinate notation Choice of origin for longitudinal coordinates Symbols for current and voltage Symbols for distributed circuit coefficients • 1* • • 2.1 Time domain and frequency domain Equations in the time domain Solving the equations in the time domain 18 19 21 3.10 2.11 Symbols for terminal quantities and elements Notation for impedance and admittance Notation for transient response 16 17 2.4 2.10 4.9 15 16 2.1 INTRODUCTION Electrical transmission systems 1.2 TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES Solutions of the differential equations 26 The meaning of the Current waves Reflected solutions 26 27 4.CONTENTS Chapter 1.7 418 The attenuation factor a The phase factor /J 30 line The wavelength of waves on the 30 31 4. SYMBOLS AND NOTATION Postulates of distributed circuit analysis & 22 2.
3 5.8 Concluding remarks on design of high frequency lines Inductive loading Chapter 6 6.7 Complex characteristic impedance Transmission line sections as twoport networks I 36 140 Chapter 8 8. /3.3 6. a) 58 60 60 5.7 of transmission lines with 1^6 6.1 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS The phenomenon of interference The practical importance of standing 156 8.2 5.1 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS AND DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS The nature of transmission Polar number solutions line Page 46 46 48 51 problems 5.6 8.9 Optimum geometries for coaxial lines H5 Chapter 7 7.CONTENTS Chapter & 5.6 The "high frequency" solutions Solutions in the transition ranges of frequency Summary concerning the solutions 57 Solutions of the inverse form R.3 8.C — f(a.1 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS Reflection coefficient for voltage waves I 26 I 30 7.2 wave observations 16® 161 I 63 I 64 8.5 6.4 7.7 8.7 5.6 7.9 Standing wave patterns from phasor diagrams I 75 8.1 6.3 Input impedance of a transmission line "Stub" lines with open circuit and short circuit termination 131 7.4 Distributed resistance and internal inductance of thick plane conductors Distributed resistance of tubular circular conductors Distributed circuit coefficients of coaxial lines 82 87 91 6.4 5.G.4 8. X .8 Distributed internal inductance for plane and tubular circular conductors of finite thickness 109 6.2 7. i? .5 8.10 The generalized reflection coefficient 176 . L.2 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN Introduction Distributed resistance and internal inductance of solid circular conductors 70 71 6.5 Halfwavelength and quarterwavelength transformers Determination of transmission line characteristics from impedance measurements 132 7.5 5.8 Instrumentation for standing wave measurements The analysis of standing wave patterns Standing wave patterns on lossless lines Standing wave patterns on transmission lines with attenuation 167 I 72 The problem of measuring high Multiple reflections VSWR values 8.6 Distributed circuit coefficients of transmission lines with parallel circular conductors Distributed circuit coefficients parallel plane conductors 97 6.
4 9.6 and normalized impedance 189 190 Coordinates for standing wave data Coordinates of magnitude and phase angle of normalized impedance 193 194 197 201 Impedance transformations on the Smith chart Normalized admittance coordinates Inversion of complex numbers 9.1 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS Transmission line charts Equations for constructing the Smith chart Reflection coefficient Page 184 185 9.2 9.8 9.7 Resonance curve methods for impedance measurement INDEX 233 .9 Other mathematical uses of the Smith chart 202 loss 9.4 parallel resonant circuit 218 219 221 The nature of resonance Resonant transmission in transmission line circuits 10.7 9.CONTENTS Chapter 9 9.3 10.2 10.3 9. reflection loss and transmission 202 Chapter 10 10.10 Return loss.1 RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS The nature of resonance The basic lumped element The basic lumped element series resonant circuit 215 215 10.6 line sections with short circuit termination The validity of the approximations 224 225 10.5 10.5 9.
the most impressive are the high voltage transmission towers that cross the countryside in all directions. Similar antennas with even greater directivity are employed in microwave radar stations. in the uhf scatterpropagation circuits of the Arctic. over distances usually not exceeding a few dozen miles. at milliwatt power levels and kilohertz frequencies. guided only by the conductivity of the earth's surface.1. control and telemetering in all satellite projects.Chapter Introduction 1. paper or plastic insulated. or may be transmitting telephone. The greatest mileage of these is in the form of twisted pairs of small wires. Unknown to most laymen. data and control. partly buried and partly airborne are the vhf coaxial or shielded pair transmission lines handling the signals of multichannel cable television services. at power levels of a few watts. Also in city areas. Carrying telephone. or exploratory in outer space. over distances up to a few thousand miles. This makes possible the confinement of microwave signals or power into directed beams with small divergence angles. Carrying thousands of megawatts of power. a substantial amount of the electrical transmission of signals and power occurs on buried transmission circuits. are the millions of miles of polelines that parallel city streets. teletype and data signals. wavelengths are small and antennas form of arrays. rural highways and railways everywhere. . some of these lines operate at voice frequencies. most vital single con manifestations. Every radio and television receiver is a terminal of another kind of electrical transmission system. At microwave frequencies of several gigahertz. teletype and data signals within the exchange areas of cities. Towers supporting such antennas can be seen at 20 to 50 mile intervals in most regions of the United States. or by that of the ionospheric layers of the upper atmosphere. 1 Electrical transmission systems. whether terrestrial. others at carrier frequencies as high as 100 kilohertz and still others are multiplexed with pulse code modulation utilizing frequencies up to 1 or 2 megahertz. telephone. Equally obvious and important. The conductors of these lines may be delivering kilowatts or megawatts of power to domestic and industrial users. and for communication. The electrical transmission of signals and power is perhaps the tribution of engineering technology to modern civilization. which are packed by the hundreds into cables in underground conduits. The electrical transmission in the systems of which they are a part carry all types of communication signals. An essential but unobtrusive component of most television receiver installations is an electrical transmission line that conveys signal power at the picowatt or nanowatt level from the antenna to the receiver terminals. these lines link remote generating stations to urban load centers. including television video. or unite into cooperative complexes the power production facilities of large geographical its visible Among on lines tall steel areas. if neither impressive nor attractive. in which the signal power at megahertz frequencies propagates freely from a transmitting antenna through the earth's atmosphere. horns or paraboloidal "dishes" can have apertures many wavelengths wide.
electrical engineering students always make direct use of electrical electromagnetic theory. a complete analysis of any problem involving timevarying signals can be made only through the use of electromagnetic theory as expressed in Maxwell's equations. structurally into From The attention of this book is confined solely to systems in the first of these two groups. lites is The Finally. and the basic analytical discipline of electrical engineering curricula has from the beginning been that of lumped element circuit analysis. 1. buried coaxial transmission lines operating at frequencies up to several megahertz carry all types of communication signals from teletype to television over distances of hundreds or thousands of miles. respectively. with explicit recognition that the electric and magnetic fields throughout the region of the problem are the primary physical variables. The methods developed are applicable equally to twowire low frequency electric power transmission lines. to telephone and data transmission lines of all types at all frequencies. This employs the idealized concepts of twoterminal resistances. the totality of electrical transmission engineering includes the endless variety of shorter transmission line segments that perform many different functions within the terminal units of the systems. or the interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasmas. which are related by integral or differential expressions to electric and magnetic fields. are the primary electrical variables. 1 Between cities. in principle. it is not possible to solve the electromagnetic integral or differential equations either conveniently or rigorously in regions containing or bounded by geometrically complicated metal or dielectric structures. as defined in Chapter 2. and to all of the vhf uhf and microwave twoconductor lines used in contemporary electrical engineering. at frequencies up to many gigahertz. filters and waveshaping networks. and serving not only as transmission paths but in such other applications as resonant elements. providing better security against enemy action. Analytical methods. for example. and when the dimensions of a circuit are sufficiently small that no appreciable change will occur in the voltage or current at any point during the time electromagnetic waves would require to propagate through The method is . many of these transmission line circuit components present more challenging design problems than all the miles of a long uniform line. in the United States and in many parts of Europe. reliable worldwide intercontinental communication provided via terrestrial satelbacked up by thousands of miles of less romantic but equally sophisticated carrier frequency circuits on submarine coaxial cable. and more specifically to systems consisting of two uniform parallel conductors. magneticfield energy storage. it can be seen that electrical transmission systems fall two distinct groups. not electromagnetic theory. Ranging in length from a few millimeters in microwave circuits to inches or feet or hundreds of feet in devices at lower frequencies.2. and electricfield energy storage. with builtin amplifiers every few miles. or propagate in the earth's atmosphere or space. the radiation properties of antennas. according to whether the signals or power are guided along a path by a material "line". the above summary. in addition to all the relatively long transmission systems that have been enumerated. However. Voltages and currents.2 INTRODUCTION [CHAP. that cross most of the oceans of the world. In studying the modes of propagation of microwaves in hollow metal pipes. natural catastrophes and various kinds of signal interference than is offered by microwave link circuits. inductances and capacitances to represent the localized functions of energy dissipation. an adequate substitute for electromagnetic theory when the occurrences of the three functions mentioned can be separately identified. Electrical engineers are fully aware that. .
A The subject had an improbable beginning in 1729 when Stephen Gray. and mechanical wave transmission systems including physical and architectural acoustics. discovered that the electrostatic phenomenon of attraction of small bits of matter could occur at one end of a damp string several hundred feet long when an electrostatically charged body (a rubbed glass tube) was touched to the other end. but no one deduced the concept of electrical transmission from this observation until after Gray's time. By judicious conversion of symbols. Only 24 years elapsed after Gray's experiments before the inevitable armchair inventor proposed in the "Scots Magazine" of Edinburgh for February 17.CHAP. electrical engineers make use of a third analytical procedure for electrical problems. a 63 year old pensioner in a charitable institution for elderly men. This first distinction between electric conductors and electric insulators was further developed in the succeeding five years by French botanist Charles DuFay. 1753. Examples are the propagation of plane transverse electromagnetic waves in homogeneous media. by touching a charged A . underwater sound. particularly when dealing with situations at transmission line terminals. Sixty years earlier. councillor Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg. In addition to the techniques of electromagnetic theory and of lumped element circuit analysis. but which must be restricted and uniform in the other dimensions throughout their length. which combines features that are separately characteristic of each of the other two methods. of the theory presented in this book can any other physical forms of uniform onedimensional transmission systems. the methods of lumped element circuit analysis are applicable with high accuracy to circuits several miles long. who also reported the existence of two different kinds of electricity. brief review of the historical development of electrical transmission engineering can help to explain several features of the present scene. much also be applied directly to the analysis of 1. and electromagnetic theory is required to develop expressions relating the distributed circuit coefficients of a uniform line to its materials. The size criterion is obviously a function of frequency. eventually labeled positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin in 1747. The evolution of electrical transmission systems. using Gray's technique. while at microwave gigahertz frequencies the same methods may be useless for analyzing a circuit less than an inch across. At the power line frequency of 60 hertz. but not if they were supported by fine brass wires. and vibrations of strings. Gray established that electrostatic transmission occurred along his moist packthread lines if they were supported by dry silk threads.3. The analysis discloses propagating waves of the voltage and current variables. wires and solid rods. It extends the application of the concepts of lumped element circuit analysis to circuits which can be indefinitely long in one dimension. that an electrical communication system for use over considerable distances might be constructed by employing a transmission line of 26 parallel wires (each wire identified at each end for one letter of the alphabet) supported at 60foot intervals by insulators of glass or "jewellers' cement". The principal subject matter of this book is the application of distributed circuit analysis uniform twoconductor transmission lines. Germany. sequence of letters was to be transmitted. geometry and to dimensions. 1] INTRODUCTION 3 the entire circuit. analogous to the waves of electric and magnetic fields that are solutions of Maxwell's equations. (famous for the evacuated Magdeburg hemispheres that teams of horses could not pull apart) had noted that short threads connected at one end to his primitive electrostatic machine became charged throughout their length. He concluded that "electric effluvia" were transmitted along the line. The method is known as distributed circuit analysis. Frequent use is necessarily made of lumpedelement circuit concepts and methods.
None of these achieved any practical success. and open wire lines on poles or trees were quickly adopted. He represented the cable by series resistance and shunt capacitance uniformly distributed along its length. Their design and construction was purely empirical. however. bits of paper or straw would be seen jumping successively to the ends of the corresponding wires. rivers.4 INTRODUCTION [CHAP. that of signal distortion. some of which were still in operation as telegraph circuits until fairly recently. lost the squareness familiar on landline circuits and became blurred attenuated waverings of a jittery baseline. but in the decade after 1866 numerous cables were laid. Henry and others in the early 1830's and these were followed by the first commercial electroeffect of a current in magnetic telegraphs of Wheatstone and Cook in England in 1839. the need arose for underwater cables across and larger expanses of water. but the earlier ones may be said to have firmly established the transmission line concept. and of Morse in America in 1844. The operation of these long underwater telegraph circuits soon revealed a new transmission phenomenon. He fully appreciated that a more complete investigation of the cable's signal transmission properties might require attributing distributed series inductance and distributed shunt conductance (leakage) to the cable. and from measurements on cable samples he satisfied himself that leakage conductance could be kept low enough to be unimportant. but with poor results. . transmission lines of buried insulated wires were tested first. landlines were extended. over distances up to a few miles. In spite of the inadequacies of the insulating material available at the time. a cable designed to Thomson's specifications was successfully laid across the Atlantic in 1858. This may be the first instance of the employment of a professional consultant on a major commercial venture in electrical engineering. In both cases. with conductivity several times greater than that of the commercial metal then available. At the receiving end. By 1850 there were thousands of miles of fairly crude telegraph transmission lines in operation in the United States and Europe. Thomson (later Sir William and ultimately Lord Kelvin) carried out in 1855 the first distributed circuit analysis of a uniform transmission line. 1 object to each of the appropriate wires in turn. and carried messages for a few weeks before the insulation failed. After various mechanical difficulties were surmounted. but they hesitated to risk the large amount of capital required without some reasonable assurance that useful signals could traverse an underwater cable many times longer than the longest then in use. he found that at telegraphsignal frequencies the effects of the inductance would be negligible. and by directing the manufacture of purer copper. The received signals. No test instruments existed. and even Ohm's law was unknown to most of the "electricians" of the time. and within two or three years submarine cables up to 300 miles in length had been laid in various parts of Europe. professor of natural philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. As telegraph Promoters were naturally stimulated by the prospect that a transatlantic submarine cable might provide the first instantaneous communication link between Europe and America. Further financing of the cable project was delayed by the Civil War in the United States. Between 1770 and 1830 several electrostatic telegraph systems were constructed in various parts of the world. lakes. a successful 40mile submarine cable was laid across the English Channel in 1851. Thomson provided additional assistance of a more practical nature to the cable promoters by inventing more sensitive receiving galvanometers than any in existence. Volta's discovery of the chemical pile in 1800 and Oersted's discovery of the magnetic 1820 resulted in the experimental magnetic telegraphs of Gauss. recorded as pen traces on paper tapes. Thomson's published paper of 1855 makes profitable reading for electrical engineers even today. By trial calculations. For advice they turned to William Thomson.
much effort was expended in attempts to develop this property into an . and was first published by him during the 1880's. then "retired" (according to a major encyclopedia) in 1874 at age 24. In the ensuing 40 years. electromagnetic field theory.8 on page 60. vector analysis. still the most challenging transmission line problem. The use of groundreturn was abandoned. The world's first a substantial professional associa tion of electrical engineers was the Society of Telegraph Engineers. The It proved technique. which generally consisted of single iron wires with the ground as a return circuit. did more to define the concepts and establish the theoretical methods of modern electrical engineering than has the work of any other one individual. electric circuit theory. Oliver Heaviside worked for a few years in the British telegraph industry.CHAP. experience and analysis had indicated that long voice frequency telephone circuits. Loading permitted the economy. telegraph Charles Wheatstone. The carbon microphone of telephony is an electromechanical amplifier. During that half century his publications on transmission lines. Attempts at intercity telephony over the telegraph lines of the time. were frustrated by the low level and garbled unintelligibility of the received signals. Modern presentations of Maxwellian electromagnetic theory are also essentially in the form created by Heaviside. well insulated openwire pole lines. the prominent electrical scientist and of a wellknown telegraph engineer. and numerous other topics. chiefly responsible for a The man new and more complete mathematical A By the end of the 19th century. and loading coils were connected into tens of thousands of miles of open wire and cable telephone circuits in a period of about thirty years. of using smaller gauge copper wires than would otherwise have been needed to give the same electrical efficiency and quality of transmission. whose electrical power output can be a thousand times greater than its mechanical voicepower input. extremely successful. The Society added "and Electricians" to its title in 1880. Michael Pupin of Columbia University and George Campbell of the Bell Telephone Laboratories conceived about 1900 that a practical alternative to the difficult process of increasing the uniformly distributed inductance of a line might be the insertion of low resistance lumped inductance coils at intervals of a mile or so along the line. and most of its charter members were submarine telegraph engineers. the most signal propagation on transmission lines was Oliver Heaviside. to spend the next fifty years of his life in almost total seclusion. is discussed briefly in Section 5. mounted as widely spaced. all and at the same time most productive engineermathematicians brother and inventor. From his equations Heaviside had noted that on most practical lines. improvements in long distance voice frequency telephony developed slowly but steadily through a combination of empirical discoveries and theoretical studies. Transmission line theory as developed in several of the chapters of this book is entirely the work of Oliver Heaviside. United States. in long telephone lines. one of of nephew of time. evident further complications The frequencies required for voice reproduction were hundreds of times higher than those used in telegraphy. worked best when constructed of two large lowresistance copper wires. consisting of electrical principles a new men with knowledge of and techniques. 1] INTRODUCTION 5 cables The technological problems encountered in the design and operation of long submarine were so much more sophisticated than those associated with landline telegraphs that class of technical personnel gradually developed. and became the present day Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1889. From about 1890 on. known as "loading". operational calculus. five years after the formation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in the United States. The invention made analysis of unusual. founded in England in 1871. voice signals should travel with reduced loss and with greater fidelity if the distributed inductance of the line could be In the increased without adversely changing the other distributed circuit coefficients. of the telephone in 1876 immediately in the use of transmission lines for electrical communication.
in which several voice frequency channels of bandwidth about 4 kilohertz are translated to different higher frequency intervals for transmission. The circuit could handle only a single voice frequency signal. in many different ways. of medium power thermionic . No amplifiers were involved. incapable of transmitting any frequencies above 3 or 4 kilohertz. The circuit consisted of two largeconductor polemounted transmission lines between the two cities. technique. telephone engineers looked for new methods of cost reduction. In a country more than three thousand miles across. and hence useless for carrier frequency systems. Two years of intensive research in the industry's laboratories improved the device to the point of making transcontinental telephony a realized achievement in 1915. Military interest in electronic tubes and their associated circuitry during World War I greatly accelerated the development of amplifiers. which While the wireline communication industry was evolving from the very limited capabilities of passive voicefrequency transmission line circuits to the virtually unlimited potentialities. Early carrier systems (the technique is now known as "frequency division multiplexing") handled three telephone channels in each direction on a single two. 1 sistance amplifier unit that could be inserted into long telephone lines to offset the effects of reand leakage. using frequencies up to about 30 kilohertz. highinductance lines could not benefit from any practical form of loading. and the lowresistance. and distortion could be reduced to any desired value by networks "equalizing" the characteristics of a line over any range of signal frequencies. of multichannel carrierfrequency circuits using vacuum tube amplifiers. Colorado. this was an unpleasant conclusion. It was obvious that the greatest rewards lay in the possibility of using the expensive transmission lines for several voice frequency signals simultaneously. during World War I. but in spite of dire forebodings it offered no significant competitive threat to any of the established telephone and telegraph services using land lines or submarine cables until after the development. It is perhaps the greatest irony of electrical engineering history that the loading was the salvation of the long distance telephone industry in the first quarter of the century. Marconi's experiments of 1895 to 1902 showed that local and intercontinental telegraphy could be accomplished without wires. commercial and its operation proved that telephony over a distance of two thousand miles was an economic impossibility for the technology of the time. most of the millions of loading coils previously installed were removed. In possession of a practical solution to the problems of distance and signal quality. filters and other devices.6 INTRODUCTION [CHAP. oscillators. From 1925 to 1940. the technology of communication by freely propagating electromagnetic waves was developing simultaneously. The peak potential of passive voicefrequency telephone circuits is well exemplified by the historic occurrence in 1911 of a brief telephone conversation between New York City and Denver. Lee De Forest in 1912 offered the telephone industry his primitive erratic triode amplifier.wire cable pair or openwire transmission line. incorporating the thermionic "audion" he had invented in 1907. With vacuum tube amplifiers the losses of small conductor lines could be offset inexpensively by stable amplifier gain. became a major activity of the telephone industry for the next fifty years and still receives considerable attention. The results never became sufficiently satisfactory to be used on a scale. using hertzian waves. had converted every loaded transmission line into a lowpass filter. At this critical juncture in the progress of electrical communication. Wireless telegraphy quickly became a glamorous and highly publicized activity. connected in parallel. and helped make feasible by 1919 the first installations of longdistance carrierfrequency tele phone systems. for continental purposes at least. Pursuit of this goal.
the relative importance of At frequencies for which the transmission line theory in their total study program has begun to diminish. or of geometrical or physical optics. often as an optional subject. whose technological principles have undergone only minor changes since that time. To the extent that the interests of electrical communication engineers are scattered over a far wider region of the electromagnetic spectrum than was the case a few years ago. number of widely used textbooks. adopted by the telephone industry before 1930 for the first intercontinental telephone service. microwave communication continuing military uses. Among of electrical engineering has in the last two decades been pushed to frequencies beyond one hundred gigahertz. Johnson. free space wavelength is less than a few millimeters. to form the less telegraph engineers. Fleming. Cramer. Johnson and Kennelly. Everitt and Guillemin. the concentrated attention given to the engineering curricula. founded in 1912. Dwight. Popular textbooks dealing with the subject included those by Terman. and for their . vision.) Wartime progress led to the founding in the early 1920's of the radio broadcasting industry. (It did create still another distinctive body of technical personnel. resulted from the merger of two small societies of wireIn 1963 the I. The a large realization of this result was marked by the publication in the period 19491954 of the authors were Skilling. with astronomy.E.CHAP. however. made and exploration space in frequencies applications of these basic topic in all electrical a become must theory transmission line it obvious that Finally. such as those of electromagnetic theory. Ryder. and with quantumelectronic lasers able to generate power at frequencies all the way from hundreds of gigahertz through hundreds of terahertz in the infrared. Subsequent exploration of higher frequencies discovered the extraordinary worldwide propagation characteristics of "short waves" between 3 and 30 megahertz. and radio telephone circuits at these frequencies.E. Jackson and Karakash. Twoconductor lines. and the Institute of Radio Engineers. of which the most influential were probably the two by Sarbacher and Edson and by Ramo and Whinnery. among others. Kimbark. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Since 1955 new textbooks on transmission line theory have appeared less frequently. whole field of uhf and microwave development of commercial telesubsequent the engineering during World War II. During this decade the rapidly increasing proportion of electrical engineers employed in carrier frequency telephony and high frequency radio found it necessary to deal with transmission circuits many wavelengths long. The theory of uniform transmission lines was incorporated into several undergraduate curricula. These were the successors to a few textbooks that appeared during the war period. Pierce. using frequencies around one megahertz. and the innumerable radar and radio links. however. and the beginnings of television and radar. twoconductor electrical transmission systems operating in the mode implicit in distributed circuit theory are little used. The study of Heaviside's transmission line theory level.I. the very concept of a frontier has lost most of its meaning. generally at the graduate began to appear in a few using textbooks by Stein metz. using solid state and free electron devices. 1] INTRODUCTION 7 vacuum tubes as transmitters and various sensitive vacuum tube circuits as receivers. merged with the A. whose analysis required the use of distributed circuit methods. become appropriate. with such applications as FM broadcasting and mobile telephone service.R. visible and The "high frequency frontier" ultraviolet regions of the spectrum. will always remain a basic transmission technique.E. Other analytical formulations. remained the only commercial solution to that problem for the next thirty years. electrical engineering curricula. The 1930's witnessed the extension of the technology of electronic devices and circuits from frequencies in the tens of megahertz to frequencies of several hundred megahertz.
1. 5. 4. 1935. Jour. J. through the introductory Chapter 1 of his Electromagnetic Theory. I. p. "An Improved Transmission Line Calculator".. B... L.. 1955. References. Wiley. 2931. Energy Transmission and 3. 12. J. New York.. P. 9. vol. 130133 and 318325. A. H. Transmission Lines and Wave Propagation. Electromagnetic Radiation.. Stewart. P. R. Carter. McGrawHill. is an interesting experience. p. P. Allyn and Bacon.. since the theory is in fact a direct application of the primary electromagnetic relations to the principal mode of propagation on such lines. E. 1939. 2. 1965.. K. R. "The AlternatingCurrent Resistance of Parallel Conductors of Circular CrossSection". Ramo. Adler. New York. Smith. King.. . 35568. TravelingWave Engineering. 6. "Transmission Line Calculator". Electromagnetic Theory. vol. P. 1960. Whinnery. vol. H. more recent text An exposure to the pithy personality of Oliver Heaviside. Chu. O. RCA Review. E. 12.. 17. Wiley. Electronics. M. Heaviside. T. S.. P. Wiley. H. Smith. R. King's Transmission Line Theory contains a complete bibliography of transmission line textbooks published before 1955. 1965.. and Fano. 1939. 1 analysis Heaviside's theory will always be as fundamental as Maxwell's equations are to electromagnetics. 1950. "Charts for Transmission Line Measurements and Calculations". Magnusson. 7. 3. Transmission Line Theory. Smith Charts— Their Development and Use. Dover. J. C. p. S. P.. 4958. p. vol. Electronics. Moore. R.. 77. 10. McGrawHill. 1944. H. and number 9 is dated December 1966.. Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics. 1. M. and Van Duzer. 1960. L. Number 1 is dated March 1962. 1958. W. a series published at intervals by the Kay Electric Co. R. Circuit Analysis of Transmission Lines.. 11. The following books in the field is a list of a few historic references and some of the of distributed circuit transmission line theory. Arnold.8 INTRODUCTION [CHAP.4. Smith. 8.
Systems may also involve shielding conductors that are not connected to the line at any point.Chapter 2 Symbols and Notation Postulates.1. The analysis is applicable Fig. is derived by applying the basic laws of postulates. 21. The uniform system or line line consists of two straight parallel conductors. provided these are interconnected in such a way as to present only two terminals at the points of connection of source and load. The distributed circuit analysis of uniform transmission lines. and for many other useful constructions in addition to the simple example of two parallel wires of circular cross section and of the to systems with more than two parallel conductors. as shown in Fig. The adjective "uniform" means that the and its transmission line signal source terminal load Fig. for a wire parallel to any conducting plane or strip. . Basic transmission line circuit. 21. dimensions and crosssectional surrounding medium remain constant throughout the length of the line. The analysis is therefore valid for a conductor of any material and cross section enclosing another conductor of any material and cross section. Typically. 2. Conductor cross sections for several practical transmission lines. same diameter and material. o O line O coaxial line parallelwire shielded pair line image line stripline stripline Fig. a signal source is connected at one end of the system and a terminal load is connected at the other end. begun by William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in 1855 and completed by Oliver Heaviside about 1885. 22. Postulates of distributed circuit analysis. electric circuit analysis to systems described by the following Postulate 1. geometry of the materials. This postulate does not require that the two conductors be of the same material or have the same crosssectional shape. 22 shows the crosssectional configurations of the conductors for several uniform twoconductor transmission lines used in engineering practice.
length of the line. for not independent of the path. negligible if the rate of the twist or bend does not exceed about one degree in a length of line comparable with the separation of the line conductors. such as the termination points of an otherwise uniform system. which is equal to the line integral of the electric field along all paths in the transverse plane. 3.10 POSTULATES. The electrical behavior of the line is completely described by four distributed electric circuit coefficients. It is an essential part of this postulate that the values of these distributed circuit frequency are determined only by the materials and dimensions of the line conductors and the surrounding medium. SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS [CHAP. The line is thus a linear passive network. Like postulate 3. These electric circuit coefficients are resistance and inductance uniformly distributed as series circuit elements along the length of the line. In the vicinity of discontinuities like these. phenomena will occur which are not in accord with distributed circuit theory. postulate 5. nor with line voltage or current. Kirchhoff's current law unless currents can flow transversely between the two conductors Provision for such transverse currents is made in at any region of the line's length. whose values per unit length of line are constant everywhere on the line. Postulate 2. It is a fact. or the point of connection between two uniform lines that differ physically in some respect. 2 In general. between any point on the periphery of one of the conductors and any point on the periphery of the other. this which the line integral of the electric field is in general postulate has the consequence of ruling out waveguide modes.2. however. that under certain conditions signals can propagate on any uniform transmission line with either the whole of the line current or a component of it flowing around the conductors rather than along them. At the intersection of any transverse plane with the line conductors there is a unique value of potential difference between the conductors at any instant. together with capacitance and leakage conductance uniformly distributed as shunt circuit elements along the length of the line. coefficients at a given . Postulate transmission intersection of any transverse plane with the conductors of a the instantaneous total currents in the two conductors are equal in magnitude and flow in opposite directions. The anomalous behavior is usually confined to distances not greater than a few times the separation of the line conductors. In elementary network theory the postulate equivalent to this for a simple loop circuit such as Fig. They are discussed further in Section 2. and it may seem unnecessary that such a requirement should have to be stated in making a distributed circuit analysis of transmission lines. They do not vary with time. At the line. The uniformity postulate is also violated by any discontinuities in a line. The currents in the line conductors flow only in the direction of the This is a basic premise of elementary electric circuit analysis. Postulate 2 means that distributed circuit transmission line theory does not recognize the existence of waveguide modes. 21 would be that the current is the same at all points of the circuit at a given instant. twists or bends in a transmission line violate the "uniformity" postulate and These effects will be create effects not explainable by the distributed circuit theory. Postulate 4. Postulate 3 allows the instantaneous currents to be different at different cross Clearly this is not possible without violating sections of the line at the same instant. These cases are known as "waveguide" modes of propagation. Postulate 5. on either side of the discontinuity.
as a function of the potential difference between them or its time rate of change. The existence of distributed shunt circuit coefficients accounts for the possibility discussed in connection with postulate 3. Similarly the line potential difference of postulate 4 is associated with an electric The distributed line capacitance is a measure of the energy stored in this electric There is power loss in the field per unit length of line. however. When the frequency is below the cutoff frequency for the modes excited. frequencies from dc to uhf there is no possibility of TE or When transmission lines are used at microwave or millimeterwave frequencies. mentioned in Section 2. Such an analysis reveals all the "waveguide" modes mentioned under postulates 2 and 4. The distributed line conductance is a measure of the power loss in unit length of line. Within single conductors in the form of hollow metal pipes.CHAP. for unit potential difference. however. Any TE or mode can be propagated on a particular transmission line only at frequencies above some minimum cutoff frequency. these cutoff frequencies range from thousands to tens of thousands of megahertz.2. per unit current. These (transverse magnetic) fall into two categories known as TE (transverse electric) and waves. care must sometimes be taken to avoid the occurrence of such modes. each with its own specific patterns of electric and TM magnetic fields. postulate 1. which is calculable for each separate mode from the dimensions and materials of the transmission line. Although the TE and modes cannot propagate in any transmission system at frequencies below a cutoff frequency which is in the microwave frequency range for typical line constructions. at modes being propagated. a distance not greater than a few times the conductor separation of the transmission system. For lines whose conductor separations do not exceed a few inches. respectively. Waveguide modes and electromagnetic theory. TM . 2] POSTULATES. medium between the conductors because of the potential difference. SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 11 Postulate 5 has a direct relation to postulates 3 and 4. Conduction currents or displacement currents will flow transversely between the conductors. In Chapter 1 it was noted that a complete analysis of the transmission properties of any transmission line system can be made by starting with Maxwell's equations. since their presence will invariably result in excessive line losses and other undesirable consequences. the TE and TM modes are the basis of the invaluable microwave technique of waveguide transmission.1. The line currents at two separated cross sections of the line will differ by the amount of the transverse current in the intervening length of line. The line currents of postulate 3 are accompanied by a magnetic field. for unit potential difference. that the conductor currents can be different at different cross sections of the line. distinguished respectively by field distributions with components of magnetic or electric field parallel to the length of the line. that occurs in the vicinity of discontinuities and is not explainable by distributed circuit theory. The distributed line resistance is a measure of the power loss in unit length of line per unit current. the field patterns are unable to propagate as waves. diffuse or penetrate a short distance from their point of origin. There is power loss as the line currents flow in the conductors. field. They are responsible for the anomalous behavior of transmission lines. The distributed line inductance is a measure of the energy stored in this magnetic field for unit length of line. For any transmission line structure there is an infinite number of these modes. Hence in most practical uses of transmission lines. They do. and seeking a solution subject to the boundary conditions imposed by the line conductors. 2. TM TM No useful applications have yet been made of the TE and TM modes that can propagate on twoconductor transmission lines at extremely high frequencies. the field patterns of one or more of these modes are invariably generated by irregularities and discontinuities in a system.
1 can be embodied in equations. Distributed circuit analysis and electromagnetic theory. E field H field Fig. this mode has the field representation that corresponds to the voltages and currents of the distributed circuit theory of transmission lines. The practical advantage of the distributed circuit circuit analysis language of voltages. method of analysis is that it uses the It is customary in engineering practice. and there is no cutoff frequency other than zero. line and load with the help of all the powerful techniques that have been developed The combination in electric network theory. A 2. it is necessary to select symbols for coordinates. 23. permits studying the overall system of source. (transverse elecElectromagnetic field pattern for the tromagnetic) mode in a coaxial transmission line. on the other hand. and to establish a few sign conventions. Coordinates. The analysis of transmission lines by distributed circuit methods is not independent of the analysis by field methods. variables and physical coefficients. 2 2. The electric and magnetic field patterns for the TEM mode in a circular coaxial line are shown in Fig. Designated TEM (transverse electromagnetic). etc. complete analysis by electromagnetic theory. to designate the sources and loads used with transmission systems by their equivalent circuits. Before the postulates of equivalent circuit transmission line analysis stated in Section 2. This single mode differs from the others in that its electric and magnetic fields are everywhere transverse to the direction of the conductors' length. They are the only possible distribution of electric and magnetic fields that can simultaneously satisfy the postulates listed in Section 2. of an analysis of transmission line behavior in circuit terms with the equivalent circuit specification of sources and loads. coefficients and variables. even at frequencies up through the microwave region.5. rather than by a statement of the spatial conditions they impose on electric and magnetic fields. The analysis of any uniform twoconductor transmission line by the methods of electromagnetic theory reveals one other unique mode in addition to the TE and TM infinite sequences of modes. impedances.1 and the basic laws of electromagnetism. for this geometry of conductors. SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS [CHAP. since the calculation of the circuit coefficients used in the former can be made only from a knowledge of the electric and magnetic fields associated with the line voltages and currents. 23. There are "standard" symbols recommended by major electrical professional societies for a few of the quantities to be .12 POSTULATES. currents. The TEM mode. TEM 2.3.4. of the detailed distributions of the electric and magnetic fields associated with a sourcelineload system would raise insuperable mathematical difficulties for any structure with other than exceedingly simple and continuous geometry throughout.
such as waveguides.^ 1 *l terminal load I signal source 1 i z d 1 2=0 Fig. 2. with origin at the load and increasing from right to left. 2] POSTULATES. Some take the additional step of locating this loadorigin at the left end of the line. and the longitudinal coordinate z has its origin at the signal source. the terminal load is at the righthand end. In this book the symbol z selected for this coordinate. with the signal source at the right. the analysis of many other transmission systems of interest to engineers. Fig. The use of x and y for these transverse coordinates has been adopted quite unanimously. 24 shows a complete transmission line system. An unexpected development that arises in setting up the distributed circuit theory of transmission lines is that.6. more significance attaches to the distance of a point on the line from the terminal load than to its distance from the signal source. transversely vibrating rods. vibrating strings. with all the symbols for longitudinal coordinates and distances according to these chosen conventions. So far as transmission is concerned. and it is therefore appropriate to select z as the universal symbol for the longitudinal coordinate of all transmission systems. . result is that current textbooks A brief discussion of the reasons for the choices used in this book. to which the reader must adjust in each context. line line. 24. d0 Coordinates on a transmission line circuit. requires the use of coordinates in the transverse plane as well as in the direction of propagation.CHAP. When occasion demands. The and journal articles on transmission line topics contain a regrettable variety of notation. the distance of a point on the line from the terminal load indicated by a coordinate d. Choice of coordinate notation. This has led some writers to base their entire analysis on a longitudinal coordinate whose origin is at the load. with their longitudinal ^coordinate. 2. However. SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 13 but for most of the decisions involved there are no generally accepted guides. as in the onedimensional problems of elementary mathematics. On the whole it seems more appropriate that a signal moving from a source to a load should be moving in the direction of an increasing coordinate. for certain important purposes. the transmission with a single coordinate axis parallel to the length of the is problem is onedimensional. The symbol I is is used at all times for the total length of the line. Choice of origin for longitudinal coordinate. together with comments on the possible merits of alternatives. electromagnetic wave beams. Supporting this choice is the applicability of cylindrical coordinates. labelled. the analysis in this book uses the convention that the signal source is at the lefthand end of the line. and since it is universal practice mathematically to have the coordinates of a onedimensional problem increase from left to right. etc. is offered in the next few sections for the benefit of readers who like to compare several accounts of the same topic from different sources. to the analysis of the many forms of transmission line that have circular elements or circular symmetry. It is tempting to choose x for this coordinate. r— i I .7.
i. SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS [CHAP. for twoterminal networks. Neither of these occurs frequently enough in the same context with the concept of voltage to constitute a hazard. little book i is as follows: i(z. only symbol E for the two This segregation no longer exists and the confusion is now serious.1. The head of the arrow has positive polarity. and for the complex number or phasor values of ac quantities which have constant amplitude harmonic variation with time. The situation can be satisfactorily resolved by using the symbol v. Lower case symbols for current or voltage represent instantaneous values. as in the figure. The dependent variables in the distributed circuit analysis of transmission lines are current and voltage. the two pointing in opposite directions according to postulate 3 of Section 2. which are functions of time at any point on the line. The convention used is standard in elementary circuit theory. v(z. to avoid ambiguities when a circuit analysis is made of a transmission line section. . It is sometimes avoided by using special symbols. Similarly. they are functions of position along the line. Capital letters are used for dc quantities. but these are awkward for notetakers and typists. I (from the French word intensite) replaced e. the terminal load. and the distributed circuit coefficients and total length of the line. 25(a) below. As a symbol for current the letter i. values. and engineers even minor confusion resulted from using the same important concepts of potential difference and electric field strength. t) is positive when the arrow is directed from the lower conductor to the upper. and v for the concept of velocity. For voltage or potential difference the letter has had majority approval for several decades. such as script letters. V(z). and the voltage v(z. Unless as quantities at the signal source or terminal load ends of the line. an instantaneous voltage viz. and \V(z)\ have corresponding meanings for voltage or potential difference. In technical writing V is widely used for the concept of volume. the notation for dependent variables in the transmission line theory of this attention to electric circuit theory. In elementary circuit analysis it is generally accepted notation to use lower case letters as symbols for the instantaneous values of timevarying dependent variables. not peak values. E (presumably for electromotive force) As long as physicists paid less to electromagnetic field theory. Capital letter In the analyses in this book. as in the figure.e. 2 Symbols for current and voltage. dc currents and voltages seldom occur. Thus at a coordinate z on a transmission line as shown in Fig. t). A sign convention relating current directions and voltage polarities must be adopted.8. 2. one in each line conductor.14 POSTULATES. and functions of position on the line at any instant. t) in the time domain may be represented by an arrow drawn from one line conductor to the other in the transverse plane at z. t) or = instantaneous current at a specific point on a transmission current at time t at coordinate z\ line. \1\ or \I(z)\ = rms magnitude v. In summary. The symbols V. the line currents at coordinate z are indicated by two arrowheads. The functional expressions describing these relations are determined by the signal source. phasor symbols for current and voltage therefore represent complex number designated specifically Their magnitudes are rms magnitudes. V for voltage. all com petitors long ago. The sign of the current is positive when the current in the upper line conductor flows in the direction of increasing z. the I or I(z) = complex rms value of a constant amplitude harmonically varying current at coordinate z\ of / or \V\ I(z). which must also be understood to be functions of the coordinate z.
including both line conductors. V(z. the sign conventions adopted have the usual simple implication for the twoterminal passive network to the right of the coordinate z. 25(6) illustrates the corresponding conventions for phasor notation. \v\. SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 15 — (a) i(z.__ v(z. t) l{z) Z z Fig. (6) for phasors. t). Example 2. which converts electromagnetic field energy into heat in proportion to the square of the magnetic field B in the medium. 25. farads/meter. Symbols for distributed circuit coefficients. t) —— (6) I(z) V(z) i(z. G = shunt conductance of the transmission line per unit length. In mks units G is in mhos/meter. or both combinations of conductors making up the two sides of the line. a function is for a current whose manner of timevariation is implicitly understood. I(t). which could be either positive or negative. The definitions are: the greatest measure of agreement in trans R = total series resistance of the transmission line per unit length. R is in ohms/meter. i. Here the implication is that if V(z) in the direction shown is chosen as a real reference phasor. in the equivalent circuit. In mks units. is These are the symbols about which there mission line writings. The symbol J it nate Since the symbol v stands for an instantaneous value of voltage at a particular point on the line. these losses will be represented by a contribution to R. the direction shown for I(z) represents a phasor current with a nonnegative real part. In units mks L is in henries/meter. including inductance due to magnetic flux both internal and external to the line conductors.CHAP. explicitly a function of time. analysis: Sign conventions for current and voltage in transmission line (a) in the time domain. The same reasoning applies to the term V(z.1. An auxiliary definition would have to be supplied to give meaning to this symbol. It can be noted that if the portion of the transmission line circuit to the left of the coordinate z is removed.e. rather than an actual charge flow leakage current. This is the circuit representation of losses that are proportional to the square of the voltage between the conductors or the square of the electric field in the medium. is either unnecessary or implies some additional form of time variation (such as modulation) superimposed on the harmonic variation. that a positive applied voltage causes a positive current to flow. of t Since the symbol i is for a current which is a function of both z and alone would require additional explanation. Fig. Usually G represents internal molecular lossiness of dielectric insulating materials. meaning 2. t. t) .) L = total series inductance of the transmission line per unit length. What meaning can be given to the symbols i(t). To desigas /(<). (If the interconductor space of a transmission line is filled with a material that is magnetically lossy. to write it as i(t). t) in view of the definitions given above? Three of these four symbols have no meaning within the definitions stated. shunt capacity of the transmission line per unit length.9. 2] POSTULATES. its is a scalar quantity. C = In mks units C is in . v is the magnitude of v. and is a positive quantity by definition.
this being a complex number equation involving the ratio of two phasors. writers To avoid subscripted they represent lumped circuit elements in two terminal networks. I or L (for load) and t or T (for termination) are. use the notational procedure followed in this book. %. G and C when not subscripted are the distributed this ambiguity. It is identical with 7 {z = l)\ where I(z = l) is the phasor line . all in common use. circuit coefficients. This book follows common practice in using subscripts for the purpose. Notation is needed to distinguish voltages. L. . inductance. Vs is the complex rms value or phasor rms value of the timeharmonic voltage of a generator connected at the input or signal source end of the line. R. Impedances or admittances connected at the line terminals. that R. g or G (for generator) and o or O (for origin) are found. If the connected generator had zero internal impedance. as described in the next section. These are: A terminal load 1.  current at z = I. per unit length of a fourterminal or twoport circuit with nonzero length and with uniformly distributed circuit coefficients. circuit coefficients. L T represents a lumped inductance connected at the terminal load end of the line. etc. In that context the symbols mean the resistance. and a similar distinction holds for the other three symbols.16 POSTULATES. r. etc. . L. \I T \. Here they mean resistance. the subscript indicating the function of the network. with components Rt and jX r From previous definitions it is clear that Z T = Vt/It always. or if the line current were zero at z = 0. L and G it Example 2. G and C as denned here have different meanings and dimensions from those with which the reader has become familiar in the study of lumped element networks. currents and connected impedances at the signal source and terminal load ends of a transmission line from the same quantities at arbitrary points along the length of the line. Using mks units. inductance. Transmission line writings show much variety in the choice of these subscripts. Notation for impedance and admittance. For the signal source end of the line. Vs and V (z = 0) would have the same value. I G IL and Vt have no meaning within the definitions stated. of a twoterminal element postulated to have negligible dimensions.11. It is not the symbol for the phasor voltage at the input terminals of the line. The symbols S and T seem to offer minimum opportunity for confusion. occur prominently in the analysis as symbols for the distributed seems unwise to use them as subscripts with a totally different reference. and L T in the notation denned above? at the terminal load end of the line. 2. since by definition the total length of the line is I. . R/l. R in the former case would be expressed in ohms. When 2. . Three occurrences of impedance quantities (or admittance quantities) need to be distinguished in transmission line theory. have occasionally used modified symbols for the distributed circuit quantities. What i T is are the meanings of i T Vs IG IL the instantaneous current (at time . Most. impedance has the symbol Z T in this text. such as R'. however. while in the transmission line case it is expressed in ohms/meter. Because R. etc. . . while for the terminal load end of the line r or R (for receiver). 7 T is the rms magnitude of the phasor current at the terminal load end of the line.2. It could also be the inductance component of the simple series circuit equivalent to any more complicated linear network connected as terminal load. but as symbols they represent different quantities.10. which would be V (z — 0). 2 It must be noted carefully that the symbols R. V t) t. SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS [CHAP. subscripts s or S (for source or sendingend). and are adopted in this book as the subscripts referring respectively to the signal source end of the line and the terminal load end. Symbols for terminal quantities and elements.
G(z = 0) means the conductance component . Since the theory of distributed circuits is no more than the extension of lumped element circuit theory by the addition of a space variable. . A X . The duplication is unfortunate but is well entrenched in contem(i. that has the dimensions of impedance and is determined solely by the distributed circuit coefficients of the line and the signal frequency. B (z = Z). SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 17 Similarly. 0). the imaginary part) of that impedance which is the from the terminal load end.e. ratio of the phasor voltage to the phasor current at a point on the line 5 Y(3) and Z(0) have no meaning since they are ambiguous as to whether the coordinate referred to is X(d = 5) means = BT . The impedance given by the ratio of the phasor line voltage to the phasor current at any cross section of the line. Circuit response for steady state harmonic signals of angular frequency *> is then obtained by substituting /» for s.e. impedances and admittances are shown as functions of the complex frequency variable s. while Z s can have any arbitrary value. unique quantity appearing in transmission line equations.) (i. entirely independent of the transmission line. 2. In introductory textbooks on the theory of lumped element circuits it is common practice to use a generalized notation in which voltages. source end of the line. the imaginary part) of that admittance which is the (z l) means the susceptance component Since this ratio ratio of the phasor current to the phasor voltage at the terminal load end of the line. the conductance component of the input admittance y inp (Note that the symbol G here has no connection with the symbol G used for one of the disof the line. tributed circuit coefficients of the line. line 3. since the latter ratio depends on the total transmission line circuit.e. m 2 or d. F(3). Symof impedance" has often been called the "surge impedance" or the "iterative bols Zc Z s and Zx have occasionally been used for it. The corresponding admittance definition and symbol can be substituted for any of the above occurrences of impedance language. it follows that B = B (z = I) the reactive component (i.CHAP. Z(0)? the real part) of that admittance which is the ratio of the phasor current at the signal source end of the line to the phasor voltage at the same position. Y(z) = 1/Z(z) = G(z) + jB(z) Either impedance or admittance may of course also be expressed in polar form: Z(z) = What are the meanings of G {z = Example 2.12. Notation for transient response. That no textbooks have so far been written in this form is evidence that elementary methods have not yet proved profitable for studying It is therefore realistic the general transient response of transmission line circuits.e. Yo = 1/Zo = Go + jB„. X (d = 5). currents. the internal impedance of a generator connected at the signal source end of the line has the symbol Z s (= Rs + jXs). In general Z s is not equal to Vs/h. while timedomain response is obtained by Laplace transform methods. This is now universally called the "characteristic impedance" of a In the past it ). Thus: YT = \Z(z)\e mz \ 1/Zt = Gt + jB T . The impedance at a specific numerical coordinate requires expanded notation such as Z(z = S) for a point 3 meters from the 2. transmission line and given the symbol Z (with components Ro and a line. The notation Z{z) or Z{d) is appropriate for this (with corresponding symbols for real and imaginary components) according to whether the particular point on the line is located by its coordinate relative to the signal source end or the terminal load end of the line as origin. 2] POSTULATES. is necessarily identically equal to the terminal load admittance connected to the line. This is clearly entitled to the notation G inp i.3. to develop transmission line theory in terms of the steady state angular frequency variable ©. porary notation. it might seem reasonable to take the same generalized approach to transmission line theory by writing all equations in terms of the complex frequency variable s. This text does not make explicit use of the concepts of distributed line impedance Z = R + j<»L or distributed line admittance Y = G + j<»C found in many treatments of transmission line theory.
31. 31. incorporating the notational definitions of Chapter 2. Complete transmission line circuits. Time domain and frequency domain. 31 (a) the source signal voltage is any general function of time. and the electric circuit features of the source and terminal load are described by networks of resistance. Two illustrations of complete transmission line circuits are shown in Fig. In Fig. (6) in the frequency domain. signal source equivalent RLC network i(z.Chapter 3 The Differential Equations of the Uniform Transmission Line 3. In Fig. inductance and capacitance. including signal sources and terminal loads: (a) in the time domain.1. t) RLC network i(z. 31(6) the source signal voltage is a constant amplitude harmonic function of time at some angular frequency «> rad/sec. t) signal source voltage v s (t) (a) Zs Kz) 1 V(z) vs z J = (b) m Fig. 18 . t) terminal load v(z. The circuit representations of the source and terminal load are replaced by the respective impedance values Zs and Z T at that frequency.
In a typical situation values might be given for the angular frequency u. i. The analysis developed in the next few chapters permits simple and precise determination of all of these quantities. as differential equations involving time and space derivatives of instantaneous currents and voltages. One such circuit is the Lsection of Inspection of this circuit shows that the output voltage of the section differs from the input voltage because of the series voltages across the resistance and inductance elements. found by focusing attention on an infinitesimal section of line of length az. The main obstacle to the practicability of these approaches is the physical fact that the transmission line distributed circuit coefficients R. a signal of nonzero bandwidth is always perceptibly distorted in transmission. This raises The alternative is to solve the transmission line circuit for phase and amplitude changes between input and output at several different frequencies in the bandwidth of the signal. page 17. remote from the line's terminations. Except for signals involving pulses or other sharp discontinuities. Common examples are the audio frequency range of voice signals. transmission line distortion of finitebandwidth signals is generally interpreted directly from data on phase and amplitude variations with frequency over the signal bandwidth. incorporating these circuit elements. shunt capacitance C az and shunt conductance Gaz. Fig. Pursuing the discussion of Section 2.12. The desired information would be the rms phasor values of the voltages and currents at the input and terminal load ends of the line. or by solving the equations in the complex frequency domain. and the harmonic frequencies in the Fourier spectrum of switching transients or lightning induced surges on 60hertz power lines. however. The nature of the distortion for such a multifrequency signal is that the phase and amplitude relations among the signal's component frequencies are not the same at the output of the transmission line as they were for the original signal at the input. and the distributed circuit coefficients R. G and C are not independent of frequency and are not simple functions of frequency. 31(6). formidable mathematical difficulties. The distortion of the time pattern of a complex signal can then be obtained by a synthesis procedure. the distortion suffered by any general signal patterti on a transmission line might in principle be analyzed by solving the circuit equations of the line in the time domain. G and C for the transmission line at that frequency. the rms phasor source voltage Vs . the impedances Z s and Z T at frequency «>. 3] THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE UNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINE 19 Fig. and the variation of the phasor voltage and current along the length of the line. 31(6) is obviously the form in which the circuit would be drawn when it is desired to determine a steady state ac solution at a specified frequency. from the postulates of Chapter 2. L. assuming the distributed circuit coefficients constant in each case. L. 32 below. complication arises from the fact that in practical cases the actual signals handled by a transmission line circuit are never confined to a single frequency. Equations in the time domain. if desired. series inductance Laz. located at coordinate z on the line.e. but cover a finite bandwidth. Its equivalent circuit as a twoport network can be drawn in a number of The differential equations for a uniform transmission line are different ways. rather than from comparison of time patterns.2. 3. A Because the behavior of real transmission lines always varies finitely with frequency.CHAP. Differential equations are derived in this chapter for both the time domain circuit of Fig. 31 (a) and the frequency domain circuit of Fig. This line section has total series resistance R Az. the video frequency range of television picture signals. while the output current differs from the input current because of the shunt currents .
caused by the line current flowing through the distributed series resistance of the line. v(z. derived by applica + Az.2). Equation (3. 4) can be interpreted in a similar fashion.t) di(z. the terms of 3 2 These are (3£) are obtained. states in the language of differential calculus that the rate of change of voltage with distance along the line at any point of the line is the sum of two longitudinally distributed voltages.3) and (34) are very simply stated and could have been written directly from the postulates of Chapter 2 without the help of Fig.t) . t) and its derivative. One of these.C Az di(z. (az) .t) R Az vaaa i(z + Az. is proporThe other. through the conductance and capacitance elements. is proportional to the instantaneous value of the time rate of change of the line current at the point. t) — Laz G Az v(z. but the voltage v(z + Az. two are the line's From the postulates of the analysis these are the only possible circuit phenomena that could cause the line voltage to vary with position on the line. the time varying line current flowing through the distributed inductance of the line. *) y ( z) GAz CAz V(z + Az) I t'(z + Az. (6) in the frequency domain. The series resistance per unit length respective constants of proportionality for the and series inductance per unit length. 32(a) or equations (3.2) it is not v(z. if the voltage v(z + Az.C d objection can be raised. Equation (3. t) and its derivative that produce the current Ai(z. together with additional terms involving (Az) . higher order small quantities which can be dropped on proceeding to the limit. Equivalent circuits of an infinitesimal portion of a uniform transmission line: (a) in the time domain. There is no way of arranging the equivalent circuit elements of the length az of line that avoids this step.2) Dividing by Az and then letting Az approach zero leads to the partial differential equations dv(z.Gv (z. t) . of Fig. However. these relations are expressed tion of Kirchhoff 's laws to the circuit: v(z Using the instantaneous quantities by the following equations. t) IU A (a) (6) z + Az /(z + Az) Fig. . caused by tional to the instantaneous value of the line current at the point. t). that in equation (3.3) dz dt *&fi The ^A .20 THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE UNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINE [CHAP.1) and (3. 3 »(«. t) Ai(z. etc. t) _ ~ = Ri(z. t) = s Av(z. t) is expanded in a Taylor's series about z. t) ^' ' (3.1) dt v i(z t) i(z. t) * — — t&tp JiflL H*. t) (3. 32. The signs of the various terms are dictated by the original choice of sign conventions for voltage and current on the line. 32 (a).3). The physical facts involved in equations (3. t) = = —R Az i(z. t) GAz CAz v(z + Az. t) (3. for example. + az. t) —  v(z. legitimately. t) /(*) „ L Az R Az /(z + Az) i.
t) (3. t) 8z 2 = _R di(z. distance and current always decreasing with increasing derivative.t) dZ _ L ±/ dZ \ d di(z. since in general the boundary conditions are not the same for the two variables. G and C assumed constant will depend in a complicated manner on the range of values of the instantaneous current and voltage and their derivatives. in the dependent variables v and i and the independent variables z and t.t) dz dt\ ( dz ) (3. Equations (3.7) and (3.t) (3. 3] THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE UNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINE intuitive impression that the signs in (3. This is particularly true of R and G.7) and (3. a differential equation in i(z. thus: The usual first d 2 v(z.t) \ dt ^ v ' The order of differentiation in the righthand d v(z.3) and (34) are two simultaneous first order linear partial differential equations. G and C are always to some extent variable with frequency.t) 2 term can be changed. The same is true for the current Any taneous values of all of these four quantities at any point will be functions of the total line circuit of Fig.6). They are of a sufficiently complicated nature that no conclusions can be drawn from them by simple inspection. . and the terminal load circuit at z = I.t)/dz in the result is *MM> = dZ2 LC^%^ dt + + (LG + RC)^"t RGv(z. 31 (a). i. the source signal generator (with its equivalent circuit) at z = 0. Solving the equations in the time domain.3).e. L. «£Q The fact that i(z. and on the range of variability of the distributed circuit coefficients for the signals being transmitted. been noted that one of the postulates of the analysis is violated for practical lines by the fact that the distributed circuit coefficients R.3). 3. No simple criteria can be established.3. under conditions for which the postulates are valid. its time and of each other.7).e. at a specific point on time its The instantaneous values of the line voltage and of the two are independent the signs and the line at a specific instant. This is achieved by taking the partial derivative with respect to z of all the terms in equation (3. t)/Bz obtained from (3. the accuracy of solutions of (3. t) = t) LC ^^ + {LG + RC ) ^ + d RGi(z.8) obey the same differential equation does not mean that they are identical functions of z and iina practical problem. For any practical problem. t) is obtained which is similar to (3. The derivation of equations (3. i. They are therefore complete descriptions of the possible interrelations of the voltage and current and their derivatives on a transmission line. A step to take in attempting to solve such simultaneous equations is to eliminate one of the variables.8) has involved no special assumptions or approximations beyond the postulates of Chapter 2. giving di(z. is without foundation. substituting in the result an expression for dv(z.8) with R. and hence are functions of the time derivatives of voltage and current. It has already and y(z.. may have either sign The actual instanderivative. complete solution of equations (3. When the righthand side of (34) substituted for di(z. L.t) \ dz 2 _ ~ is p di(z.3) 21 and {34) must result in the line voltage along the line.3) and (34) would find expressions for v and i as functions of z and t.CHAP.7) If the alternative procedure of taking the partial derivative with respect to z of all terms in (34) is followed. with constant coefficients. subject to boundary conditions determined by the nature of the devices connected at the two ends of the line.
for all aspects of the signals involved. Dividing equations differential equations and (3.# Az Re {I(z) eiat ) . one or more of the terms on the right of equations (3.10) a complex number. or tjie voltage phasor at the input end or the terminal load end of the line.10) by Az and letting az approach zero. and it is not possible to write any simple complete general solution for them. Two phasor equations can be written: V(z = AV(z) = RazI(z) .7) and (3.jo>CAzV(z) + Az) V(z) is (3. The case R = G = While no ordinary line is completely lossless. in the form of i or v as a function of z and t. and the equations can be further simplified to These are not written as partial . 3.4. Equations in the frequency domain. R Az and L Az are A similar equation can be written for instantaneous currents (3.juLAzI(z) I(z + Az)I(z) = Al(z) = GazV(z) . They are similar to several "standard" partial differential equations of mathematical physics.9) which Kirchhoff's law applies). The case L = G = 0. L. G and C are sufficiently small to be set equal to zero. and useful solutions to them are easily found for meaningful sets of boundary conditions. equations (3. leads to the (3. for which numerous solutions can be found in reference books. If the generality of the transmission line specifications is reduced by postulating that one or two of R. Convenient choices for this reference may be the source voltage phasor.8) are second order linear partial differential equations in the time coordinate and one space coordinate. G and C are assumed to be constants for all values of the current and voltage derivatives. The zero phase angle reference for the complex numbers when expressed in polar form is arbitrary. Each term of these equations As an equation equation (3. is an adequate description of a single conductor submarine telegraph cable as used at low frequencies for socalled dc telegraph transmission. 32(6). To develop differential equations describing transmission line behavior in the frequency domain. the resulting simple equation gives useful information about the transmission properties of short lengths of large conductor (hence low loss) high frequency transmission lines.L Az Re {/« I(z) e iat } in the braces. using the customary conventions of phasor in instantaneous voltages (the form to circuit analysis: Re { V(z) eiat } = .9) (3. 3 When and their R.11) (3. Some of these "reduced" equations represent specific transmission line applications closely enough for practical purposes. for example. The distributed circuit coefficients R and C for such a cable are very precisely constant describes a "lossless" line. the simplest procedure is to return to the infinitesimal Lsection of Fig.12) dV(z)/dz dl(z)/dz = (R + j«L)I(z) = (G + j<*C)V(z) differential equations. Most of the simpler equations that result fall into the "standard" categories mentioned.22 THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE UNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINE [CHAP. Unfortunately these two equations are just a little more complicated than any of the standard equations. would take the following form. It is not even necessary to be perpetually reminded that V and J are functions of z. (3.7) and (3. since V and I are here explicitly functions of only the single variable z.9a) where Re { } means the real part of the complex number real numbers by definition.10). such as might be used to carry television signal power from a transmitter to an antenna.9) from equation (3.8) will disappear. L. Each is implicitly a harmonic function of time at angular frequency o> radians per second.
Thus the first term on the right of (4. complex number quantities) and are the sets of two arbitrary coefficients that occur in the solution of second order ordinary differential equations.2) I2 e +yz are respectively the phasor voltage and phasor current at any coordinate z on the line.9a): v(z. following the rules used in presenting (3. y is defined by I(z) Here V(z) and y 2 = (# y/(R + >L)(G + >C) from which y (4. h are also phasors (i. when the voltage and current have timeharmonic variation at angular frequency «. e~ az and e +az are real numbers by definition.3) From equation the value of y expressed by a complex number.1a) peak amplitudes of the arbitrary phasor coefficients Vi and V2 as used in this book stand for rms amplitudes). of y by the relation y (4.e.16). Equations {3. Its greatest instantaneous value is 26 .16) by straightforward mathematical processes. Equation 4. and £ and  are the respective phase angles of the 2 arbitrary phasors Vi and V 2 The terms Re{e i(a>tfte+€l) } and B. are the differential equations governing the voltage and current distributions along a transmission line.Chapter 4 Traveling Harmonic 4.t) = y 1 eRe{e K<i>t ^ +£l) } + F2 e + ^Re{e Ko.1) and (4.2) can be rewritten similarly as an equation in instantaneous currents.1.3) = is + j<. and the values used for the distributed circuit coefficients R.1) and (4.t+ ^ +f8) } (4. The solutions of these relatively simple equations are V(z) I(z) = Vie.2) is found by focusing attention on the harmonic variation terms.15) and (3. . G and C are the values appropriate to that frequency. (4. L. Vi. x *' > . and in distance along the line.2.>L)(G + j<»C) (4. Their physical implications can be appreciated most directly by separating the magnitude and phase aspects of the terms e~ yz and e +yz and by temporarily reintroducing the harmonic time variation term e j6>t Defining the real and imaginary parts . The meaning The physical meaning of equations (4.15) and (3.yz + V2 e +yz = he~ + yz (4. with peak value unity and with values at t = z determined by £ x and  2 where (the Fi and  Va are the phasor symbols Vi and V2 . Waves Solutions of the differential equations. of the solutions.2) have been derived from (3.1a) describes an instantaneous voltage which is a function of both z and t. page 23. V2 and h.1) = a + Jp (44) can be written as an equation in instantaneous voltages.e{e Ho>t+fiz+e } are numbers varying harmonically in time.1) (4. Equations (4.
.
.
CHAP.
3]
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE UNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINE
whose distributed
e RVc7L Z f 2
25
3.6.
Show
that for the very special case of a transmission line related by R/L = G/C a solution to equation (3.8) is
i{z,t)
circuit coefficients are
=
e R ^7Lzf^ t
y/LC z +
)
(t
+
^/LCz)
A
in
is
with these properties is known as a "Heaviside distortionless line" and is mentioned further Chapter 5, page 49. The time pattern of any signal traveling in one direction on such a line the same at every cross section, except for a scale factor. The amplitude diminishes exponentially
line
as the pattern travels.
line of Problem 3.1, the voltage at a coordinate z t is found to be given by 30 sin (10H + v/G) volts, as a function of time. Derive an expression for the current gradient along the line at the point z t in amperes/m, assuming the values given for R, L, G and C to be valid Ans. 0.121 X 10~ 6 cos (10 2 *  2.86) amperes/m. at this much lower frequency.
3.7.
For the transmission
v(t)
=
3.8.
(a)
For the lossless transmission line of Problem 3.5, show that if the voltage on the line is given by v(z, t) = v x f x (t  t/LCz) where v x is a constant and / 2 is any con tinuo us function with first and second derivatives, then the current is given by i(z, t) = v(z, t)/y/L/C
(b)
For the Heaviside distortionless line of Problem z by v{z, t) = v 1 e R f 1 (t — VLCz), where
3.6,
^^
fx
show that if the voltage on the line is given meets the conditions stated in (a), then the
current on the line
is
i(z, t)
=
v(z, t)/y]L/C
(The currentvoltage relation that holds in these special cases (a) and (6) is shown in Chapter 5 apply to be an adequate approximation for all "lowloss" transmission lines. It does not, however, to typical lines used at low signal frequencies such as voice frequencies.)
3.9.
R/L ordinary transmission lines used at frequencies up to hundreds of megahertz, the ratio at used insulation dielectric solid lines with for However, is much larger than the ratio G/C. microwave frequencies, the relation for the Heaviside distortionless line of Problem 3.6 might be microattained, with distributed circuit coefficients having the values: R = 0.15 ohms/m, L = 0.375 to henries/m, G = 30 micromhos/m, C = 75 micromicrofarads/m. If the time pattern of input voltage along point 800 at a voltage the pattern of = time the (a) this line is v(t) v^f^t), determine terminals of the line from the input terminals and (b) the time pattern of the current at the input terminals. input the from away traveling are line the on signals that the the line. It is assumed
For
all
m
Ans.
The time pattern of voltage at the distant point is the same as at the input terminals, but pattern delayed by 4.2 microseconds and reduced in magnitude by a factor 0.18. (6) The time ordinate the with voltage, of pattern the time as the same is terminals input current at the of scale changed from volts to amperes in the proportion 0.014 amperes/volt.
(a)
is
3.10.
"heat that if L = G = 0, equations (3.7) and (3.8) become identical with the onedimensional are changes appropriate when physics, mathematical classical of equation or "diffusion" flow" made in the symbols. (Thus if the voltage at the input end of such a transmission line is increased from zero to a (the beginning of a dot or dash of telegraph code), the subsequent variation constant value at t time pattern as of voltage with time at the distant terminal load end of the line will have the same material after homogeneous rod of insulated that of the temperature rise at one end of a thermally by some constant amount above an the temperature at the other end has been raised at t = (Lord Kelvin) initial thermal equilibrium value. This is the problem solved by William Thomson 185355 he was investigating the practicability of a transatlantic submarine telegraph
Show
in
when
cable.)
24
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE UNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINE
[CHAP.
3
3.2.
For the transmission line of Problem 3.1, the phasor voltage at a point on the line has an rms magnitude of 16.5 volts, the signal frequency being 1100 hertz. Assume the values given for R, L, G and C to be valid at this slightly different frequency, (a) Find an expression for the phasor current gradient along the line at the same point, (b) What is the rms phasor magnitude of the transverse current between the two conductors along 10 cm of line length at the point, and what is the phase angle
of this current relative to the line voltage at the point? (c) instantaneous current gradient along the line at the point?
(a)
What
is
the
maximum
The current gradient along the
dlldz
line is
given in the frequency domain by equation (8.14) as
= ~(G + j<*C)V =  [950 X 10 12 + j(2w X 1100)(39.5 X =  (0.016 + j'4.51) X 10 " 6 amperes/m
10~ 12 )](16.5
+ ;0)
(b)
Equation
(3.10) indicates that the
change of the longitudinal current along a short section of
line is the negative of the transverse
current for the same section. Hence the transverse current 6 amperes, expressed as a phasor quantity, the for 10 cm length of line is 0.1(0.016 + ;4.51) X 10 reference phasor of zero phase angle being the line voltage at the point. The transverse current 1 4.51/0.016 = 89.7° and is almost a purely capacitive current. leads the line voltage by tan
Since the magnitudes of
all
(c)
the phasor quantities used in (a) and
is
(6)
are
rms
values, the
maximum
micro
instantaneous current gradient along the line
V2
1
0.016
+
j4.51
X
10
~6
=
6.38
amperes/m.
Supplementary Problems
3.3.
(a)
Redraw Redraw
the circuit of Fig. 32 as a symmetrical Tnetwork, with the series resistance and series inductance of the section divided into two equal portions. the circuit of Fig. 32 as a symmetrical ?rnetwork, with the shunt conductance and shunt capacitance of the section divided into two equal portions.
(6)
(c)
Redraw the circuit of Fig. 32 as an inverted Lnetwork, with the shunt conductance and shunt capacitance at the left.
3.4.
For each of the circuits of Problem 3.3, establish appropriate timedomain notation for v and i at each node of the network. For each circuit write the exact equations corresponding to equations (3.1) and (3.2). By making a Taylor's series expansion of either uori about the coordinate z, show that the exact equations reduce in every case to (3.1) and (3.2) on proceeding to the limit by letting Az approach zero.
Rewrite equation
(a)
3.5.
(3.7)
for a lossless transmission line having
R=G=
+
0.
Show
that for the resulting equation
v(z,
t)
=
f x (t
VLCz) +
f2 (t
yfLCz)
is
(b)
a solution, where f x and f2
are any continuous functions having first and second derivatives.
1
What
dimensions are indicated for the quantity y/LC
Ans.
(b)
Reciprocal velocity.
shows that a term of the form (i.6), — of increasing z with a velocity the direction in moving y/LCz) describes pattern, traveling a fi(t given by the ratio (coefficient of ^/(coefficient of z) and subject to no distortion as it travels. The time shape of the pattern can be found by plotting f x as a function of time for some constant value of 2, such as z = 0. A term f2(t + y/LCz) similarly describes a pattern moving in the direction of
(The discussion presented in deriving equation
page
27,
decreasing
z.)
CHAP.
3]
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE UNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINE
dV/dz
dl/dz
23
= (R + ju>L)I
(3.13)
= (G + jo>C)V
(3.U),
(3.U)
the physical facts embodied in these equations are easily comprehended, and the equations could be written down directly from the postulates of Chapter 2. Equation (3.13) states that the rate of change of phasor voltage with distance along the line, at a specific point of the line, is equal to the series impedance of the line per unit length multiplied by the phasor current at the point. Equation (3.U) states that the rate of change of phasor current with distance along the line, at a specific point, is equal to the shunt admittance per unit length of the line multiplied by the phasor
As was noted
for equations
(3.3)
and
voltage at the point.
Since these are complex number equations, each carries information about both magnitude and phase angle variations. No simple conclusions can be drawn from them by inspection. As was noted for the corresponding equations (3.3) and (34) in the time domain, it is incorrect to deduce from the negative signs in equations (3.13) and (3.1b) that the voltage and current diminish steadily with distance along the line.
Solving these simultaneous linear first order ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients for separate equations in V and /, produces two second order equations:
dW/dz 2  (R + jo>L)(G + j<*C)V =
dH/dz 2
(3.15) (3.16)

(R
+ j<*L)(G + j<*C)I =
These equations are of much more elementary form than equations (3.7) and (3.8) and their solutions in terms of V and / as phasor functions of z can be written directly in simple expressions, as is done in the next chapter. This greater simplicity is the basis for the comments in Section 3.3 that it is realistic to study transmission line theory with primary attention to solutions which are functions of the real angular frequency variable «, while lumped constant networks can be usefully studied through more general solutions of the equations in the time domain or in the complex frequency domain.
Most of the remainder of this book consists of investigation of the solutions of equations values of the (3.15), (3.16), (3.7) and (3.8) for various line constructions (expressed by as expressible or constants either are which R,L,G and C distributed circuit coefficients (which loads and sources of connections terminal various and functions of the frequency <o), are the boundary values for the solutions). All of the possible voltage and current relations that can occur on transmission lines defined by the postulates of Chapter 2 must be solutions of these equations.
Solved Problems
3.1.
The distributed
4 gauge cable pair transmission line at o> = 10 rad/sec are: R = 0.053 ohms/m, L = 0.62 microhenries/m, G = 950 micromicromhos/m, C = 39.5 micromicrof arads/m. At a coordinate z on the line the instantaneous cur4 rent is given by i(t) = 75 cos 10 * milliamperes. (a) Find an expression for the volt
circuit coefficients of a 19
age gradient along the line at the point
possible value of the voltage gradient?
(a)
z,
in volts/m.
(b)
What
as
is
the
maximum
The voltage gradient
dv/dz
is
given in the time domain by equation
(3.8)
= RiLdi/dt = 0.053(0.075 cos 10 4 t) + (0.62 X 10 6 )(10 4 X 0.075 sin 10 4 i) = 3.98 X 10 3 cos 104 t + 0.46 X 10" 3 sin 10 4 t = 4.01 cos (10H  3.03) millivolts/m
is 4.01
(6)
The maximum voltage gradient
millivolts/m,
when
cos (104 t
 3.03) =
1.
1
CHAP.
At.
4]
TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES
2
27
\Vi\.
At the coordinate
{a>t
=
which satisfy
+
y
=
nn,
maximum instantaneous value occurs at the At every coordinate z on where n = 0, 1, 2,
the
. . .
times
t
.
the line
az At any the voltage varies harmonically with time, with constant amplitude Vie~ instant the pattern of voltage as a function of position along the line is a harmonic pattern in the coordinate z, with amplitude diminishing exponentially as z increases. The interval between zerovalue points of the pattern (determined by the wavelength, see Section 4.8) has the same value everywhere on the line.
.
selected position Zi on the line, at a chosen instant U, the voltage represented by the term on the right of equation (4.1a) is determined by the value of the phase factor 0 (<*t  pz + and the value of the exponential amplitude factor e "*. At a slightly later t x instant of time U + At, the value of the term (o>t  pz + $ t ) will have changed at the point z u but the original value will be found at a slightly different location on the line Z\ + Az such
At a
first
Q
t
that
«(*!
+ A*) 
p(z x
+ Az) +
it
=
otj

pz x
+
£t
Hence
*AtpAz =
(4.5)
interpretation of this result is that a point of specific phase value on the harmonic voltage pattern moves to greater values of z as time increases, according to the relation
The
AzfAt
=
w/j8.
Proceeding to the
At0
limit,
lim Az/At
=
dz/dt
=
vP
=
alp
(4.6)
a velocity. It is represented by the symbol vv for phase velocity because it is the velocity with which a point of constant phase value travels along the transmission line. (An additional velocity concept, that of group velocity, is needed when dealing with situations where the phase velocity on a transmission system is not the same for all the Fourier component frequencies of the signal. For most transmission lines used at high frequencies this complication does not arise, and the phase velocity and group
The derivative dz/dt
is
velocity
have the same
value.)
Applying the same reasoning to the phase factor (<*t + pz + 2 ) in (4.1a), it is found that the change of sign of the pz term relative to the at term alters the meaning to a traveling voltage pattern moving in the direction of decreasing z, with the same magnitude of phase velocity as for the first wave. Thus the two terms on the right of (4.1a) describe harmonic voltage patterns traveling in the only two possible directions on the transmission line, and the sign of the index of the real exponential term in each case indicates that the amplitude of the
wave pattern diminishes as
it travels.
yz or Returning to equation (4.1) it can now be stated that a term of the form Vxe~ z (a+if»z = at 0, value Vi phasor re p resents a harmonic voltage pattern or wave, of y ie expodiminishing Jp, traveling in the direction of increasing z with phase velocity v v az Similarly a term of the form nentially in amplitude as it travels, according to the term e~ V2 e +yz or V2e +ia+mz represents a harmonic voltage wave, of phasor value V2 at z = 0, »/£, ditraveling in the direction of decreasing z with phase velocity of magnitude v p = a(  a) It is e~ term the to minishing exponentially in amplitude as it travels, according z point = 0, the leaves it as important to note that Vi is the phasor value of the first wave V = Vm = Clearly Vi 2 z + at 0. P while V2 is the phasor value of the second wave as it arrives the phasor voltage at the input terminals of the line.
.

.
,
4.3.
Current waves.
All references to voltage patterns or voltage
waves
in Sections 4.1
and
4.2 apply iden(4.2) is
tically to
current patterns and current waves, because of the fact that equation exactly the same form as (4.1).
of
equations {b. V2 = h = In the absence of reflected waves. if a switch is closed at time t = to connect the source when they reach the end of the line at z — l. i.2) with transmission lines on which waves are traveling only in the direction away from the source. 4 was noted earlier in a similar context that this does not mean that the current pattern on a transmission line is of necessity a replica of the voltage pattern. i.az e~ jpz . there can be voltage and current waves traveling in both directions on the transmission line when there is only a single signal source. It does mean that harmonic current waves can travel in either direction on the line. however. voltage line in the direction of increasing z. encounter a discontinuous change from the medium in which they have been traveling. the terminal load impedance Z T connected there requires different magnitude and phase relations between voltage and current than the relations that exist for the arriving waves. 3l(b). It will be seen later that this situation can be achieved for a line of finite length by suitable choice of the terminal load impedance.4. 4. The phasor values of the reflected waves will be such that when they are combined with the phasor values of the arriving waves. page 18.l) and (4£) become (4. and water waves. It will be seen in subsequent chapters. and it is sufficient to say that the case to be studied first is that of a line on which there are no reflected waves.e. depending on the the resulting of analysis detailed The Z impedance s ditions established by the source to the circuit of Fig. The reflected voltage and current waves will travel back along the line to the point boundary conz 0. Whenever traveling waves of any of these kinds meet an obstacle. this chapter attention is directed to equations {A. that the phase relation of h to h is never the same \ as that of Vi to Vi. infinite series of multiple reflections is given in Chapter 8. and in general will be partially rereflected there. the boundary conditions at the termination imposed by the connected impedance Zt will be satisfied. The answer lies in the phenomenon of reflection. For the remainder of 0. they are partially or totally reflected. 31(6). for the circuit of Fig. the concept of an infinitely long line is an unattractive one.7) V = Vie. However. The current wave traveling in the direction of increasing z will have phasor value h at z — 0. that they will always have phase velocity of magnitude \v v = o>//3.l) and {A. This case is often referred to as the "infinite line". If Vs and current waves will start traveling along the = . no reflected wave would return in any finite time magconnecting the signal source.e. and the current wave traveling in the direction of decreasing z will have phasor value /2at z = 0. It is reasonable to ask at this point how.5. 4. and that they will diminish exponentially in amplitude by a factor e~ a ^ as they travel over a length \z\ of the line. In the transmission line case. for any finite value of the factor a the nitude of voltage and current waves reflected back over an infinite length of line would necessarily always be zero. The line with no reflected waves. since if a hypoafter thetical line were infinitely long.28 TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES It [CHAP. Reflected waves. or alternatively. then reflected voltage and current waves will come into existence at the termination. sound waves. which is very familiar in the case of light waves. on which the above analysis is based.
368. When Since the index of an exponential number must be dimensionless. nevertheless. the quantity az is a dimensionless real number. the name of the 16th century Scottish mathematician who invented logarithms.303 nepers. nepers when its current or voltage wave is said to experience an attenuation of N on a transmission points between two travels wave magnitude changes by a factor e~ as the of attenuation an have said to line is transmission Correspondingly. and N = 2. N on traveling factor e" a magnitude by in changes wave nepers when a current or voltage over the length of line. power at a certain frequency is transmitted from a source to a load by a 500 m length of uniform transmission line. between the neper and the decibel is explained in Section 4.100 = 2. or the concentration of a solution is attenuated when additional solvent is added. reciprocal length) dictated by the defining equations (4.~ CHAP. It has proved to be convenient. to establish a named unit for a specific increment of this dimensionless index of an exponential term.880.2. The input voltage What is the total attenuation to the line is 250 volts rms. where certain limitations in the applicability of the above definition of attenuation are also The relation discussed. the unit for the attenuation factor a must be one neper per unit length. In textbooks a is very often referred to as the "attenuation constant" of a line. This is consistent with the dimensions of « (i. of the factor of the line. where e~ N = 0. and N = 0. the implication of the word "constant" is not satisfactory. the definition of the neper.3. A N N Example 4. it is common usage to say that the quantity is "attenuated". . is reduced by the factor e _1 . The word neper comes from the Latin form of Napier.6. factor ation of 1 neper? By what is the magnitude of a phasor voltage wave reduced if the wave experiences an attenu The voltage magnitude Example If 4.3) and (44). and the voltage at the load is 220 volts rms. frequency? the power at line. 4] TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES factor a. Then N = loge 0. what is the attenuation of the transmission line section in nepers? The attenuation of the line section is Then —N = loge 0. The quantity « is then called the "attenuation factor" of the line. where e~ N = 220/250 = 0. AT/500 Hence 4 = = 0. a is also commonly called the "attenuation coefficient" of a line. From Example 4. It is therefore appropriate to say that the voltage and current waves on a transmission line are attenuated with distance according to the term e~ az and to refer to the quantity az as the measure of the attenuation produced by length z of line.1.128 nepers. with no reflection of voltage or current waves at the load. Thus the loudness or intensity of a sound wave from a localized source is attenuated as the spherical wave pattern travels away from the source.e. a and z being real by definition. 29 4.128/500 = 2. a current wave suffers a reduction in magnitude by a factor of 10 on traveling over a particular length of transmission line.128. a length of line. or one neper/meter in the mks system. and the fact that az is dimensionless. but since it varies markedly with frequency for typical lines. or 0. N nepers.100.11. is The attenuation factor a a the attenuation per unit length. and what is the attenuation Electric The total attenuation of the line is N nepers.880 = —0. The attenuation a physical quantity diminishes steadily as a function of some increasing independent variable.303.56 X 10 nepers/m .
what is the line current at If the input current to the line is 650 is 50 km long. phasor voltage is V(z x ) at a point distant z x from the input terminals of a transmission line. <•> Hence —pz ing in Section = —«>z/v P .4). Giving this distance the generally accepted symbol X leads to the relation p\ = 2n. and therefore increases by o>z/v p radians in the time a reference point of constant phase on the signal pattern takes to travel the distance z. or vp = w/p.8) is a complex number of magnitude unity and phase angle — pz radians. It is measured in units of radians per unit length.50 X 10~ 4 ) = 7. rms. assuming no reflected current wave is present on the line? A mA The attenuation of the 50 line current at the load in km mA length of line is al = (50 x 103)(1. where e~ N = \V(z 2)/V(z^)\. 4 telephone line has an attenuation of 1. Equations (4. or radians/meter in the mks system.50 X 10 4 nepers/m at a frequency of 1000 Hz. or the "phase propagation coefficient". ifis that appears in equations (4. . Since N = al. The rate of decrease of phase angle with distance is evidently p radians per unit length of line. The line rms at 1000 Hz. then e 7 50 = /T/650. p is called the "phase factor" of the line. making N a positive number.4. The unit of length in the expression for a will be the unit of length in which z x and z 2 are measured. 4. 4. using equations (4. but only the phase angle. the distance over which the phase changes by 2tt rad is called a "wavelength" of the pattern. This is consistent with the dimension of reciprocal length required by the defining equations (4. The phase The term e~ factor p. [CHAP. The term states that when there are harmonic voltage and current waves traveling on a transmission line in the direction of increasing z. the phase angles of the phasor voltage and current decrease uniformly and at the same rate.9) (4.30 Example TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES 4. the load. This is clearly the same amount by which the phase angle of the voltage or current at the point z lags the respective phase angle at z — 0.4). velocity for harmonic waves at the signal frequency supplied by the source to the input terminals of the line increases at the rate o> rad/sec. V(z 2) at a point distant z2 from the input terminals. and z2 > z lt find an expression for the total attenuation in nepers of the length of line between z x and z2 assuming no reflected waves on the line. with increasing z along the line. since the product of p and a line length gives a dimensionless angle in radians.360  is the mA Example 45.7) and (4. Hence this term does not affect the magnitude of the phasors V and / as a function of z.2. What is the attenuation factor a for the line? If the is and . The total attenuation of the line length N= (z 2 —z x) is N nepers. is Calculation of the quantity p for a transmission line. hence p = 2ttA or A = 2ir/p (4.7) and (4. For z2 > z x the ratio of the voltage magnitudes is less than unity and its logarithm is negative. It has also been called the "phase propagation constant". The time taken for a point of constant phase on a harmonic signal pattern to travel a distance z is by definition z/vp where v p is the phase The phase of the signal rad/sec. If IT rms.3) and .8) state that the phase of the voltage and current phasors at coordinate z on the line differ from the corresponding phases at the input terminals of the line (z = 0) by an angle — pz radians. Thus loge \V(z 2 )/V(z x )\.50 nepers.3) and (4.8. a graph of a sine wave).7. a result established by somewhat different reason 4. a = N/l = N/(z 2 — z x ) nepers per unit length of line. The wavelength of waves on the line. and IT = 650e 7 50 = 0. where I is the length of line whose attenuation is N nepers. In a harmonic space pattern (for example.
The addition of the words nepers and radians respectively to the names of their units does not change this fact. i.123 pi = 2.e. Combining (4.e. Some implications of a and p. since the velocity must be calculated from equations (4.30 X 10 8 m/sec. Any a priori opinion that voltage and current waves always travel on transmission lines with the "velocity of light" (i. the velocity of plane electromagnetic waves in unbounded space or 3. X the frequency in hertz.00 x 108 m/sec) is obviously invalid. When the electrical properties of a transmission line are given in the form of values of the distributed circuit coefficients R.10) a somewhat complicated complex number relation involving the numerical values of and for arbitrary values of these quantities no simple statements can be made about the dependence of a and p on R. . G and C. L.3) and (4. G and C for any specific transmission line are by no means entirely independent of one another. a and p must be calculated from (4. and it does turn out that for a transmission line whose interconductor medium is predominantly air or "space". Wavelength X = 2v/p = 51. from a + jp = y/(R + j<*L)(G + j»C) (4. the values of R.68 m and hence /? = 2. L. G and C at signal angular frequency <a rad/sec.CHAP. and the time required for a reference point on the signal pattern to travel the full length of the line. if R and G are small enough or if the frequency is high enough the velocity of voltage or current waves on the line is extremely close to the "velocity of light".9) verifies this result for harmonic waves on transmission Example 2. As has been seen. 4. The phase factor of a transmission line is calculated to be 0. or about the variation of a and p with frequency.A = 3. because mathematically a occurs as a factor in the real index of an exponential term.123 rad/m at a frequency of 4.10). This is five different quantities.10 X 10 8 m/sec)/(125 X 10 6 Hz) = 1. the phase difference between the phasor voltages at the two ends of the line. Equations (4. On a factor /3 X 10 8 m/sec. Find the wavelength and phase velocity of the waves on the line.6.17 n sec.10 4.6) and (4.50 MHz. X is in some length unit.1 m. The line is 500 m long.3) and (4. On the other hand.4) show that a and p have the same physical dimensions of reciprocal length. and what is the value of the phase at that frequency? is From the relation X = vp /f. lines.74 rad/m Example 4.9.6) and (4. Phase difference over 500 m of line = Travel time for a point of constant phase = = 61. radio frequency transmission line the velocity of signals at a frequency of 125 MHz is What is the wavelength X of the signals on the line. 4] TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES 31 therefore the basis for determining analytically both the phase velocity and the wavelength for harmonic voltage and current signals on the line at any angular frequency o rad/sec.4). however. while p occurs as a factor in the imaginary index of an exponential term. Phase velocity vp = w //? = 2n X 4.5 rad. L. For harmonic waves of any kind it is always true that phase velocity is equal to the product of frequency and wavelength.7. « and p represent totally different aspects of the propagation of harmonic waves on transmission lines. and vp is in = (2. l/v p = 2. and the latter does not give a constant value for <a/p that is independent of the actual values of the individual distributed circuit coefficients. where / the same units of length per second.50 X 10 6 /0.
when R. since the terms e~ and e~ To phase.11) has the dimensions of impedance. given by 7 Zo 4. and is a complex number quantity determined entirely by the distributed circuit coefficients of the line and the signal frequency. Equations (4. Substituting into (3. 4. (3. find it is an expression from which to calculate necessary to return to equation (3. there are no reflected waves.10) into this result. Since physically this quantity on the right of (4.10.7) = (R + j*L)I z.13) With respect to dV/dz = (a + jflVie^ev* (4. The characteristic impedance Zo. L.13) this value for dV/dz. and the velocity of waves on such lines can be much less than fifty percent of the velocity of light and highly variable with frequency. Y is mhos. 4 These conditions do not hold for typical telephone transmission lines at voice frequencies. and since it is "characteristic" of the line itself and of nothing else except the frequency. and the relative phases of V and / are the same at all points on a uniform transmission line on which az iPz are identical in the two equations.32 TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES [CHAP.8) v 1 R + >L y/(R  + j<*L)(G + j«C) \G+ jo>C 4 R + 3'o>L (4. G and C are in the electrical units .Ro + ! R + 3 <aL G + jvC yj (4.13): this ratio of magnitudes and this relative dV/dz Differentiating equation (. defined by The unit for Zo is ohms and for of the mks system.11) Thus the ratio of the phasor voltage to the phasor current on a uniform transmission line on which there are no reflected waves is the same at all points of the line.8) show that the ratio of the magnitudes of V and I. and (4.12) J V In many contexts it is more convenient to use the reciprocal quantity.jXo T? 4Y . iliz . the "characteristic admittance" of a transmission line.8). coefficients is circuit distributed = line's the of RQ + jX and as a function symbol Z Q .7) (4.4.az e* z R + jtoL a h + j/3 from + J/3 and making use also of (4.7) and (4. and the value for 1 from (a + jp)Vie~ az eVi or Substituting for a for Vi and 7i.(R + j<»L)he. it It is assigned the is appropriately named the "characteristic impedance" of the line.
From what has been said earlier in this section. A transmission line circuit of length I with nonreflecting termination. which for fixed values of R. VJh = VII = Zo {±'U) where Vi and h are the phasor voltage and current at the input terminals of the line and V and / are the phasor voltage and current at any coordinate z on the line. L. with the implication that the value is not only independent of frequency. and the phasor phasor the 1) identically the phasor current through Z T at z — I. ratio must hold at is identically ..12). 4] TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES 33 Although the characteristic impedance of a transmission line is a very important and realistic physical quantity that directly governs the phasor relations between harmonic voltages and currents on a line. etc. since the voltage across Z T at z = I. 41. any frequency using equation (4. 41 shows a transmission line circuit where the terminal load has been designated simply as a "nonreflecting termination". 41. Fig. illustrating notation at the input terminals.12).CHAP. (See Section Commercially available transmission lines are commonly labeled as having certain definite values of characteristic impedance such as 50 ohms.5. Ztap = and since the same phasor phasor voltage current I(z = l) Vxllx = V (z is z = I. This is obviously not in agreement with the nature of equation (4. the magnitude of Z may rise by a factor of 10 or more over the asymptotic high frequency value. 300 ohms. It will be seen in Chapter 5 that for most practical transmission lines the actual values of R. G and C are such that at frequencies above a few tens or hundreds of kilohertz. L. Experimentally least it can be determined for a given sample of transmission 7. however. and its phase angle may become as large as 45°. using formulas developed length of line at in Chapter 6. including the terminal load end of the line where z = I. it is nevertheless a somewhat intangible entity. For these same lines at lower frequencies. Hence for the Zo circuit of Fig. The line has characteristic impedance Z . It cannot be measured directly with an impedancemeasuring bridge by making a single impedance measurement on an arbitrary finite It can be calculated from the distributed circuit coefficients of the line. It does not "exist" on a line in any simple and obvious sense. but is purely resistive. For certain idealized conditions it can be determined directly from the dimensions and materials of the line. H nonreflecting termination z=0 V=V I t «=* =h Fig. the characteristic impedance does attain an approximately constant value. it follows that Z T . The concept of the "input impedance" of the line can only mean the ratio of the phasor voltage to the phasor current at the input terminals. G and C might be expected to give a wide range of magnitudes and phase angles for Z as <0 is varied from zero to very high frequencies. whose phase angle does not exceed a few degrees.) line by making at two impedance measurements of the input impedance of suitably chosen lengths of the sample with suitably chosen terminal load impedances.Z also.
3l(&). however. . 4 These results apply only for the conditions postulated in writing equations (4.. 42.] . (2) The input impedance pedance of the line.'2.. . From ^ .1U) the second conclusion can be generalized to the statement that the impedance at any point on a transmission line terminated nonreflectively is equal to the characteristic impedance of the line. It could be measured directly nected at a P° int a transmission line impedance bridge the line by an connected to .7 + . and from equation (4.0 volts rms at 8.e. and partly in the load.e. . The terminal load impedance connected to the line is equal is to the characteristic impedance.150 ohms at a frequency of 8.0 volts rms connected across an impedance of 700 — . A 700 — parallel wire transmission line used in a carrier telephone system has a characteristic impedance of . line terminated in its characteristic impedance nonreflectively) is equal to the characteristic im equation (U.93 mA The real power input to the line is given 2. must be the input impedance of the total line circuit on the terminal load side of the cross section at Fig.8. 42.il50) = most directly 13. The meaning of "the impedance at any coordinate It is not the impedance that would z of the line" must be correctly understood.. what source to the line? If a signal voltage of 10. defined as the ratio of the phasor voltage V at the coordinate z to the phasor current I at coordinate z. . point of the line (with appropriate that be measured by an impedance bridge connected to shortcircuiting of the voltage source or opencircuiting of the current source connected to the line's input terminals). because the phasor voltage V applied by the generator in the impedance bridge to the line at the cross section z would create not only the phasor line current / on the load side of that cross section as shown in Fig. l^inpl by Rinp = (14.. . the input impedance of the line is equal to its characteristic impedance. at that point only by cutting the line at that from the point> and doeg not measure cross section and removing the portion on the quantity defined as the impedance the signal source Side.. . The current and power calculations are then simply those for an ac circuit consisting of a voltage of 10. and following the sign conventions in Fig. of the line at that cross section. . Example 4. The two currents would be entirely independent of one signal terminal another. Evidently the physical meaning of source V load V (inactive) I the impedance Z(z) at a coordinate z of a transmission line. [From equation (4. . of any length of a uniform transmission (i. .00 kHz is connected to the input the phasor input current and what is the real power supplied by the signal From the conditions stated.0X103)2(700) = 0.137 watts This power is dissipated partly in the attenuation of the line.7) and Two significant conclusions can be {4. drawn: (1) The only value of impedance that can be connected as a terminal load on a transmission line and constitute a nonreflecting termination is an impedance equal to the characteristic impedance of the line. terminals of the line.150 ohms.00 kHz. ..8).10) this means that the line has a finite attenuation factor a. An impedance measuring bridge concoordinate Z. . causes currents to flow in both directions .12) the fact that Z is complex indicates that B and G are not both equal to zero. Taking the voltage as a reference phasor 10 + jO volts. that there are no reflected waves on the line.34 TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES [CHAP. 'inD = ( 10 ° + i0)/(700 . but would also create a current J' in the portion of the line on the signal source side of the cross section. i.
098) tables.«C in the form of their deviation in radians from »/2. From — R + jXQ — = 0. 35 Example coaxial transmission line used to transmit substantial amounts of power at a frequency of 100 MHz 0. 1 = Thus the actual phase angle of the complex number 0. . to retain the significant figure accuracy of the data. the reactance component Criteria for deciding when R and G can be ignored in calculating Z from equation {U.1 rad. for small phase the of cosine the angle. Hence Electrical engineers make much proportional to the logarithm of the power level of such a signal is an approximate measure comof its physiological effect.098 + /201 is tan" (201/0.6.~ ~ CHAP.001° are awkward to use and not readily available. In converting a complex number to polar form. and the radian measure of this angle can be written directly without tables as 0.098/201).87 x 10~ 4 rad. 4] TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES 4. is tan" (0. In telephony. the angle for this latter number must then be subtracted from the former angle.098 j(2w x 108)(34.32 X 10~ 6 has the following distributed circuit coefficients at that frequency: henries/m. The details of the solution given for Example 4.098 + /201 = 201 /89. Conversely.9.5 X 10~«) x lO" 12) + J201 _ = 96. equation (M2). ..4. For the complex numbers encountered in Example 4. of sets 1 standard most tan" 2050. the result divided by two. deviation in the sine of the angle can be taken as unity and the cosine as the value of the of the comcalculation final the radians.50 + ?'21. Trigonometric tables for making calculations when angles are expressed to the nearest 0.32 >G / 50 x 10" 6 + 0.12) real value for Z X . G = 1. the usual procedure is to express the phase angle as the angle whose tangent is the ratio of the imaginary part of the complex number to the real part. these logarithmic measures are highly appropriate.50 X 10 6 mhos/m.098 + /201 from rr/2 rad.9 is typical of lowloss lines at very high frequencies. but has been responsible for the appearance of which is far too small to be of any practical consequence. is unity and the sine decibels.02 ohms obtained in Example 4.9 illustrate the process of stating the phase angles of R + j<»L and G + . imaginary components of the final complex number answer. an angle that cannot be read meaningfully from 1 The deviation of the phase angle of 0. C = 34.91 X 105 rad _^ 201 /0r/2) = The nearly 96.700) x lO" 6 To complete the problem. For most transmission line problems the solutions can be obtained more quickly and easily by small angle approximation methods. Inspection of the arithmetic shows that the inclusion of R and G in the calculations has not affected the value of Ro.972° and similarly for (1..0. however.e.700 /(77/2) . with accuracy better than \%.5 X 10 12 farads/m.700) X 10° 10a .9.50 + j'21. which originated in the stimuli telephone industry. are developed in Chapter 5.098 + j(2v X 1Q8)(0.001°.09 X 10~ 4 rad . Nepers and use of the language of decibels. is equal to the value of the angle in radians.11. when other factors such as frequency are held constant. and the sine and cosine of the resultant angle (in this case a very small fraction of a degree) used to determine the real and .87 X 10~ 4 rad \ 21. this would require stating the phase angles to the nearest 0.2 \ (1. Find the characteristic impedance of the A R= line at the frequency of operation. i. ponents of Z from a magnitude and a very small phase If the deviation of the angle 4.098 ohms/m.098/201 = 4.2 /2. L = 0. phase angle of a complex number from W2 does not exceed 0. 0. where physiological effect is the delivered modity. Its basic justification is that the response of human senses to of level such as sound and light is fairly closely proportional to the logarithm of the power quantity a the stimulus.
the input impedance and the terminal load impedance will in general have different values. One milliwatt is also commonly used as a reference value.16) appears to be an equation expressing a decibel relation between two voltages. This requires that the impedances across which the voltages exist have admittance values with equal conductance components. Decibels by definition are units for the logarithmic measure of the ratio of two power levels. Pi is D decibels above P2 . If the effect of each of these circuit units is designated by the logarithm of the factor by which it modifies the signal power. 43. Any two power levels Pi and P2 differ by D decibels aCCOrdingt° If the D(db) = 10 loa. instead of by the factor itself. however. logarithmic measures simplify designations that are commonly needed in communication systems. and is a formally correct use of decibel language only when the two power levels have the same ratio to the squares of the respective voltage magnitudes. The ratio of the power delivered to the terminal load to the power supplied by the source is the product of all these factors. For an arbitrary two terminal pair netas shown in Fig. If P2 is 1 watt. Pi is said to be D db above P2 if negative.15) to these power values. many calculations and terminal load in a typical extended communication circuit. general practice among communication engineers to apply (4. including lengths of different types of uniform line. but it has been derived from a decibel relation between power levels. etc. a condition which is obviously satisfied if Z\ = Z 2 . 2 \ Pi = Ri\Vi/Z!\ z and P2 = R 2 \V2/Z 2 Applying equation (4. 43.15) is designated ± D dbw. Pi is D db below P2 An absolute meaning can be given to the decibel value of a power level by making P2 a standard reference value. D decibels above or below a power level of 1 watt.e. . If these are respectively Z\ — R\ + jXx and Z2 — R 2 + jX2 the real power input Pi to the network and the real power P2 reaching the load will be given by work Z l = R + }X l 1 — Vi Network Z2 = R2 + 1*2 . of 60 input voltage magnitude will often be described as having a gain values. source signal and the Between the the signal will pass through many structurally distinct units. signal voltages in a circuit that are across impedances not meeting the stated and magnitude Thus a voltage amplifier with a ratio of 1000 between output voltage a in even decibels. where D In the special case of Zi (db) = \Vi/Zi\ 10 logic (R1IR2) \VJZ%\ this equation simplifies to = Z2 (hence Ri = R 2). <*J5> . with the corresponding designalogarithm tion ± D dbm. Fig. i. amplifiers. A minated twoport linear passive network terin an arbitrary impedance. filters. then the logarithm of the effect of all the units combined is the sum of the logarithms of the effects for each of the separate units. 4 physiological justification. using logarithms to the base 10. attenuating networks.16) Equation (4. (ft/ft) is positive. independent arbitrarily case where the input impedance and the load impedance have It is fairly .16) to two requirement.36 TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES Even apart from the [CHAP. Each of these will modify the signal power level by some factor greater or less than unity. the decibel value of a power level Pi calculated by equation (4. = 20 D (db) logic \Vi/Vz \ (4. Addition is thus substituted for multiplication in calculating the cumulative effect of cascaded elements in a transmission system.
V X II X . the phase angle of Z is invariably negative and h leads Vi when there are no Fig.„ . make use of In the steady state analysis of lumped constant networks.5.7) and [4. 44.686 N (4. .7) and from (db) = 20 log 10 \V(zi)/V{z 2 )\. and Chapters in 8 reflected waves. of function complicated a transmission line the impedance is a fairly the value of the distributed circuit coefficients of the line. which there are Several specialized uses of decibel notation. When the technique is applied to transmission lines an additional variable appears — the position coordinate along the line.16) equations (4.16). ^j. which relate specifically to uniform transmission systems on which waves are traveling in only one direction. and are inapand (4. has been shown in Section 4. Under such the only not is line transmission a on plicable. \ \ the two locations. the frequency of the source. Fig. Z = Ro + jX V(zi) at coordinate z x on the line and V(z 2 ) at coordinate z 2 the power levels at the two points 2 Since the impedance is the same in Ro and P(z 2 ) = \V(z 2 )/Z 2 Ro. are discussed 4. the decibel value of the ratio of the two power levels will be. n t_i C/G exceeds L/R for all conceivable practical transmission lines under reasonable conditions. (4. r .15) is improper use of decibel notation. and the attenuation between two points magnitudes voltage phasor the of or levels consideration determining the ratio of the power at the points. = 8. It follows Example 4. It can also be expressed in decibels withdecibels. using the phasor voltage Vi as the zero degree reference phasor. = log e \V(z x )/V(z 2)\. it must be out violating the definitions on which decibel notation is based. = zQ . equation Nepers by definition are a logarithmic measure of the ratio of two voltage magnitudes or two current magnitudes. and will lead to erroneous results is used to determine a power ratio from the decibel figure. the impedance at every point is equal to the If then the rms phasor voltage is characteristic impedance of the line. whether transmission on a points emphasized again that the attenuation between two points by equation two the at voltages the given in nepers or decibels.15). equation (4.10 that for the case of waves traveling in only one direction on a uniform transmission line.17) a of a uniform transmission line appears in its defining equations per unit in the natural units of nepers per unit length.CHAP.1 „. Phasor diagrams for V and /. using the conversion factor from equation (4.17) The attenuation factor However.688 neper that 1 length.16). j. 4] TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES if 37 This (4.15) conditions the terminal load impedance. or the power levels at the two points by on waves reflected are there when that same at the two locations. for transmission lines on 9. (Since 4. 44 is a representative phasor diagram for the voltage and current at the input terminals of a transmission line on which there are no reflected waves. phasor diagrams harmonic various directed line segments to describe the phase and amplitude relations of the voltages and currents in a network. The equations from which the definition is formulated are (4.8). will be P(zi) = \V(zi)/Z It . from From the defining equation (4. It is shown in Chapter 7 involving position.12. the neper value of the ratio of the voltages is D that D(db) = 201og 10 e" N = 8.r. line. the logarithm being to the base e. Phaser diagram of the timeharmonic voltage and current at the input tere z = 0)oia transmission iine ( terminated in its characteristic imThe phasors are related by pedance. can be used to relate is the impedance the if only equation (4. .
46. 45. through the shunt conductance and and z = z x susceptance of the line) in the line section between z — . at a coordinate z 2 = 2z lf the phasor diagram with the same reference is that of Fig.10. . equations (.e. 44. diagrams like Fig. For the more general case of transmission lines on which there are reflected waves. 44. 44. the use of phasor diagrams provides unique assistance in visualizing voltage and current relations along a line. traces part of a logarithmic spiral as z to z = I. . the reference for magnitude and phase being the same as in Fig. The envelope for the current phasors is a similar spiral with a different starting reference and a different radial scale. what is the meaning of the phasor joining the tips of the two voltage phasors.2 nepers. An attempt to show the continuous variation with coordinate z of the phasor relations on a transmission line. 46. Taking the voltage phasors separately. The corresponding phasor diagram is Fig. 44 and 45 are combined on a single chart.5 rad. 44 and 45. for f$z\ approximately 0. 44. 47.4. 4 At a coordinate Zi along the line. 45 by combining and 46 for small intervals of 2 on a single chart. the pattern of which is not directly obvious from the corresponding equations. spiral such as Fig. Such diagrams are discussed in Section 8. reflected waves. and aZ\ about 0. information which is easily comprehended from the equations themselves. leads to undue confusion.7) and (4.8. Fig. Fjg. diagrams of Fig.8) show that the voltage and current phasors are smaller in magnitude by the factor e~ aZl and retarded in phase by angle (3zi relative to the phasors at the input terminals where z = 0.7) and (4. 45. whose angular coordiThe tip of the voltage phasor V x e ~ a + »>* at any coordinate z on a transmission line of attenuation factor a and phase factor /? and terminated nonreflectively. 47. This gives a logarithmic Fig.8). 45. Phasor diagram of the timeharmonic voltage and current at the coordinate z x of the same transmission line referred to in Fig. Similarly.) Vx J ie 2(a + j0>*. increases from z = nate is — fiz. Example 4. the desired result is achieved in useful form by drawing the envelope of the tips of the phasors. linearly proportional to distance along the transmission line. and of the phasor joining the tips of the two current phasors? If the The phasor joining the tips of the two voltage phasors is the longitudinal phasor voltage along the line The phasor joining the tips of the two current phasors is the between coordinates z = and z = z x phasor current flowing transversely between the line conductors (i. The line has attenuation factor a and phase factor /3. Phasor diagram of the timeharmonic voltage and current at the coordinate z 2 = 2z x of the same transmission line referred to in Fig.38 TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES [CHAP. 46 and 47 convey exactly the same information as equations (4. Phasor diagrams like Fig.
033 amperes rms.000/(1. and internal impedance 100 + yo ohms. for example.02 microseconds. (a) /( are the initial phasor voltage 200. For typical transmission lines these simplified relationships do not hold for signals at voice frequencies. it is nevertheless of some voltage and current significance in the problem. If it had been 1 kHz. (The term "signal velocity". where the sign line.95 X 10 8 m/sec. Although the source frequency of 50 MHz was not used in the solution.000 m long.) . Under the same conditions the characteristic impedance of the line is also independent of frequency and purely resistive.14) states that at any point on a transmission line where there are waves traveling in only one direction. There would is only frequency source MHz the of 50 period the Since value. in a time very short compared time required for the signal to travel to the terminal load end of the line and back. the internal impedance of the source. and J{ = 0. then VJIi If { and current at the input terminals of the line just On applying KirchhofFs voltage law to the circuit of the consisting of the source. Since the terminal load impedance is not equal to the characteristic impedance of the line. 200 uniform transmission line is 15. with velocity 0. At the instant the switch is closed. 10 taneous solution of these two equations gives V = 6. has been used in the statement of the and problem. and the signal velocity on the line is 65% of the "velocity of light" in free space. the switch is closed. Signals will travel the full length of the line in a time 15. travel with the same velocity which can appropriately called the signal velocity. and the relation VII = ZQ will be valid there for that length of time. impedance of the It is obvious that this process is equivalent to assuming that the initial input V and = 4 t { line (before any reflected waves return to the input terminals) is equal to its characteristic impedance. is connected in series with a switch and the line's input terminals.CHAP. after the closing of the switch. not previously defined. cannot be equal to its characteristic impedance. Its characteristic impedance is + j0 ohms. after the closing of the switch.95 X 10 ) = 77 microseconds. harmonic voltage and current waves will start to travel 8 = along the transmission line toward the terminal load end. the steady state timeharmonic variation of the voltage and with the terminals is established. and what When what is is the initial the initial phasor voltage at the input termiphasor input current to the line? at the initial phasor values? (b) For how long do the input voltage and current remain Equation (4. A The switch (a) is initially open. 8 and 9 deal with procedures for solving transmission line circuits in these more general circumstances. Under these conditions all highfrequency signals.1. the source then would not in 154 microseconds be able to vary through a full cycle of the signal.67 volts rms. source of rms amplitude 10 volts at a frequency of 50 MHz. the ratio of the phasor voltage to the phasor current must be equal to the characteristic impedance of the line. voltage and current waves will be reflected from the terminal initially load. The terminal load impedance connected to the line is not equal to the line's At the input end of the line a timeharmonic signal characteristic impedance. 4] TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES 39 Solved Problems 4. phasor meaning to literal a be no current at the input 0. after closing the switch. At any traveling time later than 154 microseconds after the closing of the switch there will be waves be longer will no line of the impedance input The in both directions at all points on the line. regardless be their frequency spectrum or bandwidth. During these 154 microseconds it will remain true at the input terminals of the line that there are waves traveling in only one direction. nals of the line. and the values of input voltage and current determined by the methods of Chapter 4.65(3.00 X 10 ) 8 1. (6) The input voltage and current retain their initial phasor values for 154 microseconds. Chapters 7. and the input terminals Simulobserved. been have — — Chapter = 3 of conventions 100/ V 0. This is justified by demonstrations given in Chapters 5 and 6 that for all reasonable frequency at practical transmission line designs the phase velocity becomes quite independent of of frequencies above 10 4 or 10 5 Hz. and will reach the input terminals of the line 154 microseconds after the switch was closed.
e. 3. it passes through zero at 10 7 t + tt/6 = tt/2. (6) The phase of the voltage at the output terminals relative to that at the input terminals is given by the term e~^ z of equation (4. This term states that the phase of the voltage at the terminal load will be less than (i. will lag) the phase of the voltage at the input terminals by the amount f$l rad.00 X 10 8 m/sec and the voltage at z = v(t) = 50 cos (10 7 £ + tt/6).54 microseconds. The wavelength of the signals on the line is measured (by methods described in Chapter 8) and found to be 92 m. .40 TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES [CHAP. subsequent zero crossings are at intervals of 10 7 t = tt.2 microseconds.0 t. where f x is any function. vp = 92(2. the voltage at any coordinate z on the line at any time t is given by a function of the form fi(t — z/vp ).3.068 rad/m. of position on the transmission line at time = (c) (a) The voltage The voltage as a function of position on the line at time t = 1.54 also be observed that the phase changes in time at the rate 2v rad per period of the line as X 10«)/(0. or 3. 4 4. Using the first expression. Here /? = 2v/X = 2tt/92 = 0. Hence the phase lag can be found from the time delay of the 2tt(0.z/(3. or t — 0. t) .0 microseconds. Then the required time delay is t = l/vp = 125/(2. lowloss transmission line (a) Determine the time delay between the instant of connecting the source to the line and the arrival of a signal at the terminal load. 48 in the direction of increasing zona transmission line. This is +43.5 rad. and pi = 8.0 microseconds.7). negligible. or t = 0. The graph is shown in Fig.3 volts at t = 0. = 50 cos (10 7 t + tt/6) Draw a graph of each of v(t) is connected to the input terminals of the the following: The voltage at the input terminals of the to t line as a function of time from t = t 1. where /3 = 2v/\ and X is the wavelength on the line. it follows that the is voltage as a function of z and t is v(z. A harmonic air dielectric transmission line for On an 100% (this is signal voltage line at t (a) = = 0. 1. page 24.2. (b) The voltage as a function 0.3 X 10 8 m/sec. A signal source at a frequency of 2. this being the distance the signal advances on the line from the input terminals in (6) For a wave traveling p t time after being connected to the terminals. at the input terminals of the line is simply v(t). according Since in the present problem vp = to Problem 3.5 MHz is connected to the input terminals of a which is 125 m long and is terminated in its characteristic impedance. (b) What is the phase difference between the voltages at the two ends of the line in the steady state? (a) The signal velocity can be found from either of the equivalent relations vp = f\ or vp = «//?. with the additional stipulation that there is no voltage on the line at any time t for values of z greater than z = v t.5 X 10 6 ) = 2.00 X 10 8 )] + tt/6}.105 microseconds.314 microseconds.3 X 10 8 ) = 0. with z = I. It may signal. meaning 100% of the "free space" velocity of light.5. microseconds Fig.50 cos {10 7 [t . the signal velocity is which the attenuation per wavelength is standard commercial notation. 48.00 x 10 8 m/sec).4 X 106)  8> 5 ra d 4.
0. The signal velocity on the line microseconds 0. the along z z and t in the expression for v{z.tr/S] = 10 sin (2»10*t . Fig. Figs. a graph of v(z.15 microseconds.2 m The resulting graph of shown in Fig. 49 Fig.vp t . meters Fig.e. been an unsymmetrical one such the advancing front of the wave. t) (It should be noted that because the terms containing fixed * will be reversed along the z at of function as a have opposite signs. 4] TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES At 41 t = z 0.40 x 1U ) after the switch is closed the front of the wave will advance a of the line. which is = graph of 36 z.00 .033z) v(z) is for < v v t. but the pattern extends for a 410.15 microseconds (a) The signal velocity on the line is v p distance z . 410 (c) The reasoning greater distance exactly the same as in (6). lengths long. + 8.*/3) v(z. where vp t = (3. to the input terminals of a section impedance characteristic in its terminated long. 49 and 48.33 X 109*) + v /g\ = X 106) = 60 50 cos (2.00 X 108)(0. As a valid function of z at t = from * = to z = 0. 411 is a vv t is v(z) = 10 sin (0.t) . The wavelength of the end load terminal = the 106) to exactly i.40 X 10* m/sec. the reversal would be clearly exhibited is = Vp t = 300 m 4. in shown as line. The line is transmission line 36 (a) Graph Problem 4. 36 m X 15 (0 Hence the line is 1. Fig. of function For the harmonic voltage z.15 line the along the instantaneous voltage as a function of position current as a function of (5) Graph the instantaneous after the switch is closed. v(z). At time t = a switch is closed to connect a voltage source v(t) = 10 sin 7 (27rl0 t  tt/3) of lossless with negligible internal impedance.50 wavevoltage pattern on the line is \ = v p /f = 2.2 X 106  3. + ir/Q  0. v(z) = < 50 cos [10 7 (0. meters Fig. 49.) as a sawtooth pattern.3). along the line at the same instant used in m position in part (a)? time at which the voltage pattern on the line will be the same as = 80% of 3.CHAP. or backward.262* this voltage. As a function of z and t the voltage on the line is = 10 sin [torW{t .4.00 X 10" = 2. this 36 m. relative to a graph of the same v(z. 411 .(2.40 X 1<H»/10* = 24 m.262* . In 0. If the voltage function had over the whole of the pattern. volts +50 100 z. (see is 80% of 200 + /0 ohms.2 microseconds.t) a function of t at nxed coordinate scale.37).2/(2. t) as appears only at reversal this 410. What is the next earliest (c) (a).40 X 10»)) .
Hence 60% of the power on the third line flows onto the line of characteristic impedance 200 ohms.1 microseconds.6. 4.25 X 104)/(7. what is the rms signal current at the point and what is the signal power passing the point? (a) The condit ion that R and G do not affect /? or Z must mean that equation &. At their input terminals the two in parallel constitute the terminal load ZT = must (6) impedance of the third line. A coaxial transmission line for carrier telephony is 900 miles long.0715 microfarads/mile. and their inputs serve as the terminal load of a third parallel wire transmission line which supplies power to the other two. (a) How long is a telephone signal delayed in transmission from New York City to Chicago? (b) Is the delay time of part (a) sufficient to be annoying to persons conducting a conversation via the line? (c) When the rms signal voltage at a particular point on the line is 5.500 miles/sec The time delay of a signal over the length of the t then = l/v = 900/181. and is very much dependent on the loudness and quality of the signal. At the junction of the three lines the signal voltage is common to all of them. The time required for this is t = v /\ = 1/f = 1/10 7 = 0.15 X 10*) = 77. 4. t) = v(z. These impedances connected characteristic impedances of 300 Two parallel wire transmission lines ohms and 200 ohms respectively. This time is the period of the p source frequency. Each impedance. which is long enough to create considerable confusion in telephone communication.0 volts. and since Z is real.25 X 10"4)(7.5. Evidence shows that for signals of reasonable strength and clarity.) There are no reflected waves on the line.42 TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES (&) [CHAP.5 milliwatts. the power on the third line is V2/120 watts.15 line is X 10"8) = 181. (R and G R do cause attenuation. The distributed inductance of the line is 0. vp = a/fi = 1/yfLC = p 1/V(4.425 millihenries/mile. The distributed resistance and the distributed conductance G are small enough to have no effect on the values of the phase factor /? and the characteristic impedance Z at the frequencies of operation. and 40% onto the line of characteristic impedance 300 ohms. so their input impedances are respectively equal to their characteristic impedances of 300 ohms and 200 ohms. delays as great as 25 to 50 milliseconds cause little inconvenience. The characteristic impedance of the line is Z = yfhlC = V(4. which is therefore given by 1/(1/200 + 1/300) = 120 ohms. . however. and on the other two lines V2/200 and V 2 /300 watts respectively. i(z.065 amperes.500 = 4.) . from New York City to Chicago. WZ = 0. (c) The voltage and current patterns on the line will again be the same as in Fig.12) .1 ohms and the signal The rms signal current will therefore be / = V/Z — 5.0/77. 411 after the entire pattern has traveled an additional distance of one wavelength along the line. this be the value of its characteristic impedance. as shown in Chapter 5. which is offset by amplifiers at intervals along the line. the relation between the current pattern and the voltage pattern is that they are identical in shape. X . 411 with a current ordinate scale of 10/200 = 0. 4 Since the transmission line is terminated nonreflectively. t)/Z everywhere and always.1 power will be P = VI = = I2Z = 32. operated at radio frequencies have nominal is terminated in its characteristic lines are connected in parallel. If the third line is to be terminated nonreflectively. Taking it to be a timeharmonic voltage of rms value V.050 amperes per division substituted for the voltage scale of 10 volts per division. The current pattern at the instant stated is therefore the pattern of Fig. — 0.10) can be written can be written as Z = s/L/C (These simplifications do but only that a < /? and < R conditions that are typical for most transmission lines at frequencies above a few kilohertz.96 milliseconds (6) (c) The annoyance of transmission delay on a telephone circuit is a matter for experimental investigation. A channel using retransmission from a satellite in a fixed position over the earth's surface involves a delay of about 250 milliseconds. and its distributed capacitance is 0. as fi = w*\/LC not imply that a and equation = and X (b. (a) What must be the characteristic impedance of the third transmission line if there are to be no reflected waves on it? (b) How does power flowing on the third line divide between the other two lines at the junction? (a) The first two lines are terminated nonreflectively.
The phase velocity at that frequency is 170.10. The input power to the line is 1600 watts. . 89.9.00 x 10 6 Hz. it must be true for each infinitesimal current i(t) length dz of the line. 267 and 356 ft. show the total energy stored in the distributed inductance of the line is equal to the total energy stored in the distributed capacitance of the line. Thus an expression for the instantaneous voltage as a function of satisfies all the stated conditions is v(z) = V X e~«* cos  (y . and from equation (4J2) this is Z = y/LIC when R = G = 0. Then v(z) = e *« lx ™.00/(100 IVile^sin/J* where  V x  is an arbitrary amplitude factor.7). For the theorem to be true in the general form stated.~ CHAP.399 at z = 200 ft. The pattern crosses the axis at intervals of onehalf Hence the zero crossings occur at z = 0. For steady state conditions. This (4. A time is identified at which the input voltage of the line (ut at z = is passing through zero and rising position on the line that by +£ = x) 3ir/2. and carrying voltage and current waves of any arbitrary pattern. line is The attenuation factor a of the length on the line is X 8.00 at z = 0. (c) What is the ratio of phasor the peak phasor voltage magnitude at the midpoint of the line to the peak voltage magnitude at the input terminals? A m . make a graph of the pattern of instantaneous voltage as a function of position along the line at an instant when the voltage at the input terminals is passing through zero and rising. A From equation (4 . The graph of this voltage pattern is a distorted sine wave lying between symmetrical positive and negative exponentially decaying envelopes. i(z.a* sin 0. which proves the theorem.pz J = 4. 0. The equation for the required graph is then simply V = 50e"«*. and = y l e«z cosMi82. with a change of voltage scale. ±(0. 4. w . + £1 0) ) where £ x is the phase angle of t Vv (i.03532 if \V t is taken as unity.632 at of a true sine wave. The energy 2 The line is terminated in its of the same line element at the same instant is dW c = \Cdz [v(z. at 2 = 400 ft.1 a). 4. 178. t)] Then characteristic impedance. = 50 volts. 4] TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES 43 4. and ±(0.159 wavelength.8. long and terminated in its characteristic impeduniform transmission line 50 ance delivers 1250 watts of radio frequency power to its terminal load. and substituting this into the expression for dWL shows that dW L = dWc .251 at z = 300 ft.t) V2 = 0. make a graph of the phasor amplitude of the voltage as a function of position along the line. or 89 ft. From these data the graph is easily drawn.0353 rad/ft.632)3 = ±0. 4.61 X 10 j3 3 nepers/ft. transmission line 400 ft long has an attenuation of 4. The ordinates of the envelopes are ±1. t) = v(z. Determine (a) the attenuation factor of the line and (6) the efficiency of the line as a transmission system. t)p. ±(0. if there are no reflected waves on the line v(z.7.686) = 4. For any lossless transmission line {R = G = 0) terminated in its characteristic impedthat ance. with the axis crossings at the equally spaced intervals ±«°«i = ±0.632)2 = ±0.000 miles/sec. t)/y/t/C.7 the input signal has a phasor amplitude 6 of 50 volts at the frequency of 5. The line is terminated nonreflectively. transmission line of Problem 4. The wave \ = v p /f = (170. 4. \e~i»*\ = 1.00 x 10 Hz.00db/(100ft) at its operating frequency of 5.7. The energy stored in an inductance L carrying an instantaneous transmission of the dz length 2 of a Hence the energy stored in the inductance is L = lL [i(t)] stored in the capacitance line at any coordinate z at any time t is dWL = \h dz [i(z.632) 4 z = 100 ft.e. Note that the voltage initially increases negatively as z increases from zero.000 X \ 5280)/(5 X 10 6 ) = 178 ft and = 2ir/\ = 0. If for the From is equation given by problem ^t is the upper envelope of the graph of Problem the phasor amplitude of the voltage as a function of position on the line But e«* =«"«*. and f rorn^ the data of the \V\ = \Vj\ \e~<**\ e"»*.
from t = 0.686 X 50) = 2. The line runs for 4000 and is terminated by the input terminals of an amplifier with a gain of 50 db.12. and that vp = = yL/C . On a common time scale extending from * = voltage as a function of time at (a) the input terminals of the line. The attenuation of each transmission line section in decibels is 0.07 X 10 8 = 2tr/\ = ft/sec.07.07 X 10 8 )/(144 X 10 6 ) = 5.373 microhenries/ft. The total attenuation of the system is then 3 X 34. ).686 = X 103 nepers/ft. Attenuation is positive when gain is negative. 4. attenuations and ampligains are algebraically additive.7 . the input and output impedances of the amplifier being equal to the characteristic impedance of the line. L = Z /vp = 300/(8.82 X 3. the decibel value is found to be —1. the rms output voltage V0Vit for the system is given by 4. At the television frequency of 144 MHz. 4 total attenuation of the line in decibels is 10 log 10 (1600/1250) = 1.0 sin (2jrl0 4 t — jr) to the input terminals of a 30 mile length of uniform transmission line whose attenuation is 0. The specifications for a form of "Twin Lead" plastic insulated parallel wire transmission line used as leadin wire from television receiving antennas are: characteristic impedance = 300 ohms.12) that Z approximations.) (b) The efficiency of the line as a transmission system is defined in the usual manner appropriate to any passive twoport device. (b) the midpoint of the line. which is followed by a second identical amplifier and a third 4000 length of the same transmission line.44 The TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES (a) [CHAP.0 sin 3. (c) The phasor voltage at any coordinate z is given in terms of the phasor voltage at the input terminals of the line by equation (4. When expressed in nepers or decibels. . that give it a net gain.182 milliseconds sin 2n10 4 (i .0010 X 4000 X 8. (so Clearly a < /?. 4.000 miles/sec. Ans.0010 nepers/m.028/8. attenuation = 2.1 = 20 log 10 2.0. The line is terminated in its characteristic to t = 0. . Using these C = l/VpZ = 1/(8.07. A transmission system with active elements.7 db.3%..50/Vout  or Fout = 1.60 ft. as efficiency = (output power)/(input power) X 100%. such as amplifiers.1 picofarads/ft Supplementary Problems 4.010 nepers/mile.3 milliseconds.1 db. Since the signal velocity is 82% = 0.0. graph the impedance. (c) the terminal load end of the line.3 milliseconds.13. 0. signal velocity = 82%. The final transmission line section is terminated in its characteristic impedance.091 milliseconds from t = 0.12 rad/ft.3 milliseconds.11.3 sin 2n10 4 (« from t = to t = 0. What is the signal voltage at the final terminal load impedance? m m m fier Attenuation is loss or negative gain. and p 3.07 X 10 8 ) = 0.07 X 10 8 X 300) = 4.07/(8. The attenuation factor is then a — 1. the attenuation factor of the line is a = 0.938 F. (a) v(t) (6) v(t) (c) v(t) = = —5. and on which the signal velocity is 165.16). This is equivalent to saying that the transmission line as a system element has a gain of —1.3 milliseconds.7). A switch is closed at t = to connect a signal voltage v(t) = 5.56 volts rms 4. Then JV (» = 25) =  Vj «247 x io» x 25 = 0. to ( t to = = 0.7 4.22 1.091 X 10~3). In this case it is (1250/1600) X 100 = 78.07 db. and vice versa.50 volts rms is connected to the input terminals of a uniform transmission line whose attenuation at the signal frequency is 0. A signal of 2. is commonly said to have negative attenuation.182 X 10~ 3 2jt10 4 £.47 X 10~ 3 nepers/m. (If the power ratio is taken as 1250/1600.28 = 8.8 db/(100 f t) at 144 MHz.00 X 10 8 X 3. This justifies the approximation from equation (4. The output of the amplifier is connected to the input terminals of another 4000 length of the same transmission line. the wavelength \ on the line is \ = v /f= (8.2 X 50 = From equation (4. The magnitudes of the corresponding voltages are related by \V\ = \V 1 \e«*. Find approximate values for the distributed circuit coefficients L and C for the cable.686 = 34.10) that /J = ayLC 1/y/LC ) and the approximation from equation (4.
= 0. 4 18 ' ' and is terminated in its charactertransmission line has an attenuation factor 0. (a) If is 1. Voltage applications it is often desired other many and characteristic impedance.050 nepers/mile be efficiency of power transmission by the line the will line of length what For impedance. Graph the voltage pattern on the line at (a) t The Ans. L.93 line? of length a of such 50%? What is the attenuation in decibels A 4. initial of 0.000906 termination? Referring to equation coefficients (i. 4. (a) v(z) (6) «(«) = = 5 at z 0. points of a circuit operating at 50 For standard RG/58U MHz delay? would the signal voltage be reduced while undergoing the assuming the line terminated in its value. (In radar circuits The numerical answers to this microseconds. The signal velocity on the line is 80% of the free space 0. all of = VgJr/C. 96 < z < 120 m.05 microseconds.2 milliwatts.L.4). R.19. 416 From consideration of equation (4. v(t) is given by: v{t) velocity of electromagnetic waves. * > 0. < 96 m.12) will be real if the phase will be true if L/R . 4 22 If the relation line. few of a order the of times to delay a signal by Mechanical delay lines. = = < z < 12 m. the for inefficient problem explain why cables are awkward and These require solids. = Ryfcjh = VRG. Z as given by equation U. v(z) v{z) = 0. 4 21. (6) t = 0. with 0. R.12) show Z of a uniform transmission line cannot lie of ordinary passive materials (i.0 combination of parallel What frequency? same the what is its characteristic admittance at a nonreflective provide would on the line resistance and capacitance connected as terminal load microfarads.1 * < < = 10**). two of the spedfications plastic dielectric flexible coaxial transmission is 2.00253 + j0. impedance of a transmission line at a frequency of 5.) and form mechanical into signal transducers at each end to convert the electrical 4 20 If the characteristic kHz is 350 . (a) Z = 240 ohms. R/L = G/C exists among show that « which are independent of frequency. 3.7 db/lOOlt of 50 frequency at a attenuation the are that the signal velocity is 66% and that between two microseconds 1.0 db.5 microseconds.133 to reduced be would Ans 650 ft. tor This denominator. v(z) = 0. and Z = = 1/VZC q VUC . z > v(s) = 10(z/24 . are commonly used in waves sound of velocity lower much involving the back. 120 m. purpose. terminated impedance Z and are all line is terminated transmission first the as the terminal load of the first transmission line. seconds. t < 0. negligible losses branches at its transmission line of characteristic impedance 80 + JO ohms and have the same characteristic all load terminals into three secondary transmission lines which are connected in parallel terminals input Their nonreflectively. « = 0.00 delay a signal by If it were desired to use a length of this cable to what factor and by required be would cable of length what MHz. z > 12 m.12).00 volts rms on the magnitude voltage phasor the If (b) t Z value of nonreflectively. 0. 4] TRAVELING HARMONIC WAVES 45 4 14 transmission line 300 meters long signal voltage connected to the input terminals of a lossless v(t) = 0. vp ^transmission the distributed circuit coefficients of a uniform = VrJG.G and C must exist among the four distributed circuit line at any frequency <o rad/sec to make the transmission of a uniform what ratio relations characteristic impedance Z real? angle of the numerator term on the Ans. 4 15. 10(1 0. Ans.0288 parallel in ohms 395 mhos.J125 ohms.e. right is equal to the phase angle of the any value of w. characteristic Show < 1) (1 and terminated in its  2al) X lOOTfc. (6) Power to each terminal load = 4.17. what is the power delivered to the A secondary transmission lines? Ans. 6. line.C/Cr. istic miles. (al that for a uniform transmission line of low total attenuation is given by transmission power of efficiency the impedance. 5 + Bz/12. what is the terminal load impedances of each of the first transmission line.CHAP. G that the phase angle of the characteristic impedance outside the range 45° to +45° for a line constructed and C all positive and real).1 micromicroseconds. Ans.
is also discussed. in turn. for a wide variety of line constructions. G and C at that frequency. Transmission line engineering consists of designing transmission lines to meet desired operating specifications. L. G and C that will give desired values of a. G and C and the physical structure of a line are developed. or various aspects of mechanical behavior. Transmission line analysis. The nature of transmission line problems. G 5. phase factor and characteristic impedance of any uniform line can be determined from its geometry and materials. In Chapter 4 it has been shown that the propagation of voltage and current waves along a uniform transmission line at angular frequency o> is completely described by the attenuation factor a. and of the dielectric between them or surrounding them. tion to these wave propagation characteristics may include ratings for voltage breakdown. It might therefore be expected that appropriate design formulas should directly relate the physical attributes of a line to its wave propagation behavior. and the characteristic impedance Zo = R + jX when there are no reflected waves present. Polar number solutions.L. the attenuation factor.2.1. Such expressions can indeed be constructed. In Chapter 6 the functional relations between R. and the ultimate signal propagation characteristics. This chapter deals with practical algebraic and numerical processes for evaluating p and Zo for a transmission line at angular frequency <o from the values of R.1) 46 . L. The statement of these specifications will usually include values of the characteristic impedance Z the attenuation factor a. p and Z are expressed in terms of the distributed circuit coefficients of the line at angular frequency a>. appears to be best comprehended when the distributed circuit coefficients R. by the equations . but their complexity makes their solution mathematically awkward. The reverse problem. L. temperature rise at full load. mission line analysis. or conversely.Chapter 5 Propagation Characteristics and Distributed Circuit Coefficients 5. p and Zo. and the phase factor p (or phase velocity v p ) that must be provided at one or more signal frequencies. a line can be designed to provide desired values of those operating parameters. Detailed discussion of these nonpropagation features of transmission lines is outside the scope of this book. When the results of this chapter are combined with those of Chapter 6. y = a + jp = ^/{R + jo>L){G + j<»C) (5. crosssectional configuration and materials of the line conductors. a. The final solution of a practical transmission line problem will be in the form of a set of prescribed data for the dimensions. finding R. The quantities «. Requirements in addi. and they provide poor insight into the consequences of varying any of the individual design parameters. The experience of several decades seems to suggest that the best foundation for the practice of transmission line design is a thorough familiarity with the results of transand C are used as an intermediate step between the physical data of dimensions and materials. the phase factor /?.
686 = = 0.4° = 0.29 micromhos/mile 0. in the above example.2. *>L. its deviation from 90°) in determining the phase angles and O means that the attenuation of most practical transmission conductance G usually lines is due largely to the distributed resistance R.= 1/1 ^ _.3° of angle.29 2 + 54.0° . G and «C are likely to have for virtually all types of transmission lines over frequencies from kilohertz to gigahertz.g. and the distributed occur at very low fremakes little or no contribution to it.0° + 89.00534 nepers/mile = 0.57 X 10* ) = 2. + .74 tani 54  7Xl °~r) 6 X10/ 0. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS 47 obvious that for any set of values of R. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS.4° = 650 cos (8. *o .<oC tan ^ Example The distributed circuit coefficients of a parallel wire polemounted telephone line with copper conspaced 12 in. x = 0.88 X 1Q*) X 0. or the local variations in X  therefore generally of little importance.29 (73.6.4° Then a P Vp and \Z ffo \ R X = 0. . X .4°) = 95 ohms ) ) 0.500 miles/sec = V (6.00534 X 8.742 + (2. numbers complex the of quotient and product the operation. at that frequency.74 ohms/mile 0.1 2 1/2 x 106/(0.0356 cos 81. The dominant role of the phase angle of R + j<»L (i.36 /( n  5.0087 microfarads/mile line Find the attenuation. quencies of a few hertz or extremely high frequencies of several is xf. effect on the calculated values of p.9.29 micromhos/mile.7°) = \ 2 V = 81. and would change a and line is often variable transmission The fact that the shunt conductance coefficient G of a rain or ice on a of effect the with time or not amenable to simple theoretical treatment (e.CHAP.91 X a 5.128 ductors R — L = at a frequency of 1000 Hz. C and <* these equations can be solved To in a straightforward manner by the standard methods of complex number algebra.1. L.00352 henries/mile G = C = 0.0356/mile * * X 0. The arithmetical operations to be performed are: It is a = y COS if/.0352 rad/mile = u /p = 6283/0. This is a very typical illustration of the relative values that R. «)C tan_1 ~G = <o \Z ) \ cos O. between centers are diameter in in.0352 = 178. while the difference from 90° of the phase angle of R + j<»L is about fifty times as great. + jp ^201 . where 5. G.7 2 i/2 = 650 ohms = (73. 0.00352)2}i/2 x {(0.4°) = 643 ohms = 650 sin (8.0)1/ (tan^g.0217 /Gr/2 . phase velocity and characteristic impedance of the 1000 y  = V (6.742 + 22.4. (3 = * \y\ sin 1 ifr where and y = VW+^W^W+^C^. Z  = / ^ (R Q2 \ 2 + L + ^'yn 2 2 1/2 . those Using rad. values.78 X lQ« ) . given distributed circuit coefficients at that frequency are with the The magnitudes and phase angles of R + i«L and G + j<*C were determined in Example 4.e.0434 db/mile In this example the phase angle of G + j<»C differs from 90° by only 0.0356 sin 81. Z or R .v v . would have no Setting G = Q by only 2%. »r/2 from phase angles expressed in terms of their small deviations 10=* ) = /(^/2 . Xo = n sin 6 .09 /(tt/2  2.29 X 10"6) 2 + (2v X 1000 X 0. = y 4.89.9. pair cable) twisted paperinsulated polemounted open wire line. page Example in 4. Exceptions are most likely to gigahertz.4° = 0. = % \Zo\ tan i " 1 a>L .0087 X 10«)2}i /2 = j 2\ + Ytan*^ ^ 6. instead of 0. Example transmission line whose Find the attenuation and phase velocity at a frequency of 100 MHz for the 35. perform the square root involving the distributed circuit coefficients must be brought to polar form.  6.7°) = 8. #o /.
and at high frequencies approaches asymptotically a constant fraction of <*C which is very small compared to unity. control data. is too small at low frequencies to affect the propagation characteristics of any line.) Equations (5. X 5. conditions that can always be met at some value of frequency for any transmission line provided R and G do not themselves increase with frequency as rapidly as the first power of the frequency. Then a + jp = 5.2) by the use of polar numbers. 5.„ u//3 X IO. Thus in solving equation (5.*) Z When = Ro + jXo + R/j»L) 1 '* (1 + G/j»C) in ( 5 *) 1 are satisfied.2) can be rewritten in the form + jp = > Vlc (i + RijoLy* (i + G/j«cy = y/L/C (1 /2 (*.1) by polar number arithmetic. although usually increasing linearly with frequency. The two techniques are complementary in that the method of Section 5. the calculations are in many cases made more quickly and conveniently using derivations that avoid complex numbers. the imaginary terms of each the inequalities «L/R > 1 and t»C/G of the expressions in parentheses on the right are very small compared to unity. and equating real and imaginary terms respectively on the two sides of each equation. For cases in which the smallangle approximations are valid. Although it is always possible to solve (5.3.1) and a (5.2) which are most effective when the phase angles of R + juL and G + j^C are not close to 90°.2). which would be zero where the values of if R and G were both zero.09 rad/m = S '°° nnn „. indeas realnumber functions of pendent explicit relations are obtained for a. and voice frequency telephony.4 develops perfectly general real number solutions of (5. with or without the help of smallangle approximations when applicable. since the sine of this angle to the radian deviation of the angle 1. The "highfrequency" solutions. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS is [CHAP. while G. trigonometric tables are not needed. Ro and at small frequency intervals in the range of low frequencies used for transmission of teletype signals. R and G were responsible only for the appearance of a small and unimportant reactance component Xo in the result. Hence =. Ro and Section 5. but the real part of y is of prime interest no matter R how small it may be relative to the imaginary part.Ro and > X .1) and (5.09 m _1 . (It is shown in Chapter 6 that R is independent of frequency at low frequencies and increases as the square root of the frequency at high frequencies.1) and (5.3 can be used only at frequencies above some minimum value for any particular transmission line.05 X lO" 3 db/m a = 5.81 . Section 5. The latter method is particularly advantageous for making a series of calculations of a.48 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. 5 Again.4 lacks precision unless the frequency is below a value that is specific for each line. p.na X 108 m/seC i In contrast with the earlier calculation for the characteristic impedance of this same line. are The conditions that produce phase angles near 90° for the terms R + j<»L and G + >C a>L > R and wC > G. The imaginary part of Z is of no practical concern if it is small compared to the real part. p. Expanding these expressions by the binomial theorem. it is evident in this analysis that R and G determine the value of the highly important attenuation factor a. X . it is much more important to retain full significant figure precision in expressing the phase angles of + j<*L and G + jatC than in solving equation (5. while the method of Section 5.000 and the cosine is equal from v/2.81 X 10~ 4 + .3 shows that very simple approximate real number expressions can be found for each of a.p. performing the indicated multiplications.2.4 nepers/m 10 8 V » = = 2v X rad/sec 2.
5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. known «hf = 1R/Z + *GZ (5. L. P could be adjusted to make this factor equal to zero.G/2 W G) {1 .1) if of being zero could approximation for Ro could amount to as much as H%.« Zohf where the = **>* = 1I^ = Ron = VLIC Xohf = W {5 10) ' (5. It is apparent that if a transmission be indewould and Ro = v «/£. v P and Z from the distributed the sure make to checked be quency . as the "high frequency approximations" are The resulting expressions. of freindependent themselves are pendent of frequency (to the extent that R. of independent would be zero. depends on the actual values of R.9). Furthermore.9) ". and a line whose any of signals transmits it since line". and Xo instead be as great as 10% of Ro.10) will differ by the error in the conditions same these For 5. and Before kilohertz hundred may be useful for them only when the frequency is above a few at frecoefficients circuit using (5.8) indicates that any fixed set the approximate high of four all in accuracy and a>C/G will not provide the same both « and p (or y p ) for calculations approximate frequency formulas.. then all the terms being (X Q be dropped. line are in Although the propagation characteristics of the Heaviside distortionless designed line importance.a/^7^ (^/2^ . G transmission lines the and on the accuracy desired in the result. and «. G and C themselves being independent of frequency. + 3G/2«C)} 2 2 Xo = . of values for the ratios Inspection of equations (5.G/2<oC). L. C and «.3) to {5. the unavoidable frequency dependence maintained with high be cannot relation Heaviside circuit coefficients means that the One X A precision over a large signal bandwidth. of use its in uneconomical to meet this specification turns out to be of some of the distributed inefficient. will qualify as a "high" frequency and justify the use of and C for a particular line. proportions is known as a "Heaviside distortionless time pattern without change of wave shape. the case is electrically and materials. It was first these obey coefficients circuit distributed Oliver Heaviside in the 1880's. making Z real and quency). these simplified equations. If terms in the expansion as far as ^ (R/jo>L) 2 and (G/j<»C) 2 are retained.12) to evaluate a. MR ratios can is that if The more important conclusion that can be drawn from equations {5.9) and (5.6) these involving and o>C/G are sufficiently large compared to unity. MR MR . and noticed by among the coefficients required to achieve this result is R/L = GIC.G and C relation The frequency. the values of the ratios L/R and a>C/G must always The minimum frequency that approximate formulas will have the needed accuracy. Ro and X are again independent of frequency zero).i[(^/2cL) + 2(R/2«L)(G/2a>C) + 5(G/2<oC) ]} #o ( 5 7)  (5.U) (5W) result of (5.CHAP. the given by equation values the from than 1% less from equations (5.8) contains the term of the most obvious features of these four equations is that each coefficients circuit distributed line's (R/2*L . L. «/£.5) to (5.ff) results are = mVm + w^lIC){1 /? i(«/2«L  G/2o>C) 2 } = *t/LC{1 + £(#/2<oL  G/2<oC) 2 } = VE7C{l + i(B/2JLG/2«C)(B/aj:. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS 49 R.9) to (5.L. than and JCIG are both greater (5. For example.11) has been incorporated in (5. For some open wire a few kilohertz. above approximate formulas are adequately accurate at all frequencies formulas approximate the Coaxial lines have lower ratios of L/R and C/G in general. practical no or little of themselves highly desirable. G. the (*•*) (5. still subject to R. then «.
(6) L= What X X 296 microhenries/mile. it increases with frequency more rapidly than R does.00 megahertz are a. 14. v p and Ro. from values of R and G appropriate to each frequency. on the other hand. From equations (5. The estimates listed above are for the least favorable case. but the calculations may be good enough for many applications if these ratios exceed 4 or 5.10).00 2. because of the term (R/2a>L .111 microfarads/mile.5 ohms/mile. Z first. as is usually the case. are the values of a. However.50 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS.5 = 152 uC/G = (2v 10 6 )(0.6) 0. R and G.237 + %GZ + 0. This angle will diminish as the frequency increases.9). when G represents lossiness in dielectric insulation or supports. It must be evaluated at suitable intervals of frequency.2 X 10 ~ 6 X 51. Example 5.3. G might contribute at least a few percent of the total attenuation.5/(2 X 51.00 X 10« v (296 X 10. It is shown in Chapter 6 that for most transmission lines of engineering interest. The attenuation factor a is a linear function of each and hence cannot be considered a "constant" of a line over any appreciable range of frequencies. circuit coefficients for a certain coaxial transmission line at its operating frequency of R= 24. (a) Are the approximate high frequency formulas accurate enough for X.111 X 10~«)/(14. of several gigahertz. The distributed circuit coefficients Although the reactance component X of the characteristic impedance is also to a first approximation a linear function of R or G (in equation (5. 5 Conservatively. G= vp .G/2 W C). at It is then true that for all operating frequencies which the ap proxi mate transmission line formulas are the characteristic impedance Z ( = R = y/L/C) and the phase velocity v v ( = Jp = literally "constants" of the line.6) + £(14. and for this same transmission line at gigahertz frequencies. Consequently no attention need be paid to the behavior of Xo (or the phase angle of Z ) as the frequency increases beyond the minimum value for which Xo is acceptably small. the distributed circuit coefficients L and C may be very precisely independent of frequency over the entire range of frequencies from a few tens or hundreds of kilohertz up to micro wave frequencies above the valid. the accuracy of the approximate formulas is considerably increased. it can be said that the four approximate formulas are all sufficiently accurate for practical purposes if both a>L/R and a>C/G are greater than 10.00 megahertz. <*L/R = (2tt X X 2. The distributed 2.111 X lO" 6 ) = 72. If the two ratios are nearly equal. it is in addition inversely proportional to frequency. /?.2 X 106) = 98.2 micromhos/mile and C= 0. At frequencies for which the approximate high frequency formulas give adequate accuracy for the calculations of a.200 Hence the approximate formulas (6) will be extremely accurate.6 + jO ohms «hf = = i^/^o 0.11) and Z0ht = y/L/C + From equation (5.00 106)(296 X 10"»)/24.6 )(0.8)). for minimum frequency 1/y/LC) are quite any particular line. since its value is needed in calculating a. where one of the ratios has the minimum value stated and the other is much larger. so that it is usually sufficient to check the value of the latter. this At losses caused From equation /? hf (5.12). DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS [CHAP. increase steadily and considerably with frequency.00037 = = 24. the value of Xo will correspond to a phase angle for Z not exceeding a few degrees. = <*Vl~C = / 2v X 2. Almost invariably o>C/G is much larger than uL/R.0 rad/mile . calculating vp and Z at the stated frequency? R and XQ at that frequency? (o) At 2.111 X 10~ 6 ) + jO = 51. jO  V(296 X 106)/(0.237 nepers/mile moderately low frequency the losses caused by G are typically very small compared with the by R. It is advisable to calculate (5.
periodic. G and C of frequencies of forms of tant statements can be made that provide a basis for further classification is statements The justification for these solution of equations (5.300 miles/sec) must be attributed to the presence of insulating material. G/2aC) 152)  1/(2 X 98. > 1. from which to determine the behavior of the line from a few hertz to several gigahertz.1) and (5.G Z and Q can be expected to of y selves vary with frequency. at very high frej'O will change from t/R/G + jO at very low frequencies to yfhlC + The changes with more.0 = 0. or quencies. each varies with frequency in individual ways quantities and for different reasons. and C do not themInspection of equations (5. L.) fre(2) coefficients of a line for transmission used remain effectively constant usually includes the frequencies regularly of a line factors propagation data and telegraph signals.L and C several tens of kilohertz.0873 miles. In spite of this limitation two impor Because of. value The experience large fluctuations as the frequency rises from zero.51. page 46.6[l/(2 X = 5. it is never possible to state a single set of values of these over a range for any transmission line. The fact that this using the That the imaginary part of Z is indeed negligible can be checked first terms in equation {5. the constant or small enough to have no effect on the propagation behavior of latter case G is considered to be constant and equal to zero. which. this fact that R. coefficients at the specified lowest frequency as at the specified frequency. P the which specified frequency.0 = 174. However.VL/C(R/2o>L . and the distributed conductance (In the line. the magnitudes and phase angles of Z for example. This is equivalent to saying that R in more rapidly than the first power of the frequency. . If a MR MG For any transmission line there is a range of low frequencies starting at zero kilohertz or quency (dc) and extending typically to a frequency in the region of several coefficients R. developed in Chapter (1) 6. throughout which the distributed circuit G is either have constant values independent of frequency. which is true for all materials used practical transmission lines.L. it would in formulas quency approximate use the same data in attempting to find the lowest frequency at to legitimate general not be since the values of L and R might not be the same at that ^ <»L/R 10. In such problems the ratios o>L/R and »CIG can be evaluated frequency to determine whether or not the simplified high fremay be used for the calculations. G and C at a calculated were Z and v factors propagation «. L. line's p. for example. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. used to support the center conductor of the line.500 miles/sec phase velocity is somewhat below the free space velocity of electromagnetic waves whether continuous or (186. Each of the examples presented so far in this chapter has provided transmission line single data in the form of values for the distributed circuit coefficients R. from from the at that frequency.2) shows that even when R.1) and (5. with frequency in this range are therefore of interest. so that the high fre> 1 and frequency is found for which continue quency approximate solutions can be used at that frequency. The variations of the The range of low frequencies over which the distributed circuit of voice.4.17 ohms Solutions in the transition ranges of frequency.2).CHAP.(2tt X 2. to a good approximation by XQ = . and vp = u/p . and these values may differ by a factor of 10 or 100 occur from transitions frequency will occur most rapidly in the frequency ranges where the ..00 X 10 6 )/72.8). DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS X 51 Then = 2ir/£ = 2jt/72. then the inequalities and G never increase to hold for all higher frequencies. —0.300)] from (a) above.
86 ohms/mile./3. (c) a + jp v = = V(86 u/p + = i86)(13. On the other hand. uL/R = 1 at 13.010) = (0. L = 1.74 = 116.010 (2tt + . It has been seen that aC/G = 390 for all frequencies above a few hertz. and G is assumed determined by the line in a telephone cable are constant over the L and C law of variation stated for (a) (6) it? The frequency / at which «L =R is given by 2^/(1.026)/0. wC = 2v X 1000(0. Hence the transition frequencies for the term G + jaC generally lie in a region of no practical interest. The two transition ranges of frequency are determined by distinctly different aspects of a transmission line. while the latter is larger by a factor of several hundred or several thousand.7 kilohertz.00016)(0.00 X 10~ 3 ) = 86 from which / = 13. Example 5. (/) Z0M = yjLIC + jO = 127 + jO ohms.7 (2ir X 10" 6 + j'0. v p and Z Q by the high frequency approximate formulas at the frequency found in (e). The distributed of a 19 gauge paperinsulated twistedpair transmission frequency range from dc to 30 kilohertz. and a value of about 100 kilohertz would appear to be a reasonable estimate. what are the values of the same five quantities? (e) What estimate can be made of the lowest frequency above which the high frequency approximate solutions for a. /?.062 X 10~ 6 ) = 0.700)70.0053) = (0.v p and Z will be reasonably accurate? (/) What values are given for a./3.'0. These trends continue at higher frequencies.00042 6 = 390 miles/sec Ro (e) + iXo = 6 V (O. The minimum frequency at which the approximate high frequency formulas should be used is therefore governed entirely by the variation with frequency of the term uL/R. having the values R . and L will have fallen by a few percent. The estimated minimum frequency for using the high frequency approximate formulas might therefore be increased to about 200 kilohertz.010 micromhos/mile.000 ohms The high frequency approximate formulas will be usefully accurate at frequencies for which u>L/R and uC/G exceed about 5 or 10.000 miles/sec Ro (d) + 3X a 6 V l3. This will occur at a frequency / given by 2?r/(0. a value at 1 kilohertz of approximately 1. while those for the term R + J&L may be of considerable importance. At 1 kilohertz.52 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. R will have risen about 35% above its constant low frequency value. Using the value of G at 200 kilohertz. and the magnitudes change from the magnitudes of the real parts to the magnitudes of the imaginary parts. The distributed conductance G has a dc value of 0. since in these frequency ranges the phase angles of the terms G + jo>C and R + jo>L change from approximately zero to approximately 90°. the ratio taCIG will be constant at this value of 390. if R.0 micromhos/mile.4. Hence the condition uC = G can be reached only at a frequency so low that G has attained its constant dc value.31 + .062 X 10 6 ) = 390 micromhos/mile. More exact information in Chapter 6 about the variation of R and L with frequency for a transmission line using 19 gauge copper wires shows that at a frequency of 100 kilohertz. « hf '"phf = \RIZq + %GZ Q = 0. and o>C/G = 390.026 hertz.v p .062 microfarads/mile. C = 0.7 kilohertz and is directly proportional to frequency in the frequency range where L and R are constant. 5 o>C/G < 1 to oiC/G > 1 and from o>L/R < 1 to o>L/R > 1.74) miles" 1 X 13. For most lines the former frequency is of the order of one hertz or less.00102 + j'0.010 X 106 or / = 0.01 = 0.0.35 nepers/mile = 1/VLC = 127.7Xl0 "^+Vo053 V(86 «//? = 14 0^8ohms X 10~ 6 + j/3 = = vp + = j0. They can be thought of as extending approximately one decade above and one decade below the frequencies at which &C = G and wL = R.00 millihenries/mile.R and Z ? (d) At the frequency for which uC = G.000 miles/sec .00042) miles" 1 X 0. what are the values of a. (a) At what frequency is aL = Rt (b) At what frequency is wC = Gt (c) At the frequency for which uL = R. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS [CHAP.34 + 0. Over the frequency range in which G is directly proportional to frequency. respectively. L and C are assumed to have their constant low frequency values at that frequency.OlO +^0i°0 )°x io^ = 72.000  i30. circuit coefficients R. and is directly proportional to frequency for frequencies above about 20 hertz.
it would of course always be legitimate to freany and Z at the simplified high frequency approximate formulas to determine a. the imaginary terms. delay or phase and distortion amplitude means that such signals would suffer serious transmission uniform simple any of lengths transmitted over considerable .1) is a complex number equation.2) yields explicit expressions for R and Xo as with all four of the resulting expressions. phase when it is desired to trace the variations with frequency of the of low frequencies in which the velocity and characteristic impedance through the range constant. This is because the is much kilohertz) used (200 at which the high frequency approximate formulas should be coefficients circuit distributed higher than the highest frequency (30 kilohertz) at which the between these two R. However.2 LC 2a/3 = <»CR + <aLG 5 13 )  \ • ) .p 2 = RG . DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS 53 lowest frequency formulas can be considered to be of useful accuracy.G of values the provided kilohertz. ?p* + 2jap a2 = RG<o 2 LC + o> j{u>CR + <»LG) ( From From the real terms. even though the of this particular simplicity of the calculations in part (/) is alluring.5 gives further between the two frequencies at line of the propagation factors of the same transmission X in the range and Ro a. distortion when In practice these distortions are counteracted approximation techniques for solving In addition to the polar number and high frequency which is particularly useful equations (5.4 provide a typical illustration line transmission of a factors propagation enormous difference between the values of all the higher much the at values the and at the low transition frequency of the term G + j*C detail on the variation transition frequency of the term R + >L. the percent Both v p and Z for this particular transmission line will change by several frequency high frequency range from 200 kilohertz to 100 megahertz. C obtain explicit expressions for « and p as functions of functions of the same quantities applied to (5. R. L. of the The results of parts (c) and (d) in Example 5. L and C remain constant at their low frequency values. L reaches a constant high frequency value only at frequencies above about 100 megahertz. one relating the real parts on the two solved simultaneously to imaginary parts. the other relating the pendent equations. by the periodic insertion in the transtransfer functions are complemission line of lumpedelement equalizing networks whose networks.1). it must constant and independent at frequencies above 200 kilohertz the values of v P and Zo become the distributed inductance of frequency. be written as two indeEquation (5. a third form of solution is available attenuation factor. but for the data approximate frequency problem none of the propagation factors determined from the high The m approximate formulas are valid throughout this range. v p employed were the and C R. and the distributed condistributed circuit coefficients R.CHAP. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS.L and C are effectively The method is well suited to computer ductance G is small enough to be neglected. frequency low other and teletype of frequencies used for transmission of voice. It can therefore sides. These two independent equations can then be The same procedure and «. It is true that at all frequencies of R and G and are functions hertz.1) and (5. The disparity are practical there and data. . It is shown in Chapter 6 that for this 19 gauge line.2). v of frequency P transition frequencies. quency above about 200 above 200 kilovalues at the frequency of the calculation. G.L. mentary to those of the line sections between line. Example 5. It turns out that the same terms occur in permutations of signs. Squaring both sides of c {5. frequencies is not a universal feature of transmission line transmission lines for which the gap between the two disappears. v P and Z for this line are no longer affected by the values not be concluded that only of the distributed circuit coefficients L and C. programming. The large variations with signals. use For the cable pair of the above example.
2) never lose sight of the magnitudes and phase angles of the terms R + >>L and G + jo>C. employing small angle approximations when necessary.Ro and for any transmission line at any frequency. It might seem logical therefore that they would constitute the preferred method of calculating a. 5 Eliminating /?.12).1) and (5. vp R hertz.18) are not the universal equations they complementary to the high frequency approximate equations (5.18) lack convenience. The same indeterminacy occurs in (5. determined by the relative values of R. which shows that is positive if the phase angle of the numerator is greater than the phase angle of the denominator.000 .18) have been derived from (5. might appear therefore that equations (5. but in the development of equation (5.15) to (5.p. X In the first place. from the distributed circuit coefficients R. and conversely. Secondly.18) information about the sign of Xo has been lost in the various squaring and square root operations. This is likely to be true for most transmission lines at low frequencies.9) to (5.1 below shows how the various separate terms of equations (5. Xo is positive.5.JLC . This is because the term under the square root sign and the term <* 2 LC become very nearly equal. 300. and of greater importance. The latter provide the simplest solutions to (5. X Equations (5.1) and (5. There are two principal reasons why this is not so. and the expressions on the right contain their own instructions as to the polar number operations to be performed. there would be no perceptible change in the calculated results.1) and (5. 2 C2 . It is clear to be. = {i[V(R 2 + 2L 2 )(G 2 + 2 C2 = {$[V(R 2 + 2 L 2 )(G 2 + 2 C2 + ) <» o> <* ) o> LC + RG]} 1/2 2 LC .2). for calculations at a single frequency equations (5.18) Xo can have either sign.15) to (5. They are difficult to remember. Table 5.54 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS.15) to (5.15) to (5. but this is of no consequence since it is merely saying that Xo is small.000 100.2) result in Ro = 1 ^2 + aH? (*[V(^ + *2L2 )(G ^2 + M C ^^(^ 2 2 2 + » 2 c2 + ) ) <» 2L C + *<?] > 1/2 (**?) Xo = ±1 2 + 2 L 2 )(G 2 + . It must be determined by an additional direct reference to equation (5. 3000. are more easily remembered because they are so basic. 10. The significant figures for their difference disappear.15) gives an indeterminate answer for a.1) and (5.14).18) under the same conditions. although their difference is in general greater than the residual term RG. and 30. vp R and were used everywhere. Calculations using (5. For the 19 gauge paperinsulated twistedpair telephone cable transmission line whose distributed and X at frequencies of circuit coefficients are given in Example 5. For most practical transmission lines o>C/G > <aL/R.4. It will be noted that if G = values for G given by the original data of the problem. The fundamental equations (5. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS first [CHAP. then a /? a. 1000.2) without making any approximations. instead of the priate combinations of these terms.2) when the ratios and a C/G are greater than 5 or 10. L. X . /3. while the former provide workable solutions when these ratios are less than 5 or 10. a. find the values of a.RG}}" 2 co (5. C and «.RG}} 2 2 1' (5. . and the arithmetic involved provides numerous opportunities for trivial errors.1 8) are convenientlyare then easily found from the approevaluated in sequence at the stated frequencies. can be used for any values of the ratios.G and C at that frequency. and it is a simple matter to check the order of magnitude of the final results from the original data. They involve only elementary operations in real number arithmetic. The polar number technique. Thus if o>L/R > taC/G. «. /?.2). equation (5. but are in fact exactly MR Example 5.L.16) Similar operations on (5. at frequencies for which <*L/R > 1 and wCIG > 1. and Xo is negative. from (5.15) (5. G.13) o> and (5. on the other hand.
.134 0.6. If the calculations are opportunities to be made at only the one frequency.p. The low value of the former means that the high frequency approximate formulas would not give usefully accurate results.071 15.B) miles/sec A+ B)ID rad/mile 0.5 and aC/G = 168.6 2.500 1.1) and (5.0 0. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS Table 55 5.37 1000 3000 10.6 2. aL/R = 2.000 30.03 7400 X lO" 5 X lO" 6 X 10~ 3 300 1000 7400 7440 7760 11. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS.5 355 1.45 X lO" 2 X lO" 2 X 10" 1 X 10" 1 3000 10.000 0. they will probably be made most quickly and with fewest for error by the polar number method using equations (5.35 1. or from the transition frequency equations (5.52 • 598 319 172 1000 3000 10.6 y/DE E 100 A 2.2) using polar values for a.072 0.125 0.000 7400 7400 7400 7400 1.000 124.200 300 0. Example 5.30 G 0.00 9. while at the same time the ratio of either of these terms to the term B is increasing.350 X lO" 4 X lO" 3 X lO" 1 X lO" 5 X 10~ 5 2.0 39.01 3.900 2. At a frequency of 1000 hertz the distributed circuit coefficients of a transmission line are R — 10.52 1.37 X 10" 5 X 10" 4 X10~ <o 10 #2 + u2£.20 F 3.29 0.0040 henries/mile.42 a = y/$(F P = A Rq /$(F + — X = Vi(FAB)/D ohms 1030 y/$(FA+B) nepers/mile + A.CHAP.45 2.6 4.2).9) to (5. it is evident that the percentage difference between the terms F and A is diminishing rapidly with increasing frequency.300 26.000 2.R a and numbers.00 9.12).6 8. Although the previously mentioned indeterminacy in the calculations of a and X is not numerically demonstrated at the frequencies covered by the table.55 1.6 2.041 ohms 1060 616 345 100 0.0080 microfarads/mile.52 D* X 10" 9 X 10" 8 X 10" 7 X 10~ 6 X IO1 4 X 10~ 12 X 10~ 12 1.040 0.45 X 10~ 4 X 10" 4 8.000 30.15 42.15) to (5.25 0.37 1.1) and (5.20 X 10~ 2 2.2 2 LC RG B 8.58 1.18)1 L= X At the frequency of 1000 hertz.400 214 147 130 108.1 Frequency hertz G2 (ohms/mile) 2 » 2L2 (ohms/mile) 2 0> 2 C2 (mhos/mile) 2 (mhos/mile) 2 100 300 7400 7400 1.00 X 10~ 14 9.33 46.395 3.000 30. at that frequency be calculated from equations (5.20 0.900 75.36 1.000 75 28 *G is so small that G2 + «ac* = JC2 . ohms/mile.52 1.0 X lO" 10 3950 35.v p . Should micromhos/mile 0.20 X lO" 3 2.1 = and C = 0. from the high frequency approximate equations (5.
For a transmission line with larger conductors the distributed circuit coefficients R and L will vary much more over the same frequency range. At frequencies above about 50 kilohertz both R and a should increase directly as the square root of the frequency.4 51 10. L and C were independent of frequency over the frequency range of the table.500 10.000 182. At 30 kilohertz. Measurements on this line indicate a nominal average value for G of 0. the distributed resistance R does not vary according to any simple law in the frequency range covered by the table.6 3. Some relevant data and results are shown in Table 5. the distributed circuit coefficients R.0092 0.500 182.0 24. and since C is constant and L is very nearly constant for frequencies above that value.29 3. between centers. the ratio of copper sheath crosssectional area to steel core crosssectional area producing a resultant dc conductivity 40% of the value for solid copper conductors of the same outer diameter.0 149. The criteria developed in Chapter 6 show that the constancy of C is reliably established by the properties of insulating media.2 Frequency kilohertz R ohms/mile 9.0093 microfarads/mile. It shows little variation with frequency.2 than for the line of Table 5.2.8 11. For an open wire line the value of G is largely governed by surface leakage at the supporting insulators. the high frequency approximate formulas are quite accurate above a frequency of about 5 kilohertz.1. For the line of Table 5. in fact.2.3 0. and the distributed conductance G was too small to affect the results at any frequency. The values given for the distributed circuit coefficients were determined by experimental measurements at each frequency. and at 13.9 L mH/mile 3. Table 5.0 3. both v v and R show little change at higher frequencies.0085 0. vP Rq and are very much smaller for the transmission line of Table 5. too small to affect any of the results.000 178.0098 0. . 5 The calculations of Table 5. and Xo is small enough to be .7 *The value of C is constant over the frequency range at 0.300 182. L diminishes by about 1% and R increases by 4%.56 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS.24 3.2 for an open wire transmission line consisting of 165 mil diameter coppersteel wires spaced 12 in. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS [CHAP.0211 617 597 591 10. and that for the relatively small wires of this cable pair.50 micromhos/mile at all frequencies. X negligible. but is very much dependent on ambient atmospheric conditions.0 30.0108 0.000 174. For the composite conductors of the line of Table 5.32 3. Up to 10 kilohertz the deviation of R and L from the constant low frequency values is less than \%.2.23 590 589 5 2 140. It is strikingly apparent that over the frequency range 300 hertz to 30 kilohertz.1 were based on the assumption that for the 19 gauge copper conductors of the transmission line involved. This is due to the fact that the upper transition frequency defined by o>L/R = 1 occurs at about 500 hertz for the highinductance lowresistance line of Table 5.0071 miles/sec Rq ohms 731 ohms 386 140 0.38 3.0 16 12. the percentage variations in the propagation factors a.25 G* c* a nepers/mile 0.1.7 kilohertz for the relatively lowinductance highresistance line of Table 5.3 1. the phenomenon of "skin effect" just begins to affect the values of R and L at the top frequencies of the table.
15) to (5.9) to (5.4.3 and 5. At the low frequencies of (2). the value of C may in some cases change by as much as a few percent over several decades of frequency. . Calculations may be made by either the polar number method or the real number equations At frequencies between the highest frequency (5) defined in . For such lines G is usually too small to affect the propagation factors of the line at frequencies below the megahertz or gigahertz region. At low megahertz frequencies the may become of terms two the frequency. Under these conditions vv and Z Q are independent of R and G. within a percent few or less over many decades of frequency. 5. defined in (2) and the lowest frequency no helpful simplifications or quantitative generalizations are available. and Z has a sufficiently small phase angle to be considered real. (5. v p and Z (= R + JO). at which the high frequency mulas may be used.9) for a becomes proportional to the square root of the frequency. for all transmission lines in which G is due to molecular lossiness of dielectric material surrounding or supporting the conductors.18) may be more efficient. and the term \RIZ* in equation According to (4). the value of C may remain constant within 1% from zero freIf there is a continuous solid dielectric associated with the conductors. Summary The and (5. (4) If a line is exposed to outdoor weather. G and C with frequency that affect the solutions of those equations. conductors of a line (2) For any transmission line there is from dc to several kilohertz. For calculations at several frequencies in the low frequency range for the same line.1) and (5. can be summarized as follows: criteria for choosing (1) among The quency of all distributed capacitance C of a transmission line is the least variable with frethe distributed circuit coefficients. gigahertz or comparable magnitude at high megahertz . The distributed conductance G is directly proportional to the frequency. or by the real number equations (5. directly proportional is frequencies high term \GZ Q for any unexposed transmission line at very small compared usually is term latter to frequency. at which L becomes independent of frequency. the (5. If most of the medium surrounding the is air. quency to gigahertz frequencies. /?. Its variations must be measured experimentally before its effect on line behavior can be understood. with to R/2Z but since it increases more rapidly frequencies. vp Ro and X may be made by either the polar number method using equations (5. (3) It is shown in Chapter 6 that when the frequency increases above the range defined by (2). the calculations of a.2. there is a frequency interval of three or four decades in which the variation of R and L with frequency obeys a very complicated law.1) 57 5.2). as in a plastic filled coaxial line. typically extending which the distributed circuit coefficients R and L do not vary with frequency.2) directly. approximate for(6) The lowest frequency defined in (5). the frequency approximate formulas (5. the distributed conductance G is likely to be highly variable with time and unpredictable in value. or to any other form of contaminating environment. R increases directly as the square root of the frequency. in a range of low frequencies. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS concerning the solutions of equations (5. and can be programmed for (7) .15) to (5.5.2) that have been discussed in Sections 5. simplified high (5) At frequencies for which <»LIR > 1 and <aC/G > 1 for any line. and the principal reliable generalities about the variations of R.12) should always be used in calculating a. and L becomes independent of frequency. L. the various solution procedures for equations (5.CHAP. v v and Z (= R + JO) become independent of frequency. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. is not the same as the lowest frequency defined in (3). p.18).1) and (5. For frequencies above this interval. At frequencies above both of these lowest frequencies. For a calculation at a single frequency the polar number procedure is likely to be preferred. computer (8) use.
It has also been pointed out that for the dielectric materials normally used in high frequency transmission lines the value of G is too small to have any significant In proposing to effect on the propagation factors of a line at low megahertz frequencies. reasonable to entirely seem design a line for use at such frequencies.9) for the same case. it might therefore a. Substituting these postulates into (5.19). Multiplication of corresponding sides of (5. adopt the specifications It X Substituting these postulates into (5. The values of R.6. not as simple and straightforward as that statement suggests. (9) If the conductors of 5.58 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS.2) gives (a + j/3)(R + jX ) = R + j*L (5. or contain ferromagnetic material of any kind. G and C.22). would have to possess to by values of a. however.22) Ro + jp + jX = G + „ .22). Further manipulations of (5. (5. p.1) and (5.2) gives (5. oV (5JW) G = "STffi From the imaginary terms of (5.19). v p and Z Q may be easier than any attempt at analysis through R. . the variations with frequency of the line's distributed circuit coefficients will not agree with the generalizations that have been listed.21) Dividing corresponding sides of (5. along p and Ro.2U) appear to be general design equations for deter mining the distributed circuit coefficients that a transmission line give a set of desired operating characteristics specified quency «>. and the coefficients may also vary with signal amplitude. so that separate values for them must be used at each separate frequency. R = aRopXo aXo + L = fiRo (5. (5.19) From From the real terms of (5.C = f(a. L. Direct measurement of a.23) gives the result a = 0. The situation is. «). 5 (5. L.15) to (5. Often G will be small enough to be neglected. which is incorrect because the distributed line resistance R has not been required to be zero.2) produce several additional relations between the distributed circuit coefficients of a transmission line and its propagation factors. a line are iron. = for values = specific with and G 0.23) (5. Ro and X at fre has been seen in the preceding sections of this chapter that at frequencies of a few megahertz.1) cc by those of (5.20) gives a value for R which is only half as great as the value given by the high frequency approximate equation (5. (5. Ro. Solutions of the inverse form R. j*C From the real terms of (5. _ — aXo + pRo (a(Rq + Xq) Equations (5.18).20).21). the characteristic impedance of a typical transmission line can be very nearly a pure resistance. L and G may all be undergoing considerable variation with frequency. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS [CHAP.G. some of which have computational usefulness in certain situations.2U) and (5. p.20) the imaginary terms of (5. or if the interconductor space of a line contains any nonlinear materials such as ferrites or ferroelectrics.1) and (5. X .
8).24) becomes (assuming X < Ro) C = V(ZoV p ) (5. Further insight into the intriguing but somewhat academic problem associated with 2 equations (5. using vp = <o//3.31) and G\Z 2 becomes the high frequency approximate R equation (5.20) and (5.23) becomes (5.28). (5. provided the inequalities <*LIR > 1 and coC/G > 1 hold. X larger than aX The same difficulty does not arise in using equations (5. (5. \ \ Eliminating fiXo between (5. 2«Ro Eliminating Ro between (5. respectively. equation (5.CHAP.9).26). DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS 59 The explanation of these contradictions lies in the fact that it is not mathematically and identically zero when G = possible as a consequence of {5.21) and (5.32) are mining line must have to attain specified values of a. Let Rl + X = \Z Then (5. but this to be small enough to be unimportant means that G cannot be zero.G/C of the Heaviside "distortionless line" holds.31).26) could have been derived directly from and (5. There are no correspondingly useful and simple design formulas for the general case at lower frequencies.L and C that a transmission . since the term Then is small compared with pR for the reasons already given.32) which could also have been obtained from Equations (5. and applies to a transmission lines at all It states that the relative contributions of line's distributed resistance R \ and distributed conductance When \Z \ G =R to its attenuation factor a are proportional to .60) and (5.20) with and (5.2) to have can be exactly zero for a line with finite attenuation only if the relation a is finite. as can be seen from (5.25) and (5.10) Equations (5. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. It is possible for X X X (relative to Ro) (5.21) becomes JL/ = . « = ll+W all (5 S1 > Equation frequencies. v p and Zo.11).20) and (5.1) and (5.25). R/L . the values of the distributed circuit coefficients simple and useful design equations for deterR. can be significant in equations but even such a small value of since for the high frequency line under discussion /? is always much G = 0. Zo/Vp x \0. (5.31) involves no approximations. a.9).23). V ' G= and X = R = for a high frequency line are substituted into there results 2aR (5. = G \Z 2 \ +R (528) 2/3XQ = G\Z \ 2 R (529) Dividing (5£9) by (5. If the design postulates (5. and (5.23) can be gained through another derivation.27) G\Z 2 = aRo + pXo .25).28).26) (5. Xo % = G \Zo\ 2 — R \ J\ g\z1\* + r ) a I {5M) /_ fl/1 v From (5.20) and (5. The second of these is ensured by the postulate G = 0. (5.25). and can be dropped.24).
= can be identically met only by making the has been seen that the specification line losses due to G equal to the line losses due to R.8. given by O = tan (X /Ro) can vary between W/3 and the line losses and the line losses are all due to G) and a/p (when G = (when R = are all due to R). but lies in the fact that since R. it is always posresulting sible to provide the mechanical support economically with material for which the frequencies value of G will contribute much less to the attenuation a than R does. in terms of inductive loading of a transmission line can be appreciated at First.of the attenuation of one wavelength of line in nepers. The conductors are the essential electrical elements. but the results of Table 5. 5.7. the designer would have to make the conductors weight larger (to reduce R) and the insulating material more lossy. it is possible in a lumped inductance coil transordinary any for achieve a much higher ratio of inductance to resistance than exists of hence and L/R of mission lines. and even below the lowest voice the trivial one of simpliresistance lines. and this procedure would be economically resistance. The improvement resulting from this is not just all nearly constant for telephone fied calculations. But the insulating material in a line that gives rise to G plays only a mechanical support role. At frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to several gigahertz the always small enough to have no adverse effects. Most of the cost and X indefensible. from equation (5. Concluding remarks on design of high frequency It lines. If the conductors of a line are designed to have the maximum value of R that will limit the attenuation to a specified value. 5. To achieve equality of losses from R and G while retaining the same total attenuation. 5 istic Equation (5. facts. identical Inductive loading. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS [CHAP. lower to down approximate equations become applicable the voice into down well <»C/G 1 and > 1 «L/R > which pushes the lowest frequency for frequency.30) shows in clear and explicit form that the phase angle of the character1 impedance of a transmission line. Equation (5. Secondly. The of a line is for the conductors. for low frequency range for all telephone lines. For practical lines at radio frequencies this is always a number much smaller than unity. Inductive loading.32). at least at up to the high megahertz or gigahertz region. A loaded line therefore has a considerably higher ratio mission line.1 show that at low frequencies a/p can be very close to unity for a line with small conductors of relatively high resistance. on the line's (aL/R at all frequencies. Reference to (5. L and C are An .1) shows that \alp\ — 1 always. fundamental of the solutions developed in this chapter in the light of two transa on coils per wavelength all frequencies for which there are at least a few loading same effect the resistance and inductance of the lumped coils have exactly the The advantages the length transmission properties as if they were uniformly distributed along core to magnetic with a of the line. is the technique of inserting line transmission of a conductors the lumped magneticcore inductance coils in series with at equal intervals along the line. high frequency obvious consequence of a higher value of <»LIR for a line is that the loading Practical frequencies.31) shows that the phase angle of a line's characteristic impedance will always be negative if the line's distributed resistance contributes more than its distributed conductance to the total attenuation. as mentioned in Chapter 1. designer therefore chooses a line whose losses are due predominantly to conductor identically not and for which the phase angle of the characteristic impedance is consequently angle is phase zero.60 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. Physically the ratio a/p represents 1/2*.
while they might vary by a factor of 2 or 3 or more over the same frequency range of 300 to 3500 hertz. it follows from (5.15). with less inductance per coil. the values vp and Z given by equations (5. When the high frequency approximate equations are valid. transcontinental voicefrequency telephone circuits two or three thousand miles long would be adversely affected by the extra signal delay introduced by inductive loading. and G is too small to have significant effects. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS 61 of frequency range. on the same line without loading. for a fixed value of distributed Lumped capacitance. as can also be seen directly from (5. to make any useful contribution to commercial such as smallwire light weight teleapplications telephone practice. cutoff of the percent frequency from zero frequency to within a few is no transmission at frequencies above the cutoff frequency.10). . so the net result is a substantial decrease in the total attenuation factor of the line. there are specialized it may still occasionally play a helpful where field use phone lines for emergency military Although loading is nowadays not able role. This avoids the cutoff frequency limitation. each consisting of a loading coil and the section of line between two consecutive coils. which indicates that the phase velocity on a line is reduced when the effective distributed inductance is increased. the cutoff frequency can be increased without limit by using more coils at smaller separations. Twoway telephone conversation on lumped inductancecoil loading is a consequence of the fact that a line loaded in this way is no longer a uniform distributed system.7) that loading increases the characteristic impedance of a line. of added coilinductance per unit length of line). particularly at the higher voice frequencies. The first follows from equation (5. but the nonlinearity of magnetic materials introduces crosstalk when such a circuit is multiplexed.e. inductancecoil loading of transmission lines has two serious disadvantages. Analysis of this composite system reveals that it has the properties of a lowpass filter. The losses in G are still only a very small fraction of the total losses.9) to (5. and there has been very use of loading on commercial transmission line circuits operating at frequencies above the voicefrequency range. characterized by a "cutoff" frequency that is The second disadvantage of inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the total series inductance per If the circuit components line section and the total shunt capacitance per line section. For a given level of transmitted power this means the voltage is increased and the current decreased relative to their respective values on the same line without loading. it turns out to be prohibitively expensive to achieve useful amounts of loading with cutoff frequencies higher than a few kilohertz. The power losses in the distributed resistance R are therefore reduced. However. For any specified amount of loading (i. little Coaxial lines have been continuously loaded by winding magnetic tape around the center conductor. themselves are independent of frequency and signal independent of practically are sections of the loaded line regarded as a sequence of filter and there frequency. lines over the voice a. and those in the distributed conductance G are increased. transmission properties the strength.CHAP.11) approach the very desirable condition of being independent of frequency on a loaded line. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. Instead it must be regarded as a sequence of finite line sections.
00266) (0. This corresponds to the high frequency approxivalue of p should be = 0. From aht (5.500 miles/sec. 0. X should be 636(0. as only 3.00121 + 0. from (5.3.00352/(0.00266) = 1.00539 nepers/mile this high frequency According to equation (5.011 = 0. previously obtained. For the transmission using the real line of Example number equations (5.vn and R incurred by using zero given by value the 8°.11).00124)1/2 = 0.700 miles/sec. pages 53 /?.011 be 636 X 1.0348 X 1.18).005 = 92 ohms the calculation.18).00121.00127 earlier result.7).1 with the errors to be expected according tions (5. is about .00266.8).00127 .17).153 factor the approximate value by numbers.74 1 '2 (2v X 1000 X 0.0087 X 10" 6 ) 2 } 1/2 It will (2v X lOOO) 2 x 0.10).00266) 1 £(0.16). much smaller than the inherent indeterminacy independently. = = {£[{6.0. from the fact that determined The negative sign has been from the correct value oC/G > uL/R.6) the correct B M = oVLC 2 = 0.7) should be greater than \TUC~ = Since R/2<»L = 0.11). 5 Solved Problems 5.00530 + 0.005 nepers/mile about check begin when and of be noted that although the significant figures of the original data imply a precision A about 10%. vpM fi rad/mile. and vp Finally.0000019]} 1/2 = = 0.15) and (5. as found in Example x 318 5. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS [CHAP. or (5. Under these conditions equations (5.1. Substituting the values calculated above for the appropriate terms into (5.9).18) which becomes total indeterminacy to show the indeterminacy in the calculations of a and The indeterminacy does not occur for /? (hence vp) both ratios are greater than about 10. page 47.12).989.00352)2)1/2 x {(0.0352 rad/miles which agrees with the result determined by the polar number method.1% precision. 5. as found previously.1. The true phase angle for Z however. + 0.00352 X (0. (5. better than 0. Hence the correct value should be 0.0.011.00121 + 0. R V0.29 X 10~«) 2 + 6.00127 + 0. for the data of this problem 2 y/G 2 + ^C2 = aC = 644 ohms 54. = 178. X at 1000 hertz From a (5. Within the estimated indeterminacy the above value for a agrees with the more precise value found in Example 5.00898) = 1.153 . = With and {£[0.29 X 10~ 6 )]} 1/2 {£[0.9) to (5. 1/VG + "2 C = 2 1830. shows that <*L/R = 3 and <*C/G = 200. Z ohi = R = and G/2uC = 0.153 + 0. R = which also agrees with the 1830{£[0.0. according to equation (5.153 The correct value of R should then . of instead over 1%.0352 than this by the factor 1 + £(0.1.1. to (5.988) = 94 ohms.742 + ( 2s  x 1000 X 0.00539 X From mation greater = llyfhC = 180.0000019] }!/2 = From (5. v P and Z using the high results frequency approximate formulas (5. According to equation (5.15).0087 X 10"«) = 636 ohms. find «.6) and (5.62 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. Ro and and 54.5) the correct value of a should differ from 2 = 0. using = 6.0087 X 10~ 6 ) + (0.29 X (5.00121 . confirming the result obtained by polar 0.0348 rad/mile. From (5.00534 nepers/mile.00003) X (0.000092 = 0.011 = 643 ohms.0000019]} is 1 '2 = 1830 X 0. the high frequency approximation.5).2. X = The deviation of in 1830{£[0.0000019] }i' 2 = (0.1.150)(0. Then from (5.15) 5. For the transmission line of Example 5. . find a.0.00127 this value .0. the error in the Although in this problem the lower of the two ratios <*L/R and coC/G is is just slighUy equations approximate frequency high the values of a. 106) = 0.989 = 0. Compare the deviations cf the equato from those obtained in Example 5. only is for a value calculated in this precision meaningful the 1% or better. page 47. X R .153 \fUC by a factor 1 + £(0.6 X 10" 6 .74/1272 Z 0b{ from + (0.0.
Then 0.19 nepers/mile nepers/mile 1. alp = —X /R a/vp = (2tt X 3000)/105./115 ohms.000 miles/sec. 20. Its phase velocity is 85%.7 41. Here a must be in nepers/unit length and j3 in rad/unit length. At 50 megahertz. The specification that the dielectric of the line is mainly air implies that the distributed conwhere p — ductance G is to be taken as zero. a a a a a = = = ~ 0. From equation (5.00037(//2). the characteristic impedance Z will be constant at the 2 megahertz value of 51. At any will frequency / megahertz.180(115/560) = 0. At 1 megahertz. the former component will change to 0. At 100 megahertz. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS.0170 microfarads/mile .00512 henries/mile From equation (5.237^172 0.0022/8.CHAP. 1 (Xq/Rq) = tan 1 (— # = tan a//3).5. This very small phase angle is typical for low loss lines at high frequencies.237V50/2 + + + + + 0.0022 db/m.00037(10/2) 0.3. From the values it is readily seen Hence the high Since (5.00103 rad (2a0.4.0370 nepers/mile.168 nepers/mile 0. the phase velocity vp and the characteristic impedance Z at frequencies of 1. R = From . (5.180 X 560)/[(2r X 3000)(5602 + 1152)] 0.237V//2 and the latter component change to 0.237V10/2 0. megahertz. At 10 megahertz. Determine the values of the attenuation factor a.21). Then a = 0.10). At 2 megahertz the attenuation factor a has a component 0. 10. L and C at the frequency of the measurements.000253 nepers/m.9) and the stated laws of variation of R and G with frequency. + 20. the distributed resistance is directly calculated in Example 5.000253/0.20).3. the length unit being the From the data of X 10*)/(0. .180 rad/mile. At a frequency of 3000 hertz. a = 0. The distributed inductance L and distributed capacitance C are constant over the same frequency range. frequency approximate equations (5. A high frequency transmission a = a frequency of 10 megahertz has an attenuation factor 0. From equation aR Q (5. Determine the attenuation factor of the line and the values of the distributed circuit coefficients R. that these ratios will always be greater than 100 for all of the frequencies listed.00037(100/2) = = = = = 0.69 is At not perceptible. measurements (using methods described in Chapter 7) on a transmission line whose dielectric is mainly air show the characteristic impedance Z to be 560 .246) = 0.px = 0. for all frequencies from 1 megahertz to 100 megahertz (and higher).06°.00037(1/2) 0. and a component 0. Then e = tan"* (0.11) and (5. If G = 0.85 X 3.24).3 for uL/R and uC/G at 2 megahertz. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS line of 63 5.500 miles/sec. SO).686 = 0. 50 and 100 Example 5. at all frequencies above 1 megaproportional to the square root of the R frequency and the distributed conductance G is directly proportional to the frequency. For the transmission 50.30) with G = 0.00037(50/2) 0. page hertz.180 X 560]/(2» X 3000) = 0. )/[ u (R% C = (aX + pR + X%)] = = (0.375 nepers/mile 0.237 nepers/mile caused by distributed resistance R.237V572 0.0370 X (115) + 0. from equation (5.530 nepers/mile 1. What is the phase angle of its characteristic impedance if the losses due to distributed conductance G are negligible ? The phase angle of the characteristic impedance of a transmission line in terms of propagation line operating at factors and distributed resistance and conductance is obtainable from equation (5. and the phase velocity to be 105. = a/vp the problem.0370 X 560  0.180 X (115) = The equality of the two terms in equation (5£0) is an identity (5. and the phase velocity vp will be constant at the 2 megahertz value of 174. At 5 megahertz.00037(5/2) 0.12) will be very accurate.237V100/2 1 megahertz the contribution of G to the attenuation factor megahertz it is slightly greater than 1%. and 10») = 0.00 X = = 5. 5.000 = 0.12) do not involve R or G.9) to (5.246 rad/m.6 + jO ohms.7 = when G = 0. but at 100 5.4 ohms/mile equation L = (aX + pR )/a = [0. same for both.0370 X 115 + 0.00037 nepers/mile caused by distributed conductance G.
0509 ohms/m at 10 megahertz. that the characteristic impedance over the frequency range is precisely 50 + jO ohms.34 db/(100 ft). It is therefore a reasonable assumption that at 1 megahertz the contribution to the attenuation factor from the distributed conductance G is negligible.00015 0. coaxial transmission line widely used for transmission of a few kilowatts of power in the frequency range 1 to 1000 megahertz is known as 50 ohm 7/8" standard rigid line.1 megahertz. Then from equation (5.34 The initial R 1 is hypothesis that the attenuation at 1 megahertz seen to have been in error by less than \°/c is due entirely to distributed resistance (A separate proof. 100 and 1000 megahertz. If the attenuation factor at 1 . 0.161 100 1000 0. the rate of increase of resistance with frequency would be much less. 0. it must be in that range.015 0.0161 ohms/m at 1 megahertz. and 0. Then from equation (5.9) to (5. it contains a component caused by distributed root of the frequency over frequency square a R conductance G in that interval.00 X 10 8 ) = 0. megahertz is due entirely to the distribute d resi stance R.9) it follows conversely that if the attenuation factor a of a line increases directly as the square root of the frequency over an appreciable range of frequencies. Increasing as the square root of the frequency. R = 2aR — 2 X 0. 5 5.425 1.0425\/l000 = 1.9).99 X 10 8 ) = 66. Additional specifications given by the manufacturer for this type of line are: velocity v p = 99. then the contribution of R to the attenuation factor at 1000 megahertz would be 0. C = l/(Z vp ) = 1/(50 X 2.0426 0.134 0.64 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS.8 micromicrofarads/m.509 X X 23 X 23 X 10~ 9 10~ 8 10~ 7 106 0. and is proved in Chapter 6.0425 db/(100 ft) at 1 megahertz.8% over the frequency range.998 X 3.49 db/(100 ft) indicates that there Using part of equation is a contribution of 0. Determine the distributed circuit coefficients R.686 X 30.9).6.509 ohms/m at 1000 megahertz.48) = 0. The designation means that the outer diameter of the outer conductor of the line is 7/8".48) = the results for all four micromhos/m. Writing a = a R + a G where a R = \RIZq and a G = $GZ frequencies can be tabulated as follows. Frequency megahertz 1 R ohms/m 0. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS [CHAP. that for a transmission line whose conductors are of nonmagnetic material. attenuation factor a = 0.32) or (5. It has been noted above. hence G = 23 (5.49 db/(100 ft) at 1000 megahertz.135 0.15 0. the values of R at the other frequencies will be 0.161 ohms/m at 100 megahertz.25). the distributed resistance R increases directly as the square root of the frequency above some minimum frequency (below which the rate of increase with frequency is less rapid).15 db/(100ft) from the distributed conductance G.440 db/(100 ft) at 100 megahertz. and that for a line protected against contaminating environments (such as a coaxial line with a solid metal outer conductor) the distributed conductance G resulting from dielectric losses in the insulating supports is directly proportional to frequency. The line conductors are of copper.135 db/(100 ft) at 10 megahertz. G and C of A type of commercial the line at frequencies of 1. L. 0. The fact that the actual attenuation factor at that frequency is 1. and that the conductors are smooth nonflexible metal tubes. and 1. based on other relations derived in Chapter 6.15/(8.0161 G mhos/m 23 23 db/(100 ft) db/(100 ft) a db/(100 ft) 10 0. and the center conductor of the line is supported by regularly spaced thin discs of low loss teflon. L = Z /vv = 50/(0. G X 50/2. shows that the frequency of megahertz is in fact high enough for the resistance of the copper conductors of the 7/8" standard rigid line to be increasing directly as the square root of the frequency.686 X 30. 10. G at 1000 megahertz can be calculated from 0. while if a increases more rapidly than the caused entirely by distributed resistance interval.0015 0.167 microhenries/m. For the same conductors at a frequency of 0.) . and from equation (536).49 0.12) are valid with high accuracy in that range.0425 X 50/(8. The fact that vp and Z are independent of frequency over the stated frequency range means that the high frequency approximate equations (5.440 1. From equation (5.0425 0. Inspection of the attenuation factor data for the 7/8" standard rigid coaxial line shows that between 1 and 10 megahertz a increases almost precisely as the square root of the frequency.0509 0.
1. the ratio of output voltage to input voltage or output aK Hence the ratio of output power e~ is nonreflectively terminated line is when the input current I of 7/8" standard to input power is e~ 2al As a sample of the 20 calculations to be made.9.9. check that the equations are valid at the frequency of operation. the value of the distributed inductance L? (6) attenuation at all frequencies? (c) Does the distributed conductance G contribute to the conductance G over (d) Determine the distributed resistance R and the distributed the frequency range.27 at 3.48) — o.5 micromicrof arads/ft.48 m).5 micromicrofarads/m. and the high frequency approximate equations should and (5 JO) equations (5. L = 0.32 microhenries/m. 10. transmission line for use at frequencies up to a few hundred megahertz.378 microhenries/m = 0.5 megahertz. and 5. page 35.01 X 10 8 m/sec from the 10~ 4 = 5. Then convenient most is It equation. = 23. will be given by e given by a line length I having 10% transmission efficiency at a frequency of 1 megahertz will be e 2 x 0. G line in question.500 at that frequency. to find v equations the P 5. = Z a vp = R + j0 = VUC = 96. as accurate as those obtainable by any other respectively. For the transmission line of Problem 5. 34. and draw contours of constant percent transmission efficiency.3 micromicrofarads/m data for Z v and C is therefore consistent within better than $%.90. vv and C.66 X 3.686 x 30. CHAP. The to use vp in m/sec. L Zq/Vj. and a. 0.04251/(8.09 X 10~ 4 + 0. all at a frequency of 100 megahertz.9) From method.00 X 10 ) = 67. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. Plot the results on loglog coordinates of length and frequency.lO.7. (c)50%. (d) 10%.686 x 30. page 47. (Note: 100 ft = 30. = 0. Toward the other extreme. 10 V log 10 0. . the (6)90%.36 m.10 and from 0. . (a) Are the data for Z v v and C consistent? . When a transmission line of current to length I has an attenuation factor a.5 micro0. What is (a) It equations are valid for can be taken for granted that the high frequency approximation higher. An alternative form of solution is to use the attenuation factor in db/(100 ft) directly.72 X = VyfLG = 3.8. and use approximate frequency high Z at that frequency. rounding G off of of the line has 5. from which I = 9.6 find at each of the frequencies 1.3 + i0 ohms = $R/Z + \GZQ = 5. velocity = 66%. For the second case calculated the answer ft = 7170 m.48) — o.25).3 at 50 A standard RGll/U flexible coaxial and 2.20.61 at 14 megahertz.41 microfarads/ft. For the transmission For the and C= = 0.2. (5. The transmission line is assumed to be terminated always in its characteristic impedance. attenuation factor in decibels/(100 ft) = 0. the length frequency of 1000 megahertz at a of 90% efficiency transmission having a coaxial line rigid copper 2 x i«i/<8. and I = 7170 m. this with agree must sistent = 20.098 ohms/m. at 7 megahertz. .115 microhenries/ft. (e) 1%. megahertz. and solve would be obtained for a length V in hundreds of feet. 100 and length of line that will have a transmission efficiency of (a) 99%.81 X 10"" 4 nepers/m The trivial deviations significant figures. 8 l/(Z v ) = 1/(75 X 0. Then R = 1. contributed At almost 15% results obtained with polar numbers are due to this fairly high frequency the distributed conductance of the total attenuation factor.92 at 28 megahertz. 1000 megahertz. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS 65 5. has the following specifications according to a handbook: Z = 75 ohms (nominally real). When this is the and megahertz 3.500 X 100 = length is the 235 = Then 235.4 at 144 megahertz.11). any case con C The p (b) From (5.5 of frequencies at line transmission practical stated data to be equation (5 £6) indicates a relation between Z (real). 0. distributed capacity C . Transmission efficiency means (output power)/(input power).0425Z' line of Examples 4.5 micromhos/m aL/R = 2060 and aC/G give results 14.
it would increase directly as the square root of the frequency over the frequency range.76 db/(100 ft) at 28 megahertz. 5 were due entirely to distributed resistance R. The postulated laws of variation are likely to be most accurate at the highest frequencies. assuming the lowest frequency 3. and G 14 be the distributed conductance of the line in mhos/ft at that frequency. The values of uL/R are not quite high enough at frequencies of 300 and 1000 hertz for the high frequency approximate equations (5. and 39% . incorporating the postulate that R should increase directly as the square root of the frequency and G should increase directly as the frequency in the range containing the two frequencies.300 .9) becomes X 100) = (K 14 X V144/14 )/(2 X 75) X 144/14) X 75/2 Solving these equations simultaneously.4.5 megahertz.15 miles. page 55. If the attenuation factor A suggested approach for determining R and G as a function of frequency is to designate symbols for the values of R and G at any one frequency. page 52. 1000 and 3000 hertz. page 80). Hence the polar number method is advisable at all three frequencies. Clearly the attenuation factor is increasing considerably more rapidly than the square root of the frequency.062 microthe loaded line were then farads/mile.000 1000 3000 0.12) to be adequately accurate. even at 3. and G as a function of frequency had the same values stated in Example Determine the attenuation factor. but the values of the ratio are too high at those frequencies for the real number equations (5.61/(8. 5.056 0.050 Z miles/sec ohms 901 300 17.686 X 100) = R u/(2 X 75) + Gu X + (G 14 75/2 and at 144 megahertz 2. R impedance of the loaded 19 gauge cable pair at frequencies of 300. Starting from 0.15) to (5. The results are: Frequency hertz a nepers/mile 0. A widely used type of loading for 19 gauge cable pair telephone transmission lines consisted of coils having 44 millihenries inductance and about 3 ohms resistance inserted in the line at intervals of 1. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS (c) [CHAP.38 db/(100 ft) at 7 megahertz.095 ohms/ft and G u = 1.1 at these frequencies shows that: The attenuation factor at 300 hertz. The values of megahertz. and at all the listed frequencies a must contain a component caused by distributed conductance G.27 db/(100 ft) at 3. it should then be 0.5 megahertz. 0.5 megahertz is above the range of low frequencies in which R has a complicated law of variation with frequency. and familiarity with the manner of variation of resistance with frequency for fairly small wires such as the center conductor of this coaxial line suggests that R may not be increasing as rapidly as the square root of the frequency at 3. Equation (5.2. C = 0.039 henries/mile.5 megahertz (compare Table 6. 55% at 1000 hertz. for the same line without loading.9) at 14 megahertz gives 0.54 db/(100 ft) at 14 megahertz. i? 14 = R and G at other frequencies are then easily found from the assumed laws of variation.4/(8.10.1. is reduced more than 71% at 3000 hertz. etc.j'423 806 . 0. The distributed circuit coefficients of = 89 ohms/mile.91 micromhos/ft.66 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. Then let R u be the distributed resistance of the line in ohms/ft at 14 megahertz. The two equations can then be solved simultaneously for the values of R and G at the chosen frequency. L = 0.5 The unit of length in all terms is the foot. the discrepancy being greatest at 3.j47 Comparison with the results of Table (1) 5. When the resulting values of R and G are used to compute the attenuation factor at other frequencies. as discussed in Chapter 6. deviations of a few percent from the handbook values are found in some cases. at the same frequencies.9) to (5.686 (5.1). and then to write equation (5. phase velocity and characteristic 5.057 20.il41 796 .9) at that frequency and one other frequency.900 20.18) to be entirely free of indeterminacy in the calculations of a and XQ (see Problem 5. and compare the results with those in Table 5. 0.
18) for calculating a and X for this line Ana. The loaded the for only 12% but by hertz value.000 hertz. line at the stated (6) (c) Assuming R.2° ohms/km. L and C.6 /89.6). On loglog coordinates of uL/R and <cC/G covering the range 1 to 1000 for each.55 ohms/km. 500.X and \ZQ as functions of frequency on semilog graph paper.7). it is also reduced in value at all frequencies.15) at the frequency of 1000 hertz? and {5. C = 0.5){5.8) from {5.8).CHAP. a = %R/Z + $GZ case. a = 0.300 km/sec = 96%.12.0062 microfarads/km and G = 0.0 X lQ.9° mhos/km.1. G and C independent of frequency. The calculations for R and X have an arithmetical precision of about 5%.1) and {5. L. that if the calculations of Table 5. From the results of Problem 5. and contours of the phase angle of Z according to equation {5. Use separate sheets of graph paper for each set of contours. phase velocity and characteristic impedance of the frequency. line.15){5.9° = 562 ) Approximately 1000 hertz. 5. Derive equations {5.15. plot contours of the percent error to be expected in using the high frequency approximate equations {5.07 micromhos/km.5){5. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. from straight line portions of the resulting curves. the contours will be inaccurate because of the higher order terms that were dropped when writing equations {5. plot ct.2). is greatly reduced at all frequencies. using polar numbers.8). 5000 and 20. vp and Z are calculated from the high frequency approximate formulas.5){5. 5.9){5. and the value of B is too small to be meaningfully combined with {FA) in the evaluation of a or Q (This result would still occur if the true values of R.165" in diameter spaced 8" between centers has the following distributed circuit coefficients at a frequency of 1000 hertz: R = 2.00229 = 287.7) and {5. (6) (c) = 0. that any of the plotted quantities varies as the logarithm of the frequency over appreciable ranges of frequency? . compared with Z = better than 1% for the calculations of part (a). vp G + joC = (39. This is an unavoidable disadvantage of inductive loading that would be a serious hazard on lines more than 1000 to 2000 miles long. G and C at 500 kilohertz were used. because of the resulting transmission delay time. in each about (a) by in part those from differ £% values These 0.R . L = 1. the attenuation factor varies 67 (2) by 65% of its 3000 percent equalizaline.11. R + juL = 12. with frequency on the logarithmic scale. in agreement with the indications of equations {5.16.0219 rad/km.400 km/sec = 96%. 5. L.13. page 55. An open wire transmission line with copper conductors 0. (For uL/JB and <*C/G less than 2 or 3. vp = 1/y/LC = 288. (3) The phase angle of the characteristic impedance less than 10° at 1000 and 3000 hertz.11) according to equations {5.94 millihenries/km. low frequency values for R. what is the lowest frequency at which the high frequency approximate formulas would be usefully accurate for this line? If a. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS Over the frequency range 300 to 3000 hertz.7). nepers/km.1. 50. p j5S ohms.) Show X .vp . Supplementary Problems 5.14. what is the error in each compared with the accurate values obtained by the polar number method? (d) How useful (a) are the real number equations {5. Z = 565 /5. What evidence is there. 200. (a) Find the attenuation. {d) = yfhfC = 559 ohms. {5.5).) Write a computer program for equations {5. and the formula value for G. the justified significant the using figures for the terms F and A become identical. 2000. page 55. becoming (4) Although the phase velocity shows much less variation over the voice frequency range for the loaded line than for the same line without loading. 5.1.00230 nepers/km. 5.46 /78.14 or the data of Table 5. Insert additional frequencies of 20. \ 5. 30.18) and use it to check the results of Table page 55. are extended to a frequency of 500 kilohertz. {5. for the unloaded tion improvement is approximately the same for the phase velocity and the real part of the characteristic impedance.
and that the high frequency approximate equations are therefore valid for a transmission line if a harmonic wave on the line experiences an attenuation of not more than 2 or 3 db in one wavelength on the 5. what power of the frequency is involved in each case? 5. What would 5. L— 0. What evidence is there. used to transmit power levels of 1 megawatt up to 10 megahertz. v p Rq and X number method with equations (5. Show 5. the polar number equations (5. page 64. evidence is there.00144\/frequency in megahertz ohms/m. and determine a formula for the maximum value of G over the range. From this write a universal all frequencies. 5.2). standard 9" rigid copper coaxial transmission line. Using the data of Example quency of 1000 hertz. SI) may be used in the proofs. 5. since Z and v p have the same values for the two lines. Derive equations (5.S0) lead to equation (5.038 db/(100 ft) at 100 megahertz.23. and C where v = 1/^LC retain the same values but R = G . .18). Derive equations (5.28) and (5£4) from equation (5. derived without approximation from equations (5.19.167 microhenries/m. page 58. i. the condition aL/R > 1 is equivalent to the condition a/2ayp > 1.15) to (5.20.2). C = 66.18). C.17. to contribute less than 1% to the attenuation factor at any frequency between 1 and 100 megahertz. page 58. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS [CHAP. from equations (5. if lossless. that any of the plotted quantities varies exponentially with frequency over appreciable ranges of frequency? 5.26. with frequency on the linear scale. = = phase velocity on the same line 0.27) to (5.1) and (5. these are the same as for the standard 7/8" line of Problem 5. Show that.6.0038 db/(100 ft) at 1 megahertz and 0. plotting the data on loglog graph paper. expression for vp in terms of L.+ " ° op . line. R = 0.22). valid for all transmission lines at that if \Z = R .18. has a characteristic impedance of 50 + i0 ohms and a velocity of 99.21.20) 5. find a. and (5.21) from equation (5. 5. Arts. and (6) the Compare the times required to make each of the calculations. X from the two equations.27.22.24. page 53 and 54.6. on the assumption that G is directly propor A at frequencies tional to frequency. be the effect of letting G= 0? Show that if a transmission line has a component a G of its attenuation factor caused by losses in the distributed conductance G. L and C for the line over the frequency range 1 to 100 megahertz. X = J? Vl . R and \Z \. plotting the data on semilog graph paper. SI). using real 5.14.28. Show that if G is negligible.8% at frequencies above 1 megahertz. Repeat Problem What 5. if G = 0: There is line factors (a) (b) (c) a = (3 tan e . Derive equations (5. where vp = <o//?.e. from straight line portions of the resulting curves.) 5. G < 6 X 10~ 9 (frequency in megahertz) mhos/m.8 micromicrofarads/m.LCvJ. a = /?Vl — (vp/v 2 ) . that any of the plotted quantities varies as some power of the frequency over appreciable ranges of frequency? If there are such indications. analogous to equation (5.1) and (5. no apparent limit to the number of relations that can be discovered among transmission and coefficients and characteristics.15)(5.15) to (5. for the transmission line at a frefi.2). Any of the equations from (5.10).19).68 PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. if L . 5. the expression reduces to equation (5. 5 5. Repeat Problem 5. and £ megawatt at 200 megahertz. then the phase angle 6 of the characteristic impedance is given by 9 = tan 1 (a G — a R )//3. and a component aR caused by losses in the distributed resistance R.1) and (5. (a) page 55. The attenuation factor of the line varies directly as the square root of the frequency over the frequency range 1 to 100 megahertz. The following are all exact relations when G = 0. where Z = \Z /o \ . \ Show that (Eliminate if G= 0. being 0. Find the values of R.25. from straight line portions of the resulting curves.24) and from (5.32) for first all values of X . page 46.14. Proof of some of them involves a little ingenuity. equations (5J20) and (5. Derive the relation p = ^. since all of these are also exact equations.
when the line is terminated in its characteristic impedance. If the dielectric surrounding obtained by adding the line conductors was largely solid material. 5] PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS. line the on current phasor and where V and / are the rms phasor voltage VII . Note that and respectively. could be increased by winding either or both of the line conductors conductors. of either the parallel It is undoubtedly true that the distributed inductance of a transmission line.jRv p /2 u . even at radio conductance G.29. . as in the mainly was itself line the of dielectric the if loading capacitors with air dielectric.CHAP. of this chapter.WL )/(WC + WL W W W  W (e) Z = l/(Cvp ) . would If the distributed resistance regular intervals capacitive loading in the form of lumped capacitors connected across the line at are promise the same improvements that inductive loading is able to realize for lines whose losses due mainly to distributed resistance? R can be seen from the second term on the right negligible for a transmission line. helium temSerious consideration is given to the idea of operating long transmission lines at liquid small peratures.30. but pins or thin discs of case of a coaxial line with the center conductor supported by periodic small loading capacitors with a suffidielectric material. of a transmission line could be made effectively zero. although the relation holds for any length of line. 2 and L = \h J* c = %C V Hint: Start by writing the ratio of (5. that if R were factor would result from capacitive loading to the square of the total distributed conoriginal line. improvement could undoubtedly be air. c is the average energy stored per unit length the in length unit per stored energy average the is and line. DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS a 69 (d) in the where ). page 49.16). 5. The conductor resistance for superconducting metals then becomes extremely distributed the by determined being reduced.) = pV(Wc . regardless of its total attenuation. wire or coaxial configuration. greatly is attenuation the and frequencies. it might be difficult or impossible to construct ciently higher ratio of capacitance to conductance.9). will not result in reducing the attenuation of the line. show that replacing any of the conductors by solenoids of the factor regardless of the wire size used in the solenoid. in the form of solenoidal coils.Z for the conditions stated. a reduced attenuation provided the ratio of the total distributed capacitance ductance for the loaded line was greater than for the It of equation (5. the of distributed capacitance L distributed inductance of the line. 5.15) to (5. For purposes of proof the line can be assumed of infinitesimal length. while retaining the same outer dimensions of the For any of the lines whose distributed circuit coefficients are listed in the examples or problems same outer diameter.
and for structures with the simplest of geometries. voltages and circuit elements. in various degrees. Chapters 2 through 5 have developed transmission line analysis as an investigation of the propagation of voltage and current waves on uniform transmission lines denned by uniformly distributed electric circuit coefficients. The solution of boundary value problems in electromagnetic theory has been the business of mathematical physicists for a century. The present chapter. inductance It is equally true that many books on electromagnetic theory develop equations for some or all of the distributed circuit coefficients for at least the simpler configurations of uniform transmission lines. charges and electromagnetic fields in bounded physical structures. Since resistance. has an inherent concern to maintain a contact with physical reality.1. dealing with the derivation of expressions relating the distributed circuit coefficients of a uniform line to its dimensions and materials. Physical Design Introduction. concentric circular cylinders. Chapter 7 and subsequent chapters continue the same analysis. inductance and capacitance for either lumped or distributed devices is concerned. by textbooks on electricity and magnetism or electromagnetic theory. however. It is assumed that information is available in other sources on how to calculate the equivalent circuit of a specific real object. a fundamental difference of intent between the study of elementary circuit analysis and the study of transmission line engineering. almost invariably omit any reference to the physical nature or construction of the units embodying these circuit properties. there now exists a voluminous amount of data on a wide variety of structures. When the frequency is other than zero. So far as the calculation of resistance. such as concentric spheres. The latter. using the circuit element concepts of lumped and capacitance. Most of the standard textbooks on the subject have accepted this obligation. Books on introductory circuit analysis. on the other hand. it is essential that a transmission line textbook present a full discussion of the ways in which the distributed circuit coefficients of a line are dependent on its geometry and materials. or how to design an assemblage of metals and dielectrics and ferromagnetic substances that will provide a circuit element meeting a desired specification. inductance and capacitance are in effect shorthand notations for relations between currents. There is. even for 70 . resistance. the creation of formulas for the circuit representation of such structures is undertaken. involves topics and methods that are not directly part of this mainstream of transmission line theory.Chapter 6 Distributed Circuit Coefficients and 6. To achieve this purpose. but the mathematical form of the results is reasonably elementary only for constant unidirectional currents or voltages. and to illustrate its theoretical analyses in terms of actual lines used for the transmission of signals and power. with no thought of the specific situations in which these may occur. or infinite parallel planes. and this could be used as a justification for omitting all such information from a transmission line textbook. The former seeks to convey a working knowledge of a few abstract relations between currents.
Such exact solutions are not possible for the "stripline" constructions shown in Fig. and also as the outer conductor of coaxial lines and as the shield of shielded pair lines. an exceedingly fortunate fact that the transmission line constructions which are found to be experimentally optimal. For a solid circular conductor designated as of radius a carrying current J of zero frequency. and one of them always prescribes a finite limit for the integral determining the magnetic flux linking the other. and as the single conductor of image lines. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 71 these idealized geometries. 61 below. coefficient L distributed inductance of any conductor. Distributed resistance and internal inductance of solid circular conductors. involve only the simplest possible geometries. The analysis that follows shows that an exact solution in functional form can be found for the distributed resistance and distributed internal inductance of homogeneous isotropic circular conductors. tions. far the most widely used transmission line conductors are solid homogeneous wires of circular cross section. its dc distributed resistance) is given by If #dc = oO nms / ottQr m (61) isolated wire. whether isolated or not. By a wire of circular cross section has radius a meters. respectively. its resistance per unit length at zero frequency (i. The current an infinitesimal tube of radius ri and thickness dn n . 6. unusual more with either technical or economic grounds. in units of henries/m. an expression for the internal inductance The U L td c is found as follows. These will be and L x . One part is caused by fluxcurrent linkages inside the conductor itself. page 9. this tube of radius evidently constitutes a fraction {2irn dnVinaP) of the conductor as a "circuit". They are used as the center conductors of coaxial lines. which are used in all of the above applications. consists of two parts. such as parallel or concentric square or rectangular conductors. and the results are given in tables or charts. 22. for all frequencies at which such conductors are used in transmission lines. nor for any other practical transmission line cross section involving finite widths of plane surfaces. 22.e. Referring to the definition that inductance is the flux and thickness dn ing a "circuit" per unit current in the circuit. It does not follow from this that the distributed circuit For the same for a transmission line is infinite. calculations of resistance and reactance in some frequency ranges require uncommon mathematical functions for their expression. both solid and tubular. with the consequence that approximate formulas and graphical representations are widely used. considered indefinitely long. No important advantages. the inductance per unit length derived as the total magnetic flux linking unit length of the wire when the wire carries unit current is found to be infinite. referring to Fig. in the sense of making most effective use of materials by providing minimum attenuation or maximum power handling capacity at the lowest cost and in the least space. in in the conductor's linkcross section is (//7ra2)(2 7rri dn). and is made of homogeneous isotropic material of conductivity a mhos/m.CHAP. the other by linkages of the total conductor current with flux external to the conductor. the conductors of parallel wire or shielded pair or multiconductor lines. pose very Computer methods are needed to obtain adequate soludifficult mathematical problems. have ever been claimed for lines It is cross sections. The conductors of a transmission line are not infinitely long isolated wires. Slightly less simple symmetries. Next in importance are tubular conductors of circular periphery. These are the on lines whose cross sections are illustrated in Fig.2.
and the distributed reactance of its internal inductance asymptotically approaches being identically equal to the frequencydependent high frequency distributed resistance of the conductor. the distributed internal inductance is greatest for small values approaches a.3) where z is the coordinate in the direction of the length of the line. i. At any radius r in this interval the magnetic flux density B(r) is given by where ^ is the mks permeability of the conductor material. The current distribution will then no longer n n be one of constant density as was the case at zero frequency. Thus the contribution to the distributed internal inductance L» d. 6 Az di dr Fig. Fractional "circuit" within a solid circular conductor carrying a dc current. 61. At much higher frequencies the distributed internal inductance of a circular conductor becomes very small compared to its dc value. If an ac voltage exists between the ends of a section of the conductor. The effect becomes more pronounced the higher the frequency. 27rri dn = constant.72 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. when the current is uniformly distributed over the conductor's cross section. and the integration with respect to r. •ncr  Ca I dr r I 1 dz£ id r2 g" henries/m (6. This fractional circuit is linked by all the magnetic flux inside the conductor between the radii n and a (the flux lines being circles concentric with the conductor). This means that at a given frequency the of and approaches zero as distributed internal reactance of a small circular area at the center of a circular conductor is much greater than the distributed reactance of the same area of conductor near the periphery.5) Thus the internal inductance of a solid circular conductor.e. The result is dLidc n is a constant during (64) = 2 fin dri (a — r2 ) henries/m The to ri total internal inductance at zero frequency is obtained by integrating this with respect from to a. Calculations later in this chapter show that the internal inductance of the conductors of a transmission line may constitute 10% or even more of the line's total distributed inductance at low frequencies. Inspection of equation (64) indicates that for tubes of constant annular crosssectional area. less current will flow in the high reactance region at the center of the conductor than in an equal area of cross section at a greater radius. 62. with the result £tdc = #07T henries/m (6. is independent of the radius of the conductor. until at sufficiently high frequencies the current flows . T _ 1 2Trridr .C of the fractional circuit consisting of the tube of thickness dri at radius r\ is . Longitudinal cross section of solid circular conductor in diametral plane. Fig.
not to be confused with the coordinate r giving the location of the rectangle. differentiating both Substituting z (r) = Jz (r)/*. this phenomenon causes the resistance of conductors of any shape or material to increase markedly and continuously with frequency for frequencies above some minimum value that depends on the conductor's size. Since the conductivity of the metals is 10 mhos/m or higher. 62 because of the timechanging magnetic flux through it. c = 8. but for symmetry reasons is not a The purpose of the function of angular position around the center of the conductor. Equation (6. Faraday's law & E'dl = ti\ BdS becomes r' is a dummy radial variable of integration. and that the resulting current density Jz at any point in the conductor's cross section is in general a function of r. E dr* r dr The differentiation on the right merely removes the integration and substitutes the upper limit for the variable.85 x 10~ equation (6. Voltage will be induced in the rectangle of Fig. A quantitative analysis for skin effect in a homogeneous isotropic circular conductor is obtained by applying Faraday's law to a rectangular path in a radial plane of the conductor as illustrated in Fig. 7 12 farads/m.6) the conductivity of the conductor and e its permittivity. Known as skin effect. The radius of the conductor is a.CHAP. This flux is produced by all the conductor current inside radius r. but there is no reason to believe that it differs appreciably from the value for free space. while at the same time the internal inductance decreases continuously. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 73 only in a very thin skin at the conductor's surface. sides with respect to r. permeability and conductivity. and from this result to find the effective resistance and internal inductance of the conductor per unit length. 62 above. and finally dividing all terms by r. as a function A postulate of this analysis is of frequency and conductor material. where multiplying both sides by r/(drAz). The order is zero because the term v 2 Jz (r)/rz in a Bessel equation of order v has coefficient zero.6) becomes it is readily seen that at all conceivable transmission line frequencies jz (r) which means that J z (r) is = *Ez {r) (6. The rectangle has length Az in the coordinate direction z parallel to the length of the conductor. For the metals used in transmission line conductors.9) is a modified form of Bessel's equation of order zero. analysis is to find the manner in which Jz (r) varies with r.7) entirely conduction current density. and infinitesimal width dr in the radial direction. that an external source is causing current to flow in the conductor in the z direction. information about the value of the permittivity e is nebulous. The equa . z (r) associated with the in the conductor there will be an electric field total current density Jz (r) according to the timeharmonic electromagnetic relation At any radius r E Jz = where a is <rE z + j<»eE z {6. It is located at distance r from the center of the conductor.
14) where x is real. the solid r = A2 Mr) = Ai(ber^ + /bd^) (6. 6 tion is a "modified" Bessel equation because the coefficient of the imaginary number rather than a positive real number. 63 shows graphs of the magnitude and phase of Jz (r) Since ber(0) = l and plotted from equation (6. and respectively. Such tables are not applicable. then For circular is in general not zero. For reasons explained if^y/^r/h. when the coefficient of r in the variable is the square root of a negative imaginary number. . with A% = 1. B. bei (0) = 0.10) Y stand for Bessel functions of the first and second kinds (Other symbols are frequently used for YQ .9) can (\/—3<aiur r) Jz (r) where the symbols Jo = A x J*(y/—j«nurr) + A2 Y (6. since the location = is a line within the conductor. for the One of several equivalent specific form of complex variable occurring in that equation. which is given directly by equation (6. Fig. sets of definitions for these special functions is ber(ff) = real part of MV~3 x) ) (6.) For real variables these functions are evaluated from infinite series and are readily available in mathematical tables. be written term in Je (r) is a negative Formally.17) using these tables.9) is of sufficient importance that separate names have been given to the functions which are respectively the real and imaginary parts of the Bessel functions of the first and second kinds of order zero. where later.12) (6. A2 is must equal zero when equation r (6.10) in the form 8 = JJ\ (n/xa (6.74 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. however. the solution of (6. since in this case the series expansion will contain both real and imaginary terms.+ /kei^j (6.15) Using (6. of order zero.13) bei(#) = imaginary part of Jo(V~l x ker(z) kei (x) = = real part of Yo(y^x) imaginary part of Y^y/^jx) (6. D wight's Tables of Integrals and Other Mathematical Data. as a function of the conductor material and the frequency. For not within the conductor's cross section and a tubular conductor the location conductor.11) to (6. it is desirable to write the variable in (6. Convenient tables of ber (x) and bei (x) are available in H.16) is applied to a solid circular conductor. Equation (6.10) is Mr) Because ker = Ai(ber^ + x j'bei^p) + A 2 (ker^.17). the general solution to (6.16) (x) is infinite at = 0.17) Although the primary purpose of this analysis is to find expressions for the distributed resistance and internal inductance of a homogeneous solid circular conductor.11) (6.15). these graphs all show the magnitude and phase angle of the current density at any value of r/8 relative to the magnitude and zero reference phase angle respectively at the center of the conductor. it is of incidental interest to note the distribution of current density over the conductor's cross section.
5 © 4 N j:. Phase of the current density Jz (r) at any radius r. inside a solid circular conductor. as a function of r in skin depths. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 75 Fig. to the magnitude of the current density 1^(0)1 at the center of the conductor. ^ / ' " \" „ J( < . Fig. CHAP. i .il "T. . . relative to the phase of the current density JZ (Q) at the center of the conductor. expanded linear presentation of the portions of Fig. 63(a). 63(a) and (6) at low values of r/8.. as a function of r in skin depths.. inside a solid circular conductor.63(c). 7 rrrr u 6 *T3 : jaXT* :t • 1 r rrry^ :"r..  .:L. / —rj—t ' —r— IT/I 3 IJIpfp 2 ". An . jjxt 1 * \~r.TXTIJ" 4 r/5 Fig.{ : ' . Ratio of the magnitude of the current density \Jx (r)\ at any radius r. n <^ i.:„ "liTif. 63(6).~^.
]:. and consequently in ac resistance. when a/S = 0. it turns out that for a wall thickness of about 1. 64. j 1 : . If then all the current density magnitude values for smaller values of r/8 are divided by the current density magnitudes at r/8 = a/8..„»^.6 0. It is therefore quantitatively more significant to consider the current density at any radius r relative to the current density at the periphery of the conductor.. however. the current distribution from that for dc. 6 According to electromagnetic theory the currents and fields inside a solid circular conductor are to be regarded as having penetrated into the conductor from the interconductor fields of the transmission line at the conductor's surface.6 f .76 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. Substituting for Ai from (6. 1. T"T V 1 * ^ y t ^ i TY V Ph &se^^ ^^ T""] i \ .^~..2 i i f i'f ^ 1. T \ f j ~J™.5 for a copper conductor 2 millimeters in diameter at a frequency of 1090 hertz.. in magnitude and phase. The current density at the surface is Jz (a) where a is = Aifber \/2a + ybei V2a (6.««^ "\ f ~'T f""1 1 ! T f I P. ^T _Ci w.j.0 ' ' '*' " ' W™***" . the graph of the resulting magnitudes and phase angles versus (r/8)/(a/8) or r/a will show the magnitude and phase angle of the current density at any radius r. : 1 : I "t T"T" i } : ^^^Mb. «p„pj« r" : ^ !"" !""!  ? : J t i 1 :!:l:. 63 that at high enough values of a/8 a solid circular conductor might be replaced by a thinwalled circular tube with negligible change in current distribution. a/8 has the value 0..I [ 1 0.. jnitude n .18) the radius of the conductor. . at a frequency for which a/8 = 4. I j ']" 1  .8 i t J ' j * j 1 } \ rj j J' 1 4"? rf4" / X/\  i ™y™W:. . 1 I e !""!"! o.~p+. Surprisingly.™'< f""1 ~f f • f't [ 1 r. As a numerical example.2 1 . and the phase angle at r/8 = a/8 is subtracted from the phase angle at all smaller values of r/8. f Jz (r) Jz(a) _ her t/2 r/8 j bei \/2 r/8 (6. the value 1 at 4360 hertz. the change is quite noticeable.»^._p^ "Ttit p*p.4 0. The same result can be obtained graphically.18) into (6.4 ) I 1 1 1 1 """"l .. JLLJ ) . «^S««f«Mf**>^KH^Mft^twW»< TMf T^ * T*Tiw s sfs ffi KS f* "f "f t V"i  " ' f f I .. Phase and magnitude relations for the current density at radius r in a solid circular conductor of radius a relative to the current density at the surface...17).000 hertz. ] ~f }••! 0.. by evaluating a/8 for the conductor and marking a vertical line at that value of r/8 on one of the graphs of Fig.5.: 1 "'1 : I : t T : . 63. 1 1 i + t "t "i 1 .19) ber\/2a/8 + jhz\y/2a/8 which is the desired relation. in a solid circular conductor is not perceptibly different 63 that for values of a/8 less than 0. Fig. for a specific conductor at a specific frequency.. is perfectly correct..8 r/a Fig.t.^*~. .. and the value 5 at 109.. "1 ". At a/ 8 = 1. The suggestion from Fig.^ r""i""' r .»«. relative to the magnitude and zero reference phase angle of the current density at the conductor's surface. ": J ^.»»f. v KilXXXXJ^^ 0. Rflfi \  h _i. 64 is such a graph for a/S = 4.0 0. T' r T' i .^»„^™^.68 the distributed resistance of a tubular conductor at high values of a/S is . f f I \ 'XXiTilX. and when a/8 = 5 there is a very marked concentration of current close to the conductor's surface.. It is evident from Fig.
18). internal inductance of the distributed concept the in combined be can rad/sec o frequency angular conductor at The distributed resistance U internal impedance Zi of the conductors. From the postulated symmetry of the problem.21) gives + Here the symbol JR. substituting this value of U in (6.2h) and combining with 2. electromagnetic necessary to refer to another the only harmonic fields: curl E = j^H.17) = 2. unit length of the conductor at the conductor's surface to the total current in electric longitudinal The longitudinal potential difference per unit length is identically the field at the conductor's surface. (6.22). which in the conductor is h. ^/ 8 / ber> V2« ber' V2a/8 W \ber\/2a/8 / + jhe j'^) (6.21) is to quantities that have already appeared in the analysis.22) the integral form of the second Maxwell curl equation). r = a in equation (6.CHAP.23). In terms of electrical variables. periphery lz (6. The Maxwell equation field # .e. 3<a ' I ber \/2 a/ 8 V^Uer' \/2a/«  + + j bei \/2 a/8 \ 3 bei' (6.aH^(a) (623) Combining equations and dr (6. Zi  Ri + ja>Li ohms/m {620) the where it is not necessary to use a symbol Ri since the distributed internal resistance of distributed conductor is its total distributed resistance. same the at diameter metal and outer actually a of a solid circular R and distributed. Then if the = R + >L< = ^ viz {6.27) \/2 a/8/ R s has been adopted for ^ 1 = / 0)JU.aA 1 (6. R s is .. gTra a/2/8 j * ~ /o/xa + + j bei' \/2a/8 \ ^ 26) ibei\/2a/8 / Finally. current total Zi from equation (6. To U components present are Ez and coordinate r./ber^+^bei'Vfr) \ 3o>ixa (Mi) 8 8 J Putting = d ber(x)/dx and bei' (a) = dbei(x)/dx. resistivity or a surface resistivity in ohms per square.7) is E (a) = J g z (a)la. it relate the total current timefor equation Maxwell the relation. the difference over internal impedance of the conductor is the ratio of the longitudinal potential the conductor. the H^ around the conductor's total current in the conductor will be equal to the line integral of From Ampere's law ' (i.7). ^ ^. sometimes called the skin frequency angular at a and defined by material ^ high frequency surface resistivity. and these quantities are functions only of the in cylindrical coordinates then reduces to the single relationship d „ §± = foRfr) {6. of the of the sheet square a of edges opposite between Physically it is the dc resistance «. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN few percent 77 same less than the distributed resistance of a solid conductor of the frequency. H(r) * ' where ber' (x) = _±*m faixo = ^.25) Substituting for Ai from z (6.
(2) For all values of a/ 8 less than about approximate formulas better than 1 \% accuracy is obtained from the (6.1) and (6.31) Equation (6. the distributed internal is reactance of the solid circular conductor equal to its distributed ac resistance. This is an expression of the skin effect theorem derived in Section 6. is given with equal accuracy (6.36 can be divided into five sections. 1.1) by less than \%.5). Separate expressions for R and o>Li are easily obtained from equation (6. Li ac  L_ + n ± R/R&C (R/Rdc) 3 .27). and i»Li = R or Li = RU (6. For high values of a/8 a wall thickness greater than about 38 ensures \% accuracy in using the equations.5).30) and (6. calculations of data from (6.27).) in (1) For practical purposes. and with the help of (6. Alternative interpretations of (6.29) When where a/ 8 is greater than about 100. Equation (6.28) R/R d c = .27) or from the equations derived Problem 6.30) has better than \% accuracy for all values of a/8 greater than 4 if the effective circumference of the peripheral skin of the conductor is calculated more appropriately from a radius (a — \8) instead of a..36.30) states that for very high values of a/8. 6 metal having thickness equal to the skin depth 8. according to the value of a/8: When a/8 is less than about 0. or is equal to the resistance per unit length of a strip of indefinitely thin sheet resistance material having surface resistivity R s ohms/square. \% given by the very simple formulas (6. + (a/8)V48 UlLi^c (3) = l(a/8) 4/96 accuracy Rs/(2tt(i) is (6. and the distributed internal inductance decreases by less than \% from the dc value given in (6.5. the distributed ac resistance of a conductor increases over its dc value given in (6.) (4) Equation (6. wrapped around a nonconducting cylinder of radius equal to that of the conductor. It is obvious that (6.3. which occur at frequencies of tens or hundreds of megahertz for typical conductor diameters. (See Section 6.78 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. the distributed ac resistance of a solid circular conductor is equal to the dc resistance per unit length of a plane strip of the conductor material having thickness 8 and a width equal to the periphery of the circular conductor.5. since it is experimentally confirmed for the usual nonferromagnetic conductor materials that the dc value of a continues to hold at all frequencies used on transmission lines. (See Problem 6.31) states that under the same conditions.30) R = R = s l/(<r8) = \^J(2aj as defined in equation (6.30) are that the distributed ac resistance of a solid circular conductor at sufficiently high frequencies is equal to the dc resistance per unit length of a surface skin of the conductor of thickness 8. equations giving the ratios of the distributed resistance and distributed internal inductance at any frequency to the same quantities at zero frequency can be formulated. Then R = and . = ratio 2(a7s)^T ^ lR q9 \ For the same range of a/ 8 the inductance by an empirical formula r LJ Li d c . = 27ra(a£8)8 2ir{a$B) (a/8) 2 ^'^ R J£T = £a2 Ja^W8 .3 and Fig.34) _\±. 67.31) also apply to tubular circular conductors whose wall thickness is great enough to contain essentially the whole of the current distribution.
The first three values fall in the first category of calculations listed above.924 0.672 0. by equation (6.15) is S = 0.9 1.9 3.831.042 0.562 1.4 1.1 1. From wire tables the radius of a 19 gauge wire is 0. For frequencies of 1 megahertz and higher.4558 X 10 3 m.0661/V/ m.1 is used. Linear interpolation in the intervals is accurate enough for of a/8 in the range between 1.80 X 10 mhos/m.533 0.938 1.827 4.9 1. to find R/Rdc = 1.2 below.5 R/Rdc 1.~ CHAP.124 2. equations (6.5 3.1 1.978 0.951 3.5 1.8 1. with a/S .34) are used.33) and (6.689. two in the fourth.805 0.174 0.870 0.989 2.5 and 4.42 ohms/km 7 is 20 °C.5 0. and the final one in the third category.557 1. the ratio a/8 at the frequencies listed has the sequence of values 0. 0.152 3.849 1.962 0.001 1.9 2.3 1.632 1.495 2.0 Example 6.8 2.610 1.821 0.454 1.274 0. These figures are consistent with the copper having a conductivity of 5.1.187 1.505 LitLi dc 0.689.224 2. Table a/8 6. 104 10*.021 2.4 2.355 0. 0. Tables and graphs of such data are available in many sources.693 1.89.1 2.225 1. These are followed by one in the second category.014 1.974 2. and Rdc is given as 26.996 0.760 0.0264 ohms/m and Li dc = /V 8 " = 5 00 x 10_8 L for the 19 gauge copper wire at frequencies of 0. 2.18.520 3.613 0.218.266 1.009 0. 6. = 0.998 0.404 1.3 2. For where / this value of conductivity the skin depth in copper as given is The reference values for R and L{ are Rdc henries/m.7 0.346 and V^idc = 0. engineering purposes.0 2.908 0. 0. . the simpler forms of (6.309 2.28) and (6.8 3. one in the fifth.2 1.7 1.652 0.29) should be used.27).737 0. (6.924 0. which at used for "room invariably value officially defined as "100% conductivity" for copper at 20°C.993 0. 68.2 1. Thus for the 19 gauge wire of this problem.890 0. where a/S < 0.7 3.30) and (6J1) when a/S is large enough. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN a/8 79 (5) For values of there is no standard alternative to using data calculated directly from equation (6. Determine the distributed resistance and distributed internal reactance in ohms/m of a 19 gauge copper wire at frequencies of 0. 10*.000 Li/Li dc 1. Table 6.075 1.122 1.663 0.716 1.000 a/8 2.024 0.715 0.507 0.005 and L/Lid c = 0.9 and 689. unless some other specific value is stated.6 1.057 1.097 1. These automatically reduce to to 10 10 hertz is given in A tabulation Table 6.873 1.971 1.000 0.030 1.0 1. the frequency in hertz. = 1.074 2. 60.0 3.578 0.783 0.8 0.005 1. The results are which could also have been taken from Table 6.547 0. and is the temperature" resistance calculations on copper conductors.7.1 shows the variation of R/Rdc and LJLi dc for small intervals to 4.984 0.6 1.7 0. These are then also the values of R and and 10 3 hertz. 60   4 At 10 R/Rdc kilohertz. = 0.998.0533.3 3. 10 6 10 8 and 10 10 hertz.595 0.769 1.5. At 100 kilohertz.4 3. . of all the results for 19 gauge copper wire at frequencies from .1 at a/8 = 0.6 2.1 R/Rdc 1. Table 6.2 1.
14 3. Iron wires may have quite large values of relative permeability at frequencies up to the low megahertz range.45 1. 63 shows that for a/8 greater than about 5 or 10. and the changes in their values of distributed resistance R and distributed internal inductance L { from the dc values will be less than for the copper conductors.1 and 6. Wires of iron.000 0.0264 0. The ratio a/8 varies directly with conductor radius a.09 10 8 34.09 0. and it is smaller . Fig.45 X lOX 10~ 8 0.0264 Li Li/Li&. for some of the metals most commonly used as transmission line conductors.C and LJLi^ that apply to a conductor of radius a at frequency /.80 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN Table 6. and hence of R/R^.914 9. and with the square root of the frequency.18 6. most of the ac current in a solid circular conductor flows in a peripheral skin of the conductor about two or three skin depths in thickness. a 40 gauge copper wire shows no perceptible change in resistance from its dc value for frequencies up to 1 megahertz.2 that a/8 increasing above unity marks the beginning of rapid increases with frequency for the ratios R/Rac and Li/Lf dc Also. Pursuing these figures in both directions.0119 0.289 X lO" 8 7 0. or other ferromagnetic material may have values of a/8.3 below lists applications.930 0. will hold for a conductor of the same material with radius 10a at a frequency //100.000 X lO. while a solid copper conductor 2" in diameter shows about 10% increase of resistance from skin effect at a frequency of 60 hertz.0980 0.1 X 0.71 1.0264 0.0355 0.0261 0.13 60 10 3 10 4 0. the distributed resistance R begins to increase quite precisely in proportion to the square root of the frequency.7 0.005 1. the conductivities at 20°C. 6 Frequency hertz a/8 it/itdc R ohms/m 0.00 ohms/m uLJR 10 ~* 1. nickel. while the distributed internal inductance Li begins to vary inversely as the square root of the frequency.000 henries/m 5. material except silver will have smaller values of a/8 than copper wires of the same diameter at the same frequency.9 1.89 68.831 4. either larger or smaller than for copper wires of the same diameter at the same frequency.16 1.00291 X lO" 10 It is quite clear from Tables 6.905 9.e 1.736 0.99 X lO" 3 10 5 10« 4.000 X 10.0533 0. At a frequency of 1 megahertz in copper this thickness is approximately 0.1 it has been seen that the skin depth 8 for 100% conductivity copper at frequency / hertz and 20° C is given by 8 = 0. in which case the ratio of the distributed resistance of iron wires to the distributed resistance of copper wires of the same diameter may become much higher than would be determined by the ratio of their conductivities alone. depending on whether or not their relative permeability at the frequency exceeds the ratio of the conductivity of copper to the conductivity of the ferromagnetic material.000 1. or with radius a/10 at a frequency 100/.00 5.8 X 10~ 8 X 108 X 108 1.88 3.5 X lO" 4 7.0909 0.218 0. and the temperature coefficient of the conductivity at that temperature.000 1.0661/y7m.0265 0.0288 low 689 344 0.118 0. for solid circular conductors of the same material.689 2.00 5. from Table 6.1 millimeters.000 1.44 1. Thus the same values of R/R&. The ratio a/8 varies directly as the square root of the permeability and the square root Hence conductors of any nonmagnetic of the conductivity of the conductor material.991 1.2 [CHAP.346 3. From Example 6.2 it can be seen that when a/8 approaches 100.998 0. or as resistor materials or plating materials in high frequency Table 6.
an appreciable fraction of the current flows in the corrosion material of intermediate conductivity (the corrosion products are generally oxides and sulfides) and the effective conductivity of the conductor as a whole may be substantially less than that of silver. This suggests the possibility of using plated conductors in high frequency applications. For a silver conductor. . having a thin skin of more expensive high conductivity metal on a core of inexpensive material whose conductivity does not affect the situation. on any base material whether conducting or not.CHAP. In the commercial form of fabrication of circular metal rods or wire. The result is that high frequency currents in a copper conductor flow almost entirely in the copper. etc. by an extremely thin layer of plated or evaporated gold or by a lowloss dielectric coating. and must be determined experimentally for any specific conductors.00393 0. on the other hand. Metal Conductivity mhos/m Temperature Coefficient /°C (all negative) Aluminum Brass (somewhat variable) 3.002 X10 7 X 10 7 X X 10 7 10« Copper (annealed) Copper (hard drawn) Constantan Gold (pure) Iron* (pure) 5. while those on a copper surface have very low conductivity. grooves.0050 0.0038 6.3. when a/ 8 > 1.0039 0.04 1.00382 5. and the conductor's effective conductivity is that of the copper. common metals at 20° C.28 or greater. microscopic surface imperfections appear. if there is adequate protection from corrosion and from surface roughness effects.0006 0.80 0. However.0039 X 10 7 X 10 7 Lead 4. will ensure a distributed conductor resistance equal to or less than that of a solid circular conductor of the plating material.76 0. that a plating thickness of 1.15 X 10 7 X 10 6 Tin Zinc 8.0034 0.0037 X 10 7 *The permeability of iron and nickel is very much dependent on processing techniques.04 4.65 2. is The problem of surface roughness exists whether a conductor is solid or plated. careful measurements have shown that the corrosion products on a silver surface in ordinary atmospheres have intermediate conductivity.4 X 10 7 0. If a silver surface is protected against corrosion. cracks.00 0. since silver has the highest conductivity of all metals. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN Table Conductivities and temperature coefficients of 81 6. plating material.0042 0. and an obvious consequence of the small values of 8 at high frequencies. below the surface corrosion layers.28 X X X 10 6 10 6 10 7 Mercury Nickel* Silver 0. including oxidation. at higher frequencies.00089 0.000008 0. It is theoretically true. fissures. in the At frequencies in the hundreds or thousands of pits. a silver plated conductor will have the lowest possible distributed resistance.67 1.54 1. The technique For many years it was thought that silver was necessarily the best is extensively used.54 1.10 1.
elliptical or circular shield or outer conductor. nor will a parallel to the surface but transverse to the direction of propagation. The distance between the conductors not relevant to the problem. The normal to the conductor surfaces is in the and the conductor surfaces extend indefinitely in the transverse x direction. or graphs. The general case of the distributed internal impedance of plane parallel conductors of finite width.3. Initially the conductors are y direction. An electric field component normal to the surface will not generate such currents. However. tables. The to be indefinitely thick in the y direction. can be solved only by approximation and computer methods. The high frequency resistance will increase by a corresponding factor over the theoretical value. and by Ez (y) and x (y) at any distance y measured into the metal normally from the surface. experimental measurements are often likely to provide information on the distributed resistance and inductance of uniform transmission lines involving plane conductors as quickly and accurately as attempts to solve the analytical problem. Distributed resistance and internal inductance of thick plane conductors. Plane conductors of finite width occur in several of the transmission lines illustrated page 9. H H The unbounded plane conductor can be thought of as one of two such conductors constituting a parallel plane transmission line. 22. At microwave frequencies the realization of distributed conductor resistances close to theoretical values for a given conductor material may require special surface polishing techniques in addition to protection against corrosion. but is a meandering path that may be much longer than the conductor itself. . 6. is assumed The coordinate relations are shown in Fig. as phasors.82 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. and it would be useful to be able to calculate the distributed resistance and internal inductance of those conductors. 6 megahertz. The analysis of the idealized unboundedplane case is worth inspection in spite of these limitations. in the form of equations. a reasonably simple analysis of the high frequency current distribution and distributed internal impedance of plane conductors is possible only if the conductors are postulated to extend indefinitely in both directions in the conductor plane. because for high values of a/8 it offers an easier solution to the practical problem of the thinwalled circular tube than can be obtained from the equations of Section 6. with the result that the current flow path along the conductor's surface is not a straight line equal to the conductor's length. whose surface is in the coordinate plane at y = 0. the direction of increasing y being into the metal. the skin depth in the material may be no greater than the dimensions of these imperfections. and because it provides a basis for approximate calculations in various other cases. or such special cases as the distributed internal impedance of finite width plane conductors within a rectangular. it is therefore most appropriate to consider a constant amplitude plane component transverse electromagnetic harmonic wave incident normally on such a metal surface and partly reflected from it. distributed resistance to be determined is the resistance of the conductors per unit length in the z direction. and attention is directed to only one of the conductors. and there are no universally accepted presentations of results for these cases. and an accompanying tangential magnetic field component. per unit width in the x direction. In an investigation of the power losses associated with high frequency current flow in a plane metal surface. Let these field components. below. The longitudinal currents postulated in the distributed circuit analysis of transmission lines will flow only if there is a longitudinal electric field at the conductor's surface.2. In practice. perpendicular to the electric field component and also continuous across the boundary. 65. The field components of the incident and reflected waves will combine at the surface to produce a total tangential electric field component which is continuous across the boundary. in Fig. have directions and rms magnitudes given by E^ and xq at the metal surface. with voltage and current waves propagating in the longitudinal z direction on the line.
r^i'ft* « j li> .38) Since it has also been postulated that the wave planes of the plane electromagnetic wave being considered extend indefinitely in the x and z directions.36) by taking VE = 2 Mi<rE {637) and the same equation to be understood that {6. tion of 1 neper and a phase delay of 1 radian in traveling distance 8 through analogous be would line transmission a on waves (The propagation of voltage and current of value corresponding 8 would The *C. the wave equation is obtained from {6.37) is actually three equaSince it has been of E. of silicon. ffi "v'. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 83 .^'' « 1 ocow aectkm HM Fig.35) {6. This leads to {6.^r » » > in. then. Maxwell's equations for these timeharmonic fields are {6.15).v«P»~ .' r CHAP.6) that the displacement all ordinary for oE density current conduction mE in {6.38) takes the elementary form d2 E z z dy2 = jo>ix<rEz {6. tions.) Dropping the term j<*e. Finally.y /s {641) for a wave traveling into the metal in the positive y direction.". equation {6. the derivatives d/dx and d/dz must both be zero. v ' is E {y) = E*e*» and 8 {640) y = v7^ = (1 +/)/« = z \/2/«/«r is the same skin depth defined by equation } It follows that E {y) = Ez0 e. M .36) curlE = j'ojuH ((r curlH = It + y<oc)E current density has been seen in connection with equation {6.39) whose solution where {6. one for each separate rectangular coordinate component z . 65. » fl* w»tal at plane 9 = ! Coordinate relations for investigating ac current flow in a thick metal sheet... " at planej^p^'.37) becomes postulated that the only component of E is in H.'] —— . for example. dx 2 *T" B EZ ~ ~ 2 B2 I E Z dy* dz2 = jo>fiaEz {6. {6. if the line had the properties R<<oL and G > be V2/(«LG).'. i i y metal surfa^S:V^^!^fc**^. metals at all frequencies up to 10 hertz or ductors were made.36) is negligible compared to the 12 if the contrue be not would (This higher. where it is E d2 E z .35) and the curl of either and substituting into it from the other..y/6 e.) . The meaning of equation {641) is that the electric field of the wave suffers an attenuathe metal.?''!^.
physically distinct from the current density Jz at a point (mks units.U) relation here is meaningful. this as Zs = R s + jXs . equation (644) shows that Designating Z s = R + jX s s = (l+j)/<r8 = R s (l+j) (645) Thus the real and imaginary parts of this distributed internal impedance. \ Pl = \Jsz \ 2 /a8 = \J SZ \ 2 R S (646) According to (646) the power loss per unit area associated with the ac surfacecurrent density Jsz in amperes/(meter width of surface). and the = f •so o dxf Q \ dy J* dz {*\Ez (y)\ 2 } = J* a \Ez (y)\ 2 dy where \Ez (y)\ is f E (643) a\Ez0 2 e. which at high frequencies can be a very small distance. establishing that the total surfacecurrent density lags the surface electric field Jsz (Note. is the same as the power loss per unit area that would occur if a current of the same total rms value (whether ac or dc) flowed with constant point current density in a skin of the conductor of thickness 8. commonly known as the surface resistivity of the material and numerically equal to the dc resistance between opposite edges of any square sheet jof the material of thickness 8. X Substituting for \Ez0 from (64A) into (643). The units of R s and hence of s and Z s are ohms. the field z and consequently the current density Jz fall to negligible fractions of the surface values at a depth of less than 108. 6 in the metal the current density produced flows in the z direction and is given by (641) electric field of equation Mv) = oEz (y) The power loss per unit volume in the metal power loss per unit area of metal surface is Pl at (642) is \Jz (y)\ 2 any point /a = a\Ez (y)\ 2 . It must be identified notationally as a surfacecurrent density (mks units. The limit of infinity on the integrals with respect to y in (643) could be replaced by this distance.2v/s dy = obtained from equation (641).21) by the ratio of the tangential electric field at the surface to the total current in the conductor. a distributed internal conductor impedance was defined in equation (6. amperes/square meter).84 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN At any point by the [CHAP. for which the point current density Jz diminishes exponentially with depth into the metal. for unit width of a plane conductor having thickness not less than about 10 skin depths. however. If Jsz is this surface current density. electrical variable in this skin effect situation A more tangible electric field at the surface of the Jsz The phase = f dx C'dyMv) = f <rEz0 e« + »» /s dy = *Ez0 8/(l + j) (6. amperes/meter). This is contained within a thickness of less than 108 at the surface of the metal.27). point at the surface Jz0 must be in phase with E'zo according to equation (642). The corresponding concept for plane conductors is a longitudinally distributed internal impedance for unit width of conductor. or ohms/square. than the tangential metal is the total current in the conductor per unit width of surface. are both equal to the quantity R s previously defined in (6. The distinction between the total surfacecurrent density and the current density at a point at the E surface is a vital one. that the current density at a z0 by 45°. From (641). This result .) In the case of the solid circular conductor.
the phasor currents in layers farther into the metal are smaller in magnitude and retarded in phase. 108 to frequency need never be more than 58 ~E. The dashed line suggests that if the current beyond 1. such actual distribution of high frequency current in exponentially diminishes point a at density of course that the magnitude of the current At any point distance. and their distributed resistance per unit width of surface remains within \% of resistance when R s for all thicknesses greater than 38. the amplitude reduction of equal. Additional metal would serve no electrical purpose.68 than for either smaller or larger thicknesses. skin the to compared of curvature of the conductor's surface is very large are surfaces plane for calculations surface can be regarded as a plane. skin effect "skin depth" and a superficial misinterpretation of the are currents frequency high that impression theorem sometimes lead to the erroneous conductor plane a of surface the at thickness 8.38. known when a/8 of a/8 is a The agreement of equations (6. The layers are 0.01% of its surf ace magsurface magnitude at a depth of 58. a plane conductor or a circular metal tube conductor of fixed outside radius a > 8 actually have lower ac the metal thickness is about 1. physically totally contained within a skin of compared with 8.31) with (645) for very large values radius if the current. The reference phasor is EgQ. The or of a curved conductor whose radius of curvature is very large by (641) and (642) is given as cases. and the skin effect applicable. 66. Summation of surfacecurrent density phasors in consecutive layers of a thick metal sheet carrying ac current. Relative to the phasor current in the surface layer. in an indefinitely thick sheet. relative to the surface values. for layers totalling 38 in thickness. the thickness Ay of each layer being conveniently about 0. layers of equal thickness. Closer inspection of equations (6M) and (642) reveals an interesting phenomenon associated with ac current flow in plane conductors. where A/s*(0) is the phasor current in unit width of the layer at the surface. Its application to solid circular of the order of 100 or greater has already been seen in equation (6.30). 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 85 is is conductors as the skin effect theorem. and consequently to less currents of any timeharmonic carrying conductors Thus nitude at a depth of 108. imagined to consist of a large number of uniform plane If the plane conductor is Fig.CHAP. m to the surface. are The use of the name somewhat less than 1% of its Simple calculations show that the current density falls to than 0. but the losses would be re . numerically lag in radians. Fig. and 1 The current flow is parallel surface. then the longitudinal phasor current A/s* in unit width of any layer (this is an increment of the total surfacecurrent density Jse) would be (1+j)!" 6 for a layer given by AJ8*(y) = Aj s*(0)eat depth y below the surface.30) and (6. the tangential electric field at the surface of the metal. with linearly retards with distance into the metal. ac an carries recognition of the fact that when a circular conductor the then depth. while the phase the phase and nepers in density current the within the metal. 66 is a phasor diagram showing the cumulative addition of the phasor currents in consecutive layers.5 skin depths into the metal could be eliminated. For rea sons to be explained. the total surfacecurrent density would be the same as duced. thick for that frequency. The largest surfacecurrent density phasor at the top of the diagram is for the layer at the surface of the metal.3 skin depths thick in the direction normal to the metal's plane wide parallel to the surface.
Although the model from which this conclusion has been drawn is somewhat oversimplified. total current 1.3 skin depths.10. This would make the length of the cumulativephasor curve more nearly equal to the chord representing the total conductor current phasor. for the same total conductor current magnitude.5 skin depths thick. The value of y for each layer has been measured Fig. each having thickness Ay. on letting Ay become infinitesimally small.58 to 1. it can be converted to a linear scale of thickness in meters at constant frequency.58 than for greater thicknesses. 66. It is obvious from the convoluted form of the cumulativephasor curve in Fig.86 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. . without reducing the total current magnitude. 66 that the summation or integral of (643) must be quite a bit greater.U).58 in Fig.158. and the combination of reflected waves with original waves gives a current phasor pattern differing appreciably from that for 1. The value of A/S*(0) in the first layer is an arbitrary scale factor. Since the abscissa of the curve is metal thickness in skin depths. 67 below.38 to 2. phasor in Fig. 66 could also be obtained as the envelope of the successive phasors given by the integral used in obtaining equation (6. The implication is that for the same total current the losses should be less in metal of thickness 1. because the postulated electromagnetic waves in the metal are actually reflected from the second surface of the thin sheet.68. Since the center of the first layer is at y = 0. where the analysis is made of a transmission line analog. relative to the distributed resistance of an indefinitely thick conductor. and that 5% reduction is obtained from about 1. is shown in Fig. These facts suggest qualitatively that some reduction of distributed surface resistance for plane conductors (and circular tube conductors with large a/8) might be achieved by making the metal thin enough to eliminate the "backward current" portion of the phasor diagram of Fig.38. The result would be only slightly different for Ay . with the upper limit varied through a sequence of values ranging from to 38 in suitable steps of 0. 67 are directly applicable to tubular circular conductors for which the outer radius is very large compared to the skin depth. page 147.0.15 rad relative to the zero reference phasor given by the tangential electric field at the surface. US) for obtaining the power loss per unit area in an indefinitely thick plane conductor for ac currents is equivalent to evaluating \AJ S z{y)\V{(rAy) over an infinite set of layers.08. A graph of the variation with thickness of the distributed resistance of a plane conductor. than if the incremental current phasors in successive layers all had the same phase. 6 to the center of the layer. The dashed The total current Quantitative proof is given in Problem 7. the reduction of ac resistance in thin metal surfaces is nevertheless real. It appears that the resistance can be reduced by a maximum of about 8% for thicknesses of 1. 66 illustrates this hypothesis for a conductor phasor in this case has almost exactly the same magnitude as for the indefinitely thick metal. or to a scale proportional to the square root of the frequency for a given metal of constant thickness. 66. The procedure of equation (6. but the curve constructed by adding the current phasors in successive layers is much shorter than before. its phase angle is 0. The quantitative conclusions drawn from Fig.
6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 87 *.J—' i. convenient in available circular conductors do not appear to be external distributed the and inductance internal relative magnitudes of the distributed also which Section 6. for all ranges of the more considerably a is depth. applies to length. Equations {6. of use or would involve unduly inefficient distributed internal Unfortunately. ..CHAP.'. nonmagnetic of both solid and tubular circular co nductors made variable the to proportional is easily shown to be directly nonmagnetic conductors The the distrib uted a c resistance of such conductors. The top linear horizontal scale in \/flR^ .5.9) and {6. rigorous analysis of the distributed resistance and wall thickness to of ratio inductance of circular tubular conductors. 6. in cases where solid conductors would be metal. For t/8 less than about the distributed 0. dc ac resistance is equal to Rs . {6.. wide range The distributed ac resistance of an isolated circular tubular conductor for a shown results h wit of the variables was computed several decades ago by H. * * ** * f. B. coaxial transmission line.8.. of conductor. Ratio of the distributed ac resistance per unit width for an unbounded plane conductor of thickness t/8 skin depths to the distributed ac resistance per unit width of an indefinitely thick conductor of the same metal. inductance of tubular results of a complete analysis of the distributed internal Discussion of the form.. Dwight. discussing in used already a/8 In cala/8 = 1. greater t/8 For resistance. 67.*.. .10) is not zero. Circular metal tubes are the optimum outer conductors for a the two identical and they may be used for the center conductor of such a line also. 68 below. basic the ductors given in Section 6. the distributed ac resistance is equal to the distributed about than 3. Since t/a Table 6. or for excessively heavy conductors of a parallel wire line.'. outside diameter and of the ratio of outside diameter to skin concircular solid for complicated and tedious procedure than the corresponding analysis but equations. . where / is the graphically in Fig..* I iiilw._:. ohms/meter in resistance frequency in hertz and R dc the distributed dc circular solid For material..l* "" :"" : ^ :Vc'R^3: : Fig. it is found to be given by l/vV where = 1 corresponds to a solid value of the permeability of nonmagnetic materials. 68 for t/a = 1 is a plot of the data Vf7^ N .1.4.10) are still in A coefficient 2 the and boundary conditions must be met at two boundaries instead of one. the curve in Fig. Distributed resistance of tubular circular conductors. constant of proportionality is such that y/f/R^ = 892 corresponds to 7 (= 4* x 10~ henries/m) is the mks culating this.^. in continued is designs line The inductance for various transmission includes a review of the procedures for estimating the value of the former.2.
) . Dwight. B. 68. for several values of the ratio of wall thickness to outside radius. The scales a* and b t apply to both magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. and wall thickness t as a function of dimension parameters in skin depths. 6 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 1 7000 VJIrZ a t /8 or b t/8 Fig. The variables a t and b t are given by equations (647) and (648) respectively. applies only to nonmagnetic conductor materials. inside radius b. (After H. The horizontal scale VZ/^dc for which / is in hertz and jRdc is in ohms/m. Ratio of the distributed ac resistance to the distributed dc resistance of a circular tubular conductor of outside radius a. The ratio of the two scales at any point is 892.88 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP.
indicates nonmagnetic conductors. the procedures for calculating the distributed ac resistance of in Section 6.5.2 circular tubular conductors into the same five categories that were established for solid circular conductors. This statement is substituted is conductors if the modified variable (VUa)(a/8) shapes and interrelations the of consequence derived empirically from Fig. 68 is a less direct one. the variable denned by 6t/8 _ y/2bt + t2 /8 The (6>W) is For a given tube at and b t have the same for a/ 8.1 that the abscissa scale of a /8 and b /8 (or a/8 is accounted for in the skin depth 8. the given further reference. exceed not t to its external radius a does with Fig.28) gives the ratio for circular tubular of the distributed ac resistance to the distributed dc resistance Equation (6. bottom horizontal scale of Fig. wall is "thick" (i. Equation (6. the distributed ac approximation surface plane same the from of circular tubular conductors is calculated accurate to £%. 89 For tubular conductors the The quantity is corresponding to a/8 for the solid circular conductor is a/8 radius of the conductor and t its wall thickness. It is clear from ductors made of magnetic materials the scale ^/f/Ri. SO) will give results tube's the radius of the surface carrying the surface current. 68 is unaffected by whether graph should be used for magnetic or not. 68 and is a a t/8 or bt/8 derived variables the with of the curves of that figure. It has no connection from the horizontal scale conversions. a /8 and bt/8.0 and 1. 68 was computed. applies directly & JR&* < 1. that for a/8. this quantity is ^/2attV8 where a the outside when t = a. It reduces to Then symbol at/8. 68 is directly applicable are the cases parallel wire line used as either the center conductor of a coaxial line or as a conductor of a thickness whose two conductors are widely separated. The fact that the curve in Fig. For confor solid conductors) is applicable to either magnetic or used.e. and since the external fields transmission must be the same at all angular positions around such a conductor.1.c must not be that derive from expressions that Fig. the only of a circular metal tube line conductors to which Fig. equation (6.CHAP. if the ratio of a tube's wall circular of a resistance distributed the about 20%.rl8. 68 was in fact constructed from t t Dwight's writings equations (6. 68 from taken also be can line coaxial of a conductor tube used as the outer adequate accuracy. the quantitative relation for solid circular conductors tubular to to 0.5. where the permeability of the metal (t/a = 1) agrees with the R/R&* figures from Table 6. R (2) Using the modified variable (y/t/a)(a/8) in place of a/8.2. t/8 greater transmission be satisfied for such large values of a/8. The question therefore arises as to how the 68 for solid conductors conductors made of magnetic metals. For tubular conductors used in tube is the the when except surface outside the is lines the current carrying surface when a is . used for solid circular conductors.16).005 for a/8 from in Section 6. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN scale conversion in Fig. However. 68 the conductor is The coordinate quantity VJIrZo in Fig. lies R*c/Rdc then covers all of the portion of Fig.28) to 1. t identical values. 68 for which (3) resistance For values of the unmodified variable a/8 greater than 100. up variable conductors within \% for values of the modified between 1. To permit 6 ^ 7) a t /8 = y/2atm is ( When bt/8 is reference to the inside radius b of a tubular conductor more convenient. tubular conductor Since there are no electromagnetic fields in the interior space of the and those within the metal for which Fig.10) or (6. It is useful to classify (1) At the lowest stated frequencies. in which the variable has the form \/2. provided the invariably almost will that condition a about than 3).
33) derived for solid circular conductors also apply to tubular circular conductors.5 = 2. A Example is 6. 68 for Ra. 8 = 2. The required values of the five ratios at the two frequencies are: 60 kilohertz 10 megahertz For the inner conductor. as can in fact be seen directly in Fig.0661/V/m when / is in hertz.7 216 12. 68 is a/8 and t/a or t/8 not covered by any of the four categories above. used directly. and with the further modification that if the tube is the outer conductor of a coaxial line. 6 outer conductor of a coaxial line. Using a for the outer radius of the inner conductor and b for the inner radius of the outer conductor. the distributed ac resistance value given by (6. and t/b must be evaluated first. With a/8 as low as 4. As in (3). From this.e. to identify the category of each of the four distributed resistance calculations. the quantities a/5. equations (6. (4) For values of the unmodified variable a/8 down to 4. Determine the distributed resistance of each of the conductors at the highest and lowest frequencies used on the line. as is often true. and 5 10~ 2. a very thick walled tube at a low to intermediate frequency) the value given by Fig. i. with the horizontal scale in a t or bt.90 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. one clearly into (3). the sign in the denominator of each equation must be changed to positive. 67 for conductors of "finite" thickness.54 X 104 m ) a t/8 (equation (647)) t/b 0. The line is used at carrier frequencies between 60 kilohertz and 10 megahertz. a/8 (a = 1. subject to the two conditions stated in (3).375" and wall thickness 0. in which case it is the inside surface. at /8. What has happened in this case is that conditions have fallen into a category already covered in (1) or (2) for the modified variable (5) (\/t/a)(a/8).056 0. in which case the distributed ac resistance of the conductor becomes equal to its dc resistance. t/8.80 X 10 7 mhos/m) 8 = 0. In the unlikelyevent that t/8 < 3 when a/8 > 100. that for the unusual combination of a/8 fairly small and t/a fairly large (i.100" in diameter.056 of the distributed resistance calculations fall clearly into category (4). and = 61) into (3). Evaluating the modified variable (y/t/a)(a/8) does not change the classification of any of the calculations. b/8. A coaxial transmission line has a solid copper center conductor 0. .2.51 X 103 m) t/8 {t 4.09 X m at 10 megahertz.94 5. 67 must be used.71 61 16. 68. For both calculations in category (4) the values of a/8 or a t/8 are low enough for the results to be checked by the procedure of category (5). For one of the calculations in category (4) the value of t/8 is small enough to require a correction for insufficient wall Two one marginally (a/8 thickness. 68. The outer conductor a tube of outside diameter 0. final precaution must be repeated.e.70 X 10 ~ 4 m at 60 kilohertz. if t/a is very small then t/8 may be considerably less than unity. if t/8 < 3. by Fig. the multiplying factor from Fig.32) and (6.47) or (648).c /Rac may be as much as several percent in error for a tubular conductor used as the outer conductor of a coaxial line. becomes 8 = The skin depth 8 is given by equation (6. The inaccuracy is partially discounted if the distributed resistance of the outer conductor of the coaxial line is much less than that of the inner conductor. after one of those quantities has been calculated from (6.7 0.2 73. b/8 (b = 4.15) which for 100% conductivity copper (a = 5.80) for the appropriate surface must be multiplied by a correction factor from Fig.0100".27 X 10~3 m) For the outer conductor. For combinations of Fig.
00250 ohms/m.30) must be applied separately to each. and hundreds of megahertz worth noting: iMcoax) = ^(l+) <M») where R ht (coax) is the total distributed resistance of the coaxial line at very high frequencies.5.1) = since and Rdc 2. within about \%.103 ohms/m. results previous of sign in the denominator term. there is a correction factor from Fig.80 ow „_ T^r^ X 10 7 )(4. which ensures that b/8 > 100. Methods for calculating distributed resistances have been fully covered in Sections For coaxial lines used at frequencies of tens to 6. category (4): p "c Wa The change _ ~ 2tt(5.3 and 6.0292 ohms/m 6. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 91 The distributed resistance calculations are as follows.04 X gw „„„ 10~5)(2.07 The and result can be checked directly from Fig.2. = 0.71. This expression requires that the wall thickness of both conductors be greater than 38. 68 by a linear extrapolation of the curve for t/a = 1 ohms/m. Here a is the outside radius of the inner conductor. x (61) Rdc = = 0. For values of a/8 < 100 the distributed resistance must be calculated by one of the other methods described in the preceding sections.35 X 10~ 4 )(2. The current carrying surface is the inside surface of the tube.7.$8)8 ~ 2. and hence i?ac = 0.27) and assumed the same for both conductors. 68. expression obtained from equation (6.30) is specific a higher. Rac/Rdc is found to be between equation 1. Outer conductor at 60 kilohertz. category (4): p *e _ K ~ 2^(5. and R s = 1/M) = y/^/2. b the inside radius of the outer conductor.5 ) — = 0. .80 X 10 7 )(4.is the surface resistivity of the conductor material defined in connection with equation (6.07 = 0. relative to equation (6. and will give better than \% accuracy when a/8 > 100. _ ~ 1 o2v{a _ .27 X 103  I 1.27 a.CHAP.63 a/8 = 4.00340 to be found is equation from (6. (4): Inner conductor at 60 kilohertz.80 X 107)(1. category /2a" c r.35 X 10~4)(2. the difference being very small for such a high value of a/8. 2 Outer conductor at 10 megahertz.00219 ohms/m calculations. (a) Distributed resistance. category (5): p „ ~ a27rb8 1 L_ ~ 2^(5.70 ——— ——— X 104) a.51 X 10. 6.00894 ohms/m. 1.94 for this tube at this frequency. 0.3 )(2.00219 is kilohertz 60 at tube outer of the resistance distributed and the 1.00233 ohms/m.4.14 Since t/8 is only 0.32) as used in the two from this being the outer conductor of a coaxial line.00894 ohms/m In this calculation the length units for and must be the same as for in meters. Inner conductor at 10 megahertz.2.70 X 10~ 4 ) — = 0.104 ohms/m If this case is calculated as category (5) the result is 0. For a t /8 = 5. From a modification of 1 /r .08 for a tube whose ratio of wall thickness to radius is 0.09 X 10. to the ordinate This result can be checked on Fig. including Example 6.0. = 0.09 —— — X 10~ 5 ) =r = 0.80 X 10 7 )(1.056. The result is R*c/Rdc i? a c is given as 0.14 0. b X 10~ 3 5  1 1.00233X1. If the two conductors are of different materials. Distributed circuit coefficients of coaxial lines.00250 X 1.51 X 10~ 3 A + 1.r(5. 67 of ohms/m. equation (6.
Va). . Since in the present derivation Al can always be taken small enough to ensure that there is negligible longitudinal potential difference along the length Al of the conductors. for a portion of coaxial line included between two transverse planes separated by distance Al.92 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. 69 shows the central cross section. Pi . and the radial electric flux density at D r (r) any point on the cylinder is D where p is t r (r) v ' = ^to^. the total electric flux is AQ coulombs. a<r<b. By definition the capacitance ratio of the . 69.52) 27re'r between any two conductors or conductor elements is the magnitude of either of the equal and opposite charges on them to the potential difference associated with the charges.50) the uniformly distributed longitudinal charge density in coulombs/m over Al. where Crossing the length Al of any cylinder of radius r concentric with the line's conductors. states that the potential two conductors of a line at any cross section has a unique value given by the line integral of the electric field along any path between the conductor surfaces.= Al 2Tir P2irr coulombs/m 2 {6. If the space medium between the conductors is filled with a homogeneous lossless isotropic of (real) permittivity e' f arads/m. Derivation of an expression for the distributed capacitance of a coaxial line is the simand no case has fewer complicating its factors in practical calculations. plest of all the distributed circuit coefficient derivations. as prescribed in (a) above. 6 (b) Distributed capacitance. it follows that the potential difference between the two conductors at difference between the any cross section within Al is given by Va — V b = Pi I — E r {r) dr.51) Itct'T Postulate 4 of transmission line analysis. the electric field E r {r) at radius r is E (r) r Drjr) _ Pi volts/m {6. symmetry the electric flux density at any point in the interconductor space over the length Al is independent of angular position around the axis of the conductors.\0ge b volts {6. and the distributed capacitance of the Using equation {6. as given in Chapter 2. which are equipotentials.52) and the relation AQ/Al . or •sa dr Va %s a = ~—. uniformly distributed over the length Al of the inside surface of the outer conductor. Then if AC is the capacitance between the conductors of a coaxial line for length Al. in a plane containing the axis. It is also postulated that the electric charge distribution Fig. AC = AQ/{Vb . From distributed capacitance. The facing surfaces of the two conductors have radii a and b respectively. It is postulated that there is free charge + AQ coulombs uniformly distributed over the length Al of the outside surface of the inner conductor of the line and free charge — AQ coulombs similarly a. Cross section of a coaxial transmison the two conductors is continuous on either sion line in a longitudinal diametral side of the length Al so that the electric flux plane with notation for determining lines throughout Al are everywhere radial. Fig.Pl line is C = AC/Al = {AQ/Al)/{V b Va).
range. and plasters or ceramics containing dispersed carbon would be examples of such materials. such as teflon! hertz to 10 gigahertz or more. and steatite ceramics.— DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 93 CHAP. and values between 50 micromicrofarads/m are most common. If k' is the real dielectric constant of the lossless material Equation 12 of free space. as the conductance between the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces for the piece of material Depending on the material. or is a small average value for a line partly filled with usually lies or discs. physical conceivable all for negligible. show plastics. In very rare instances the interconductor space of a coaxial transmission line is filled with material which conducts electricity by the actual flow of charged carriers.7 to 2. such a chargefilling unit length of the line (see Problem 6. conductors are completely which it applies.85 x where £ lc' = C 'A . acrylic glasses. or even into the gigahertz frequency range. polystyrene and polyethylene mission lines. 6] C = 27r lx loge b/a . either electrons or ions. zero frequency up to a few hertz. etc. mon insulating materials. The distributed capacitance of a coaxial transmission line therefore and 100 within the range of about 25 to 200 micromicrofarads/m.31). Except in unusual cases k' e ratio b/a lies within a fairly narrow range is then confined to an even smaller range is the low dielectric constant of a lowloss dielectric beads lowdensity material..54) For most practical coaxial transmission lines the from about 2 to less than 10. and the logarithm from about 0. Damp earth. The distributed conductance of a transmission line filled with such a conducting dielectric is found. The complications introduced capacitance distributed the and treatment. including bakelite. by appropriate application of equation (6. and Distributed capacitance calculations differ from those for distributed resistance the of metal the within currents and fields of effects that the distributed inductance in Equation (6. which would exist only for special purposes . permittivity 10~ = the is farads/m 8. frequency same over the several percent variation of k' e The of the insulating materials dielectric constant k' e (c) Distributed conductance.5b) conditions. Other less comof "constant" true generally a that the distributed capacitance is rubbers. e (6. experimental of such lines is usually determined by most widely used in coaxial transplastics. or to a from flow conductance value may remain constant few kilohertz. and not disfrequency as lines intended for efficient transmission of signals or power. It is then it tends to be directly proportional to frequency over wide ranges of frequency. whose current carrying properties would be described by a true value of conductivity having the same significance as the conductivity of a metal. line that transmission desirable to have an expression for the distributed conductance of a Apart from these exceptional cases. Since the loss is thus on a per cycle basis. farads/m (653) filling the interconductor space. so from 60 range frequency varies by less than \% over the the line. analytical conductor are not amenable to simple measurement.1). electrolytic solutions. of is therefore a highly accurate and complete expression for the case to the interconductor filling dielectric homogeneous isotropic smooth uniform conductors with or a braided outer conductor center multistrand a by space. and the distributed conductance operating frequency is not caused by the flow of free charges but is a measure of internal dielectric losses in the insulating material resulting from repeated reversals of the dielectric polarization by the ac electric field. the zero is ceramics or tributed conductance of coaxial transmission lines insulated with plastics any at normally so small as to be difficult to measure.53) can be written C = 55 6 i fc' loge b/a '—rr micromicrofarads/m (6.
If in equation a coaxial line the permittivity e' or the dielectric constant k' is replaced by a complex number form from (6. . Example 6.10 and constant tan 8 = 0.0002 for frequencies from hertz to gigahertz.00015 = 0.56) shows that the distributed conductance of a coaxial transmission line is directly proportional to frequency.85 X 10.53) distributed capacitance C has the same value at all the frequencies listed. given by equation as C = 2?r(2. where G is one of the line's four distributed circuit coefficients and = wC is the distributed susceptance of the line's distributed capacitance C.10 X 8. 87 and 870 micromhos/m. Thus G + jB = j<*C = ju2v{/ .2 micromicrofarads/m (6.050) = 92. for example. (6.94 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. depending on impurities and thermal history.00015 over the frequency range 10 megahertz to 10 having constant k' e gigahertz. The distributed conductance 10 7 hertz has the value G then directly proportional to frequency./e")/(k>g« b/a) = // . This goal is achieved by the standard convention of designating the permittivity or dielectric constant of a lossy (but nonconducting for dc) dielectric by a complex number. From the real parts of this relation.3. For the most commonly used low loss insulating materials mentioned there. If the interconductor space of the coaxial transmission line of . and tan = *"U.53). if the loss factor tan 8 and the line's distributed capacitance C are independent of frequency. K  KK = *l^U'l H (6.53) for the distributed capacitance of G where C = 27rc7(log e b/a) 8 = w~7i jrj~ — a>C tan 8 8 (6. a>e 2 7r/(loge b/a) + /a)e 2 7r/(log e b/a).56) as in equation (6.12 )/(logc is 0.55). called the loss factor or the tangent of the loss angle for the material. the value of G resulting from such low values of tan 8 is likely to be too small to affect the attenuation factor a as determined by the methods of Chapter 5. The quantity tan Equation (6. This usually means that the value was below the sensitivity of the measuring equipment. according to and at G = The values of 2v X 10 7 (92. Example 6. determine the distributed capacitance C and the distributed conductance G of the line at frequencies of 10 7 10 8 10 9 and 10 10 hertz. Thus for such a material «  *W.87 micromhos/m G at the other frequencies are respectively 8.2X 10" 12)X 0. which is the distributed conductance of the line. Values of tan 8 listed in standard handbooks for low loss materials should usually be considered as approximate typical values only. is less than 0.56). Except at gigahertz frequencies. The (6.55) line is given B The distributed admittance of the distributed capacitance of a uniform transmission by G + jB. the remaining terms in the expression being more or less independent of frequency. used to designate the lossiness of a dielectric in ac electric fields is It cannot be too strongly emphasized that this use of the Greek letter 8 is in no way connected with the previous use of the letter 8 for the skin depth in a conductor carrying ac currents. It is an unfortunate duplication that is firmly entrenched as the established notation in each case. 6 contains the frequency explicitly.7. There is evidence that the precise value of tan 8 may vary considerably among different samples of polymer plastic dielectrics. .2 is filled with teflon dielectric = 2. . The constancy of C has been discussed in (b) above. then the quantity calculated e as the distributed susceptance B will have both real and imaginary parts.1775/0. the loss factor tan 8 lies between 10~ 3 and 10~ 5 Tabulated values often indicate only that the loss factor of polyethylene. The negative imaginary part of e' contributes a positive real part to the distributed admittance.
Of the three distributed circuit coefficients so far considered for a coaxial line. Cross section of a coaxial transmission line in a longitudinal diametral ductor. . The only component of magnetic flux density is B^ and the interconductor space distant r from the central axis is its value B^r) at any point in . a total current J flows longitudinally in one direction in the inner conductor. distributed external inductance. The distributed capacitance C and the distributed conductance G. for a coaxial line. angular position around the periphery of the conductors. They are functions only of the nature and dimensions of the material filling the interconductor space. However. a uniform coaxial transmission line has circular conductors.31) and (645). 610. At lower frequencies it must be added to a distributed internal inductance term Li determined by methods reviewed in Section 6. . and of the frequency.. . is Referring to Fig. being determined completely by the conductor materials and dimensions and the frequency. distributed circuit coefficient.8. is the only one of the four such coefficients for a transmission line that in some cases has to be determined as the sum of both "external" and "internal" components. = dr I i Considering a section of the transmission M between transverse planes. 69.. as in Fig.. Distributed external inductance is a measure of the linkage of magnetic flux in the interconductor space with the center conductor of the line as a distributed "circuit".. It is true that at frequencies above some minimum frequency that is typically in the megahertz region the distributed reactance of the distributed internal inductance of circular or plane conductors becomes equal to the The fourth distributed resistance of the conductors.5) can be a substantial fraction of the total > distributed inductance. The expression for the distributed external inductance L x to be derived for a coaxial line independent of frequency if the magnetic properties of the material in the interconductor space are not functions of frequency. at low frequencies the distributed internal inductance of a solid circular conductor as given by equation (6. being totally independent of the material of the conductors or of the transverse extension of the conductors on either side of the interconductor space.CHAP. it follows that the distributed external inductance must be very much greater than the distributed internal inductance for coaxial lines at such frequencies. . 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 95 (d) Distributed inductance. and since <»L/R 1 always under such conditions.. on the other hand. From the symmetry of the line the curth Nation for determining Plane rents are uniformly distributed with respect to . and an equal current flows in the opposite direction in the outer conFig. line of length Al ™ . It is the total distributed inductance of the coaxial line at frequencies high enough to make a/S > 100. and the magnetic flux lines produced in the interconductor space by the current Al is assumed short in the center conductor are circles concentric with the conductor. It is in no way dependent on the properties of the uniform medium filling the interconductor space. are "external" quantities. the outside radius of the inner conductor being a and the inside radius of the outer conductor being b. enough that no quantities in the problem vary in the longitudinal direction. distributed inductance. 610. . the dis tributed resistance R is a quantity entirely "internal" to the conductors. as shown by equations {6.
the following simplified expressions are easily derived If the conditions a/8 > 100.' )  v'JI^t teslas (6. [i = 4?r x 10~ 7 henries/m.4 ohms = 1/VZc = 2.253 microhenries/m.57) where m is the (real) permeability of the medium in the interconductor space. and mean that the distributed external inductance L x of coaxial lines usually lies between about 0. phase velocity and attenuation factor of the line. Hence the high frequency approximate equations of Chapter 5 are to be used in determining Z vp and a. the permeability always has the value for free space.2.0292 ohms/m given in Example 6. where R is the total distributed resistance of the line.00046 microhenries/m. the values of a/8 and b/8 for this coaxial line at 10 megahertz are 61 and 216 which according to Table 6. where R has the value 0.2 X 10~ 12 = 52. is then L* = 7 A aT * = 2^ log * a henries / m i 6 58 )  Except for peculiar situations.4.81) applies and L t = R/u = 0.3 determine the distributed external inductance.253 micro ^ henries/m. The results are From Example respectively. which is an exactly defined value in the mks system of units.96 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. 10 and *>C/G > 10 all hold for a coaxial line.2. equation (6.58) with 2 X 10 7 loge 0. . (In contrast to the small range of values of L x and C for practical coaxial lines. 6. = . ZQ = vp a It is to be noted = V(2. (6. A check shows that at 10 megahertz uL/R = 120. Thus L x = = fi for given by equation (6.00129 nepers/m that dielectric losses contribute about 2% of the attenuation factor at yfh/C ) this frequency./^^t = i^j^s 60 b log*:.1 and 10 microhenries/m. . 6 B Ji r \t. For the transmission line of Examples 6.) ^ Example 6. b/8 > 100.2 and 6. L — L x + L 4 = L x — 0.000023 = 0. Then the total flux in the interconductor space linking length Al of the center conductor is A^ = Al f */ a «/)/(27rr) dr = (1/2*) Al^Iloge b/a of external flux The distributed external inductance of the line. At the value b/8 — 216 for the tubular outer conductor.7 )/(92.00127 + 0. ohms I=lo8io77 'i«a VK .05 microhenries/m. (e) Summary of high frequency relations for the coaxial line. Then at a frequency of 10 megahertz find the characteristic impedance. o>L/R > *. the distributed resistance R varies by a factor of 10 5 among common types of lines.1775/0. such as filling the interconductor space of a coaxial line with a ferrite material. which is likely to be the case for most lines at frequencies above some value between 1 and 100 megahertz depending on the line dimensions and materials. and aC/G = l/(tan 8) = 6000. Lx . This also is negligible in comparison with Lx Hence for this coaxial line at a frequency of 10 megahertz.53 X 10. The distributed external inductance all Lx at all frequencies is nonmagnetic media in the interconductor space.2 ensures that the distributed internal inductance of the center conductor of the line is less than about 3% of its zero frequency value of 0.07 X 108 m/sec = R/2Z + GZ /2 = 0.050 = 0. The comments in (c) above about the limited variation of b/a and of loge (b/a) for practical coaxial lines are directly applicable here again. VK ea = b 138 . The magnetic flux passing through the small rectangle of length Al and radial width dr at coordinate dr in the radial plane is dip = BJ(r) Al dr. defined as the amount circuit linkage per unit length per unit current.59) . It is therefore somewhat under 1% of the distributed external inductance and can be neglected. .
but the departure from cylindrical symmetry adds a complication. and to lines with either solid or tubular circular conductors. At any finite value of the cona minimum value of a/8 at which proximity effect increases the 0) there is no proximity (s/2a With the conductors almost touching. As s/2a increases from 8 to just over 10. parallel wire transmission lines must constitute a large majority of transmission line installations. and v v must be divided by. resistance of solid circular conductors by a factor proximity effect increases the distributed Pm given by the simple formula 1 (6.01) have been apart diameter of a only line's conductors are 1% the surfaces of confirmed experimentally. proximity effect can be allowed for without too much difficulty. infinite distributed resistance for literally. and 6.59) vk both make the assumption.5. proximity effect is negligible at all frequencies. A. In the analyses for distributed capacitance. but if the conductor axes are 8 diameters apart. expressed by the ratio of the separation s of their centers The most complete analysis available is that of to the diameter 2a of each of them.00 XlO8 m/sec {6. Telephone pole lines and cable pairs and television antenna leadin lines are among the most common examples. but the complete analyses of distributed resistance and internal inductance for solid and circular tubular conductors are mathematically too cumbersome to be presented here. Z must be multiplied by.60) 11 vkVw* 3. the same increase in distributed resistance will not occur until a/8 is increased to about 2. Tabulated data and approximate expressions are given in For parallel wire transmission lines with identical solid circular conductors. and the frequency. Measured by the number of miles in practical operation. The effects of this distortion of symmetry are known collectively as "proximity effect". (a) below and in Section 6. for example. distributed resistance will increase about conductor diameters. the amount by which proximity effect increases the resistance depends on the material and radius of the conductors. . Arnold. combined in the variable a/8 as previously. In a dc circuit (a/8 = virtually in contact at their adjacent surfaces ductor separation there is effect even when the conductors are =1). and for axial separations greater than 10 or 12 distributed resistance perceptibly.60) VkP Equations (6. usually valid. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 1 97 v» = (6.6. the minimum value of a/8 at which proximity effect increases the distributed resistance by \% rises from 2 to infinity. Distributed circuit coefficients of transmission lines with parallel circular conductors. The derivation of expressions for the distributed circuit coefficients of parallel wire lines follows the same basic procedures used in the derivations for coaxial lines. At high frequencies for which a/8 > 100. the \% from proximity effect when a/ 8 is approximately 0. conductance and external inductance of parallel wire lines. M. If this is not the case. In some cases the effects become negligible at smaller separations.8. that the material in the interconductor space of the coaxial line has the magnetic properties of free space. (a) Distributed resistance.CHAP. and on the "proximity" of the conductors. H. This statement applies to all the distributed circuit coefficients.61) Pht = While the implication of VI  l/(s/2a) 2 conductors approaching contact than greater 2 for Pht when the adjacent values predicted is not to be taken (s/2a = 1. the square root of the relative permeability of the medium.
077 0.221 0.0 4.6 1.5 3.4 4. for each conductor of the transmission line.0 conductor diameters.238 0.6 0.056 0.61) applies also to circular i.165 0.556 0.201 V2a /8 t fx h 0.019 0.0 6.244 0.030 0.1 0.360 0. The actual function from a Bessel equation similar to equation (6.113 0.242 0.2.2 1.6 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 50 0.000 hertz.180 0.106 8.088 0.923 0.123 0.578 0.641 4.9 3.931 0.196 4.4 as given by Arnold.778 0.8 3.210 0.7 approximately.004 2.320 0.7 3.681 0.876 0.135 0.598 0.687 0. determine the lowest frequency at which proximity effect will increase the distributed resistance of the line by about \%.0 1. [CHAP. Hence the distributed 10 8 hertz is 1.902 0.000 0. 6.6 2. almost all accuracy of better than \% in Finally.029 0.8 0.2 0.944 0. A small additional factor caused by the increase in effective length due to twist of the wire pair has been neglected.661 0.8 2.886 0.960 Above 50 0.185 0. From Table 6.821 0.692 0.209 0.652 0.731 0.061 0.3 1. conditions.2 3.0 0.5 6.436 0.4 0.233 0.4.832 0.000 0.001 0.0 2. it appears that for s/2a = 2. P s = 1 < (6.280 0.57 X 2 X 1.0 0. t/8 > 3.9 2.070 0.864 0.953 0.0 7.135 0.668 3. At a frequency of 3 X 10 8 hertz.61) is Phf = 1/Vl — (1/2) 2 = 1.629 0. Table 6.098 0.27).123 0.4 1.007 0.240 0.722 4.696 0.62) '1  A(V2a/8)/(s/2a) 2 fx where A (a/2 a/8) is tabulated in Table 6.208 0.30) is 1.61 ohms/m. a/8 = 100.5 2.081 0.004 0. 6 tubular conductors for the stated conditions of a/8 > 100.167 0. with is cases.000 0.15 = 3.5 0.245 0.106 0.035 0.98 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN Equation (6.914 0.3 0.399 0.174 0.047 0.e.2 0.470 0. are separated gauge cable pair transmission line of Example 5.148 0.2 0.8 5.002 0.240 0. the next simplest approximate equation for the proximity effect factor in parallel wire transmission lines having solid circular conductors applies to lines Designating the factor as P 8 under these for which s/2a > 2. on the average by 2.57 ohms/m.020 0.040 0.739 5.530 0. resistance of the parallel wire line at 3 X After equation (6.5.069 0.028 8/a t 0. y[2a t/8 2.849 3.156 0.245 0.227 0.1 0.243 1.001 0.040 .196 0.972 8/a t 1  an equation stated by Arnold to give the value of the proximity effect factor for an all circular solid and tubular conductors at all separations and all frequencies.4 0. .61). At a frequency of 3 X 10 8 hertz for the same wires.7 0.965 0.15.675 0.215 0. The distributed ac resistance at that frequency from equation (6.223 0.246 0. using data for isolated 19 gauge conductors from Table 6.4 2.9 1. Interpolating among the approximate figures in the second paragraph of (a) above.7 1.203 0.000 0.236 0. find the distributed resistance of the line.0 there should be a •£% increase in distributed resistance for a/8 = 0.3 fx h 0.6 3.2 this ratio occurs for 19 gauge copper wires at a frequency close to 10.235 0.614 0.7 2.5 7.013 0.0 3.705 0. for all values of a/8.140 0.809 0.795 0.8 1.4 derives V2a /8 t fx h 0.218 0.502 0.5 1. The high frequency proximity effect factor from equation (6.224 0.9 0.3 3.5 0.205 0.240 0. if the tube wall is thick.007 0.189 0.760 0.213 0.086 0.230 0. page 80. Example page If the axes of the copper conductors in the 19 52.169 0.002 0.1 2.044 0.054 0.012 0.714 0.
03 0.000 +0.5 and 6.6 1.6 3.93 0.003 0.000 V2at/8 3. Table 6.08 0.0 5.2 2.41 h 0.44 0.76 0.2 3.21 0.39 0.007 0.00 *0.020 h 0.033 0.51 0.85 0.00 (3.2 4.89 0.4 0. one given by f7 = (A/2a t/8) 3/[400 + (\/2at/8) 3 ].71 0.009 7 8 10 0.018 0.67 0.033 0.44 0.15 0.030 4.(at/o)]/7 (v^at/8)} A(V^at/«) A 2 = fz (V2a /8) + [1 .5 1.2 5.2) *0.AJ{s/2af + [A2/(s/2a) 4 ]/[l .44 0.8 5.2) *0.014 0.68).47).017 0.053 0.91) *0.003 0.0S) t t ] t t t In these equations.4 2.10 *0.2 0.0 h 0.08 0.0 0.6 4.4 5.70 0.8 5.023 0.005 0.004 2(8/at)4 .11) *0.46 0.034 0.0 0.006 0.6 0.5 The function /7 is an empirical V2a /8 t h 0.A 3/(s/2a) 2 At = /i(VW8) + (1 .00 (0.028 0.08 0.009 0.(8/at) 2 0.08 0.09) 0.02 *0.6 4.02 0.14 0. When y/2a /8 > 20.010 0.00 (0.30 0.(a /a) 2 5 (a/2 a*/S) A 3 = f3 (V2a /8) + [l(a /a) 2 ]/6 (v^a /8) ] P = (0.27 0.8 3.12 0.068 0.6 5.6 for all values .03 0.8 1.09 0.015 0.43 0.44 0.17 0.037 0.8 0.007 0.002 0.07 (0.07 0.006 0.(at/a) 2 .02 0.CHAP.2 1.0 2.4 4.8 h 0. .039 0.36 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 0.19 0.09 0.15 1.02 0.11 0.011 0.069 0.033 0.00 Above 20  8/a t *0.027 0. /2 /3 A.000 h 0.4 1.007 0.6 3.87 0.4 3.09) 0.42 0.02 (0.051 2.022 0.69 0.001 0.13 0.008 0.03 0.005 Above 10 Table i(8/%) 2 6.29 0.00 Values marked with an asterisk are artificial values which should be used in equations (6.24 0.16 0.6 V2a /8 t h 0.60 0.5/64.83 0.062 0.066 0.2 0.4 4.001 0.2 0.022 0.17) 0. the true value of t /6 is 8/at .8 2.(ot/o)[l .8 0.09 h 0.56 0.33 0.08 4.0 2.006 0.4.05 0.0 4.005 0.0 1.014 0. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 99 where VI .2 2.44 0. 6. as in equation (0.90 0.72 0. a* = \/2a£ _ ^ for a c i rcu i ar tubular conductor of outside radius a and wall thickness t.6 2.00 *0.0 3.012 0.03 \/2at/8 4.4 0.24 0.006 0.93 1 0.5 6.011 0.35 3. /5 and /6 are tabulated in Tables 6.026 0.0 5.4 2.8 3.05 (0.2 *0.6 1.4 1. .06 0.79 0.0 0.00 (0.021 0.046 0.62) and (6.0 1.060 3. The functions A.6 2.05) 4.15 0.64 0.19 0.44 0.8 0.00 (1.a and at = a. For a solid circular conductor t . of the variable \/2 a t/8 (which is \/2 a/8 for solid conductors).
63) when A s/(s/2a) 2 = 1 has no physical meaning and the arithmetical anomaly should be avoided by using the starred figures in Table 6. Consider two indefinitely long parallel lines lying in the xz coordinate plane at locations x — +d and x = —d.6 instead of the proper values of the functions fz and /e in a certain range of y/2a/8. line. This is a very minor complication that will seldom be encountered. Fig. the linear charge density being + Pl coulombs/m for the line at x = +d. y) in an xy plane transverse to the charge lines of Fig. (6. 6 Arnold notes that the peculiar behavior of equation (6. On each line. the equation of an equipotential line becomes From the 2xd fl+K2\ + \1 ~ K ) 2 y 2 = d2 (6. 611. the potential relative to a zero + = reference potential on the axis x = y = is V +(p /2 7rc')(log e d/r^ from the field of the p l The electric potential difference between any two points in the field of an indefinitely —(p /2ir£/ )(loge d/r2 ) from the field of the negatively charged line. using (6.100 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. long uniformly distributed line of charge is having equal and opposite linear densia function of the linear charge density on the ties of charge. V) line x = +d carries linear charge density carries linear — pi coulombs/m charge density +Pi coulombs/m x = — d. At any point p(x. n = ^(d — x) 2 + y% and r2 = yj(d + x) 2 + y2 bining these expressions through r^ri — K.66) where the actual potential at any specific equipotential line x = y = 0) is determined by the value of K.67) . (b) Distributed capacitance. coulombs/m for the line at line x = —d P(X. electric charge is uniformly distributed longitudinally.65). the permittivity of the surrounding medium. 611. is a somewhat indirect procedure. f (relative to zero potential at Adding d2 resulting in a l+K ^ 2 2 . = 'W^n Pl r2 volts (6M) An equipotential line in the transverse plane will be described by the relation rdr x = constants = 2. Coordinates in a plane transverse to two infinitely long parallel lines of charge. and ~ V p = l v. 1 _ R2 to both sides of (6. The total potential difference between the point p and the axis x=y= is then positively charged line. 611. including proximity effect. and — p.66) completes a square with the first two terms. The derivation of an expression for the distributed capacitance of a parallel wire transmission line.65) Comcoordinates of the point p. as shown in cross section in Fig.r€ e 'V Pl . and the radial distances of the two points from the line. n and r2 being respectively the distances from the point p to the positively and negatively charged lines. rehensible equation for an more comprehensible equipotential line [**(rM?)] + *" 2Kd 1K'< 2 (6.
If a parallel wire transmission line has circular conductors of radius a. and the distributed capacitance is the ratio of the distributed charge to the potential difference.67) is the 101 as a parameter and d as a equation of a family of circles. The difference between these two quantities represents the embodiment of proximity effect in the calculation. 612. s/2a = \(K + 1/K) (6. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN (6.8 k' e cosh 1 s/2a micromicrofarads/m .65) this corresponds to From (6.72) 27.e. between the conductors of a If there is a potential difference parallel wire line.70) i. with line is a circle of radius equipotential scale factor. For any potential (i. K=e 2. Fig.68) = d(l+K2 )/(lK2 ) (6. and substituting ±(e + ™' v/p i this into (6. it follows from (6. having equal and opposite linear densities of charge. 612. the axes of the two conductors being separated by distance a s/2 s.71) that C or = cosh 1 s/2a farads/m (6. s/2a = + e «' v/p i) = cosh m V/ f Pl (6. then from equation (6. potential +V/2 and the other at potential V/2. In (6. balanced with respect to the central axis.65).67) Equation K K K K The derivation of an expression for the capacitance of a parallel wire transmission line from equation (6. For any specified potential difference between the conductors (balanced relative to the center point between them) the equivalent linear charge density Pl can be determined from the equations. Hence the field pattern of any specific parallel wire transmission line will be found by fitting the cross section pattern of the outside surface of the two conductors to a pair of equipotential circles in Fig. then one conductor is at p = ±V/2.re 'V p V V For yp = +F/2. making whatever scale changes are required.67) is accomplished by making use of the physical fact that at any cross section the circumferences of a transmission line's conductors are equipotential lines in the electric field. being the ratio of the magnitude of one of the equal and opposite linear charge densities on the conductors to the potential difference between them.71) Since Pl /V is the distributed capacitance C of the line. value of K) an 2 2 2 and )/(l coordinate d(l + y coordinate zero. Fig. Equipotential lines in a plane transverse to two infinitely long parallel lines of charge.69) Eliminating d from these equations and solving for s/2a. It is important to note that for conductors of finite radius. K= e +7re ' v/p i.70). for 612 shows a few equipotential circles as given by equation (6.67) ) = 2Kd/(lK2 (6.CHAP. the separation 2d of the equivalent lines of charge producing the field is not the same as the separation s of the axes of the conductors. ) 2Kd/(l ) whose center has x parallel line charges.
Both of the changes increase the attenuation factor a. and from tan these reliable average values for the line as a whole can be calculated. from equations (5.72).73) with values for the distributed capacitance of coaxial lines from (6. the requirement that the electric field surrounding the conductors be entirely contained within a surrounding dielectric medium would literally demand that the medium be of indefinitely great extent. The approximation involves an error of less than \% for x > 5. it appears that in the range of s/2a from 5 to 10.56).73) Equation (6. but has no effect on the distributed capacitance. combined with adequate electrical uniformity and mechanical stability.1) shows that it is true at all useful frequencies. on the other hand. assures that this requirement is satisfied if the medium fills the interconductor space inside the outer conductor. result to {6. This objective is attained at an increase in cost and an increase in attenuation factor over a line with identical conductors but with an interconductor space only partially with dielectric. of solid dielectric material in the interconductor electric field of any transmission line increases the distributed circuit coefficients C and G. Referring back to comments in (a) above. presented in the discussion of coaxial lines. proximity effect modifies the distributed resistance of a parallel wire transmission line appreciably. dielectric.9) and (5.11). Applying this It is . and even a more practical goal such as 99% containment would necessitate that the medium around and between the conductors have a thickness considerably greater than the distance between the conductor axes. or of any other line with a selfshielding 8. 6 an identity that cosh 1 x = log e (x + yjx % — 1) For x > 1 this becomes cosh 1 x — log e 2x. For a coaxial line whose interconductor space is only partly filled with insulating beads or discs. or in the form of a thin web maintaining the spacing between the filled . without affecting The presence R This can be seen directly. The distributed conductance of any transmission line depends on the loss factor or conductivity of the medium surrounding the conductors. farads/m if s/a > 10 (6. (c) Distributed conductance. For the efficient transmission of signals and power. in exactly the same manner that the distributed capacitance depends on the permittivity of the medium and the line's geometry. there is therefore always a premium on minimizing the amount of solid dielectric material in the interconductor electric fields of a transmission line. and on the geometry of the line. Comparison of numerical values for the distributed capacitance of parallel wire transmission lines from (6. separate determinations of G and C can be made for the airdielectric and materialdielectric fractions of the line. The many commercial types of small diameter coaxial transmission lines whose interconductor space is filled with plastic dielectric have been designed primarily to achieve a high degree of flexibility.102 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. For a parallel wire transmission line. loge s/a . for high frequencies. and a consideration of phase angle relations in equation (5. This means that equation (6. practical parallel wire transmission lines use the smallest possible amount of insulating material for periodic supports or spacers. configuration of conductors.53) shows that for lines of average design the former are usually less than 50% of the latter. provided all of the electric field pattern and loss factor of the line lies within the medium described by the dielectric constant k' e The bounded geometry of a coaxial line. for si a > 1. C = m . relative to air or L. To minimize the cost and the undesirable effects of dielectric material. is in fact directly applicable to uniform transmission lines having conductors of any shape or arrangement.73) is the expression for the distributed capacity of a parallel wire transmission line that would be arrived at by elementary methods ignoring proximity effect.
the pulp is dried and forms a solid dielectric that extends far enough in all directions around the conductors to protect the line electrically and mechanically from dozens of similar parallel wire transmission lines in the same cable.32.0 conductor diameters. Magnetic quantities take the place of electric quantities.CHAP. x the real part of the mks permeability of the medium surrounding the con= all insulating materials used in practical transmission lines. Using the values per mile. any length units may be used for both. but is higher by a factor of 10 or more than the values for the best low loss plastics. Although the distributed external inductance of parallel wire lines tends to be considerably higher than that of coaxial lines.0026 and is typical of the values of tan 8 for many organic materials. The distributed capacitance of the From the dimension data. distributed external inductance L x of a parallel taking proximity effect into account.6.5 micromicrofarads/m. wood. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 103 conductors of a flexible line. It is convenient to is (0.5 are insulated by a machine which embeds them in liquid paper pulp.4 cosh" 1 s/2a microhenries/m (6. Frequently an estimate of relative volumes of air and solid dielectric can suggest that the solid insulating material in the structure of a particular line occupies too little space to produce a significant value of distributed conductance or to have any measurable effect on the distributed capacitance. follows a pattern identical to that of the derivation of equation {6. or k' e . The average values of distributed capacitance and distributed conductance for the 19 gauge cable pair line are respectively C = 0.(^ArXcoshwhere 4tt 1 s/2a) henries/m or Lx = 0. The derivation of an expression for the line. while one of the coaxial line's conductors is a thin walled tube..72) for the distributed capacitance.6 )(tan S) or tan 8 = 0. Assuming the electric field of the line is completely contained within the homogeneous paper insulation. the values of C and G must be determined by direct measurement at any operating frequency. able value for the dielectric constant of a rather porous material. such as paper.0 micromhos/mile at a frequency of 1 kilohertz.56) to determine tan 8. and bakelite acetate plastics. Then from the second equation of (6. (d) Distributed inductance. such as the standard "Twinline" used for connecting television receivers to antennas.8. expressions for the distributed capacitance and conductance of such lines cannot be derived in any generalized form.0X106 This = (2ir X 1000)(0. The net result is that the ratio of the distributed internal inductance to the distributed external inductance is typically only a little smaller for parallel wire trans mission lines than for coaxial lines.72). and that the value of distributed conductance is entirely due to dielectric loss rather than chargeflow conductivity.5.062 microfarads/mile and G = 1. is ^ For . All the introductory remarks in Section 6. the distributed internal inductance also tends to be somewhat higher because the parallel wire line has two identical conductors. usually solid.32 = 38.72). a reasoncoshi s/2a = 1. C and G provided they are the 1.' m — n 10" 7 henries/m. Example 6. determine the average value of the dielectric constant kg and the loss factor tan 8 for the insulating material. \x.83.062 X 10. The conductors of the 19 gauge cable pair transmission line of Example 6. and a frequency of 1 kilohertz. 27.8 A^/1. Unfortunately for analytical purposes. The distributed internal inductance of the two cases at various frequencies is discussed in Section 6. s/2a = 2.0 and 38.7 b) ductors.4(d) about the relative magnitudes of the distributed internal inductance and the distributed external inductance of coaxial lines also apply to parallel wire lines.062 X 10. wire transmission Lx .6 )/1609 = same for In using (6. using {6. For lines incorporating a substantial amount of solid dielectric. and the conductor circumferences are identified as The result is lines of constant magnetic vector potential. line do the calculation in metric units.1. for the same geometrical reasons that make the distributed capacitance tend to be lower. With the separation between conductor axes maintained at 2.
22.77) to have the magnetic properties of medium. cosh" 1 (s/2a) = 1. page 52) of 1.104 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. page 49.53 X 1609 = 0.2 is 0. From equation (6. At high frequencies lower At conductors.2 shows that the distributed internal inductance of a 19 gauge isolated wire is the same as its dc value of 0.5. bounding the interconductor medium is not affected by conductance distributed or resistance distributed either equation (5. Z For all 4 ^i gs/a VK v*: = ^z\og vk 3  10 s/a ohms (6. For s/2a = 2.85 line is then 0.16 — 1. case for equations (6. shows that separately will reduce the phase velocity below the value for an unbounded medium. At the frequency of 1 kilohertz.75) and if s/2a > 10. OOX1 ° 8 p v^ m/sec (6. The numerical result is the value of conductors. additional contribution to the distributed resistance of the line will be As was the .050 microhenries/m = 0. To complete the calculations on the 19 gauge cable pair transmission line of Examples 6. Otherwise Z must (6.6.76) and (6.32 = 0.60) and (6. The difference this calculated value and the stated average value of 1. total distributed inductance of the line is + 0. the interconductor medium is assumed in free space.7.00 millihenries/mile. 6 Example 6. At the low frequency of 1 kilohertz.60).6(a) the distributed resistance of the conductors is not increased by proximity effect under these conditions. discussed (TEM) wave electromagnetic transverse plane is a line traveling along a transmission waves in the the of propagation the frequencies enough guided by the conductors.6). are identical. that the electric power Section Chapter 2.3. or filling material having the properties of the insulating 2. and from Fig.01 millihenries/mile. mission > 100. their of geometry of the lines or the metal waves in an unbounded medium electromagnetic the phase velocity for plane transverse surrounding the line conductors.080 millihenries/mile. in This follows from the fact. determine its distributed external inductance and total distributed inductance at a frequency of 1 kilohertz. phase large If the relative permeability is complex and has a sufficiently situaThis created.0.75). then within \%. a/8 from Table 6. as in Example 6.4 X 1.76) values of s/2a.53 microhenries/m = 0.74) the distributed external inductance of the line is then 0. be multiplied by and v p divided by the square root of the relative permeability of the an angle.77).77) vk Equations (6. The and the between total distributed internal inductance for the two wires of the 0. Table 6. for the high frequency phase velocity on coaxial lines and They carry no information about the parallel wire lines respectively.7 Jf).00 millihenries/mile is covered by the slightly nominal nature of the latter figure. 68 or the discussion in Section 6. If the conditions a/8 Zn = cosh" J^ \ ™ 1 (»/2a) v .5 and 6.C)} 2 . the following simplified expressions can be obtained from equations (6. and compare the results with the stated distributed inductance at that frequency (Example 5. = —^= J— ^VK ^ c ° cosh" 1 s/2a = —= vk cosh" 1 s/2a (6.160 millihenries/mile. but to the term if both are present there is some mutual cancellation of effects according {(R/2<»L) .(G/2o.85 millihenries/mile. It can therefore be assumed that the distributed internal inductance is also not affected.32. o>L/R > 10 and <*C/G > 10 all hold for a parallel wire transwhich is usually the case at frequencies above some value between 1 and 100 megahertz depending on the line dimensions and materials.59) and (6.4. of high frequency relations for the parallel wire transmission line.72) and (6. (6. (e) Summary line.
59).9.75). Two are coaxial 1" and 1. Distributed resistance of conductors including proximity effect = 0. as possible. attenuation factor = 0. having outside diameters respectively used at 100 megahertz. distributed resistance = ^JoTo^S^ X 57. distributed resistance of conductors isolated = 2 2t (0.61).5" tube as coaxial is one 4" conductor.61 X formulas (6.64 i.) will result in the lowest attenuation factor? (Make a guess conductors and meet the There are five possible designs of transmission line that use the available with the 1.S0) or frequency high simplest the by made can be calculations conductors. with the method used in Section 6.6 ohms. what proposed any of losses the or capacitance distributed the will have negligible effect on either line with identical conductors. characteristic impedance = 276 log 10 (3. °° 304 ° hmS/m (649).50/1.30). or a parallel wire before proceeding.0304/(2 = 2.5" inner conductor. (6. Parallel wire line with 1" conductors.00". and the resistance necessary. are dielectric supports of the line must not exceed 4.00)» 1 = ) 211. From From From (3) (6.90/0.9) ( + Ml) = X 10 ' attenuation factor = 0.) = 2.49).00/1. From From (6.00".50 = 80.75 X = 0. arrangement of the conductors.59). outer tube as with the conditions stated.9 ohms.75).32.0413/(2 = 2. equation (6. minimizing by minimize R will maximize Z Q in equation (5.9 ohms.6) X 10" 4 nepers/m. since this attenuation for this line will occur with the conductors as far apart proximity effect.61). impedance is lower than for either of (Some design criteria for optimum selfevident basis for rejecting any of the other four possibilities.57 X 10~ 4 nepers/m.5" conductors.CHAP. 60. 1.050 X 0. s = 2.00" Three sizes of circular copper tubing.) of 1.61 X 10 " 7 v7 ohms/square for copper / is in hertz. and two are parallel wire lines with the have higher attenuation than the coaxial coaxial line with the 1.62 " 4 nepers/m.1) (* + £t) = when ' 0413 ohms/m (Here USe haS  been made of R s = 1/<x8 factor 1" = 0. be to line transmission make a to available and all with wall thickness 0. it is obvious Since 8 for copper at 100 megahertz is 6. 2a = Therefore s = 4.00" Minimum From From From (6.9).00/1. °. Its (See dielectric permittivity.50)« 1 = ) 131.9). attenuation factor = 0.0254) ~ ' 0656 ohms/m  (6.50/1. characteristic impedance = 276 log 10 (2.5" tubes respectively as conductors. The attenuawith the simplest correction for proximity effect. proximity effect factor = 1/Vl .00". (649). From (4) (5.00/1.00)2 = = 1.S0).50 if + V(2. characteristic impedance = 138 log 10 1. From From (6.50" and 4. used where The maximum transverse dimensions > (6. The outer conductor. There is no need calculations No them.9) and will at the same time 3.75 X = 57. tion calculations for each of the four lines are then as follows: (1) Coaxial line with 4" outer conductor and 1" inner conductor. since its distributed therefore be made for it.50".5" tube as outer conductor will obviously resistance is higher and its characteristic lines with a 4" tube as outer conductor.) specifications various subject to and purposes transmission lines for various a/8 100 for all of the 106 that m.00 + = V(3. (2) Coaxial line with 4" outer conductor and 1.0695/(2 X 211. Assuming that line. distributed resistance = ^Jfff £)254) X 80.1 ohms. distributed resistance of conductors if isolated 2 2w(0. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 105 analysis is easily developed by analogy tion is likely to occur only in a research context.5(c) to handle complex Problem 6. are developed in Section 6. as either a coaxial line.0254 m.1/(3.0254) ohms/m  . (5.90/0.0695 ohms/m. and of the conversion From (5.100".0437 (6.9). Parallel wire line with 1. characteristic impedance = 138 log 10 1.
Even though the expressions for the distributed circuit coefficients of the idealized parallel plane transmission line are seldom accurately applicable to practical situations.61). 22. The equations for the idealized case apply with useful accuracy to lines with conductors of finite width if the conductor width is sufficiently large compared with the separation of the conductors.3. are commercial types of line that take advantage of these properties.78) the value given by equation . Parallel plane transmission lines with conductors many times wider than their separation have no particular electrical virtues.78) multiplied by a factor from Fig. in which the currents are excited by fields from one side only. Worth noting from these results are the fact that the two parallel wire lines have substantially lower attenuation factors than either of the coaxial lines. subject to the fixed maximum lateral dimension. and the fact that for each type of line the 1" conductor gives lower attenuation than the 1. 6 proximity effect factor = l/\/l . [CHAP.0489 ohms/m.50/1. Distributed circuit coefficients of transmission lines with parallel plane conductors. For a twoconductor line with plane parallel conductors of width w and thickness t. Elementary methods can derive exact expressions for the distributed circuit coefficients of transmission lines with parallel plane conductors only in the idealized case of conductors which are portions of infinite parallel planes. 4 From (5. has been fully dealt with in Section 6. At frequencies sufficiently high that the conductors are at least three skin depths thick. 67. attenuation factor = 0.0489/(2 X 131. It does not follow that conductors of 0. The distributed resistance per unit width of single infinite plane conductors. effects which are not easy to analyze mathematically. but profitable use can sometimes be made of their spacesaving geometry and the fact that they have a higher degree of self shielding than lines with parallel circular conductors.9 and Problem 6. they are worth noting because their simple form is so easily remembered.5" conductor. page 9. and they can often serve as a basis for a useful estimate of coefficient values for a line having some other design. The stripline constructions of Fig. or containing comparable amounts of metal.75" or 0.9). The infinite plane specification eliminates the effects of the curved electric and magnetic field lines that occur at the edges of finite plane conductors. Distributed resistance of conductors including proximity effect 0.7.9) = 1. At low frequencies the result is equal to the distributed dc resistance of the conductors. the distributed resistance at any value of the ratio t/8 will be 2/w times the values given in Section 6. page 87. in spite of having higher distributed resistance values. there is an optimum value of conductor diameter for the parallel wire line or inner conductor diameter for the coaxial line that provides minimum attenuation.l/(2.86 X nepers/m.50) 2 = = 10 1. Both facts are of course due to the relative values of the characteristic impedances involved. and the attenuation factor increases.3 for conductors of finite thickness.) 6.118. is (6. as usual. With smaller conductors the distributed resistance rises more rapidly than the characteristic impedance. their attenuation being greater than for parallel wire or coaxial transmission lines of comparable maximum transverse dimensions.106 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN From (6. For each case. (See Section 6. (a) Distributed resistance.15. the result is R = 2RJw ohms/m For intermediate frequencies the distributed resistance (6. assuming the idealized fields of infinite planes.50" outside diameter will give still lower attenuation in either type of line.
given approximately. based Practical applications of parallel plane transmission lines are made small and one can be line the by occupied volume total the geometrical fact that of the conductors dimension can be made very small. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 107 (b) Distributed capacitance. assuming that the distributed effects edge neglecting line transmission plane For the idealized parallel The loss mechanisms. the interconductor medium whose loss condition is The conductors. The expression shows that it is the distributed external inductance of a line with parallel plane conductors Since d separation d between the facing surfaces of the conductors.56). The capacitance per unit area. and to the conductors is proportional to the thickness t at low frequencies for which 8 > derived in this section for skin depth 8 at high frequencies for which t > 8. and is aces. for all values of conductor thickness t. If proportional to the at low t for a parallel plane line.8 that the distributed internal t. where c' is the real part given by E = is then conductors. being the conductors. is normal to the conductor surfaces. between space the fills fulfilled for parallel plane conductors if the medium (d) Distributed inductance. frequencies for lines In calculating the distributed inductance at low and intermediate paid to the relative be must attention particular therefore.80) factor is tan 8 For this expression to be applicable. internal distributed of the might be comparable to or even smaller than importance inductance is always negligible. a line handling capacity conductors will have a lower attenuation factor and much better power the aperture than either a coaxial line or a parallel wire line with circular conductors when much smaller external ratio of the rectangle exceeds some minimum value. by C = t'w/d farads/m = w/d micromicrof arads/m 8. . primarily on the contained within a a transmission line has to be designed so that its cross section is with parallel plane rectangular area of which one edge is much longer than the other. . this takes the specific form G = <o w/d tan 8 8. line the must contain all of the electric field surrounding them. internal distributed the 100 If d/8 > inductance.85 k' e {6. inductance of tubular and plane It is shown in Section 6. and will have fields than the parallel wire line. with parallel plane conductors. with no reduction in the surface area the same time the lines or increase in the high frequency distributed resistance R. also constant everywhere the of permittivity the of = P volts/m. The potential difference V between the conductors the between medium of magnitude the of ratio V = Ed = P dU volts. in distributed conductance of all transmission lines is given by the interconductor of factor loss the and line terms of the distributed capacitance of the dielectric molecular to entirely due is conductance medium. DU W is e'/df arads/m .85 k' e micromicromhos/m (6.Ps constant has between them. At retain a high degree of self shielding. a result not possible for any coaxial or parallel wire line with circular conductors.CHAP. charge plane conductors carry equal and opposite uniform surface space the to 2 confined entirely is densities of magnitude Ps coulombs/m the electric flux field D density . the between one of the surface charges per unit area to the potential difference 2 capacitance of the parallel plane conductor is therefore If two infinite parallel . it is possible greater the constitute to line a such of inductance internal frequencies for the distributed reasonable design of part of the total distributed inductance. equation (6. The distributed when w/d > 1.79) (c) Distributed conductance. surf the to normal and coulombs/m2 The electric field E.
unit current. Summary Subject to the conditions that d/8 > 100. Neglecting edge effects.79) and (6.00 V(^d/w)(e>w/d) In these equations Example 6.79) from (6.' m is the real part of the mks permeability of the medium between the conductors. from the high frequency equation ohms.25 and loss A factor 0. The distributed external inductance defined as the total flux external to the conductors linking the circuit per width w. The sign is determined by the sign of the z directed current in one of the conductors. The is 25. the lowing simplified expressions can be obtained from equations (6.00025.2BBd/w microhenries/m. A check {6.9. The distributed resistance from (6.0650 ohms/m. determine the characteristic impedance. zero field. and a constant field of equal magnitude and opposite sign on the other side of the plane.~ ~ 108 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. the fields between the conductors are additive and those outside the conductors cancel. Lx = (e) ^= /* = 4tt x 10 7 henries/m and 1. but in each line of the line.) The skin depth in copper at 10 megahertz is 2.000825/0. and the distributed conductance . 11 J = 3.5. Compare the results with the values for a coaxial line whose total conductor periphery is equal to the combined width of the two plane conductors (i. parallel plane transmission line used at 10 megahertz has copper conductors 1.83) again assumed that the interconductor medium is nonmagnetic. 6 A single isolated infinite plane conductor parallel to the xz plane and carrying an instantaneous surface current in the z direction of density JS z amperes/(meter width of plane in the x direction) has a constant magnetic field of value x = Jsz/2 throughout the whole of space on one side of the plane.13 X 10~ 6 mhos/m.e. the attenuation factor and the phase velocity at the frequency of operation. > 10 and <»C/G > 10.81): Zq MR fol = .0254 = 0.4*£ 1 = i fed = vnd ohms 8 . where \x. (The reason for choosing b/a = 3. neglecting edge effects caused by finite conductor width.5 is given in Section 6. = —=. Thus the magnetic flux density between the conductors of a parallel plane transmission line.00" wide and 0.78) is The distributed capacitance from (6. 199 micromicrofarads/m. becomes Lx = For a nonmagnetic medium W * = ^w henries/m (6.1 m so that d/S > 100 and t/S > 100. the current magnitude conductor will be / = Jszw amperes. 2ira + 2irb = 2w) and for which the ratio b/a = 3.81) in the interconductor space. The interconductor space is filled with material of dielectric constant 2. spaced 0.050" thick.82) characteristic impedance of the parallel conductor line. The magnitude of the total magnetic flux ^ between the conductors per unit length of conductor in the z direction is = \Bx \d = i*' \\p\ m dJse The conclusion that all of this flux links all of the current in the conductors as a "circuit" requires the hypothesis that the flux lines after extending indefinitely laterally in the space between the conductors are selfclosing by returning in the unbounded space outside the conductors. where their vanishingly small density constitutes H ^ . VKV^7o VK x 10 — — m/sec lo 00 . R = 2X is 0. is constant at the value B x = ± Jsz teslas. When two such conductors are parallel to one another and carry currents of equal density in opposite directions.80) is 3. of high frequency relations for the parallel plane transmission line.100".9. the interconductor space being filled with the same medium. w/d > 1. (6. If the actual conductors in the parallel plane transmission line have finite the currents and fields are those of infinite planes. vn = it is .09 X 10 5 shows that aL/R > 10 and aC/G > 10 are both satisfied.
is 99.8 X 10"* nepers/m about 25% smaller than coaxial line in the above example has an attenuation factor the same thickness in of sheet metal of area that of the parallel plane line. and neglected line plane parallel unit length of each.56 X 10~ 6 mhos/m. as given by the idealized equations.000039 . 68. would distributed resistance of solid and tubular circular conductors inductance.79 X 10~ 3 m.56) is then 1.59) is 50. where aU is generally The much more elaborate mathematical mmd power transmission .5 = 2.= 1. and in equation (6. Distributed internal inductance for plane and tubular circular conductors of finite thickness. the similar to that of a parallel wire transfield pattern begins to change drastically. and meeting the stated conditions.83) is vp = 3.1) + X 10"«) X 25. equations (6.28 X 10~ m.5a = 0. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN is 109 The attenuation factor a therefore £(3. parallel the attenuation factor would be much less than for either the coaxial or distances greater at but the external fields of the parallel wires line would be appreciable from the conductors than for the parallel plane line. The contribution would increase by factor attenuation total the that so conductance would remain constant.5 give The characteristic impedance from equation (6.0650/(2 X 25.00129 + 0.000039 = 9. the the plane transmission line.27) and (645). and the distributed conductance Finally the attenuation factor of the coaxial line a is = 0. same amount of metal sheet were made into two circular conductors for a parallel that of the parallel wire transmission line with the maximum transverse dimension equal to same medium. 6. but the idealized theory ceases to be usefully accurate when d/w exceeds 0.1) + (1. Unfortunately. The few a line by coaxial the of allowance for these would increase the advantage in conductance distributed the from factor equality of the contribution to the attenuation The the two cases If the is an identity (see Problem 6.2 and investigations that resulted in Fig.29).00X10 8 /1. somewhat less than 100%. full distributed derivations were presented of expressions for the thickness.094/(2 X 50. also gave cases.00 X10 8 m/sec For the coaxial a line = 0.1 ohms. at low and intermediate values for the distributed resistance of circular tubular conductors of proximity effect on the of the parameter a t /8. with the same edge effects.3. and plane conductors was that derivations of those respectively.0707" = 1.1. between the parallel plane conductors is steadily increased. the conductors being fully surrounded by plane lines. The disacteristic impedance.56 X 10~«) X 50.63) for the influence under all conditions.000937 + 0.13 = 0.1 = 0. The calculation for the percent. than greater mission line for values of d/w much If the separation entire sharply.8.54) from (6. two the of internal inductance In Sections 6. 6. and area of unlimited resistance of solid circular conductors. An inherent feature distributed the values for the resulting expressions.CHAP. becoming The attenuation factor decreases unity. by the distributed resistance to of contribution the and tributed resistance would not change. from the distributed the attenuation factor would therefore be doubled. reduce the charReducing the separation of the parallel plane conductors by 50% would the same amount.247" = 6. a+b = wh and b/a = 3. page 88. the also have provided information about distributed internal was had in main practical application which the authors of those two major studies to small too at frequencies of 50 and 60 hertz. the relations 3 6 = 3.7 micromicrofarads/m.33 X 10 "3 nepers/m The phase velocity from {6. The distributed capacitance from (6.1 = 0. as a function of frequency.
k can be equated with sufficient accuracy to the skin depth 8. per unit length. then as a rough average estimate. the value of B does not fall to zero.110 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. combined with the fundamental electromagnetic fact that across any boundary between two materials the tangential component of magnetic flux density B is continuous. (It is an encouraging coincidence that this procedure happens to produce exactly the correct answer for the distributed internal inductance of a solid circular conductor at zero frequency. and a resulting approximate expression for the distributed internal inductance is \B s lil%c. At frequencies low enough for the current density to be nearly constant over a conductor's cross section. = a. the amount of fluxcircuit linkage in the interconductor space will be fairly represented in most cases by the product B s lx It may be greater or less than this. independent of frequency. and all of its flux links the whole circuit. The distributed external inductance of the line will therefore be given approximately by B s lx/ic. and to review the methods and data available for calculating distributed internal inductance for the types of transmission lines dealt with in Sections 6. varies widely with frequency. the ratio s/2a = 2. can be derived from the fluxcircuit linkage definition of inductance. and for still others a judicious guess may be the best available solution.0. U can be taken conservatively as whichever value is greater.7. the radius of a solid circular conductor. For some situations exact values are readily determined. If the tangential Bfield at the surface of a conductor in a transmission line is designated Bs and most of the flux of this field is contained within a metal thickness k from the surface. Their published works contain the very complicated equations from which Li can be determined. 6. about half the flux within the metal will link about half the circuit. 6 merit attention. at — . Example 6. It is the purpose of this section to discuss the conditions under which the distributed internal inductance of a transmission line's conductors is a significant part of its total distributed inductance. for any transmission The distance U. or the thickness of tubular or plane conductors. .56 X 10 4 m. where ic is the instantaneous total current in the conductor. and a 4.5. for others adequate approximations can be made. causing the field Bs at the surface. For the 19 gauge cable pair line of Examples 6.c /Rd^. or linearly (as in an isolated solid circular conductor at zero frequency) or according to some other law. At frequencies high enough to make a/8 or t/8 greater than 3 or 4. The tangential 5field at the surface of a conductor being continuous means that its value just inside the metal is equal to its value just outside the metal in the adjacent interconductor space. The distance lx is an obvious quantity. 2lx/li. The ratio of distributed external inductance to distributed internal inductance is finally where an additional factor of 2 has been introduced because a line has two conductors. the value found in equation (6. on the other hand. yielding Ra . If the distance between facing conductor surfaces of a transmission line is lx . but the extensive numerical com putations required were made only for the real parts of the expressions. In the small range of intermediate frequencies between these two regions.10. For that case Bs = fiic/(2Trd). I.7.6 and 6.) . A simple and useful criterion for estimating whether or not the distributed internal inductance can be ignored in any particular transmission line application. The diminishing flux densities farther from the surface into the metal also link a decreasing fraction of the conductor current as a "circuit". with or without proximity effect. U is line. but usually by only a small factor less than 2. depending on the cross section of the line.5) by formal analysis. In the interconductor space.5 to 6. Inside the metal the #field diminishes to zero. and the resulting distributed internal inductance is given as /a /8tt henries/m. either exponentially (as in a plane conductor several skin depths thick). Estimate what percent of the total distributed inductance of the line is distributed internal inductance.
taken as be can 8 = and 10 10* a/5 hertz.5) for a solid circular conductor. Equation (6M) reduces to when ai = 0. The difference in the two values. but only a few (t/a = 0.9. the first few terms of (6. is surfaces For the 19 gauge cable pair the distance between facing conductor internal distributed the and = 4 At 10* hertz. of has 108 conductor outer m.35. 4 g^ ^_ ^ /a)4 l0 ge(a/ai)  henries/m (6M) (a /a)2 2 where a is the external radius of the tube and at (6. conductor depends somedc distributed internal inductance of a circular tubular or outer conductor of inner what. distance between facing surfaces of the 3£" standard rigid 2l x/h. this skin depth 8 being thicknesses and metal that requires theorem the of frequency (Fig. k inductance must not be disregarded. at 6. and if not few a being as estimated is inductance internal distributed the In this case accurately.23 X 10"2 m. is Lid e . considered negligible would at least not need to be calculated very negligible. 10~2 wall and X 7.5) its internal radius. calculations make use of the skin effect theorem and of a resistance dc distributed the multiplying factor resistance values are given by a itself a function of peripheral skin of the conductor of thickness 8.^ (i)'. for example). be clearly will inductance 108 hertz the distributed internal m m m m m coaxial line is 2.£ (I}] henries/m <««) . 106 and 108 hertz. is The only such expression developed so far equation (6. and depths 3 skin k = 8 can be used. for example).005). of categories two lower limiting frequencies for these elaborate formulas are required. At each separate frequency the skin depth in the copper conductor metal is the at 108 hertz. inner conductor of a coaxial line and the other equivalent cases. inductance of classifications apply to calculations of distributed internal are therefore inductance internal circular conductors. internal inductance is negligible for this large diameter coaxial At The AtW considered earlier in this Distributed resistance values for all the types of conductors to some upper limit.14 X same for the two lines. and whose 2. used in a tube same the a tube used as the inner conductor of a coaxial line also applies to necessary. if factor effect parallel wire line or an image line. in the low frequency range from zero section of the conductor factor multiplying the distributed dc resistance for the entire cross from very high values diminishing frequencies At (Table 6 1 and Fig. (tuhe) (tube) _  ** 1 ~ 4 (^) 2 + 3 ( a /a> 4 ' + . 68. must be taken as a since a/S < 1.CHAP. Use the upper and between frequencies At depths.05) and disappears for extremely thin walled tubes (t/a = tubular conductor Expressions for the dc distributed internal inductance of a circular to obtain equation are developed through the same mathematical procedures employed The result for an isolated tube. Then 21JI. for the same tube. distributed down to some lower limit. The walled tubes (t/a The value for 0. which applies to the (6. of 3. and 6. on whether the tube is the in the case of thick large is the line.84) are and expanding the logarithm as a power series in L^ (tube) = £ [ () .61 X 10"* at 10"* 10* X 6. At percent of the total.61 X with values 2a . if Making the substitution t = aa (t/a). Expressions for the dc distributed The same needed for each type of conductor investigated.61 hertz. I. At 10* hertz and 108 h ertz distributed pair at cable gauge 19 for the as same the is situation The line. or tables.D. 10"5 10« hertz. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 111 at the same frequencies for a 3£" standard frequencies of 10 4 . giving hertz the wall thicknesses are somewhat over 10° hertz. Make the same estimate with wall thickness O. skin Conductor radii be not less than 3 or 4 graphs. 67.12 X 10 4 m.D. by a chapter are always given.34 X 10"» rigid transmission line whose inner conductor has an thickness 2. Therefore 2lJk 30.80 I. calculations.49 X 10 3 m. in the case of coaxial lines. thin walled tubes for percent for example). with correction by a proximity = 0.3.5) for the solid circular conductor.
with the result U r d. outer) * £[§g) + fg) + f()' + § gj] henries/m M \% Equation (6.6 0. 0.05 0.4 0.5. and wall thickness t. The flux in any increment of radius in the outer conductor also links all of the current in the inner conductor and a portion of the current in the outer conductor.2 t/a Fig. is accurate to better than Equations (6.5 0.85) but for t/a as large as 0. and for small values of much more convenient to use than equation (6.87) converges less rapidly than (6.02 0. = £ OTT [x 41og e (a/a0 r 3 + 4(ai/a) 2  (ai/a) [1 2  4 henries/m (cu/af] (6. The total situation can be expressed by an integral similar to that used in obtaining (6.86) are plotted in Fig.2 0. to the distributed dc internal inductance of a solid circular conductor of the same metal and same outside radius.1 a t/a o 0. 6 The accuracy t/a it is \% for t/a < 0. the ratio of the dc distributed internal inductance of a circular tube to that of a solid circular conductor is roughly equal to the ratio of their metal cross sections. An expression for the dc distributed internal inductance per unit width of infinite plane conductors of finite thickness is obtained by extending the analysis of Section 6.1 oo 0.4 0.86) which expanded in powers of t/a becomes L^ (coax.84).25. Inspection of the numerical values shows that for the same outside diameter a.005 0. It derives from the fact that if the longitudinal dc current in the plane conductors has density .112 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN of this expression is better than [CHAP.3 0.5 0. 613 for a wider range of wall thicknesses than would ever be encountered in practical transmission lines.c (coax. 613.7(d).5 0. When a circular tubular conductor is the outside conductor of a coaxial line.9 0. outer) A . Ratio of the dc distributed internal inductance of a circular metal tubular conductor of inside radius au outside radius a. the magnetic flux density in the metal of the outer conductor at any point is caused by the whole of the current in the inner conductor and a portion of the current in the outer conductor.84) and (6.8 0.84).01 0.6 0.7 0.
< 0. ratio i?ac/i?s for unit width of plane conductors of thickness t/8 from about 0. 614 covers the transition between these two limits. but with t/w small enough that the field pattern in the interconductor space is essentially that for infinite planes. . the tangential B Inside the conductors the field diminishes linearly from this value to zero at the outside surfaces. o>Li = (oLt dc. 67. with t <a.5). the conductor would approximate a plane of width 1na. in agreement with the first terms in equations (6. as shown in Fig. i2 ac = <aL. i 7. per unit width) = fat henries/m (6. For a parallel plane transmission line with width w.3 a transmission line analog was used (Problem t. the value of Lt is equal to the distributed dc internal inductance of the metal sheet. and it is known that for low enough frequencies For (t/8 < 0. J In Section 6. For values of t/8 less than about 0. with the result L id e (tube) = ( u/87r)(4/3)(£/a) henries/m.88) the thickness of each conductor.88) gives where t is identical conductors of Lid. It is known from equation (6. this L. The resulting value for the distributed internal inductance per unit width of plane is field at the facing conductor surfaces nJsz .CHAP. = 2R t/(3a8) = 2t/(3<a a8 2 = 2^at/ = [it/S henries/m for unit width of the i s s ) '6<oo From equation (6.5.5 to 3. = R s for unit width of infinite plane conductors. the results being presented in Fig. Ratio of the distributed internal inductance per unit width of an unbounded plane conductor of thickness t/8 skin depths to the limiting high frequency value R s/a for a conductor of indefinite thickness. 614. equation (6. information about the ratio <aL /R s for the plane conductors. 614 inspection shows that wL /R = %t/8 with high accuracy.89) Applied to a tubular conductor of radius a.e (plane transmission line) = fat/w henries/m (6.5 in Fig.85) and (6. Fig. 113 Jsz as a surface and flows in opposite directions in the is two conductors.10) to investigate the over the critical range of The same analog provides Fig. small values of t/a it applies also to tubular conductors. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN current.88) this is equal to Z/f d c .b5) that for large enough values of t/8. 614. I/tdc (plane.87). For t/8 From plane.
All of the above facts combine to justify the general conclusion that the influence of proximity effect on the total distributed inductance of a parallel wire transmission line will always be less than. Increasing the conductor separation.62). There is no recognized basis for making an accurate analysis of the total distributed inductance of a line for such a case. 6 Analogous to equation (6. Proximity effect can then not modify the total distributed inductance value by more than about 2%. Considering the evidence and (6.11.5. ^ (plane) = 1 + 0. it can be concluded that proximity effect like skin effect will reduce the distributed internal inductance of a conductor and that the percent reduction will be considerably less in any situation than the percent by which proximity effect increases the distributed resistance of the same conductor.4. 6. For higher values of the distributed resistance factor no suggestions are offered for accurate determination of the total distributed inductance. If the proximity effect factor for distributed resistance lies between 1.075(£/8) 4 (6. and experimental measurements may be the best procedure. or (6. 10 6 and 10 8 hertz.6 and 6.29) for solid circular conductors and from equations (6.29) for solid circular conductors. It is therefore suggested as a working hypothesis that unless the proximity effect factor for distributed resistance is found from equations (6.5.91) The question to which no universal answer seems to have been published is that of the influence of proximity effect on distributed internal inductance. and the proximity effect factor will be not less than 0.25 it may be a fair guess that the distributed internal inductance value should be divided by the square root of that factor. Example 6. and the factor need be known only very roughly.90) and and tubular conductors. When the facing conductor surfaces are at least a conductor diameter apart (s/2a — 2).114 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. the facing surfaces of the conductors being separated by only a few percent of a conductor radius.61). 10 4 . The most unfavorable situation would be a parallel wire line with solid circular conductors. Complete the analysis of the 19 gauge cable pair transmission by . and the first change will reduce the proximity effect factor. it can be assumed that proximity effect will not change the value of the line's total distributed inductance. (6.63) to be at least 1. and except in inconceivably extreme situations much less than. A similar expression can be found for R/Rac for plane and tubular conductors. These conditions make the distributed internal inductance comparable in magnitude to the distributed external inductance. Appropriate changes in any of the factors specified can improve the situation.8 or 0. operating at a frequency to make a/8 have a value near 2. (6. This is yi.05.020(£/S) 4 (6. or increasing the frequency will all reduce the relative value of the distributed internal inductance. the combination of circumstances that would require accurate information about the proximity effect factor for distributed internal inductance occurs rather rarely in transmission line practice.28) (6.90) This equation is also adequately accurate for tubular conductors having the reasonable values of t/a likely to be encountered in practical transmission line conductors. a power series expression can be used to express the variation of Li/Lidc for t/8 as high as 1.91) for plane from equations Fortunately. line of Examples 6. the distributed internal inductance will be less than 20% of the total distributed inductance. its influence on the line's distributed resistance.05 and 1. changing to tubular conductors. finding the distributed internal inductance at frequencies of 10 2 .7.85.87 according to equation (6. with a proximity effect factor that might be as small as 0.(plane) xvtdc = 1  0.62) and Table 6.
as proximity effect becomes greater. Only for extremely closely spaced conductors will a critical calculation problem arise. Since this is only about 5% of the total distributed inductance of the line. a/8 = 0.9.2 to b/a = 4. (Note. and the corresponding characteristic impedance for an air dielectric line = from equation of b/a is (6. The distributed internal inductance is therefore about 16% of the total. with a/8 = 6. the diameter of the outer conductor is often determined by considerations of space or cost. and thermal breakdown due to excessive temperature rise of the center conductor. The size of the center conductor does not change the space occupied by the line and its cost is a minor part of the total.9). that if a is fixed and 6 allowed to vary. Optimum geometries for coaxial lines. showing less than minimum \% in the attenuation factor as a function variation from b/a = 3. the design must be optimized to avoid breakdown rather than to reduce the attenuation factor. and this percentage of amount of about ^% of the total distributed inductance of the line. In designing a coaxial transmission line.2 shows that the distributed internal inductance for the isolated conductors has dropped to 29% of its dc value.89 and 68. however. when b is fixed.49) for the high frequency distributed resistance of a coaxial line. from equation (6. with a/8 = 0. page 80.29 X 0. The procedure suggested above is that the distributed internal inductance in this case be estimated as / l/ v 1. This is a transcendental equation which must be solved graphically or from tables. L = L iA _c = /Sv henries/m for an isolated 19 gauge conductor.62) and Table 6.1.12 for resistance for these solid conductors.92) Differentiating with respect to b/a and equating to zero leads to log e (b/a) 1 + (alb).0.689.0274 microhenries/m. that the high frequency attenuation factor of such a line as given by equation (5. Equation (6. From equation (6.9 at the four frequencies listed. from Tables 6.62) shows a proximity effect factor of 1. in a small range of frequencies. for example. the attenuation factor will diminish continuously for indefinite increase of b.15.u /8.9). maximum amount . close to the limiting high frequency value from equation (6.1 or 6.6 as 0. becomes indefinitely large when a is approximately equal to 6 (Z = 0) and when a becomes vanishingly small (R increases to large values more rapidly than the logarithmic term in Z . At 10 2 hertz. This illustrates the typical phenomenon that. with a/ 8 = 0.89. being reduced by a factor 2(.53 microhenries/m.2 and equation (6. 104 hertz. x /j. a = 4. 6. The distributed external inductance of this line was determined in Example 6.) (5.m ~ CHAP. for which the line has a minimum high frequency attenuation factor.592.0689 is 1.12 = 0. it need not be known with better than 10% accuracy. m. The result is b/a = 3. The a broad one. the proximity effect factor for resistance for solid conductors at a/ 8 = 0.689.r) X 0. the fraction of the total distributed inductance affected by it becomes less. is about 3%. = 5. 0.59) for its high frequency characteristic impedance. It can be seen.000.95 = At negligible the frequency of 10 8 hertz.59) into the high frequency attenuation factor of a coaxial line having G = is «hf (coax. page 98. The principal types of failure are dielectric breakdown due to excessive electric field in the interconductor space.) There is therefore an optimum intermediate value of a. Table 6.6 and b/a If a transmission line is to handle a of power for a fixed value of 6. L{/LiA ^. and there is no optimum value for b other than infinity.64 ohms.0689.59) is 76.2.61) of 1.95. At At 10 6 hertz.) Making the indicated substitutions for R from (649) and for Z from (6. which should be accurate within better than 2%.2. the situation has changed by only about 0. The total distributed internal inductance of the line is then 0. = (i2 s /27r6)[l + (&/a)]/[1201og e (6/a)] nepers/ (6.3% from the value of distributed internal inductance at 10 2 hertz. and only 5% increase at b/a = 2.56 X 10 and from Table 6.5). page 49. Hence the total distributed internal inductance of the line is (for two conductors) 0.4. It can then be adjusted to achieve various desirable electrical properties. and the inclusion of the proximity effect factor has no effect on the final total value. 2fi /Sir has dropped to the 6.100 microhenries/m. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 115 4 The information about the line needed for purposes of the calculation is s/2a = 2. and from equation (6.0689.
for constant transmitted power with b/a = 1 and Z — 60 ohms if the dielectric is air. and Z = 30 ohms. and the power transmitted by the line is V2/Z since Z is real at high frequencies. whether lossy or lossless. both of which are very sensitive to the condition of the conductor surfaces. Optimum design for protection against thermal breakdown through overheating of the center conductor requires assumptions about the processes of heat transfer between the conductors and from the outer conductor to its surroundings.116 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP.52). 6 From the geometry of a coaxial line. does not affect the optimum design for minimum attenuation factor. Describe the variation of the magnetic flux density B in the conductor and the surrounding medium. Solved Problems 6. the desired objective may be that it should withstand the highest possible value of applied voltage. the assumption becomes reasonably correct that the temperature of the outer conductor is not affected by the heating of the center conductor. From the equation for E m&x in terms of V b — Va given above. Large rigid conductor coaxial lines for high power use are generally designed with Z = 50 ohms. The latter are effectively optimum design for minimum attenuation factor at constant outside diameter. When the interconductor space of a coaxial line is filled with solid dielectric. for constant diameter and temperature of the outside conductor. Substituting into equation (6. the peak value of V b — Va will be \/2 V. regardless of the temperature of the inner conductor. Low power dielectric filled flexible coaxial lines are available in several values of Z the most widely used having characteristic impedances near 50 ohms or near 75 ohms. The result is b/a = 1 and Z = 60 ohms.649.51) an expression for the distributed longitudinal charge density p. Dielectric. obtained from (6. If a section of coaxial line is used as a capacitor. The former are close to optimum design for minimum center conductor heating. The surrounding medium has zero conductivity and permeability jum henries/m. and constant dimension b. The final expression for the maximum electric field in terms of the power level and the line dimensions is #max = where is y/12QP/[a \/\og e (b/a) } volts/m P is inverted. for a fixed value of outside diameter. the power level in watts. Applying Ampere's law to any transverse circular path of radius r inside the conductor and concentric with it gives H$ = Ir/(27ra 2 ) amperes/m. the maximum electric field at r = a is found in terms of the potential difference Vb — Va between the conductors to be Em** = (V b — Va )/[a log e (b/a)]. this requires maximizing a log e (b/a) with b constant. The H field within and surrounding the wire is H is determined by the current distribution alone and independent of the magnetic properties of the materials.6 ohms. carries a dc current of / amperes. On the simple but rather inaccurate assumption that the outer conductor temperature remains close to the line's ambient temperature. as a function of the radial distance r from the central axis of the conductor. and is made of metal whose mks permeability is p henries/m. since . Taking d(l/E m ^)/da = The differentiation is much easier if the expression gives directly log e (b/a) = \. which appears to be a compromise value for optimization against breakdown. maximum electric field will always occur at the surface of the inner conductor.1. If the voltage on the line varies harmonically with time and has rms value V volts. An indefinitely long straight solid circular conductor has radius a. . or as a delay line or waveshaping network. it is easily shown that minimum power dissipation occurs in the inner conductor. b/a = 1. From the symmetry of the problem the field and the B field have only H^ and B^ components in the cylindrical coordinate system whose z axis coincides with the axis of the conductor. The attenuation factor is 10% higher than for a line of the same outside diameter having Z Q = 76.
the reactance of the This requires equation to {6. 1. In the medium unless = r a at B^ in = discontinuity is a There //2^r. An iron wire of diameter 0. Determine the distributed resistance and distributed internal inductance of the wire at that frequency at 20° C.5) is 7.iilr/2ira Thus permeability.5) that (6. the internal inductance of the wire at 1000 hertz is 3. For an ac surface current produced in a plane conductor of indefinite thickness by loss a uniform tangential ac electric field.00 X 10 7 mhos/m.CHAP.3 is 1. B$ r>a. of in the conductor.20 and bei' (10) 2 equation {6. of the to be given by 100(1 — e~ 2« /6 ). Outside the the current enclosed by the path is the fraction r /a of the total The B fieldjs every= amperes/m. The radius a of the wire in metric units is 1. a/ values of large for is confirmed in Table 6.15). B^ falls off inversely as the = n the mks permeability of free space. Show that a/ 8.1) is 0. \J*(a)/Jzd . teslas (or webers/m 2 ) and increases linearly with r from the center of the = p. mks the by multiplied field the equal to where conductor to its periphery. B^ . 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 117 2 2 conductor current I. %(V2a/S) V{[ber 8 (10)] 2 + [bei (10)] 2 }/{[ber' (10)]* + [bei' (10)]*} = 5.25. page 74. I/(2irr) H+ conductor all paths enclose the total current /.0661/v7 for 100% 6. the two conductor surface. ber(10) = 138.4. 4 and 5 skin depths. this becomes the" identity (R/ )HjJbr) = (\/awa?)IB.26) gives 7Z = Tra?Jz&_c . c (c) \ = 10.37.31).31. and noting that 2/(«/«r) = 8 . a current of rms current the of magnitude flows in the same wire. 1.84. page 78. 6.74 microhenries/m. The percent 1. have different values and B^ will either decrease or increase discontinuously at the H ^ ^ . determine the percent of the total power surface the from distances in occurs that surface. or BP. (a) (b) current of 5 amperes dc flows in a 16 gauge copper wire having 100% conthe wire.5. For a copper conductor's the from r distance outside the conductor.5. The result for any distance is obtained from equation (643) on changing the upper limit is then found integral from infinity to the desired distance y in skin depths. Using B 2 = l/(47r 2 a2 aS). that Bac = l/(<nra ) ohms/m. cross section of the wire at the value (6) J* dc = I/^a2 = 3. bei (10) = 56. 'Li d c 8 = conditions Ul these under 100. = 0. c from (6. For ^m axis. 3. R z and from (6. The conductivity of iron at 20°C calculated from Table 6.8w <W2 is established. and LJLi^ is about 0. From equation (6. From 10~ X 4. of B d . Hence the identity It is known from equation L = p.499.30).82 X 10 6 amperes/m2 current by The surface current density in the ac case is given in terms of the total conductor current. page 80. Since Lid . where Jz (a) will be an rms current density if I z is an rms = 135. Hence the distributed distributed wire at 1000 hertz is 2.50 microhenries/m. 6. the problem is to demonstrate under Since henries/m.2. From 8 is 523 kilohertz. ber' (10) = 51. according distributed internal resistance relation that a = l/{RIR*c). The skin depth 8 in iron at 1000 hertz must be 4 m.1.2.12 is and directly from equation (6. page 71. page 77.3. c Table 6. the conditions stated L { = B/a.455 X 10 4 m. The value of a/8 is then 3. Numerical values are .1). B/Bd. ductivity. Substituting tables. Determine the current density as a function of position inside value 5 amperes At a frequency which makes V2a/8 = 10.0120 ohms/m. the frequency for 16 gauge wire.128" used in a telephone circuit has relative permeability 150 at frequency 1000 hertz.96. c for this value of a/ 8 is about 2.= (« M)/(fcrW). which is in agreement with equation (6. 6.19 When y/2 a/8 = = 9.70 ohms/m.63 X 10~* m. What is the ratio of the rms (a)? in density at the surface of the wire to the value found A (c) (a) What is the frequency in (b) ? is The radius of 16 gauge wire 6.5. The value resistance R for the for the iron wire from equation (6. using B s = l/(aS). dc = 1/S 2 . per unit area of 0. 2. fi = permeabilities will an iron conductor in air or for a copper conductor embedded in ferrite.6. If a solid circular conductor of radius a carries an ac current of sufficiently high inductance uU is equal to the internal distributed frequency.13 X 10" 5 m conductivity copper when / is in hertz. The ) dc current density is constant over the . and for r < a. but for conductor in air or in a plastic dielectric.26).
was 6.3.68 on a thick plane conductor as in an indefinitely thick surface layer (compare also the results of Problem 6.6° 32.8 2. making the real part a little smaller than the value given by the reciprocal of equation (6. It is mentioned in Section 6.064 1.502 1.97 5 from surface Percent of total power loss.yi.891 1. 6 Distance from surface in skin depths 0. Thus Jsz (0toy) = = f dx f dy[oE z0 (l + jO)e«+»y/ s *^o } Jo Carrying out the integration.856 1.5 1.3. within about 1%.ey' 5 (cosy/S . but with the upper limit of the integral changed to y instead of infinity. page 85.8° 43.3° 0.004 1.486 1.057 0.68 would reduce the losses by only 5%.ainy/8) . this becomes + j)]}(l . y/8 0.0.000 .jO.3° 36.006 .ea+J>*/«) term and using e~ ix = cos — j sin x.5 1. 66. (E z0/2R S ){1 . referring to the results of a transmission line analog in Problem 7.j'0.4 2. contained between the surface plane y = 0.10.957 .0.7° 45.000 1.4° 41.J0A2S .6 2 3 4 99.3° 21.6° 45.0 95. phasor surfacecurrent density per unit width of surface in the x direction.68 is substituted for an unbounded plane conductor of indefinite thickness (i.5 1 1.118 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. for the case Ay = 0.999 0. A rms phasor value E zQ exists over the surface of a plane The plane surface of the conductor extends indefinitely in the x and z directions and the conductor is indefinitely thick in the y direction perpendicular to the surface. and a parallel plane at distance y into the metal from the surface.9 98.2 .9 1. mentioned in Section 6. however.042 ..jl. Using Ez0 as a real reference phasor.7 3.5).433 1.4.510 1. to that distance 63. The answer is obtained in the same manner as equation (644).147 Phase Angle 8. and using the relation Jsz (0 to y) Rationalizing the first JSz (0 to i/) = R s = l/o8.198 1.167 1.'0.2° 39.995 Although the magnitude of the current density diminishes as e~ y/s so that at a distance of 5S from the surface the current density is still nearly 1% of the surface value.992 Magnitude 0. The data table of this problem.1 2. 66 ..250 .128 1.877 . determine an equation for the tangential electric field of conductor. An alternative explanation is that the presence of the reflected wave modifies the distributed internal admittance of the conductor.2 86. in a surface layer of thickness 1.032 .171 1. 66.5 95.412 1.j[l .jl.414 45° .762 . shows that the magnitude of the total surface current density for a given tangential electric field is the same. Make calculations from the equation.il.il.5 skin depths. that if an unbounded plane conductor of thickness about 1. The resulting modified current distribution in the metal is slightly more uniform and hence produces less loss for the same total current than the exponentially decaying current distribution from which Fig.512 0.2 99.430 1.323 1.075 .6 0..6 below).75 99. page 85.088 1.jl.3° 16.e. a graph of which would total give the curve of Fig.611 1. page 84. into the metal constructed.6. Fig.206 1.3 Jsz (0toy)/(E z0 /2R s ) 0.0 4 5 10 .518 0.9° 27.i0.511 1. suggests that "removing" the current pattern beyond a thickness of 1.5° 44. The extra 3% is a consequence of the reflection of the electromagnetic waves from the second surface of the metal.486 1.ev^(cosy/8 + <E z0/[R s (l a: siny/8)]} Several points on the required curve are shown in the following table.025 . any thickness greater than a few 8) the power loss per unit area of surface in the total metal thickness is reduced about 8%. the losses vary as the square of the current density at any distance and it can be seen that more than 99% of the losses occur in about 2.
09 10 5 hertz 2.09 10 7 hertz 2. the arc length from the origin to coordinate y is The magnitude values 66.812 0. Cdx Cdy \aEJX + j0) The e<i + i»/« = (EJR S ){1. The length of the arc of the curve from the origin to any coordinate y in the conductor is given by the same integral used in Problem 6. . results are tabulated below.637 0.e v>&) from Problem 6. The result has no particular physical meaning.838 0.1 2.062 1.938 1.28 1.182 8. and is in agreement with the magnitude and phase relations given by equation (6. When the above points are plotted on the graph of Fig. the locations of the first ten points agree very precisely with the locations of the points determined by summing surfacecurrent incremental phasors for layers 0.240 1. 10 3 hertz 2. 10 3 10 5 10 7 and 10 9 hertz.45).24 1. page 84.25 X 10" 5 8. calculation requires significant quantities which have the following values at the different frequencies: The 10 hertz 8. The copper inner conductor .05 1.51 X 10~ 3 a t/8 t/8 R 8.05 m m 2.12 1.050 (arc length)/ (chord length) 1.366 0.414 6.52 1520 723 182 8.998 1. of a coaxial transmission line is a circular tube of outside diameter 0.068 1.09 X 102 X 103 X 10~ 4 15.2 X 10~ 5 152 X 10 ~« a/8 0. Determine its distributed resistance at frequencies of 10. Compare the range of frequencies over which its distributed resistance remains within \% of its dc distributed resistance with the corresponding frequency range for a solid circular copper conductor .7. 66.152 1.343 1.285 1.014 0.723 0.09 10 9 hertz 2.2 8.41 1.CHAP.20 1. 6.0723 0.414 in these units.6 are the chord lengths from the origin to any point on the expressed in units of E z0/2R S the chord length to the point for infinite y being 1.630 0.366 0.7 3 4 5 10 1.250" and wall thickness 0. 66 from the origin to each of the points tabulated in Problem 6.42 X 103 ohms/m .6.414 1.01 0.2 chord for infinite y) (chord length)/(length of chord for infinite y) 0.25 a t = 1.015".0182 8. of the same outside diameter.987 1. in Problem 6.4 2.25 X 107 0. with the phase information removed.050 1.9 1.25 X 10.8.6 7. with the chord lengths repeated (arc length)/(length of y/8 0. relative to the length of the chord from the origin to each point.6. but the ratio of the arc length from the origin to the chord length over the same portion of the curve gives some impression of the relative inefficiency of a "thick" conductor compared to a conductor of optimum thickness.6.5 1.6 0. In the same units used in Problem 6.03 1.23 72.8 2. For the same plane conductor and tangential phasor value of electric field described in Problem 6.3 0. and relative to the length of the chord from the origin to the point at infinite y.405 1.3 1.097 1. ohms 0.068 1.25 X 10.179 1.16 1. determine the length of the arc of the curve of Fig.012 1.82 18. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 119 The result is constant at the last value for all thicknesses greater than 108.08 1.388 1.318 1.6 for comparison.6.4 X 103 Udc = 2. curve of Fig.00 1.000 1.37 1.38 thick.
equation (6. which occupy 5% of the interconductor volume and are made of material having dielectric constant 3.52) shows that the linearly distributed charges on coaxial conductors are directly proportional to the applied voltage. to which equations (6.9. equation (6.4.5 long.12 is 1. giving a distributed resistance value higher by precisely a factor of 10. 68 for at/S = 7.12. page 78.c /Rdc = 17. the = 1.50.005. the tube wall at this frequency is only a correction factor from Fig.6 X 3. Although Fig.5. For the solid dielectric portion the capacitance is similarly 3.42 X 10 3 ohms/m. conductor The capacitance must be calculated as the sum of two separate components.2. it is clear that R&c/Rdc is less than 1. At 10 7 hertz. as 7. At 10 3 hertz. The tubes are 3.414 ohms/m.5 = 91. Find the breakdown voltage of the capacitor if the outside diameter of the inner conductor is increased to 8 cm without changing the outer conductor. Hence if (6.005 for the solid conductor is taken as the frequency for which a/8 = 0.5) = 15. one for the air dielectric portion of the line. 68. and there At 10 9 hertz. with a/8 — 1.93.77. m 6.005 when a t/8 < 2.95 X 27. But Rac for the tube is greater than that of a solid conductor of the same outside diameter by a factor of 4. For the tubular conductor it is not possible to calculate the corresponding limiting frequency directly and it must be found empirically from Fig. and the distributed resistance is again 2. by a factor of about 0. Hence the figure of 7700 hertz should be reasonably accurate. The result is 0.10 for a [CHAP.2. and is a maximum at the smallest value of r in the interconductor space. This occurs at a frequency of about 7700 hertz.2/(loge 7.43 is 1.93 = 1.84 skin depths is in fact less than that for an indefinitely thick tube.02 X 10~ 3 ohms/m. At 10 5 hertz.152.86/4. with S = 7. approximately.77 X 0. and the other for the portion filled with solid dielectric. 68 for a t/S = 0.23 and t/8 = 0.54). e /Rdc < 1.1. The highest frequency at which R/Rdc remains less than 1.33) were directly applicable to the tube.66.6/(logc 7. . Equation (6. This is found to be about 104 hertz.5 X 0. 67 to be applied. indicating that the frequency range of constant distributed resistance for the tube is about 70 times as great as the range for a solid conductor of the same outside diameter. Using equation (6. and R&.5. with a/ 8 = 15. with a/ 8 = 0. R&c/Rdc would be almost 1. m (a) What is If the total capacitance of the capacitor.65.5) = 27.5 micromicrofarads. indicating a corrected ratio for R & .43.c /Rde = 171. but on consulting Fig.33) would apply. Hence its capacitance is 3. The result is 4.5 X 10 6 volts/m. (c) (d) (a) (b) For any specific line geometry.e /Rdc for a solid conductor can be found quickly from equation (6. it appears from Fig. The air dielectric portion is 95% of the total length.4.5 micromicrofarads.84 skin depths thick. the distributed resistance is given by equation (6. with a/8 = 152 and t/8 = 18.12. However.86. result would be R*c/Rdc = 7. With t/a = 0. The total capacity of the line is then 91.14 X 102 ohms/m.55 X 10~ 4 and t/8 = 0. page 93. The distributed ac resistance for a tube of wall thickness 1. A pair of circular coaxial metal tubes is used as an electrostatic capacitor.5 + 15. i2 ac = Rdc = 2.52. it does show that for plane conductors the distributed ac resistance is quite precisely equal to the dc resistance when t/8 is as low as 0.c /Rdc of 1.e. Hence the distributed resistance of the conductor is 4. neglecting anomalous "edge effects" at the ends? (b) breakdown occurs in the line when the electric field in the air dielectric portions exceeds 1.30) and is exactly the same as for a solid conductor of the same outside diameter. at the outer surface of the inner conductor.05 X 55.51) states that the electric field in the interconductor space is directly proportional to the linearly distributed charges. i.32) and (6.5 micromicrofarads/m.33).120 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN At 10 hertz. and R &. The center conductor is supported by thin transverse dielectric discs. R&. the distributed capacitance of the air dielectric portion is 55. what is the maximum voltage that can be applied to the capacitor? Find the breakdown voltage of the capacitor if the outside diameter of the inner is increased to 4 cm without changing the outer conductor. 67 cannot be considered applicable with high precision to this situation with a/S as low as 4. 6 solid conductor.30) again applies.5 = 107 micromicrofarads. 68 that R &.5 X 0. The outside diameter of the inner conductor is 2 cm and the inside diameter of the outer conductor is 15 cm.42 X 10 3 ohms/m.723 for a tubular conductor with t/a = 0. The graphical result from Fig.
being a. From (5.33 X 10 "7 coulombs/m From equation (6.00 X 10 8 )] 2 = = 1.33 X 10.40 X 10 4 nepers/m.12 )(1 X 102) (1.300 volts (c) When the outside radius of the center conductor (55.00 X 108 )/(0. the breakdown voltage is X 10~ 12 )(2 X 10~2)(1. Using (6.93 X 3.206] = 7.9). Hence the total resistance between the electrodes is R = and if ( dR = (p 8 /2ir) loge (&/«) (b/a) ohms ohms.3 = 4.5 X 10«) loge 1. Show that the characteristic impedance Zo of a coaxial transmission line as given by equation (6. Rs = lSXhr/y/kg ohms/square. Determine the equivalent average dielectric line thick. page 49.9. is equal to the dc resistance between two concentric circle metallic electrodes on a surface resistance sheet (such as a thin carbon film deposited on a plane of nonconducting material).59) for the characteristic impedance ZQ (649) for the distributed resistance R.56).75/(55. (c) and (d) illustrate a phenomenon investigated analytically in Section that for a fixed size of the outer conductor there is an optimum size of the inner conductor that results in minimum electric field in the interconductor space for a given applied voltage.050" and the outside diameter of the inner conductor 0.11.17 X !<)•/[(& X 200 X 106)(2jt X 1. the magnitude of the distributed charge on each conductor 1S 2jt(8.26 X 10~ 3 nepers/m 0.56) for the distributed conductance G.600 volts The results of parts (6). The frequency is high enough to ensure that a/8 > 100 and t/S > 1 for both conductors.4/67.5/(2* X 8. the dc resistance between the inner circumference and the outer circumference is dR = p 8 (dr)/2irr ohms.52) the voltage between the conductors will then be 8. and (6. The resistances of such rings filling the area between the contact electrodes at r = a and r = b are in series between the electrodes.16 is The portion aR [Rs (l of the attenuation factor caused by conductor resistance + 6/a)/(2jr6)]/[60 loge (b/a)/y/K] = 2. Using equation (6.635 db/(100 ft). the dc surface resistivity of the sheet being 377/\/fcJ = 120tt/\/&J ohms/square.5 X 106 ) = 8. At a frequency of 200 megahertz the phase velocity on the line is measured to be 93%. the real part of the average dielectric constant of the interconductor medium is found from .375".6 2 cm.85 X 10. page 96.037 db/(100 ft) = 1. R = (60/VK ) loge = Z .25".85 is X 10~ 12 ) = 30.2 X 10~5 6.598 = ~ 0.85 X 10")/1.5 X 106) \ oge 3. the outside radius of the inner circular electrode b.9) the distributed conductance that would produce this attenuation is G = 2a G/Z = 2.635 0. It follows that the attenuation factor of the line is given by equation (5.80 X 10.875 = 37. where ps is the dc surface resistivity of the sheet in ohms/square.7 loge 7.10. ' fe e (average) = [(3. 6. — tan 8 = G/oC = 4. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 121 When the breakdown field of 1.16 X 8. A rough check shows also that aL/R > 1 and aCIG >1. and the inside radius of the outer circular electrode being For a circular ring of radius r and radial width dr on the resistance sheet. constant and loss factor of the material in the interconductor space.5 X 10 6 volts exists at the surface of the inner conductor in the air dielectric portions of the line.CHAP. using equation (6. the inside diameter of the outer conductor being 1. A coaxial transmission has circular tubular copper conductors with walls 0. 6.700 volts (d) When the outside radius of the center conductor is 4 (4 cm the breakdown voltage is X 10~ 2 )(1.6 X 10" 12 ) = 39.598 db/(100 ft) The portion of the attenuation factor due to dielectric loss is then a G = 0.59).17 X 10~ 6 mhos/m. The center conductor is supported by a continuously spiraled dielectric webbing which fills 20% of the interconductor space. and the attenuation factor to be 0.60) for the phase velocity.
From the thermal point of view the line must dissipate 5 kilowatts in 100 feet. or 50 watts per foot of length. At a high frequency <o rad/sec a coaxial transmission line has distributed external inductance L x henries/m.6 ohms. coaxial transmission line is to be designed to transmit 50 kilowatts of power at a frequency of 100 megahertz over a distance of 100 ft with at least 90% efficiency. distributed resistance R ohms/m. amount of the desired 6. but would be tolerable in a wellmaintained line. The properties of to the expression + uLx tan 8 m )/R which converts stated in the problem.57S. assuming it to be terminated in its characteristic impedance will be •^"^50. .5 cm. which may be considered excessive. For steady power transmission of 50 kilowatts at 100 megahertz.9) are accentuated by the value of k' m Their use as an interconductor medium in coaxial lines can result in reduced attenuation for certain designs of line at low and intermediate frequencies.0526/30. very close to the sheet thickness found to have minimum distributed ac resistance.58 to 1. which according to equation (5.6 (see Section 6. = VJTe = (l/VfeJ)vWeo = 377/V^ohms Show 67. 6 This relation derives from the fact that the wave impedance or intrinsic impedance for plane transverse electromagnetic waves in an unbounded medium of dielectric constant fc ' and low loss e factor is ^tem 6. that the thickness 1.457 db = 0. This is a fairly high value of electric field.00172 nepers/m.51) and (6.12.28S. and negligible distributed internal inductance L» when the interconductor space is air filled. Since the line is 30.68 of plane metal sheet conductor shown in Fig. and £ wavelength would be 1. Show that if the interconductor space could be filled with a magnetic medium having relative perme and magnetic loss factor tan 8 m such that V&Jl > ©L^tan 8J/R.52)). and since R s = 2. the requirement on the medium is that the square root of the factor by which the distributed external inductance is increased on adding the medium must exceed the factor by which the distributed resistance is increased from by «r magnetic the the losses. all field quantities for the plane waves propagating in the metal vary in amplitude by a term e~v' 5 and in phase by a term e *»/*. The total distributed external inductance in the presence of medium is k^Lx and the total distrib uted medium must then satisfy y/k^Lx/Lx > (R At low frequencies a useful resistance is (R + uLx tan 8 m ). X = 2irS = 6. The interconductor distance being about 0.2. At higher frequencies ferrite materials have high values of k' m and low values of tan 8 m but they also exhibit dielectric losses. manufacturers recommend a copper transmission line with outside diameter about 3". What is the minimum diameter of a coaxial line with copper conductors and air dielectric that will meet the efficiency specification? Will the minimum diameter line handle the stated amount of power? A The attenuation of the line in decibels is 10 log 10 (50. page 87. For fixed outside diameter.14.0526 nepers.122 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP.000) = 0. the maximum electric field is of the order of 500. netic metal tape (such as Permalloy) . 6. Then a = [4.9) and for an air dielectric line this corresponds to Z = 76. But in a harmonic space pattern. In the analysis of Section 6.48 long.61 X 10 3 ohms for copper at 10 8 hertz. ability k' m Since the attenu ation factor of an air dielectric transmission line at high frequencies is given — R/(2y/L x/C ) nepers/m when there are no dielectric losses.13. when the wave is traveling in the direction of increasing y. the attenuation factor of the line will be reduced if the medium has a dielectric constant of unity and no dielectric losses. the distance in which the phase changes by 2v radians is defined as the wavelength \ of the pattern. Hence in the metal. (See Problem 6. the phase will change by 2v radians in a distance Ay given by Ay/8 = 2ir.000 X 76. 6 to give the desired value of attenuation is found to be 0.32. the attenuation factor is 0.6JB s/(2jt6>]/153. According to the latter term. to have minimum distributed high frequency resistance is very close to i wavelength thick for the waves propagating in the metal.725 cm. m The peak voltage on the line.000 volts/m (a more precise value could be determined from equations (6.3. a coaxial line of minimum attenuation has b/a = 3. result can be achieved by winding thin magaround the center conductor of a coaxial line.48 = 0.) . There is no simple basis for demonstrating that this would result in the temperature of the center conductor rising to more than 300 °F.000/45.6 = 2760 volts.
746. . It is evident that the error incurred in P by dropping A 2 and given by the more be about 1%. the resistance of its conductors if isolated is given by that show given by {6. Since a/8 = 2.02.016 would calculations the from A 3 1. an adequate solution (i/ x )2 (cosh. In the present problem region inside the conductors in which magnetic flux contributes to L t the conductors are sepof surfaces facing the t/8 = 0. complete formula. which neglects from equation (6.314 + 0. an d sin ce > Finally.x)]. 5% y/L/C = 1. is a little higher than the maximum value at which L{ for Section 6. A2 = 0. with a mmimum to 2.8.333. Equation (6. Assuming that a ductors is equagiven by equation {6. the attenuation factor is a = R/2Z = 5.70 X 10~ 4 ohms/m for the two conductors.75).19. 68 gives fl ac/i2dc = 1.30). to be considered not also = is equation (6. more than internal inductance. the separation dielectric.61) cannot be used for calculating the proximity effect factor full The accurate.70. resistance.7U) is 0.19(1.32. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN parallel wire transmission line 123 6. Determine the attenuation factor at a frequency of 1 kilohertz for a parallel conductor and wall transmission line whose copper conductors are tubes of outside diameter f" being conductors the of surfaces adjacent the between thickness &". c accompanythe and Equation (6. % A 3 .3. with a value 0.75).333. so lt must be taken as equal to t.CHAP.02)(8.70 X 10" 4) { {. l . but that it is plausible to reduce Lt by the square corrections is to give a these all of result net The 1. the problem stated in 1 simplest terms the value of x that minimizes task.55 X 10~ 3 .8 suggest that this should be reduced about 1% tubular and plane approximately 0. Since inductance L.0. The various quantities required in the calculation are and s/2a = 1.044 is tubular conductors from equation (6M) because t/8.0.8 emphasizes that there sheet conductors can be assumed to remain within \% of Lid. and L { is a arated by 2t. the characteristic impedance of the line is 1 and <oC/G distributed higher than the value given by equation (6. The line is assumed to have for equation (6. i?dc is found by distributed line formulas to be 8. 2lx/li for the two The value of Lx from equation (6. = 3. air £".61).56. being ing discussion in Section 6. . 0.17. a deviation of 2% from the value The next stage of the calculations gives A = t 0.62) 1.1 from is found to be constant within about \% for values of s/2a close to 2. Hence the value of the resistance = 1. found above to be microhenries/m. The value of Lid. .8. Fig. = The relative effect of the various terms is then finally indicated by P = 1/Vl . distributed total line's the part of = substantial 4. and the proximity effect factor for resistance is held axes is their of if the radius of the conductors is varied while the separation which the line has constant. Although this is not an impossible analytical x /[y/l x. _ 6. Find an approximate value factor. factor for resistance.9 a rough criterion Lx/L = 2lx k is developed for the ratio of a In this expression x is the mterexternal inductance Lx to its distributed internal inductance L thickness of the conductor distance in which magnetic flux contributes to Lx and k is the estimated R= 1.90) microhenries/m. and since s/2o calculation of equation (6.318 microhenries/m. the attenuation factor of the line is 2Jg s with circular tubular or solid conoperated at high enough frequencies that its characteristic impedance is _ ~ s/2a / 1 »» 2l20cosh v l(2a/s) its ~ ls/2a nepers/m is to find = x.06 X 10~ 3 ohms/m. at/8 = 1.28.68) must therefore be used. the usual For at/8 = 1. at/a = 0. there is an intermediate value of the conductor radius at ratio s/2a {s being the for a minimum attenuation factor.62) gives P = 1.041.333.15. line's distributed In Section 6.e influence of proximity effect on distributed is no very accurate information available about the root of the proximity effect internal inductance.5. tion {6. The it is distributed capacitance of the line obvious that <*LIR > 101 ohms. The attenuation factor of values several for calculations making by quickly is found much more almost 2.72) is 35. constant) that gives the minimum value for the attenuation Combining the conditions a Letting s/2a stated.25 X 10 ~ 6 nepers/m.358 probable error not exceeding about 1%.19.16.040 microhenries/m for Lit which adds to Lx to give L = 0.0 micromicrofarads/m.70 and t/a = 0.
What wall thickness should a circular tubular copper conductor of outside radius 0. 3.5. equation (6. 83.28..130 watts/m. 32.26. The temperature is 20 °C in each case. Ans. The distributed internal inductance and the distributed resistance of a solid circular conductor less than £% from the dc values at all low frequencies for which a/8 < 0. 200. and that under these conditions R/R dc 6. ber' x.02 + J2.23) X 10" 6 ohms/square at 10 3 hertz. 66% at 60 hertz. 6. 12. 40. page by calculating R&c/R&c for a Ans. (6) and 40.50". at 200 hertz. At a frequency num and lead. change by . 2030.61 + #. \% determine the of the dc value: 000. 6.19. Determine the ratio of the current density at the center of the conductor to the current density at the surface. 20. 22% 79. 6.000 hertz.33) is consistent with (6J10).47) and (6.20.26. 892fe t /8 where / is in hertz.33 + . 6. (a) Ans.3 X 10 6 m will achieve Show that for a circular metal tube of outside radius a. solid circular wire at the following addi tional values of a/8: 5.61) X 10~ 4 ohms/square at 10 6 hertz.23 + J8. watts/m. 13. A solid circular aluminum conductor has diameter 1. 20. 210. 6. t/8 = 0. (2. a/8 being very large.33) X 10~ 4 ohms/square for lead. 32. 28.91 + j8.25.91) X 10~ 3 ohms/square for iron.60% at 1000 hertz.17.9. 8. 5140.261) (X_16) hertz.77.000 and 1. What is the power loss per meter length of conductor. 5. A 12 gauge copper conductor carries a current of 5 amperes at a frequency of 10 7 hertz. The nature of the equation can be found from plotting /^ (X) against on various types of graph paper.25. 0. (6) The equation is / % (X) = 5140(1. 6. (9. From some (6. bei x. 0.25. Determine the distributed internal impedance of a copper sheet at frequencies of 60. at frequencies of 60. For use in the equation the wire size 000 must be called size —2.850. assuming copper of 100% conductivity at 20 °C.1. inside radius and made of nonmagnetic material. 100. Find an empirical equation from this data.27. 40. Ans.22. for small values of x.24. and /%(X) is the frequency for wire of any gauge X. 16. a tubular conductor with the desired result.100" have if its distributed resistance is to remain within of the dc value for all frequencies up to 10 8 hertz? \% Ans. Show that this the division of the latter is carried out to two terms. 2. (8. 10 3 10 6 and 10 9 hertz. Then derive equations and (6. Extend Table 6.33 + jS.48) respectively.000. Dwight's Tables of Integrals and Other Mathematical Data) find power series suitable for expressing ber x.25. At 10 7 hertz the power 0. and bei' x.23. 2. (8.18. relating fi^(X) to /^(lQ). From is the preceding problem it appears that for a/5 consistent with equation (6.000. 530.2 Ans.33) X 10~ 4 ohms/square for aluminum.337. 36.21. = 6. 126.15). 50.25. 200 and 1000 hertz. and 8 the skin depth given by equation (6. Show that over this same range of frequencies uLJR = %(a/8) 2 within \%. 318. . 60.5 or { = 6.100. 80.3.25. (3. 804. Ans. page 74. 20. where a is the radius of the conductor.23) X 10~ 3 ohms/square at 10 9 hertz. where /%(16) is the frequency determined in part (a) for 16 gauge wire.g. = l/tya/8). of 10 6 hertz determine the distributed internal impedance of plane sheets of alumiand of a plane sheet of iron having a relative permeability of 200 at that frequency. 10. Assume the metal to be many skin depths thick at each frequency. Assume a temperature of 20 °C. about 25 times as great as the dc power loss of . (8. 6. Show that for a solid circular conductor having a/8 > 100. 6 Supplementary Problems 6. 6.33) when > 20. R&c/Rdc = £(a/S) + £.02) X 10~ 6 ohms/square at 60 hertz.124 DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN [CHAP. = \a/8 and L/L^. and at and b t are defined by equations (6.28) source (e. 10. (2. The plot on semilog paper with on the X X linear scale is a straight line. 24. 30. 4.29) from (6.27).23 + i8.. (a) For isolated wires of each of the following sizes (same as B & S highest frequency at which the distributed resistance will remain within AWG sizes). 6. and how does it compare with the result for a dc current of the same magnitude flowing in the same conductor? loss is 3. i?dc is the distributed dc resistance of yff/R&c = S92a t/8 the tube in ohms/m. 79.
CHAP. flac Ans  P7~ K *° "fy fldc = _ ~ x 9 2 se m ' ' ber x bei' x T ber . the distributed conductance of the line is given by G = 2iram /(log b/a) mhos/m. the outer conductor being copper? the inner conductor of (d) By what percent will the distributed resistance be increased if the outer conductor is changed to pure iron with a relative permeability of 50 at 10 8 hertz. the interconductor medium being air? Ans.34. (d) 113%.31.75". if dielectric constant kg 6.500" and the inside diameter of the outer conductor is 1.jk^. e 6. where Lx is the distributed external inductance with the magnetic medium present.50".33. the ratio b/a of the radii of the facing conductor surfaces that will give minimum high frequency attenuation for a fixed size of outer conductor is 3.61 X 10~ 7 y/J ohms/square. k' m over its = tan 8 m . . 6. Ans. and Q km/km' then the distributed external inductance of the line is increased by the factor value with a nonmagnetic medium in the space. Show Show that for copper that Rs = 2. 6. (a) (6) What is the distributed resistance of By what percent will the distributed is the line if both conductors are copper? resistance of the line be increased if the outer conductor changed to aluminum. that if a medium of dielectric constant kg and loss factor tan 8 fills the interconductor space of any transmission line. what must be the radial distance between the facing conductor surfaces of the line to give Show 6.36. page 77. bei . — 75 ber x ber' x ber'2^ 2 — + + + . the line a distributed capacitance of 1000 micromicrofarads/m. 6.189 in. or relative permeability 0^ — pC)/fi = Jc^ . For a coaxial line operated at 10 8 hertz.j/i^ in mks units. for all values of kg or tan 8.2 a.0842 ohms/m. x ber' * /2 where x bei « x ^a/8 = V2 . If a coaxial transmission line with circular conductors has an outer conductor whose inside radius is 3. where / is in hertz. the inner conductor being copper? (a) 0. the interconductor space of a coaxial transmission line is filled with a material of and loss factor tan 8. the contribution of the distributed conductance to the attenuation factor at high frequencies is aG = (« tan 8)/2vp nepers/m. Both conductors are several skin depths thick. The magnetic permeability of iron makes it unsuitable for the same purpose.592.2 x .30. (b) 4%. From equation (6£7). Show that if the interconductor space of any transmission line is filled with material having a complex permeability /*4 . bei x bei / hei . determine explicit expressions for R&c /Rdc and ojL/Rdc for a solid circular conductor of radius a defined by mks permeability /i and conductivity a at angular frequency <o.29. 6.32. The result shows that changing the outer conductor of a coaxial transmission line from copper to lighter and less expensive aluminum has little effect on the distributed resistance and attenuation factor of the line. (c) 18%. 6] DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT COEFFICIENTS AND PHYSICAL DESIGN 125 6. 0. and a contribution Rm = uLx tan 8 m ohms/m must be added to the usual distributed resistance of the conductors. the outside diameter of the inner conductor is 0. the center conductor being copper? if (c) By what percent will the distributed resistance of the line be increased the line is changed to aluminum. Show that if the medium filling the interconductor space of a coaxial transmission line has a conductivity am mhos/m.35.
page 32. "The impedance at any point of the line" was found to mean the input impedance of the line section on the load side of the point. When a uniform transmission line is not terminated in its characteristic impedance. and the impedance at every point of the line differs from the characteristic is . the expression for the phasor voltage at any coordinate z of the line is.4) described in the general form / = he" + he*** the relation between the phasor current coefficients h and h (for the harmonic current waves traveling respectively in the direction of increasing z and the direction of decreasing z) and 126 . 71.Chapter 7 Impedance Relations 7. R + jaL Thus _ I 1 G + j«C j*C _ ± Z Q {7. page dV/dz = {R + juL)l = .13). In Chapter 4 it was shown that when a uniform transmission line is terminated in an impedance equal to its characteristic impedance. Applying equation {3. impedance Z .12). to {7. and the impedance at any point of the line (including the input terminals) is also equal to the line's characteristic impedance.3) A comparison of equation {7.yz + y V2 e +yz / from which = p Y .1). the attenuation and phase factors of the line. and the terminal load impedance Zt connected at z = I. Referring to the general transmission line circuit of Fig.2) From equation {4. T {Vye~ yz . General transmission line 23. . signal terminal load source impedance z ZT d ' « Fig. the line length I.2) shows that when the phasor current on the line is {7.1) where Vi and F2 are phasor coefficients whose values are determined by the voltage and internal impedance of the signal source connected at z = 0.1.3) with {U. Reflection coefficient for voltage waves. but terminated in some arbitrary impedance Z T ^ Z there are always reflected waves on the line. there are no reflected waves on the line.y Vie. circuit.V 2 e +yz ) {7. V = Viev* + V2 e + ^ {7. from Section 4.1. when the portion of the line on the generator side of the point is removed. 71.
3)) at the point. as Pt where designated is waves voltage phasor for . of point the at wave incident of the reflected wave to the magnitude of the the between relation phase the establishes phase angle of the reflection coefficient The magnitude . At the terminal load end of the line this ratio is constrained to be equal to the connected terminal impedance. From (7. Pt = V2 e +y Wie~ yl = (V2/Vi)e™ (7. waves at a specific point The impedance at any point on a transmission line is given by the ratio of the phasor voltage (equation {7. For harmonic voltage becomes coefficient reflection transmission line the appropriate definition of a phasor value of reflected voltage wave reflection coefficient for harmonic voltage waves = at point of reflection phasor value of incident voltage wave at point of reflection The ratio of two phasor quantities line the reflection coefficient For the terminal load end of the is a complex number. light waves. = value of reflected wave at point of reflection value f incident wave at point of reflection it The word "value" here different situations. the reflected waves waves on a will also be harmonic in time and of the same frequency. is deliberately unspecific. the phasor values of the two current waves at the same point will differ in phase by ^ + tt radians. if the incident waves are harmonic in time.1)) to the phasor current (equation (7. The manner in which these magnitude and phase relations affect the "standing wave" patterns of voltage and current along a transmission line is discussed in Chapter 8. From (7. the only connected signal source initiates a harmonic voltage wave traveling in the direction of increasing z.6) the phasor value at z = I of a harmonic voltage wave traveling in the direction of increasing z. A on a transmission line differ in phase by ^ radians. the reflection occurring at the terminal load end of the line and being a function where Vie~ yl of the connected impedance ZT .CHAP. whether the waves be sound waves. 71 to which this analysis applies. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 127 the corresponding phasor voltage coefficients Vi and V2 is h = The Vi/Zo h = V2/Z0 (7. It must be concluded that the wave traveling in the direction of decreasing z comes into existence through a physical process of reflection.. since may have different meanings in For a linear system. etc.8) the magnitude of this complex number reflection coefficient is the ratio of The reflection. In any discussion of reflected wave phenomena..3) the magnitudes of the current phasors are directly proportional to the magnitudes of the corresponding voltage phasors.5) difference of sign is a fundamental distinction between the two pairs of waves (each pair consisting of a voltage wave and a current wave) traveling in the two directions on a direct consequence is that if the phasor values of the two voltage transmission line. The natural definition of such a concept is _ reflection coefficient «. and V2 e +yl is the phasor value at z = I of a harmonic voltage wave traveling in the direction of decreasing z. water waves.. Thus V(z = l) _ is „ +yl yl _ z Tie~ + V2 e +yl e V2 Vie'* J ' (7. In the general transmission line circuit of Fig. the concept of a "reflection coefficient" is introduced.6).
ZT . equal in magnitude to ZQ . used with transmission very high frequencies. jO * equal to 2Z i+ io i + n 30 i V If is real. for several easily calculated cases of representative Table 7. 7 reflected and incident waves at the point of change on reflection". + 1 greater than ZT ZQ is . Equation (7. is a pure resistance. Z T is a pure capacitive reactance. In Chapter 8 there is described a basic measurement technique. Z'p/Zq PT \P T \ *T indeter 1 + + + JO io + l + 1 JO minate 1 1 1 o io jo jl V infinite + + Open v/2 jl If Z Q is real. Z T is a pure inductive reactance. Pt = (Z T Z )/(Z T +Z ) = (Z T/Z  1)/(Z T/Z Q + 1) (7. fnl\ A {n + l) +J ° .9) . The dimensionless ratio Z T/Z is called the normalized value of the impedance Z T Any actual complex terminal load impedance in ohms will have different normalized values when it is connected to transmission lines with different values of characteristic impedance Z .Pt ) (7.6) by Vie~ yl and making use of (7. . Nature of the termination Equal to characteristic impedance. reflection. Z T/Z Q = (1+ Pt )/(1. magnitude and phase angle. + If ZQ Z is real. gives a simple relation between the reflection coefficient.10) states that the reflection coefficient at the sion line is.8).9b) 2 Pt cos^ t Solving (7.9a) 2 \p T \ cos <p T 2p T sin<£ T 1 2 \pt\ (7. a pure resistance. often referred to as "the phase Dividing all four terms on the right of (7. a function solely of the terminal load impedance connected to the line and of the characteristic impedance of the line. equal in magnitude to Z .1 terminal load impedances. n . The following and its table shows the value of the reflection coefficient as a complex number. circuit. 0jl 2 0jl i+ io 1 W2 If Z is real. More succinctly.10) terminal load end of a transmisas might be expected. that easily and directly yields values of the magnitude p T and the phase angle <p T of the complex reflection coefficient p T If the reflection coefficient is written as and the normalized terminal load impedance p T = p r cos <£ T + j \p T sin <p T is written as Z T/Z = R T/Z + jXt/Zq. equal to If ^Z n + jO (n>l) n + jO (n<l) n1 + 1 Z Z is real. sions derived from (7. ZT . the terminal load impedance Z T and the characteristic impedance Zq of the line. the components of the normalized terminal load impedance can be found from the reflection coefficient data by using the following expreslines at  . less than Z . . ZT is a pure resistance. n1 n+ 1 V If is real.  \ .9): Rt Z Xt ~z~* _ 1 1 + + \Pt\ ~ — ~ IPtI (7. it is a function solely of the normalized value of the terminal load impedance. is a pure resistance.128 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS [CHAP. Short circuit.9) for Pt .
667.65) J9. The result shown in Table 7. The magnitude p T  of the reflection coefficient 1 1 By 1 equations (7. reflection coefficient line is 0.75)+ = 0.52 + ohms . find ) = {(25i75)(50 + i0)}/{(26. Section 7. as well as for open circuit and short circuit terminations.50.3. of the terminal load impedance. that the reflection coefficient has magnitude unity and phase angle zero. cannot absorb power from an incident wave and must be totally reflecting. Equations (7. For harmonic waves this is equivalent to saying that the voltage reflection coefficient must have a magnitude of unity and a phase angle of it radians. The characteristic impedance of the line is 52 produced by the connected terminal load impedance on a low loss transmission + jO ohms.745 /63. Example A transmission line with characteristic impedance 50 + jO ohms is terminated 25 — . The normalized value of ZT PT is Z T/ZQ = = (Z T/Z 1)/(Z T/Z + 1) .1.10) correctly relate impedances and reflection coefficients. when reactive terminations. The magnitude of the reflection coefficient is therefore unity for all purely reactive terminations. open circuit. 7.9) and (7.j'75)/(50 + jO) = 0.20 R T + jXT = (0. however. whether Z is real or complex. and nonreflective terminations.6961* 2 PT cos T  <f> 1 + + 0. Purely resistive terminations of A normalized value other than unity dissipate a finite fraction of the power of the incident wave and reflect the balance.333/0. for physical reasoning.177 PT 2 2 pt 2(0.25) 0. Then from equation (7. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 129 It will be noted that except for the special cases of short circuit.25.4 and 7.1 can be understood directly from terminal load impedance that contains no resistive component. and in Sections 7.9a) and (7.333 . The magnitude of the voltage reflection coefficient is then necessarily less than unity.1.696. incident of the voltage always equal to twice the instantaneous load impedances with a finite imaginary component always produce reflection coefficients with phase angles other than or «. 7. and use (25 it to determine the reflection coefficient.50 Example The 7. i.10). Prom the data of Example the normalized value of the terminal load impedance.50.e. as before . In the remainder of this section.3.9b).65) XT Z Then 1  2 pt sin <t> T _ cos^t 1 2(0.10). At a short circuit termination the voltage must always be identically zero.iO.183 + j0. in a load impedance load end of the line? PT = (Z T Z )/(Z T + Z 7.4° (50 + jO)} Example 12.667 = 0. the phase angles lying between and +tt for inductively and * for capacitively reactive terminations.5. a result that can only be achieved by having the reflected voltage wave always instantaneously equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the incident voltage wave.j'0.75 ohms. example. and between Zq is real.1. of the reflection coefficient values in Table 7.6 discusses some unusual situations that arise when Z is complex.1. = (0. when the "high frequency" approximations of Chapter 5 are valid. shows is and value possible maximum the has termination such a the instantaneous voltage at terminal Normalized wave. Find the numerical value is 0.. *r ^o = + + p T 2  ~  2 IptI =  ~ 10.1.65 4. the normalized terminal load impedances expressed by simple real or imaginary numbers correspond to physically simple terminations of pure resistance or pure reactance only when Z is essentially a pure resistance.1 for an open circuit terminathat tion.177) (52 + jO) = 9.696 2  = = Q lg3 2(0. What is the reflection coefficient for voltage waves at the terminal By equation (7.696 2 0.50.CHAP. all stated relations between the voltage reflection coefficient Pt and the normalized terminal load impedance Z T/Z are true when Z is real but many Some of them are not true if Z is complex.50l)/(0.50 + l) = 0.
from equations (7".yd + (e +yd e~ yd + (Z T/Z )(e +yd e.2.1) ) ) (7JJ) or (Z T/Z +yd (e +yd Z + e~ + e. Thus Z(d) = e +yd Zq Substituting for p T from equation (7.12) 2yl e +yz p T e~ terms on the right of (7. Dividing (7. the chart.16) ) Equations (7. Z v) ZQ _ _ e +y(lz) ^ _ pr pT eY(iz> {7. 7 diagram introduced in Chapter 9 provides an easily visualized perspective of the relation between normalized terminal impedances and the The results of the table reflection coefficients they produce. and the length I and propagation factors a and p for the line. Vze+yz~\ (7.+ .1.19) . . for all values of impedance.yd (7. Input impedance of a transmission line.rih(a + jp)d tanh [(<*. (7.  YM  zJ Vie ~y * + .U) Since Z(z) differs from Z only because Z T differs from Z Z(z) must be expressible in terms of Zt and Z Q together with the coordinate z.1b). and of 7.yd (Z T/Zol) e.13) which shows that the normalized value of Z(z) at any coordinate zona line is most simply expressed as a function of the distance I .yd (Z T/Z . using later confirmed should 7.H) p T e~ yd Z Z(d) _ ~ _ ~ e yd (Z T/Z e yd (Z T/Z Q + )(e + l) + 1) yd ) e. the line being terminated in impedance Z T and the properties of the line itself being described by the complex propagation factor y (= a + j/3) and the characteristic impedance Z . Z(d) e +yd +  P T e~" d (7. above.11) by Z(z) y* V pT t and substituting p T e~ 2yl = V2 /V from 1 Z Multiplying all = >* +  e~ 2yl e +yz (7. The impedance at any point on a general transmission impedance Zt is.130 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS The transmission line circle [CHAP. 7. K v 17^ ' (7 K ' ^ ' Z j0)d + tanh" 1 (Z T/Z )] (7. the point being distant d from the terminal load end of the line.3 be and Examples 7.2.12) by e yl .8).10). Equation (7. all the terms on the right of (7. in three Z(d) different forms: Zo Z(d) _ ~ Z Z(d) ~ = Z T cosh (a + jp)d + Z Q sinh (a + j$)d Zo cosh (a + jp)d + Zt sinh (a + jp)d (Zt/Zq) + tanh (a + jp)d 1 + (Z T/Zo)ta. line terminated in an arbitrary a* .16) can be stated more concisely using hyperbolic functions.15) and (7.z measured from the terminal load end of the line.3).!) and {7. The coordinate of any point on a line measured from the terminal load end has already been designated by the symbol d in Chapter 2.16) are all expressions from which it is possible to calculate by complex number arithmetic the impedance at any point on a transmission line.
Chapter 9.4 ohms a capacitive reactance. Determine the of /0 ohms. "the impedance at a specific of the point. The result is. wavethe is where = A/2.4<o) = 1/(53.3. capacitance or inductance of value the and section. the equation will give the normalized and Z T = Postulating a = having and circuit short in a terminated line. section of lowloss transmission line is 0.e.21 ) same transmission line section has an open circuit termination (Z T = <*>). Z lnv = This is jZ tan 2irll\ = j(73 + JO) tan (2. seen that in the simplest special case of results for a transmission line equation reduces to Z mv IZ« = 1. With . it follows that over the range of lengths with either terlength on the transmission line. long and is terminated in a short circuit.9). of such line sections is easily made very small terminations can play the lengths of lowloss line with either open circuit or short circuit Such line circuits.20).j tan/tf. consistent with all previous + jp)l + jp)l ZT = Z i 7 2 o) terminated nonreflectively.22) these equations Since for lowloss transmission lines Z is very accurately a pure resistance. in described diagram circle making use of the transmission line efficiently by most made probably is calculation the greater numerical precision is desired. physical length At frequencies above a few hundred megahertz. side load terminal the on line the of means the input impedance of the portion input normalized the for expression explicit an it make It is convenient to rewrite (7.4 = 1/(«Q. The frequency Its characteristic impedance is 73 to which it is equivalent. circuitry.CHAP. lowfrequency in play role that lumped inductances and capacitances veryhighfrequency of components important sections are known as "stub" lines. if However. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS sufficient 131 impedance at accuracy for most engineering purposes.18) is a particularly useful relation between Z(d)/Z and Z T/Z in several special cases. impedance of a length I of transmission t&nh jpl . point As noted at the beginning of this chapter. Equation (7.9 micromicrofarads .21). "Stub" lines with open circuit and short circuit terminations.4.4 X 2tt X 200 X 10 6 ) = 14. Some of their applications are discussed in Example 7. input in (7. 2tt/\ = relation the From p circuit terminations are pure reactances. a wavelength becomes a attenuation The apparatus. circuit or open short either with sections line show that the input impedances of lowloss (equation (U. "negligible" attenuation. the normalized easily by and quickly very determined is Z(d)/Z a coordinate d on a transmission line.40 wavelengths operation is 200 megahertz. the input reactances of these line sections of all possible equivalent the « providing thus to +«. ThuS c = l/(53.51 rad) = j 53. line input reactance of the A + By equation (7. the result is Z iRV/Zo = j cot pi (7.U). = \ to I 1 page 30). and the equivalent value of capacitance C^ is obtained from 53. form for demonstrating the using equation (7.18) to impedance Z^IZq of a length I of transmission line: Zi„p on a line" ~Z7 It is easily _ ~ ZtIZ q 1 + tanh (« + (Zt/Zo) tanh (a this somewhat formidable . 7. « < p). and are Chapters 8 and 9. industrial or small enough to be incorporated in laboratory short conditions these Under (i. making use of the relation Z m/Z Q = If the j tan pi C?. the range from mination span values of inductance and capacitance.
7 Example lowloss transmission line has distributed capacitance of 52. to connect the load to the generator and present at the generator terminals an input impedance equal to the load impedance? The required transmission line must be a "halfwavelength transformer" (i. The load terminals are separated by about 8 ft from the generator terminals. and negligible distributed resistance and conductance. At frequencies different from the exact designated operating frequency of the problem. from (7. and Then the required length I of transmission line is given by (0 + i0. differing from a lumped element low frequency transformer because of the requirement of specific physical length.5 X 10 ~ 12 farads/m. frequency is 150 megahertz. high frequency generator has been designed to have an output impedance of 25 — j'50 ohms. What is the shortest length of will have an input susceptance of +0.43 X 10 ~ 7 henries/m.2Z.4. /? Halfwavelength and quarterwavelength transformers.0147 + .84 ft. in this case 56 ohms. From Chapter 6. the transformer section of line will not be precisely an integral number of half wavelengths long.5. with open circuit termination. Y inp /Y = tan pi for a line with open circuit termination and negligible losses. I L and C of the line. A section one wavelength long would be too short. From the distributed circuit coefficients rad/m. and the phase angle of a characteristic impedance can differ appreciably from 0° only for lines whose attenuation per wavelength exceeds several decibels.e.0147 = 0.00 m.025 mhos? line.2 + .0 mhos.093 m + n\/2. Such a line section is therefore a "onetoone" impedance transformer. line The same function could obviously be performed by a transmission line of characteristic impedance equal to the circuit impedance in question.00 X 10 8 m/sec.00 m 1^ wavelengths A suitable length of transmission line to connect the load to the generator would therefore be or 3. Example 7. or 3.00 X 10 8 )/(150 X 10 6 ) = 2. What length and what characteristic impedance must a section of air dielectric lowloss transmission line have. . Although the line could in principle have any value of characteristic impedance. [CHAP.22). It is operated at a A frequency of 500 megahertz.23) v ' since tan nn = n 0. Z ini> /Zo = Zt/Zo This relation states that the input impedance of any lowloss section of transmission an integral number of half wavelengths long is identically equal to the terminal load impedance connected to the section. and 7. a line section some integral number of halfwavelengths long) since it is not possible for a transmission line to have a characteristic impedance of 25 + j'50 ohms. where \ = 2v/p = 0.4 m. n being any integer. the phase velocity of voltage waves on an "air dielectric" transmission line is the velocity of light in free space. It is generally referred to as a "half wavelength transformer" and can serve a useful purpose in high frequency transmission line circuitry as a device to present at some convenient location an impedance existing at some other location that may be inaccessible or awkwardly located. F = 1/Z = yfcjh = 0. The wavelength on such a line at the operating frequency of 150 megahertz is then A X = Vp /f = (3. = WLC = 11.132 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 7. The distance of "about 8 ft" is approximately 2.0) = j tan 11.56 m.6. = and fil = nn in equation (7. If a . = 9. the result is (7. An important consideration in any engineering installation of a halfwavelength transformer of this sort would be the behavior of the system as a whole over the finite bandwidth of frequencies that all practical transmissions must utilize. to which it is to supply power. but it has been seen in Chapter 6 that the range of characteristic impedance magnitudes that transmission lines can be designed to have is in fact very limited. so that The operating it will be conjugately matched to a load of 25 + . that The calculations can be made entirely l/(Zinp /Z ) = j in admittance notation by writing. and n is any integer.50 ohms.20). it is indicated in Chapter 8 that the peak values of voltage and current along such a line (which may lead to breakdown if the power level is high) will be lowest if the purely resistive characteristic impedance of this low loss line is equal to the magnitude of the complex terminal load impedance.025)/(0. distributed inductance of 2. and its input impedance will not be identically equal to its terminal impedance.
50 m. 1. but must meet two specific requirements. The result is Z inp /Zo = l/(Z T/Zo) (7M) This relation states that the normalized input impedance of any lowloss section of transmission line an odd number of quarter.7. The two impedances involved may not have arbitrary "high" and "low" values. Secondly. If a = and pi = riTr/2 in (7.27 m.20). Since Z is purely resistive for the lowloss highfrequency transmission line section being used. minimizing peak voltages or currents. In practice.82 m. Such a line section is referred to as a "quarterwavelength transformer" and is used in highfrequency transmission line circuitry as a device for connecting a highimpedance load to a lowimpedance source or a lowimpedance load to a highimpedance source. the quarterwavelength transformer is generally used to connect resistive loads to sources with resistive output impedances. subject to various stated specifications about matching impedances. where n is any integer. the tan pi term becomes indefinitely large and any finite value of Z t/Zq is negligible by comparison. From (7. and others are dealt with in Problem 7.wavelengths long is the reciprocal of the normalized terminal load impedance connected to the section.0 z = 134 + }0 Fig. A high impedance source connected to a low impedance load by a quarter wavelength impedance matching transformer. The generator supplying power to the antenna has an output impedance of 500 + jO ohms and is located about 100 feet from the antenna terminals. The quarterwavelength transformer must therefore be 1. a value that can be obtained for a parallel wire line by spacing the conductors just a few diameters apart. A parallel wire transmission line with characteristic impedance 500 + jO ohms runs from the generator to the vicinity of the antenna terminals. antenna array used at a frequency of 40 megahertz has an input impedance of 36 + . etc. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 133 The general problem of connecting a source to a load by a transmission line. 72.0 ohms at that frequency. power source 95' approx. to connect the antenna to the main transmission line and provide an impedance match. An The characteristic impedance of the transmission line section used for the quarterwavelength transformer must be Z = y[z~Z^ — V(36 + i0)(500 + jO) = 134 + jO ohms. The free space wavelength at the operating frequency of 40 megahertz is 7. a first requirement on Ztap and Z T is that they must have phase angles of equal magnitude and opposite sign. . their geometric mean must be a value which is physically achievable as a characteristic impedance for the type of transmission line being used.CHAP. On a line for which the phase velocity is 97% of the free space value. long.. The overall final result would have the appearance shown in Fig. Design a quarterwavelength transformer.7 and in Chapters 8 and 9. using parallel wire transmission line on which the phase velocity is 97% of the free space velocity of light. Z mv xZ T = Z%. the wavelength at the same frequency is 7.24). can have many different solutions and the "halfwavelength transformer" is a relatively minor one.82 m Z = 500 + . Another solution is discussed in the next paragraph. Example 7. 72.
134
IMPEDANCE RELATIONS
[CHAP.
7
Since the "quarterwavelength transformer" principle operates for lowloss line sections that are any odd number of quarterwavelengths long, another possible solution of Example
wavelength section of the line whose characteristic impedance is of this section would be about 101.5 ft. In practice, however, this solution would be a poor one, since actual signals always occupy a finite range of frequencies.
7.7
to use a 4
would be
134 ohms.
The length
Over any small frequency interval the range of variation of the term pi in (7.20) for a 4 wavelength line section would be 17 times as great as for a \ wavelength line section. In the solution illustrated by Fig. 72, the 95 ft of line with characteristic impedance 500 ohms would have little effect on the frequency sensitivity of the system, because this characteristic impedance is equal to the impedance of the source to which the line is connected. These statements can easily be checked quantitatively by using the transmissionline circle diagram discussed in Chapter 9.
It has been pointed out in Section 2.1 that the uniformity postulate underlying the transmission line analysis of this book is violated in the vicinity of terminations and other discontinuities on transmission lines. In the use of quarterwavelength or halfwavelength transformers, such discontinuities occur at each end, either where the line section is connected to a source or load, or where it is connected to a transmission line section of different characteristic impedance. The main practical consequence of this departure from idealized conditions is that the optimum length of these transformers in specific applications is likely to differ slightly from the value calculated using the equations of uniform lines. The difference is generally much less than one transverse dimension of the line, and the experimentally optimum length is best found by starting from the calculated value and making small adjustments.
7.5.
Determination of transmission line characteristics from impedance measurements.
an arbitrary length of any general transmission line is terminated in an open impedance is determined completely by the propagation From (7£0), if factors a and p, the characteristic impedance Z and the line length I. Z T = (but a ¥> 0) the input impedance Zsc of a line of length I with short circuit termination is ,, /«, «v (7.25) Zsc = Z otanh (a + jp)l
circuit or a short circuit, its input
.
When
The input impedance Z oc
of the
same
Zoo
line
with open circuit termination
is
=
Zocoth (a
+ jp)l
(7.26)
are measured at the same frequency, for a line section of length I, then Z , a, p, will have the same values in both of the equations (7.25) and (7.26). Multiplying together the corresponding sides of these equations gives
If Zsc
and and I
Z oc
Z =
This
VZs~c~ZoZ
(727)
is a valuable and universally valid equation by which the characteristic impedance of any type of uniform transmission line can be obtained from two impedance measurements made on a sample length of the line, using two readily available terminal load impedances.
precautions must be observed in making the measurements needed for this calculaFirst, the impedancemeasuring device must be capable of measuring "balanced" tion. impedances if the line conductors are symmetrical (e.g. a parallelwire line or a shielded pair), or of measuring "unbalanced" impedances if the line has one of its two conductors acting as a shield or "ground" (e.g., a coaxial line or a stripline). Second, the length of line Z oc have values I cannot be completely arbitrary but must be chosen so that both Z sc and that for an example, appropriate to the impedancemeasuring device. It is obvious, for accurately be large to extremely short section of any line Z sc might be too small and Z oc too in discussed charts line measurable by any available bridges. Use of the transmission
Two
CHAP.
7]
IMPEDANCE RELATIONS
135
Chapter 9 will show that linesection lengths close to any odd number of eighths of a wavelength are particularly appropriate. For such line lengths Zsc , Z oc and Z will all have similar magnitudes. If the wavelength is only approximately known, measurements can be made at several values of I until this condition is found.
The attenuation factor a and the phase propagation factor p can also be calculated from Dividing corresponding sides of (7.25) by those of the measured impedances Z sc and Z oc
.
(7.26),
,
y/Zsc/Zoc
=
tanh
(a
+ jp)l = a + jp,
Expanding
this hyperbolic tangent in exponential form, using y
y/ZJZlc
which gives
,.
,
.
= (le^/a + e* =
1
1
)
01 e 2yl
+
VZsc/Zoc
yZsc/Zc
Taking logarithms of both
sides,
{a+m
The logarithm
of a complex
log e
j
=
1+ VZsc/Zoc
il0ge
ivzjz;
j(4>
c
number expressed
in polar
form Ae'*
is
denned by
Ae * =
loge
A +
+ 2Wir)
The attenuation factor a
is
therefore given by
l 2l
loge
+
y/Zs7Z~o
nepers/m
given by
(7.28)
1y/ZJZ,
is
when
I
is
in meters.
The phase propagation factor p
j J/phase angle of
1
p
=
+
^fj^\
+
2
1
ra dians/m
(7.29)
This method does not determine a unique value for p, but a series of values differing conby irll rad/m. In a practical case it may sometimes be difficult to decide which value in the series is the correct answer.
secutively
Example
32.0
7.8.
of 20.0 megahertz the input impedance of a section of flexible coaxial transmission line terminated in a short circuit and then with the line terminated in an open circuit. The respective values obtained are Zsc = 17.0 + j'19.4 ohms and Z oc — 115 — il38 ohms. Find the attenuation factor, the phase propagation factor, and the characteristic impedance of the line.
At a frequency
m long is measured, first with the line
The impedances are needed in polar form for all 179 /50.2 ohms. The characteristic impedance from
For determining a and
equation
(7.28),
/?
of the calculations.
(7.27) is
then
Z =
yjZ sc
Zsc = 25.7 /48.8° and Z oc = Z oc = 68 /Q.7 ohms.
the quantity
1
^Z sc/Z oc =
+ ;*0.288
0.378 /49.5°
=
0.245
+ ;0.288
,
is
required.
Using
a
=
.
1
1.245 0.755
I
2(32.0)
loff Se
I
=
A nn „ 0.0072
j0.288
nepers/m p
(7.29),
I
The phase angle of the term
/?
(1.245
+ #>.288)/(0.755  j0.288)
is
=
(0.59
+ 2w*r)/(2 X 32.0)
rad/m, but there
From equation is found to be 33.9°. no basis for choosing the value of n.
and the corresponding At the frequency of the measurements, the free space wavelength is 15.0 value of p would be found from p = 2v/X = 0.419. Since the line contains plastic dielectric it is expected that the wavelength on the line may be as much as 30% shorter than the free space value, but the figure The above equation is not known accurately. Hence p might conceivably lie between about 0.50 and 0.65. gives p = 0.40 for n = 4, p = 0.50 for n = 5, p = 0.60 for n = 6, and p = 0.70 for n = 7.
m
136
IMPEDANCE RELATIONS
On
[CHAP.
7
the evidence available, there is no conclusive basis for choosing between the two intermediate The data indicates that the line section is between two and three wavelengths long. By making the same impedance measurements on a shorter length of line, lower values of n will occur in the equation for (3 and there will be less doubt about which value should be chosen.
values.
line 1.50 m long, the impedance values measured were ohms, the resistive component in each case being less than 1 ohm. the characteristic impedance is calculated as 68/0f ohms.
For a section of the same
and
Z oc =
— j52
Zsc = From
+ ;88 ohms these values
Because the quantity yJZ sc Z oc = + j'1.30 is purely imaginary, the attenuation factor a is indicated as having value zero. The phase angle of the term (1 + jl.30)/(l — ;'1.30) is 105° or 1.83 rad. From equation {7.29), p = (1.83 + 2mr)/(2 X 1.50) = 0.61 rad/m for n = 0, or 2.70 rad/m for n = 1. It is clear now that n = 6 gave the correct value in the previous data and that the measured value of /? is 0.60 (or 0.61) rad/m. It is also evident that measurements on this short length of line cannot be used to obtain a value for the attenuation factor a.
measurements of Z sc and
Consideration of the equations shows that this method of determining a and /? from Z oc will give the best results for a when the line section has a total attenuation of about 3 db, and will give the least ambiguous results for p when the line is about oneeighth wavelength long. Except at frequencies in the kilohertz range, a single piece of any practical transmission line will not satisfy both of these conditions, so that measurements of a and /? should usually be made on two different line sections, one much longer than the other. Measurements on either section will give satisfactory data for the determination of Zo.
7.6.
Complex
characteristic impedance.
The characteristic impedance of a transmission line was originally defined in terms of the line's distributed circuit constants, and given by equation (4 .12) as
ZQ =
\/(R
+ j<*L)/(G + j*C)
Since R, L, G, C and a> are all positive real numbers for a passive transmission line, it follows from this expression that the phase angle of Z Q must lie between —45° and +45° or, if Z = Ro + jXo, the ratio XoIRo must lie between 1 and +1. The extreme values occur when either R > a>L and G < &C, or R < o>L and G > oC. For either of these sets of
conditions the defining equation {4.10),
a
+
j/3
= V(# + jo*L)(G + jo>C), shows
that
a
=
0.
/? = 2ttA, the relation a = /? has the physical meaning that the attenuation nepers per wavelength or 54.6 decibels per wavelength. Transmission lines useful at high frequencies have attenuations per wavelength smaller than this value by several orders of magnitude, but Table 5.1, page 55, shows that a standard type of telephone cablepair can have a very nearly equal to /? (and \XQ nearly equal to R ) at frequencies below about 1 kilohertz.
Noting that
is 2tt
of the line
\
Neither a large value of attenuation factor a in nepers per meter, nor a large total attenuation al in nepers, is a sufficient condition to ensure that the characteristic impedance The attenuation over one of a transmission line will have a substantial phase angle. wavelength of line, a\ nepers, must be large, and it must be caused predominantly by one of R or G and not by a combination of the two. It has already been noted that if the losses are due equally to R and G, Zq is real, no matter how high the losses are.
the characteristic impedance of a transmission line has an appreciable phase some peculiar results arise, which need further discussion. If, for example, — jXo, the reflection Zo = Ro + jXo and the line has a terminal load impedance Z T = coefficient determined from equation (7.10) is
angle,
Pt
When
= {jX RojX
)/(jXo
+ Ro + jX
)
= lj2Xo/Ro
CHAP.
7]
IMPEDANCE RELATIONS
137
and the magnitude of
The question arises as to whether the this is greater than unity. transmission line equations predict a reflected wave at the termination having a higher power level than the wave incident on the termination, in violation of the principle of conservation of energy. To determine the conditions leading to the maximum possible magnitude of the and the value of this maximum, equation (7 .10) is written in the form
Zt/Zq
Pt
reflection
coefficient,
~
Zt/Zo
+
1 1
_ ~
\Z T/Z
\
e i0
\Z T/Zo\ e ie
+
1 1
_ ~
\Zt/Z
\
cos 9
\Z T/Zo\ cos 9
+
1
1
+ +
j \Z T/Z Q sin 9
\
j \Z T/Z
\
sin 9
Taking the magnitude of numerator and denominator,
,
,,
PtI
=
JZtAZoI \Z t/Zo\
2 2
+ +
1
2\ZT /Zo\cos9
+ 2\Z T/Zo\cos9
K
'
1
}
For any value of \Z T/Z the magnitude of the normalized terminal load impedance, this expression shows that the magnitude of the reflection coefficient will be greatest for the largest negative value of cos 9, where 9 is the phase angle of the normalized terminal load impedance. It has been seen that the phase angle of Z Q lies between the limits ±45°. There are no limitations on the value of Z T except that it must be a passive impedance. Hence its phase angle can lie anywhere in the range ± 90°. The phase angle of Z T/Z can therefore have any value between ± 135° and the angles in this range whose cosines have the greatest negative values are the extreme angles +135° and —135°, for which the cosine is — 1/\/2
\,
•
maximum
result is
\p T
\
Inserting this value for cos0 into equation (7.30), the value of \Z T/Z that will give The Pt is found by differentiating the righthand side and equating to zero.
\ \ \
\Z T/Z
\
=
1.
When
this is substituted into (7.30), the
maximum
possible value of
is
found to be
1
+
y/2, or
about 2.41.
The basic equation for steadystate power calculations in linear electric circuits with singlefrequency voltages and currents is P = VI*, where V is the rms phasor voltage between two points of the circuit and /* is the complex conjugate of the rms phasor current at those points, expressed with reference to a suitable convention for polarity. P is the
complex power in the circuit, its real part representing real power and representing an oscillating flow of stored energy.
its
imaginary part
The power passing any point zona transmission line will be given by V(z)I(z)* where and I(z) are the usual rms phasor values of the voltage and current, respectively, at the coordinate z. If the reflected wave at any point of a transmission line had a real power level higher than that of the incident wave at the same point, the net power would be in the
V(z)
direction of the reflected wave,
and the real part of V(z)I(z)*
at that point would be
negative.
To establish that the principle of conservation of energy is not violated on a transmission line even when the magnitude of the reflection coefficient at a point on the line exceeds unity, it is sufficient to show that the real part of V(z)I(z)* can never be negative for any
possible values of
Z and Z T
.
Appropriate general expressions for the phasor voltage and current at any point of a transmission line on which there are reflected waves are equations (7.1) and (7.3). These can be rewritten
V(z)
I(z)
= Fie^{1 + (F2 /Fi)e 2^}
(Vi/Z )ev* {1
(7.31) (7.32)
=
 (V 2/Vi)e*v*}
V2 Z and e ±yz are all complex numbers. multiplied by the first term (unity) in the braces. which has already been seen to be true. The power P = V(z)I(z)* at coordinate z of the transmission line is then p = = Vie. at coordinate z. Converting the term (V2/Vi)e 2yz to the form (V2 e yz )/(Vie~ yz). the input impedance of the line section on the terminal load side of that point. represents the real power that would be calculated for the incident wave alone (i. while the coefficient multiplied by the second term represents the real power that would be calculated for the reflected wave alone. surprising. the the line is correctly given by the difference power at the point. it is seen to be the ratio. at the same point. It is in fact the reflection coefficient that would be created at coordinate z if the line were terminated there by impedance Z(z). it is easily found that this reduces to the condition \X /Ro\ — 1. the wave moving in the direction of increasing z) at coordinate z. The third term on the right represents interaction between the two waves. When the characteristic impedance of the line is complex. Using Z = R + jX and P = P r + jPi. though inescapable. however.34) reveals that the coefficient on the right.e. which It is obvious that P (z) j2Im P (z). Such a reflection coefficient can exist only on a line whose attenuation per wavelength is high. this is not the case and calculation of the power at line with losses can have a real charany point requires the full detail of equation (7.33) P (z) = (Z(z)Z )/(Z(z)+Zo) . acteristic impedance only if the distributedcircuit coefficients obey the Heaviside relation whose power at any point of between the incident power and the reflected indicates that on transmission lines A RIL = G/C. combined with the load impedance. It can therefore be symbolized by an equivalent reflection coefficient p(z) at that point.33) with Ro + jX and Z(z) R(z) + jX(z).138 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS [CHAP. The resonant circuit in this case consists of the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the transmission line and its source.34).41 without there The conclusion somewhat being any implication that the power level of the reflected wave is greater than that of the incident wave. it remains so for only a small fraction of a wavelength along the line away from that point.az ew z {l + p(z)}{V*/Z*)e« z e iliz {l [ P (z)}*} \VJZo\*Z Q e*«z {1 \ P (z)f + P (z)  [p(z)}*} . Consideration of equation (7. of the phasor voltage of the reflected wave to the phasor voltage of the incident wave. so that even if the reflected wave is in some sense large at the point of reflection. that a transmission line can be terminated with a reflection coefficient whose magnitude is as great as 2. The large reflection coefficients are obtained only when the reactance of the terminal load impedance is of opposite sign to the reactance component of the characteristic impedance. . These large reflection coefficients are an example of the phenomenon of "resonant rise of voltage" in series resonant circuits.[p(z)]* = j2 {imaginary part of P (z)}. It follows that (7.35) Pi Yi z X + Z = 2 e~ 2az k  \p(z)\ 2 2 is ~Im p(z)\ that 1 The condition that Expanding Pr should never become negative  P (z) 2{X*/Ro)lmp{z) ^ = P (z) from is (7. 7 In these equations Vi. relative to the load terminals. The fact that the third term is zero if X = characteristic impedance is real (whether the line is lossy or not). (which requires that the line be lossy). separate expressions imaginary parts of will be written for the real and P are obtained: Pr = = Yi z R Q ez« z U  p(z)2 + 2 £lm P (z)\ (7M) {7.
howFig. The technique of reducing the attenuation factor of a voice frequency telephone line by "loading" the line with inductance coils. 73 of transmission line having complex is redrawn as an equivalent lumped element characteristic impedance. the reflected wave has a negligible effect on the line losses beyond a small fraction of a wavelength from the here. the source imcircuit in Fig. If. the internal impedance of this source impedance. are reduced. there will be no reflected waves on the line and all the real power incident on Z T will be absorbed there. by exactly the amount of the extra power that reaches the load. the complex conjugate of the line's characteristic impedance. minal load impedance is made The proof that this is indeed the case is straightforward. The terminals shown are the will be Zo. briefly. is likely to have practical consequences only at frequencies below the kilohertz region. It follows from remarks at the beginning of this section. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 139 Zo ~L Z complex Fig. . the conclusion must be drawn that more power will be delivered to a terminal load impedance Z% that produces a reflected wave on the line than to a terminal load impedance Zo that produces no reflected wave. If the ter A Z T connected to the line equal to Z . but is too long to be presented The explanation. this Thevenin source will deliver maximum power to a load impedance Z%. theorem. as discussed in Section 5. replacing the transmission pedance being equal to the line's characline and its source by an equivalent Thevenin teristic impedance. A second interesting problem that arises in connection with transmission lines having complex characteristic impedance is illustrated in Fig. Applying this result back to the transmission line circuit of Fig. Transmission line circuit having source impedance equal to the complex characteristic impedance of the transmission line. is an application of the principle that there is greater power transfer to the conjugate impedance termination. and not to a load impedance Zo. lies in the fact that with the Z\ terminal load impedance the reflected and incident voltage and current waves combine in such a manner that the line losses. 73. and the terminal load impedance being the conjugate of that source. 74.8. is connected to a lossy line for which Z is complex.CHAP. 74. termination. By the maximum power transfer load terminals of the transmission line. Thevenin equivalent circuit of a length ever. source whose internal impedance is equal to the transmission line's characteristic impedance Zo. Since the extra power is appreciable only when Z% differs significantly from Zo. that the distinction between terminating a transmission line in its characteristic impedance and terminating the line in the conjugate of its characteristic impedance. in the two or three eighths of a wavelength of the line adjacent to the termination. 73. the transmission line circuit of Fig. 73. and since this occurs only if the line's attenuation is at least a few decibels per wavelength.
and more specifically that all uniform transmission line sections are reciprocal One A symmetrical twoport networks. For lumped element twoport networks it is customary to perform the analysis in the complex frequency domain. Since all of these symbols have been extensively used with quite different meanings in this book. 75(a) with transmission line notation is for the variables. networks. four quantities in all. four are distinct and are assigned specific names. The conventional choice of sign in twoport network analysis for the current on the right line theory. [CHAP. Twoport network theory is developed with reference to the circuit of Fig. 7 7. in terms of the nature of the network. Of the six possible sets of equations. as domain. For each set of pairs two simultaneous equations can be written expressing each of the quantities of one pair as functions of the two quantities in the other pair. 75(b) shows the twoport of Fig. (&) Notation in transmission line theory.Lnetwork h twoport *2 ^i It _ network V% (a) Notation in network theory. Among the four quantities comprising the input and output currents and voltages of a twoport network. the timevariable currents and voltages being identified by their Laplace transforms. "port" of a network is denned as any pair of terminals at which the instantaneous current into one of the terminals is equal to the instantaneous current out of the other terminal. Fig. Unless they involve ferroelectric or ferromagnetic materials they are also linear networks. fourpoles and quadripoles. The notation normally used in the theory identifies the voltage and current at the left port of the network by the symbols Vi and h respectively. fourterminal networks. also of the basic categories of networks studied in network theory is that of twoport known as twoterminalpair networks. it is necessary to adopt some other notation for the twoport analysis of transmission lines.140 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS Transmission line sections as twoport networks. it is possible to choose two pairs in six different ways. 75(a). The choice of Ft and U for quantities on the left as "input" quantities. It has already been pointed out in Chapter 2 that for transmission The analysis of line circuits this more generalized analysis has no particular advantages. frequency or <o radian the in carried out transmission line twoport networks is therefore phasors. h twoport h „„4™/».7.. The variables in the study of linear passive reciprocal twoport networks are the timedependent voltages and currents at the two ports. with the currents and voltages expressed . For transmission line twoports the results are calculated from transmission line theory. and the voltage and current at the port on the right by the symbols V2 and h respectively. 75. If the detailed structure of the network is known the results of these measurements can be calculated from elementary circuit theory. It is obvious that any section of uniform transmission line is a twoport network. opposite to that used for a terminal load current in transmission Fig. The other two involve only reversing the network or interchanging the variables. Notation for twoport network analysis. The nature of the network is defined by the results of specified measurements made at the network terminals. and V T and 7T for quantities on the right as terminal load or "output" quantities is consistent with notation employed earlier in this and in previous chapters. The object of twoport network theory is to develop formulas expressing useful relationships among various choices of pairs of these four quantities.
as is to be expected from the symmetry of the transmission line network. when the terminals on the other side are open circuited. the useful matrix representation of the transmission line section is known as the short circuit admittance matrix.V e~yi + V^ I = VJZq . but must be determined from (7. 75(a). 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 141 Referring to Fig. 75(6) these become Vi = Vt — + ZiriIr) ZtJx + Ztt(—It) (757) The coefficients on the right have the dimensions of impedance. when the terminals on the right of the network are open circuited. 75(a). i. If the ports of a section of uniform transmission line are connected in parallel at each end with the corresponding ports of other uniform transmission line sections. yxxVx I/21F1 + ynV2 + 2/22K2 referred to Fig. 75(6) become = WV. since they transform phasor currents to phasor voltages. or any other twoport networks. 71 has an open circuit at the right (ZT infinite). l. VT = It V(z) with z = 0.1) and (7. . The input impedance from either side of the transmission line section. is given by equation (7.S) with the help of (7. derived from the equations = h = /1 /. Determine the open circuit impedance matrix of a length I of uniform transmission line. Hence this is the value of zu and z TT The coefficient z Ti is the value of the ratio V T/I{ when IT = 0. This cannot be written byinspection. which in the notation of Fig. and an input current I{ at the left.8). When the transmission line circuit of Fig. (The use of the lower case letter z for these coefficients is the standard convention.+»tVt {—It) = ynVi + VttVt . statements can be made for all four of the impedance coefficients.8) that V2IV X found that z Ti = Zo/[sinh (a + = pT 2 e jp)l\.20) as Z mp = Z coth (a + jfi)l. it is obvious that z« = W/{ when Similar It = 0.86) /IV iBV In the notation of Fig. A ~Z coth (a + jp)l Z ZQ cosech (a coth (a + jfi)f Z cosech (a + jp)l + jp)l The open circuit impedance matrix has application in solving problems involving two or more uniform transmission line sections connected in series at both their input and output terminals.1) and (7.e. one set of simultaneous equations relating the four current and voltage phasors can be written formally as Vi V2 = zuh + z 12Iz = #21/1 + ^22/2 ZiJi (7.9. it gives similar derivation for ziT = Ty(— T) with ^ = the same result. or problems in which the input and output ports of a single section of uniform transmission line are connected in series with the input and output ports respectively of any two port network. They are commonly written as a 2 x 2 matrix.V2/Z x { where 7 = a + jf3 Then z Ti = (VT/I i) lT = "*' „ — Z . V^eyi y (i + (Vt/VJeyi) — VJV ) 1 and that for open circuit termination p T = 1 + JO. Furthermore.S) lead to . The open circuit impedance matrix of the section of uniform transmission line is therefore is easily Noting from equation (7.J CHAP. or or = I(z) with « = VT .) Example 7. having characteristic impedance Z attenuation factor a and phase factor /?. with the result that they are collectively known as the "open circuit impedance parameters" of the network. (7.
C and D all have different physical connotations.36) through (7. the "transmission parameters" A.35. In transmission line notation these equations become Vt 7f = AVT + bit = CVt + DIt . since one is an impedan admittance. In the cascade connection the output port of one twoport is connected to the input port of another. parallel connection. The interconnection of two twoport networks in series at the input ports and in parallel at the output ports is an important combination in feedback control systems. For the hybrid matrix and inverse hybrid matrix of a section of uniform transmission line.37). 75(a) the "transmission equations" are Vx = AV2BI2 (742) line as I. B. 75(b). together with the two inverse sets mentioned. The symbols gu. or seriesparallel connection to which the matrices of (7. one a voltage ratio and one a current ratio. are used for the terms in the matrix when referred to Fig.39). Analysis of the case is carried out using the equations Vx = hixIx + + hx2V2 {740) h = for Fig. Interchanging the subscripts i and T produces the inverse transmission matrix. 75(&). one In practical transmission line systems incorporating sections of uniform transmission component twoports. occurs far more frequently than the series connection. etc..37.U3). All are different from the coefficients in (7. Their matrix is the hybrid matrix of the network. coefficients The ance. 75(a). on the right are known as "hybrid parameters". or Vi (—It) hzxh h22V2 iT = Mi + h VT (741) — h TJi + hrrVr for Fig. and their matrix is the short circuit admittance matrix. cascade connection of the transmission line sections with other twoports such as attenuators. equalizers. (743) Like the hybrid parameters.36. 7 In these equations the coefficients on the right are admittances. Referred to Fig.. with no reference to any sources or terminal loads connected to the networks. The various sets of equations (7.39) and (741) are relevant. since the direction of the output current of one twoport must be identical with that of the input current of the succeeding twoport in cascade connection. etc. and it is easily seen that each is the ratio of a phasor current to a phasor voltage when one or the other port of the network is short circuited. (7. amplifiers. Interchanging / and V produces the inverse hybrid matrix. and the appropriate equations relate the pair of input quantities of a twoport to the pair of output quantities. express all possible relations between pairs of phasor input and output voltages and currents for twoport networks.37) and (7. see Problem 7. The terms of this matrix for a section of uniform transmission line are given in Problem 7. For the terms of the transmission matrix and inverse transmission matrix of a uniform transmission line see Problem 7. = CV2DI2 The sign convention for the output current is changed.142 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS [CHAP. Their matrix is the transmission matrix or chain matrix of the network. In all of these equations two of the signal variables must be known before the others can be calculated. useful in analyzing the case of twoport networks connected in parallel at their input ports and in series at their output ports. They are known collectively as the "shortcircuit admittance parameters" of the network. Connecting a terminal load impedance Z r to the .
A Using equation (7. sinh al For use in the identities. If /i is = 1 establishes that this result is identical with eliminated from equations (7.040 .305)/(0.040 . A similar expression for the transfer admittance IJVT for the circuit of Fig.50 db/(100 ft) at the operating frequency of 2. page 126. the second equation gives It = z TJi/(z TT + Z T) and on substituting this into the first equation. t* .960 T It .1) and (7.39) for example. The line is terminated in an impedance 100 — #200 ohms. or by using the identities sinh (x made either by expressing the hyperbolic functions in + jy) = = jpl sinh x cos y + al j cosh x sin y.172) + IO. .50 cosh (x + jy) X = cosh x cos y + 7v j sinh x sin y The total attenuation of the line is = X X 12.3) in the form IJVt Example 7.798 = + = 0. 71.j3. or vice versa. 1. the result for a transmission line section is = Z {coth2 yl + (Zt/Z ) coth yl  cosech2 yl}/(cosechyl) which reduces to VJI T = Z sinh yl + Z T cosh yl (744) This is a useful "transfer impedance" formula for evaluating terminal load current in terms of input voltage. and in every case the two equations that result can be solved to give a relation between some pair of the signal variables.10.722.00 X 10 6) (1250 X 0. an attenuation factor 1.39) Or directly from (7.'3.278.692. VJU = Zu + Zi TZTi/(zTT + Z T).M). Use of the identity coth2 x — cosech2 x that given by equation (7. hence . For a transmission line section zu = z T t = Z coth yl and ztx = z iT = Zo cosech yl. 10 4. The input voltage is the value at the actual input terminals of the line. Using the equations (7. the calculations can be exponential form.089.j'200) (3.686 = 2.27 X 10~3) /3. for the transmission line circuit of Fig.19 .39) instead of Vi/IT It.960 (9. cosh al = = 3. if Vt/It = Z T... and the phase velocity on the line at that frequency is 70%.21) X .20). = (Z T sinh yl + Z cosh yl)IZ\ (745) transmission line 1250 ft long has a characteristic impedance of 50 + jO ohms.00 megahertz. cos pi 0.089) rms amperes = (9. yl  cosech 2 yl cothyZ + (Z T/Z ).172 _ — = and cosh yl = 4.'22.16 + .00 10 8 ) = = 22.272 _^^ rad rms amperes .jl.* VJIi = n Z inp = Zo „ f i coth . = 2. since It is then possible to eliminate either It or V T from at it must be true that Vt/It = Z T least one of the equations in each of the above pairs. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 143 output port of a twoport network establishes a relation between two of the variables. sin pi 0.16 nepers. Hence Finally + jO 50(2.798.CHAP.j'3. The total phase shift is pi = al/v p al (2jt X 2. If the voltage at the input terminals of the line has the rms reference phasor value 10 + jO volts.393.807 rad Then sinh yl yl = + = 2.70 X 3.3 (100 . 71 can be determined from (7.5/8.i3. determine the phasor current in the terminal load impedance.
The transmission line has a 0.45 (by techniques described in Chapter 8) as What is the value of the terminal load characteristic impedance of 75 + jO ohms. (7. l l <) .5) this ratio is (F2 e yl /Z )/(y 1 e'i' /Z ) = V2 e^ /V 1 This is the negative of p T the complex number reflection coefficient for harmonic voltage waves at z = I as given by (7.225.e. .3. no separate symbol is assigned to the reflection coefficient for harmonic current waves. It is Y Q (= 1/Z ) terminated in a ter Y T /Y = 1/(ZT/Z ).90)(0.1. The square of the magnitude of the reflection coefficient p T (— 0. In admittance notation the equations to be used are those developed in Problem 7. 7 Solved Problems 7. Find expressions corresponding to equations (7. is simply taken as — p T . To avoid undue confusion in this text.2. l +  PT 2 .45 and T = —0. incident wave at point of reflection)}.Y T/Y + YT/Y 7. the definition of the reflection coefficient for harmonic current waves at the terminal load end of the line must be {phasor value at z = I of harmonic current wave traveling in direction of decreasing z (i. since it is not true that G T = 1/R T and a similar statement applies to (7.yo.9b) in impedance notation.9b) and (7. and the reflection coefficient for harmonic current waves. the value of the terminal load admittance (2. page 128. the equations in real and imaginary terms respectively are the equations equivalent in admittance notation to (7.225  2(0. The easiest procedure is to return to the expression YT/Y = (1 — p T )/(l + p T ). 7.144 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS [CHAP. and the components of the reflection coefficient are p T cos T = —0.8). minal load impedance Referring to Fig.9b). On rationalizing the result. Show that the reflection coefficient for harmonic current waves produced by a terZ T connected to a transmission line of characteristic impedance Z is the negative of the reflection coefficient for harmonic voltage waves on the line produced by the same terminal load impedance. The end of a transmission line is measured . Then p T sin   <f>  GT _ Yl ~ 1 1  0.01333) = 0.9 ° Finally. admittance connected to the line? reflection coefficient at the terminal load The problem can be solved using admittance notation throughout.2.225 + 0. Thus evident that (1 — pr)/(l + pt) . reflected wave at point of reflection)}/{phasor value at z — I of harmonic current wave traveling in direction of increasing z (i.10) in in admittance and impedance notation. The characteristic admittance Y of the transmission line is 1/(75 + jO) = 2 = (— 0.IptI 2 + 2 PT  and  Bt ~ — 1 2 2 lp T  sin0 T 2 p T  cos0 T Y + IptI + cos^ T The actual terms are the same Equation (7.  \ \ <f> GT 1 Y different.10).45) _ " „_ 2 38 ' "^ YT in BT _ Y~ ~ mhos is 2(0.45) 2 + 0.9a) cannot be rewritten directly. All references to reflection coefficients are to reflection coefficients for harmonic voltage waves unless there is a specific statement to the contrary.9) then becomes simply Y T /Y = Equation (7.9a).335 _ " °. page 126. for a transmission line of characteristic admittance minal load admittance YT = G T + jB T (= 1/Z T). 71.0317 + i0. From equations (74) and (7.9a) and (7. Equation (7.01333 + jO mhos.e. (7.0120 mhos .10) that the reflection coefficient for harmonic current waves is given in terms of the terminal load impedance ZT and the line's characteristic impedance Z by (Z — Z T )/(Z + Z T).0. but two of the signs are admittance notation becomes Pt — 1/(FT/F 1/(YT/Y ) + 1 1 1 ) 1 .15.9). or in impedance notation with ultimate conversion of the final answer.15.15) 2 = 0. when used.38 + . It follows from (7. letting p T = p T e^T = PT (cos T + j sin <p T ).15) 0.
686 = 0.85 decibels = 0.7286 .1)/(Z T/Z + 1) = 0.544  j'0.822(0.9230. in component form and in polar form.9230) + .330)(0. The line is terminated in a resistance of 80 ohms connected in parallel with a lossless capacitance of 450 micromicrof arads.j0.0.14).jO ohms is operated at a frequency of 15.081.500)(0.807/227.0.0424 mhos susceptance for the capacitor. Using the expression for the reflection coefficient in admittance notation developed in Problem 7. giving Z(d)/Z = (1 + p T e^d)/(l .6705).o. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 145 7.6705 rad.1774 .594 = 0.14) to (7.330 = 0.0125 + i0.0424 mhos and YT/Y .0.667 + j'0. e~*d and e~yd Since the normalized value of the terminal load impedance is Z T/Z = 0. Equation (7.14) requires numerical values for p T .380 wavelengths long at its frequency of operation. performed using equation (730).822(0.6850. but the complex hyperbolic tangent.330)(0.3° must be expanded as e ad e& d = e ad (cos fid + j sin fid).7286 + i0.0622 + j'0.12 0. The terminal load admittance mhos conductance for the resistor.103(0.101 0.103.0.907.625 + ^'2.103(0.Y T/Y + Y T/Y _ ~ 1 1 + Q. and it is 0. A transmission line with a characteristic impedance of 50 4. and has a total attenuation of The characteristic impedance of the line is 60 + jO ohms.101 + j0. A section of transmission line connecting two units of a high frequency system is 1. is PT  (Z T/Z . for a modified form of (7.330)(0. «*** = 0. partly offset by the work of evaluating .330)(0.500) + (0.j0.6850) + + j'0. A small but helpful reduction of the arithmetical work involved is achieved by dividing all terms equation (7. The result could be obtained from any of the seven equations (7. but one sign is changed. consists of 0.9 ohms. For this calculation e 2<*d .8 .jO.PT e.38) = 8. To illustrate the quantity of numerical work involved.9981) _ _ 3 ~ 1 . and e i3d = —0.6850) where the terms in the denominator are the same as those in the numerator.12 J2.667 1 + (0.8.345 /107.667 + jO.5. . and similarly for the term the data of the problem.6 c 7. and Z(d) = 33.822 and e~^ d = 0. and +aC = +0.9981) Z in If the calculation is tanh (0. Determine the value of the complex reflection coefficient for harmonic voltage waves at the terminal load end of the line. The characteristic admittance Y of the line is 0.j'0.2v d).4.6850.85 decibels.907(0. Using (x it is necessary to evaluate tanh (a + jp)l = tanh this is + jy) = (sinh 2x + j sin 2]/)/(cosh 2x + cos 2y) to be evaluated is then found to be 0.500.9981. The time consuming and error inviting parts of the calculation are the evaluation of e^ d and of the products of complex numbers.625 + J2.907(0. e~ ad = 0. the reflection coefficient from equation (7. The total complex number expression to be evaluated is then Z(d) _ 1 + 0.'0. ad . Determine the input impedance of the line.0200 + jO mhos.625 0.0622 + jO.CHAP. The result is Z(d)/ZQ = 0.0622 + J0.1774 . The complex number expression Z(d) Z _ ~ (0. including the rationalization process.12.j'4.1774 — j'0.7286 — .7286 .0979 nepers.101 + j0.101 + i0.20).101 + j'0.563 . Then e ad = 1.H) by e^.j'0.85/8.2.9230) is U _ ° 3V ' V ° l The final arithmetic is simplest in this last calculation. Thus Y T = 0.0.0979 + . terminated in an impedance of 40 + . and for (730).6860) + j"0. and fid = 2ird/\ = 2r(1.10) .14).7286 + .0 megahertz. the calculations will be presented for (7.0125 pT — 1 1 .7286 1.6850)  0. The total complex number calculation to be performed is therefore The term e yd e yd prom Z(d) ZQ ~ 1.30 ohms.
18) and Problem 7.6. the equation becomes Y inv /Y 1 appears on the left. If a susceptance —B(d) is connected in shunt with the transmission line at any such point. as described in Chapter 9. they require only simple real number operations. Derive an analytical expression for the location of the points on a general lossless transmission line circuit at which the normalized admittance has the form Y(d)/Y — 1 + jB(d)/Y and an expression for the value of B(d)/Y at the points. page 178. and the stub line of suitable length. phase factor B and real characteristic admittance Fo is terminated in an arbitrary load admittance Ft. and Y inp for Z inp . . Substituting 1/(Y T /YQ ) for Yinv Y and multiplying all + [l/(r T/r )]tanhyl 1/flVFo) + tanhyZ terms on the right by Y T /Y produces the required result. the Y(d)/Y = 1 + }B(d)/Y = (yT/F + itan 8d)/[l / + i(y T/F )tan^d] Cross multiplying. The calculations can also be made graphically using the transmission line circle diagram (Smith chart).2B Tn tan /3d + ± VG .20) can be written in admittance notation for Z .6 as Y(d) in a lossless transmission line circuit is given by equa Y ~ 1 YT/YQ + j + j(YT/Y tan ) /3d /3d tan where d is the coordinate of a point on the line measured as a positive quantity from the terminal load end of the line. tion The normalized admittance at any point (7.3) in shunt with the transmission line. G Tn (l + tan2 pd) tan pd) 2 + (G Tn tan j3d) 2 (1 This normalized conductance will equal unity at values of d such that (G Tn + Brn ~ G Tn)(tan 2 /3d) .B Tn tan {3d + jG Tn tan pd) and the real part of this is G(d)/Y _  (1 _ Bj n . since the combination of the terminal load admittance. Y T for Z T .7. . the total normalized admittance at the point will be 1 + yo. have produced a nonreflecting or "matched" termination effective at the location of the stub. the right.(1 + y l . Y(d)/Y = {G Tn + j(B Tn + tan j8d)}/{l . When a lossless high frequency transmission line of attenuation factor a.146 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS Show that equation (7. The susceptance —B(d) can be supplied by connecting a stub line (Section 7. there are two locations on the line in each half wavelength at which the normalized admittance Y(d)/Y (= [G(d) + jB(d)]/Yo) has a normalized conductance component G{d)/Y of unit value.(*" ^Zfga>) To find the normalized susceptance at the points least complicated procedure is to return to the original equations where the normalized conductance and write is unity. the analytical expressions of this problem may be used. The process is commonly known as "single stub matching".G Tn ) = * nX/2 4 = 0/» tan. let YT/YQ = Y Tn = G Tn + jB Tn Then . a short intervening portion of the transmission line. It is also said that the terminal load admittance has been matched to the line by the single stub. by simply substituting Y Z T/Z on Inverting both sides of the equation. and Y T/Y is the normalized value of the connected terminal load admittance. writing separate equations for the real and imaginary terms. and eliminating tan fid from the two equations leads to B(d)/Y = ±V(l + r Tni 2 2G Tn )/G Tn Calculations for this matching problem from reflection coefficient and standing wave pattern data are discussed in Problem 8.3. [CHAP. In the absence of a Smith chart or standing wave data. To simplify the notation somewhat. 7. and there will be no reflected waves on the generator side of the point. 7 7.
= V = x (e~y* + PT e2rl e vz) Changing the coordinate to d = I — z.120 nepers.278 rad.3 = 0.0289.200) (0. denned as dv(min)» tne result is dy(min )A = i^ + 0tM + \n This shows that the locations of the voltage minima along the line are determined solely by the phase angle of the reflection coefficient produced by the terminal load.1678 — j'0.CHAP. Introducing /3 = 2v/\ and solving for the locations of the minima. A transmission line 80 m long and operating at a frequency of _3 10.1678 jO.. and substituting for VJV X from (7.6 + J9.200.8). The input impedance of the line is of the terminal load impedance ZT/ZQ ZT ~Zo __ in terms of the data of the problem can be obtained from equation page 131.0 ohms. 7. J 199 ZT = (0.2 . 71.24 = 0. j'18. y = jp.6303.624 jO. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 147 7. cosh 0.12 + j'18. Show that if the attenuation is negligible in the general transmission line circuit of Fig.75 x 10 8 m/sec. The magnitude of the phasor voltage at a location d is then \V(d)\ = \ \V x e^^\ 1+  PT ei<*T20d) \ \ The magnitude of V ie ^«d) i s \V r and is independent of d.9 ohms.199)(50 + . The result is tanh (0.6303) 1 = (0.20) except for the signs.278) = 0. . cos 36.9.10.24 = 1. What is the value in ohms? An explicit expression for (7.75 tanh (0.556 = 0.0) = 26. The terminal load impedance is finally calculated from £l ZQ ~ and (0624 jO.624 — jO.8. V«W  .1678 jO. V(d) Vj eT«" d >(l + 2 d pt e. > <f> The phasor voltage at any point on the line is given by equation (7. hence this equation determines the values of d at which \V(d)\ is a minimum. and that successive voltage minima are separated by one half wavelength. In Section 6.556 = The normalized input impedance 0.0 ohms. \  7.531 + j"0.120 + can be evaluated using the expansion (x tanh ± jy) = (sinh 2x j sin 2i/)/(cosh 2x + cos 2y) The terms needed are sinh 0.200)  (0. as Z inp/Z 1 tanh (a ~ (Ztop /Zo)taiih(o + jfi)l + ii8)i the data of the problem. sin 36.6303) M1 . page 126. the magnitude of the phasor voltage on the line has minimum values at locations given by d V(min) /A = i(l + ^tM + %n where T is the phase angle of the complex reflection coefficient p T and n is any integer. al = X 10 8 ) = 18. The quan which 80(1.0 megahertz has an attenuation factor of 1. z + V e yz 2 1 e~y and y = a + j(3. £inp/Z = 0.T ) With negligible attenuation.3 it was shown that the propagation in the direction of increasing z of the electric and magnetic fields of a plane electromagnetic wave of angular frequency henries/m is dea) rad/sec into a metal of conductivity a mhos/m and permeability _az yx = j32 m_1 = Analytically = = 2 1/8 e. . The magnitude of 1 + PT «K*r20«i> has a minimum value of 1 — \p T when (<p T — 2/3d) = v ± 2nw where n is any integer.50 tity is symmetrical with ) (7.20).50 x 10 nepers/m and The characteristic impedance is 50 + .278) and pi = al/vp ± (2ir X 107)(80)/(2. V(z) load. with a e scribed by the term e~ p waves of and current this situation is exactly analogous to the propagation of voltage the disfor values angular frequency w rad/sec on a transmission line having finite ju./10.2423.1) as V(z) = V where V t and V2 are phasor voltages determined by the connected source and Taking out Vj as a factor.9100. From X lO. a phase velocity of 2. A more complete discussion of voltage magnitude patterns on transmission lines is given in Chapter 8. measured to be 31.4147.
2 '^G72i2lV(aLG/2 A= s/uLG/2 1 and rationalizing. and C being tangential component of magnetic field t ) at the "input" surface of the metal is an input current /in p for the transmission line. A The imaginary part of Zinp /Z is also of interest. is given by ^inp 1 + e~ 2ly. at all frequencies. The normalized input impedance of any transmission by equation (7. The analog of a value of surfacecurrent density Jsz (or zero. If this is normalized relative to the value for an indefinitely thick sheet (which is the same as the distributed resistance per unit width for an indefinitely thick sheet) the result is ^inp y/v>L/2G _ ~~ 1 1 + e ~ 4A e~ 4A ~ 2e~ 2A sin2A 2e2A C os2A Values of the two ratios are given in the following table for a range of the variable analog is metal sheet thickness in skin depths) from 0. The characteristic impedance ZQ of the transmission line is in every way analogous to the surface impedance of the metal Zs = R s + jXs = (1 + j)R 8 . and determine the variation of the input resistance as a function of frequency in the vicinity of the minimum value. page 46. the propagation factors for the analog transmission line are + j/3 = y/juLG = (1 + j) y/uLG/2 and a = p = t/uLG/2 m" 1 Similarly. I.27) and (6. has a minimum input resistance component at a frequency for which the line is between 1 and 2 rad in length. For free space (or air) the value is enormously greater than for a metal. . and this is the justification for considering the analog transmission line to be terminated in an open circuit. at z at z H > — t. coth Y Z = 1 ! + eW _ e »ri Using expressions stated above for y and Z the real part of this input impedance.. The analog of the air beyond the metal. when is large enough the ratio is unity. R s ). is an infinite terminal load impedance connected to the transmission line that a uniform transmission line having distributed circuit coefficients L G mhos/m. as described in equations (6. and terminated in an open circuit.148 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS tributed circuit coefficients [CHAP.05 to 4.') V«L/2G ohms. A (whose . permeability and permittivity of the medium. since its analog is the distributed internal reactance per unit width of the metal sheet. The general concept ZTEM of the "wave impedance" of any medium at any angular fre quency w is given by the relation Z TEM = \/juti/(cr + jae) in terms of the conductivity. ZQ = R + jX = y/juL/G = (1 + . Show henries/m and From given by equation a (5.e. Clearly. and that the distributed conductance G of the transmission line has the same units as the conductivity a of the metal.4.5). the values of the distributed circuit coefficients R I The analog of a finite thickness t for the metal is a finite length for the transmission line. normalized with respect to the real part for a line of infinite length (i. the result is R inp Vo)L/2G _ ~ + e~ 4A e~ 4A 1 +  2e~ 2A sin2A 2e2A C os2A A Interpreting the analog again. 7 L and G. It will be noted that the distributed inductance L of the transmission line has the same units as the permeability p of the metal.20) line terminated in an open circuit is given as gr zinp = .1). .aLG ^ 2  i2lV<aLG/2 V<oL/2G Simplifying the notation by letting 1  eI. this expression gives the ratio at any angular frequency <o of the = t/8 skin depths to the distributed resistance per unit width of a metal sheet of thickness distributed resistance per unit width of an indefinitely thick sheet of the same metal.
and the wavelength on the line is 63 ft.9336 rad.0062 0. Then e mi = cos2)3Z — j sva. Determine an equivalent lumped element series RLC circuit that will have the same impedance at a frequency <o rad/sec as the input impedance of a section of low loss transmission line with short circuit termination.0145(250) tion al of the line is volts rms.9262 0.000 2.0006 7.60 0.80 1. the shunt reactance of the distributed capacitance of the line section is too great to affect this result.0 volts.00 1. and e"2«i = e o. Finally.11. V2 = 5. Its total series resistance is obviously Rl ohms and its total series inductance (ignoring the inductance of the shortcircuiting conductor) is LI henries.30 1.0631) and V t = 24. the attenuation being caused entirely by distributed resistance R (i.6504 0.8103 0. The line has an attenuation factor of 1. The required equivalent lumped circuit is thus a resistance of Rl ohms in series with an inductance of LI henries.0 + jO gives V x = 30/(1 + 0.4340. The length of the line in wavelengths l/\ = 250/63 = 3. 7.24.CHAP.0667 0.00 2.20 2.9840 1.3880.8932 0. the rms phasor input voltage to the line.20 0.9534 0.50 3. Relative to the input voltage as a zeroangle reference phasor.3883.7611 0. line section described is actually too short in It is in effect The transmission as a distributed circuit.9187 0. and pi = 2vl/\ .00 5.12.3987 0. .1333 0.298 volts rms.0333 0. and total attenuation less than 0. page 126. Because of the short circuit termination and the short line length in wavelengths.80 1.8346 = 0.295 Ztop /V<oL/2G (analog toL^planeVRg) 0. .2pl = 0.9174 0.9913 0. The harmonic input voltage to the line has an rms value of 30.2060 + i0.9214 0.9489 0.192 + jl.506 1. The total attenua= 3.9289 0.60 1.70 1.808 .9273 0.90 2. wavelengths to require analysis a rectangular loop of wire being used as an inductor at low frequencies.9216 + j'0.2665 0.00 10.20 1.50 1. length less than 1% of a wavelength.0034 1. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 149 A = VwLG/2 (analog 0.j'1.00 1. and of the harmonic voltage The phasor voltages tion wave traveling in the direction from load to source.8545 0.686 1. in the to be evaluated are V 30.4173 nepers. The result of substituting these various quantities is V%IV X — 0.0631.45 db/(100 ft). form Va/V 1 = e^emi(Z T/Z l)/(Z T/Z +l) is 2.9455 0.10 0.40 1. A transmission line 250 ft long and having Z = 51. where I is the length of the line and R and L are respectively the distributed resistance and distributed inductance of the line. Eliminating p T between equaand (7.9683.0082 1. Eliminating V2 between this equation and V 1 + V2 = 30.5 db.0154 1.e.9690 0.0856 0.9384 0.9993 1.00 4.9992 0.9699 0.913 — j'0.8) From that equat and V2 in equation (7. G= 0).0 + jO. determine the rms phasor values at the line's input terminals of the harmonic voltage wave traveling in the direction from source to load.10) supplies a second relation between V lt V2 and other data of the problem.2060 + i0.298 The normalized value ZT/Z of the terminal load impedance 0.9758 0.05 t/8) 1 R inp/y/u>L/2G (analog i2(plane)/i2 s ) 20.40 0.5 + jO ohms is terminated in an impedance of 150 — /20 ohms. V + V2 = 1 tions (7.625 db = 0.1).5279 0.
hence Z mp /Z = al + j/3l. Repeat the analysis of Problem 7. 1 and pi 1. to z = I. Any expansion of tanh (x + jy) shows that if x < 0. .12. The discrepancy between this series resistance component Rl/2 and the intuitively obvious value Rl can be accounted for. The power loss in length dz of line at z is therefore {wC(l — z)V} R dz.13. . a = R/Z expressions. equation (7.1 It is intuitively evident that the reactive element in a lumped circuit equivalent to an electrically short (l/X 1) section of low loss transmission line with open circuit termination must be simply CI. It is not directly obvious what the resistive element should be. It has been specified for the line in this problem that al < 0. within ^% for each term.150 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS [CHAP.1.1 and y < 0. the expected result.30) gives Z = yfL/C {1 — j(a/p)}. of value uC(l — z)V.11).06 rad. although it will not be vanishingly small. Let the rms phasor value of this voltage be V volts and the operating frequency a rad/sec.1. approximate equations a consequence of the approximate nature of the expressions used for a and p and the magnitude of It is worth noting that if the transmission line of this problem had been specified as a Heaviside distortionless line with R/L = G/C. That it does in fact apply to all lines can be seen by substituting the exact expressions < into Z inp /Z is Z = V (fl + j<*L)/(G + jaC) a + jp = y/(R + j<*L)(G + j<*C) and 2 = al + jpl. since the capacitive current between the line conductors at any location must pass through the resistance of the line conductors between the input terminals and that location. The result and the total power loss in the line section is the integral of this from 2 = is (<*CIV 2 Rl/S. by the inadequacy of the approximation Z = y/L/C. However. for a transmission and (31 < 0.9) for a lowloss line having G= 0. From equations (5. and l/X < 0. the gives to a first 7. this gives the correct result for such lines.5) to and p = uVL~C all of these being exact (5. a line with finite analysis using high frequency values for a and p and the complex value for + jaLl. the current in the line conductors at the point is the displacement current to the length I — z of line 2 beyond z. it For Z T = 0.1 have the consequence that the voltage between the line conductors is essentially constant at all points along the section. a = R/2Z Q and p = u^LC. in the case of a section of high frequency transmission line.06 nepers. the total capacitance between the line conductors of length I. These substituted into Z mp /Z Q = al + jpl give directly the correct result Z mp = Rl + jaLl. The conditions 0.10) and (5. < The transmission line section is a distributed capacitor with terminals at one end. al < Considering a cross section of the line at coordinate z measured from the input terminals. hence i? inp = Rl/3.01 or pi < 0. Substituting this instead of Z = VUC ( into the approximate expression for Zin JZ leads to zinp = ri + juLia alp a /m < Since for lowloss lines at "high" frequencies < 1.1 and pi < 0.8) it would follow that Z Q = yJh/C + JO. without approximation. then tanh (x + jy) = x + jy. with open circuit termination. Zinp /Z — tanh (a + jp)l.20).20) becomes. approximation Zmp = G Z but R= 0. For a line whose losses are due entirely to distributed resistance R. The most inviting procedure for introducing the line's distributed circuit coefficients into the right hand side of this equation is to use the approximate high frequency equations (5. and if R inp is the effective resistance component of the input impedance of the line section. then Z would be real and the losses would be equally divided between the distributed resistance R and the distributed conductance G. the relation Zmp = Rl + juLl should apply to all lines having al not just to lines operating under conditions meeting "high frequency" specifications. corresponding to an equivalent lumped constant circuit of a resistance Rl/2 ohms in series with an inductance LI henries. 7 The attempt to derive this equivalent circuit from equation (7. Then the total transverse displacement current between the line conductors is aClV. which is approximate in magnitude but exact in phase angle. equation (5.5 db or al < 0. (5. line section having al < 0. The equations give respectively Z — y/L/C. is of interest because encounters an unexpected hazard that must sometimes be allowed for in using that equation. Thus the term (a/p) obtained on using the high frequency ZQ . Substituting all of these leads to Z mp = Rl/2 + juLl ohms. the total power loss in the capacitor is (uClV^R^p. For the other extreme of the distribution of line losses.
The complex hyperbolic tangent can be expanded as Combining this with the Z tap cosh 2al sin 2pl + j sin 2/?Z)/(cosh 2al + cos 2pl) expression for Z gives {sinh2aZ + (a/p) sin2/?Z + j[sin2pl (sinh 2ol . For the line sections mentioned the smallest value of pi is v/2. . the results of the approximations used in Problem 7. R inp = i/L/C(2al/3).03 for all of the sections.. CHAP.20) becomes Z inp /Z = coth (a + j(S)l.(2pl)3/3\ cosh2a* = 1 + (2aZ) 2/2! . substituting a = R/2Z only. The input impedance problem. given by Z = \fL/C{l — j(a/p)}. and the phase angle of the characteristic impedance does not exceed 2°. but the resistance term is not acceptable since the distributed resistance R of the line is not zero. sin2. Hence alp is less than about 0. Substituting into the expression for *inp gives 2al{l 1  V^ + 2{al)2 + (a/p) 2 } ± {1 _ 2 (al)2(a/p) 2 } /al For the minus sign in the denominator the final result is Z mp = yfUCIal = Z For the plus sign in the denominator the final result is 1 1 Z inp = yL/Cal I + (a/p) 2 + (al)H1 _ (a/m . For open circuit termination (Z T = infinite). equation (7. Z mp = Z /{(a + jp)l}.V^/o al specified in the ! cosh2a* + cos20Z For the values of = 1 + (2aZ) 2/2 = 2al(a/p).2(al) 2 (a/ p) 2 } since al(a/p) < make 1. for the one quarter wavelength line.14. Using tanh (a + jp)l = (a + jp )l. with G = 0.Z _j_ al . This problem and Problem 7.20) proves to be quite devious. — pi. or . the result obtained is Zinp =  j(l/o>Cl){l + (a/p) 2 }. The positive sign corresponds to line lengths that are very close to an integral number of half wavelengths. If the hi gh f requency a = R/2Z and p = <*\[LC are combined with the expression Z = lem 7.4(al) 2 (a/p) 2 = ± Z inp . 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 151 The derivation of this result from equation (7. Then the exact expressions result Z = y/(R + juL)/(G + juC) and a + jfi = ^(R + jaL)(G + juC). The reactance term is correct. The calculation will be carried out for the largest negative phase angle. The input impedance of the line with short circuit termination is Zinp = Z tanh (a + jp)l. lead to the Z mp = — j(l/uC). Zinp/Zo ~ al+f(«Q 8 j{/ttf08Z)»} (a j )2 + (£2)2 Introducing Finally. ZQ = y/L/C {l—j(a/p)}. The characteristic impedance of the line is then.12. and the negative sign to line lengths that are close to an odd number of quarter wavelengths. tion that for high frequency transmission line sections with short circuit terminatotal attenuation (al < 0. approximations y/L/C {1 . (alp) sinh2«q} . A coth (x + jy) = (sinh 2x — j sin 2i/)/(cosh 2x — cos 2y) With x 2al — al and y . . which occurs when the attenuation of a line is due entirely to distributed resistance R.j(a/p)}.12 are easily tested. 7. to a good approximation. as in Proband again the resistance term is incorrect. and evaluating the resistive component gives the desired result i? lnp = Rl/B. with no approximations. good approximations are sinh2«Z of the line is then real for values of {1 = I 2al and that cos 2pl = ± Vl . To obtain a meaningful solution it is necessary to return to the original equation Z mp /Z = coth (a + j/3)l and retain an additional term in the power series expansion for a hyperbolic function convenient identity is of a small complex number.12 illustrate that combinations of approximations can create errors that are not obvious consequences of any of the approximations separately.05 nepers) the input impedance is real and approximately equal to Z /al for line lengths close to an odd number of quarter wavelengths. + the power series for the respective functions to two terms are: sinh 2al = cos 20! = l .(2/3l)V2l = 2pl .8Z (2a0 3 /3! Making these substitutions. Since coth (a + j(i)l = l/[tanh (a + JP)C\. and the input impedance is real and approximately equal to Zwl for line Show and low lengths close to an integral number of half wavelengths.
15. mission line. relative to the maximum power transfer at frequency /o. phase velocity on the line section is vp assumed independent of frequency. transmission line circuit consists of a source having a resistive output impedance and a terminal load having a resistive impedance Z T the impedance match between the two being achieved by a quarter wavelength transformer section of lossless trans. with A/// < 1. and = . istic If the transmission line sections of this circuit termination.tan{frr/2)(l + j(Z T/Z' ) + A/// )} tan {(tt/2)(1 + A/// )> = 2fQ/(irAf) A/// + x) = — )} cot x. or I = vp /4f At frequency f + A/. of purely resistive characteristic impedance Z = \/Zs Z T The signals on the circuit occupy a frequency bandwidth from /o — A/ hertz to /o + A/ hertz. 7. If the j3 .12. . . The ratio of the power transfer in the latter case to the maximum value is then 1/{1 + [X(Af)/2Zs ] 2 }. Within these same limitations. Assume the impedances Zs and Z T are not functions of frequency. the input impedance of the transmission Letting X(Af) = ZQ(ir/2)(Af/f )(l — Zs /ZT ). the small phase angle of the characterimpedance has negligible effect on these results. this can be simplified to = Z8 + jZfo/2)(Af/fMlZs/Z T) which recognizes that for the trivial case of Z s = Z T line section has this same value. and if the signal bandwidth is not more than a few percent. The line length I is determined by p Q l = ir/2. and its input impedance will not be exactly equal to the source impedance. then p = a/vp 2vfo/vp at the center frequency of operation.152 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS It is evident that. Derive an expression for the power transfer from source to load at the frequencies fo±Af. = Z' Q . /J = 2w(/ + Af)/vp and the input impedance of the lossless line section of characteristic impedance Z' Q and length I terminated in Z T is. and will be given by \V/{2ZS + jX(Af)}\ 2 Zs at frequency f + Af. The transmission line section between source and load is one quarter wavelength long at the frequency / . from the initial equation for Z^/Zq. from equation (7. A Zs. 7 with the case of Problem 7. The power transfer will be less than maximum at a frequency slightly different from / because the transmission line section will not be exactly one quarter wavelength long. )> if < 1 Then Z lnp = —=r Z Z T/Zo 1  }(Z T/Z' )(2f )/(vAf) (Z t/Zq){1 + (2/o/7rA/)2} 1  j(2/ ArA/){l  (Z T/Z' )^} + 1 (Z T/^)2(2/ ArA/)2 Using Z' Q = yJZs Z T and assuming / /A/ Zinp > and y/Z T/Zs (f /Af) > 1. in contrast [CHAP. Zinp Z Using the identity tan (v/2 _ 1 Zt/K + .20). ^T(A/) will never be a large fraction of Zs and the power transfer will remain near maximum over the signal bandwidth. the power transfer from a source of rms harmonic voltage V and resistive output impedance Z s to the input of the transmission line section will have the maximum possible value of V2/4ZS at frequency fQ when X(Af) = 0. When the limitations are exceeded the properties of the transformer must be calculated . The approximations that have been made are sufficiently accurate for most purposes if the impedance transformation ratio of the transmission line section does not exceed 5 to 10. and it is immaterial how the attenuation is divided between distributed resistance R and distributed conductance G. at all frequencies. tan(Or/2)(l + A/// = cot{^A//(2/ j2/o/GrA/) . the input wavelengths long and Z /al problem had open circuit termination instead of short impedance would be Z^al for line sections an odd number of quarter for line sections an integral number of half wavelengths long.
and either short — j cot /3Z. The matching transformer would then have a = 54.25 — j'0. 7.50 m. 1. A signal source operating at 50 megahertz has an output impedance of 20 + jO ohms. (b) (c) Determine the values of B(d)/Y at the locations found in (a)./0.20. and —90° when the connected terminal load is capacitive. show that the line is terminated in an impedance Z T — nZ + jO.25 — jOA2.84 + jO. tanh (A page 130? B) . (c) 0. Show to that all any transmission line produce reflection +90° when the connected terminal load is terminal load impedances or admittances of normalized magnitude unity connected coefficients whose phase angles are ±90°.0080 (a) — .9b) from equation coefficient for line. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS 153 Supplementary Problems 7. where C is the distributed capacitance of the line in farads/unit length. 7.17. show that if a transmission line has negligible attenuation.18. particular transmission line when terminated in a normalized impedance 1.26.21) and lossless stub lines having length I. From equations (7.32 (see Problem 7. + .1. 7. and 0. relative to the terminal load end. or Y T — Yq/u + jO. identity of complex hyperbolic trigonometry is used to obtain equation (7. It is to supply power through a coaxial line to a load having impedance 150 + ?'40 ohms.84 7. Ans. (a) 0. The phase angles of the two impedances are not equal. The free space wavelength at 50 characteristic impedance Z' Q — V20 X 150 megahertz is 6.398 + n/2 wavelengths at the former points and 0.23.102 + n/2 wavelengths at the latter. Determine the value of a terminal load impedance of normalized form A + jA. The load impedance can be made real by adding a series capacitor of reactance —40 ohms. If the same transmission line were terminated in a normalized admittance 1. Find the lengths of stub line with short circuit termination that must be connected in shunt with the line at the locations found in (a) to achieve single stub matching.424 + n/2 wavelengths.8 ohms. 7. where A is which when connected to a transmission line will produce a reflection coefficient of magnitude Ans.1 {(2 Pr sin   )/(l <f> T . Derive equations (7.9a) and (7. is terminated in an open circuit and has a length I less than 1% of a wavelength. write expressions for the normalized input admittance of phase factor /? at their frequency of operation.CHAP.6) page 131.32.18).9). so a quarter wavelength transformer cannot provide perfect impedance matching. 7.0120 + jO ohms is terminated in an admittance mhos. Determine the locations of the points on the line.22.393 + i0.22). 0. what would be the value of its normalized input admittance? A Ans. Ans. .00 m. Using equation (7.19) Ans. at which the normalized admittance has the form 1 + jB(d)/Y .34 at the former points and +1. (7. Show that if there is a reflection minal load end of a transmission \Z T /Z \ harmonic voltages waves p T = p T e^i at the terthe normalized magnitude of the terminal load impedance is  = Vl + e 2 p T ! cos T + !p t 2 [ /V1  2 PT cos \ \ <p T + \p T 2 \ and the phase angle e of the normalized terminal load impedance is  tan.0. + jl. A lossless transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 0. If the reflection coefficient for line is + jO.42 has a normalized input impedance of 0.50. its input impedance is equal to the impedance of a capacitance of value CI farads.275 real.34 at the latter. Design a quarter wavelength transformer to match the source to the load. What (7. its length would be 1.275 or 0.266 + n/2 wavelengths.(tanh + tanh B)/(l + tanh tanh B) + A A 7. page 128. 0.22). Y inp /Y = (7.21. the angle being inductive.393 from equation 7.16. If the transformer has predominantly air dielectric. where Z is the characteristic impedance of the line and Y = 1/Z 1/n . (b) B(d)/Y Q . Ans. Y inp/YQ = + j tan /3l circuit or open circuit terminations.19.\p T 2 )} \ 7.25.24. harmonic voltage waves at the terminal load end of a transmission an admittance 7.
) 7. what would be the magnitude and phase angle of Ans.38 wavelengths long at frequency of operation.30. fil < 1.32. 1.5 3. The various solutions in the infinite sequence are not related by any exact periodicity or integer ratio relationships. What is the attenuation factor of the line? A 7. (a) Ans. circuit termination is measured to be 33. 0.) = 7.4 ohms in series with an inductance of 0.31. Tables of (tan x)/x are available.49 /113.1.5 ohms (Each line section is a quarter wavelength transformer.250" and 0. 7.0 ohms. A coaxial transmission line 12 ft long is constructed of two copper tubes.) . An air dielectric lossless high frequency coaxial transmission line is terminated in its characteristic impedance. If there are "input" terminals at one end of the line and the other end of the line is open circuited. The wavelength on the line is X meters. t/8 > 1. Show that the short circuit admittance matrix for a section of uniform transmission line coth yl is — cosech yl coth yl  cosech yl . 44. in series with 361 micromicrofarads. and the wall thickness of each is 0.8 + jO ohms at a frequency of 17.030".8° the reflection coefficient for voltage waves at the termination? If the 19 7.34. Show that the normalized input impedance of any section of transmission line terminated in a short circuit is equal to the normalized input admittance of the same line section terminated in an open circuit.13 apply.25 is ohms Ans.154 IMPEDANCE RELATIONS The input impedance of a section of transmission line with short — ^34.25 wavelengths long having a characteristic impedance of 75 + . What is the characteristic impedance of the line? Ans. 7 7. 7.0069 Rac ohms R&c . Show that if a length of the line wX/v^T meters the (where n is any integer) is filled with a lossless insulating material of dielectric constant k' e input impedance of the line will continue to be equal to its characteristic impedance. were terminated in an impedance of 100 + i300 ohms at a frequency of 1000 hertz. lossless transmission line 1.00 wavelengths long. Determine the input impedance of the first line.29.020 microhenries.75 db and is 15. (6) 1. The line's characteristic Ans.0 ohms.33. The interconductor space is air filled. The outside diameters of the tubes are 0.21 wavelengths. 7. 50 + jO ohms 7. l/X > 1. and high frequency transmission line calculations must be used. (At this frequency al < 1.66 db/(100 ft) impedance is 50 + jO ohms. The second line is terminated in a pure resistance of 100 ohms. Ans. (This is an application of the half wavelength transformer principle. 300 foot long section of flexible coaxial cable with plastic dielectric is measured to have an input impedance of 96. The problem reduces to finding pi such that (tan pi)/ pi = 3. Determine the length of the line A in wavelengths.28. the lowest value being 0. a frequency at which the cable is exactly 8.4 megahertz. There is an infinite sequence of solutions. A wavelengths long having a characteristic impedance of 50 + jO terminated by the input terminals of a second lossless transmission line 1.50 X 10 8 hertz. (6) and the results of Problem 7.) Approximately 0. determine an RLC lumped element series circuit whose impedance would be the same as the input impedance of the transmission line section at (a) 60 hertz.35. lossless high frequency transmission line of length I with open circuit termination is measured to have at a certain frequency an input capacitance three times as great as its low frequency input capacitance CI (where C is the distributed capacitance of the line). page 55.27.500" respectively. (At this frequency a/5 > 1. gauge cable pair transmission line of Table 5. The line is terminated in an open circuit. 1. The line section has a total attenuation of its [CHAP.
.37. page 126. 71. 7. Show that for the transmission line circuit of Fig. V T/V = i { 4 cosh yl + (Z /Z T ) sinh yl ' Ir/Ii = cosh yl + (Z T/Z ) sinh yl line. Show Z tanh yl sech yl — sech yl (tanh yl)/Z (tanh yl)/Z — sech yl Z tanh yl and the inverse hybrid matrix is sech yl 7. where V and 7 are respectively the phasor voltage and current at the input terminals of the and VT and IT are respectively the phasor voltage and current at the load terminals of the line.38. 7] IMPEDANCE RELATIONS that the hybrid matrix for a section of uniform transmission line is 155 7.36.CHAP. Show that the transmission matrix of a section of uniform transmission line is cosh yl (sinh yl)/Z Z sinh yl cosh yl and the inverse transmission matrix is the same.
and y = a + jp. 82 below.) (It is worth noting that (8. wavelength and attenuation as the voltage waves. Basic transmission line circuit. . ~U z "* line defined by a.1) Fig. phase velocity. but their amplitudes and phases are independently variable.1) = Vie** + V2 e+ ^ V2 are arbitrary voltage phasors to be determined by boundary conditions at the ends of the line.1) 156 . There are waves of identical frequency traveling in both directions on the line. and the latter the "reflected" wave. The arrangement can be used to measure the phase shift produced by a transmission line component inserted at one end of the line. The current waves have the same frequency. Wave Patterns The phenomenon It of interference.1. and the second term describes a wave traveling from the load toward the source. a distinctly different transmission line circuit. and they attenuate at the rate of a nepers per unit length of line. where o)/2tt is the signal frequency in hertz. 81.2) have specific reference to the transmission line circuit of term on the right of each of the equations describes a wave traveling from the source toward the load. through networks that terminate the section in its characteristic impedance at each end. The former may be called the "incident" wave. produced by reflection from the terminal Equations (8. The corresponding equation for single frequency time harmonic current distributions is where Vi and /<*) = To (v ie V2 e + v*) (8. p. and (8. all has been established in earlier chapters that V(z) possible single frequency time har" line are described monic voltage distributions on a uniform transmission by the equation (8. their wavelength is X = 2ir/p. incident on the terminal load.2) are also applicable to Fig. The first load.2) where Z is the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. and (8. Here a single source supplies signals to both ends of a transmission line section. The phase velocity of the voltage waves is v v = o>//3. When waves are reflected from the impedance Z T a standing wave pattern is produced on the line. and neither can be called "incident" or "reflected" waves. The time harmonic variation of the voltage is represented by an implicit multiplying factor e im . 81. Z d I Fig.Chapter 8 Standing 8.
The effect appears in its most striking form when the two oppositely directed waves have equal amplitude and the transmission system has zero attenuation. the fundamental phenomenon of interference or "standing waves" occurs. liquid or gaseous. (8. solid.Z) f +p T e. may have different values of In Chapter 7 it was shown that reflected waves occur on a transmission line whenever the terminal load impedance is not equal to the characteristic impedance Z Q of the line. and Pt = 1 + jO.5) and Z (ftPre**) Whenever two waves of identical frequency travel in opposite directions on a transmission system.6) and the current magnitude as a function of position \I(d)\ = (A/Zo)\sinpd\ 81. Z A B signal source Fig. For harmonic voltage waves on a lossless transmission line this case is Then the (hence y = jp). load terminals.7) where A= \2Vie~ yl \ is a scale factor determined by the total circuit of Fig. A transmission line circuit on which standing waves will occur even when networks A and B terminate the line nonreflectively The networks at each end. The reflection coefficient for harmonic current waves was found to be p T can be rewritten to contain the reflection Equations (8. whether the system be electrical or mechanical. It was found to be given Pt ~ by V2 e + * Vie~ yl Zt/Zq ~ Zt/Zo — + 1 (8. attenuation and phase shift. The magnitude of each phasor wave variable.ya * p T e' yd ) ) or V(d) 1(d) = Vi e«(eyd Vie" (84) (8. . p.CHAP. instead of diminishing steadily and exponentially from the source to the terminal load end of the system. produced at the end phasor of the line z = I by a connected terminal load impedance Z T was defined as the at the wave voltage value of the reflected voltage wave to the phasor value of the incident .1) and (8. at intervals determined by the wavelength of the individual waves.3) 1 . The complex number reflection coefficient Pt for harmonic voltage waves. exhibits periodic maxima and minima along the system. 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS line defined 157 by a. 82.2) coefficient explicitly: V(z) = = Vx ley + l k?e+" ) = ) Vx(e~v* + pT e~™ e + v*) Vxe~ yl (e^ . as is true when only one wave is present. most simply represented by letting a = voltage magnitude as a function of position along the line \V(d)\ is = A\cospd\ is (8.
. 2. The general analysis of standing wave patterns in Section 8.6).6) shows that for the particular case of a lossless transmission line terminated in a voltage reflection coefficient p T = 1 + jO. with the results \V(d)\ \I(d)\ = A\e* d = A \ (8. Fig. With waves traveling in only one direction on the line there can be no interference. .l)ir} = tt = 2tt/A. standing wave pattern on a lossless transmission line when the incident and reflected waves have equal amplitudes.5) by substituting a = and p T = 0. at which the voltage is zero at (3d n i all times. 84. d 2 voltage magnitude is . A similar statement applies to the pattern of current magnitude. 1. 8 Fig. patterns. A = tt/2 + nn is (n = 0.9) = A/Zo (8. The instantaneous voltage at any point of the pattern oscillates harmonically with time at the signal frequency. the instantaneous voltage at any point on the line oscillates in value harmonically with time. the standing is similar in shape to that for the voltage waves but is displaced one quarter wavelength along the line.4 establishes that current maxima are always coincident with voltage minima (and vice versa) on transmission lines having low attenuation per wavelength. .7) and (8. The standing wave pattern on a lossless transmission line when the line is terminated nonreflectively. From the graph and the equation it is seen that there is a sequence of locations d n along the line. The ordinate of the graph at any position d on the line is proportional to the rms voltage that would actually be measured between the line conductors at that crosssection by an ac voltmeter or similar indicating instrument. wave pattern for the current waves The standing wave patterns of voltage magnitude and current magnitude on a lossless transmission line when there are waves traveling in only one direction on the line are found from equations (8.10) the scale factor Vie 7l as before. di. is necessarily real for a lossless line. The two waves are said to combine with "constructive interference" at the points of maximum voltage. . Again. (tt/2 The separation Utt) of a consecutive pair of these nodes pd n Using /? = +  {tt/2 + (n .8) the points of zero voltage in Fig.158 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS [CHAP. but the amplitude of the oscillation ranges from zero at the points to a maximum at the points midway between. Midway between Comparison of equations (8. 84 is a graph of these equations. and with "destructive interference" at the points of zero voltage. . 83 are points where the phasor a maximum and is twice the value for each of the individual traveling waves. but in this case the amplitude of the oscillation is everywhere constant and equal to the amplitude of the traveling voltage wave. 83 is a graph of equation (8.4) and (8. . and no maxima or minima in the where and Z A is  \V(d)\ Fig. 83. for all values of the reflection coefficient at the terminal load. given by /3dn \V(d)\ Fig. dn — dn—i — A/2 (8. .
traveling in opposite directions. b and c. b and c the algebraic sum of the ordinates of the two curves is zero. two extremes wave patterns The latter oc. changes sign) in the adjacent half wavelengths. Fig. b' and c'. 85. 85(5) after a short time interval during Repeating this observation for several values of Az establishes that the instantaneous value of the wave variable is always zero at points a. along a portion of their common line of travel. b and c. or nodes of the pat terns differ for different values of purely reactive ZT . the phase is constant over any half wavelength of the pattern between successive points of zero voltage magnitude. At points a. of two identical har monic waves of some physical variable. shows the same two patterns which the two waves have traveled with equal speeds in opposite directions through distance Az. the curs at locations a. writing (8.e. This expression indi A lossless transmission line by a voltage reflection coefficient Pt at the terminal load end. but changes by k radians (i. b' (b) with c'. Similarly. general value of terminal load impedance Z T = Rt + jXT with both R T and T to a uniform lossless transmission line will create a standing wave pattern of voltage (or current) in which the minima are of nonzero amplitude. 83. 83 and 84 illustrate of the possible voltage standing on a lossless transmission line. and oscillates harmonically in time a'. b' and c'. Fig. 83 was obtained from the specific case of Pt = 1 + jO (Z T infinite) but similar patterns consisting of a succession of positive half sinewave segments are produced by all reflection coefficients of waves interfere destructively at points a. maximum The and total result. In each case constructive interference occurs at a'. The algebraic sum of the ordinates is still zero at points a. 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS 159 Like the ac meter readings of V(d) or 1(d) whose graphs they represent. illustration of the production of standing waves by interference. and has maximum magnitude at points a'. direct illustration of is how interference produces standing waves Fig. b and c. Destructive interference still ocin (a). which result when Z T any value of pure reactance. (a) algebraic sum has maximum magnitude.CHAP. 84 changes at a constant rate of p radians per unit length along the entire length of the line. and the ordinate of the pattern at the load terminals is neither a maximum nor a minimum of the Any . These represent the localized instantaneous values. line of the zeros or an open circuit. In (6) each wave has traveled a distance Az from its position in (a). magnitude unity. At the instant shown An curs only for p T = 0. pattern. cates that in the voltage standing wave pattern produced on a m A 85.9) as V(d) = Ae shows that the phase of the voltage in the pattern of Fig. b and c. which requires Z T = Z Fig. The two waves of equal wavelength and amplitude are traveling in opposite directions with equal velocities. The locations along the is a short circuit. Fig. wave shows two segments of sine patterns. when connected . X finite. resembles Fig. 83 and 84 give no information about the relative phases of voltage or current at each point. as amplitude at points a magnitude Fig. identical in amplitude and wavelength.6) is written V(d) = cos (3d. Phase information is retained if equation (8. and at points a' b' and c' the '. 85 (a) presented in Fig.
of a standing the line. Standso quickly and easily carried out that they can also be used to monitor a circuit's performance while adjustments are being made to achieve ing wave measurements are conditions. optimum The occurrence of standing waves on a transmission line circuit of the form of Fig. line. The observation and measurement of voltage or current standing wave patterns on high frequency transmission systems has become an experimental technique of prime importance for two reasons: (1) An analytical expression can be derived (Section 8. the normalized value of any unknown terminal load impedance Z T /Z connected to the line can be calculated from the details of the standing wave pattern it produces. The practical importance of standing wave observations.4) relating the quantitative aspects wave pattern on a uniform transmission line to the normalized value of the terminal load impedance Z T /Z connected to the line and the propagation factor short circuit. (For practiline. 8 pattern. 7 = a + j/3 of the line. the existence of voltage and current standing waves on the line can impair the performance of the circuit in Standing wave observations provide convenient and direct several different ways. Standing wave observations then provide a simple and precise impedance measuring procedure in a range of high frequencies where impedance bridges and other techniques lack both simplicity and etc. (b) At the maxima in the current standing wave pattern. the current in the line conductors exceeds the value required for delivering the same amount of power to a nonreflecting load impedance. if limited by local heating of the line conductors. is therefore .) to precision. is therefore is usually determined rating power pulse peak the lines transmission cal high frequency heating. discussed in Section 8.) conductor rating by power continuous the and breakdown by voltage . located between the voltage maxima. (2) When the intended function of a transmission line circuit in the form of Fig. if limited by voltage reflecting load impedance Z T = Z breakdown or by local heating of the dielectric in the interconductor space. the attenuation factor a and phase velocity v P = w//3 can be found from standing wave pattern measurements.4.2. Connecting known values of Z T/Z (open circuit. A typical case is suggested by \V(d)\ The nature \I(d)\ of the patterns of \V(d)\ and Standing wave pattern on a lossless caused by a terminal load impedance that produces a reflection coefficient of magnitude about 0. data from which to calculate or estimate the magnitude of these various effects.160 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS [CHAP. On practical high frequency wavelength is low and the phase angle of the characteristic impedance is small. 8. 81 is to convey power or signals efficiently from a source to a load. standing waves can be responsible for any of the following adverse effects: (a) At the maxima in the voltage standing wave pattern the voltage between the line con ductors exceeds the value required for delivering the same amount of power to a nonThe power capacity of the line. 86. 86. 81 being is synonymous with the presence of reflected waves on the line. The power capacity of the reduced. reduced. the reflected waves of impedance characteristic to the equal is not caused by a terminal load impedance that per attenuation the which for lines. When a and /3 are known. transmission the line. Fig.4. on a uniform transmission line in the completely general case of an arbitrary terminal load impedance Zt connected to a line of arbitrary attenuation in nepers per wavelength is Fig.
then . the resulting graph is a standing wave crystal simple the often Very 86. 87. the center conductor slot is cut in the outer dielectric inserts at the ends of the section. An external carriage is arranged to penetrates slightly along the length of the section. . Chapter in fully more conclusion does not apply. the along position displayed or recorded as a function of the probe magnitude on voltage r.f. with line length line will The efficiency of power transfer from the source to the input terminals of the increased be may therefore vary over the operating bandwidth of the system. . Use of a slotted line section to measure an impedance con nected directly to its output terminals. the circuit of Fig. in most cases. optimum than less of evidence positive is line the line.e. isolator signal source or attenuator terminal load impedance slotted line section Fig. voltage magnitude at each point . this when the source impedance is not equal to the characteristic impedance of the 9. The attenuator or isolator prevents changes in the measuring circuit from affecting the frequency or power output of the signal source. (d) («) If the source impedance Zs = Z in the circuit of Fig. maximum power will be and delivered to a terminal load impedance Z T = Z transmission efficiency. The effect component which is itself a function of if the terminal load impedance Z T has a reactive frequency. 87. The received signal is detected and amplified. 81. are large enough to ensure that the attenuation of the section has no able effect on the observed standing wave patterns. be if the same amount of power were being delivered to a equal to Z it folSince the presence of standing waves on a line means that Z T is not transmission line in lows from equation (7.3. the probe receives a small signalfrequency conductors line the between field electric proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or and its magnitude at the probe's location. making standing wave measurements whose conductors on transmission lines consists of a section of airdielectric coaxial line being supported by are rigid metal tubes two or three feet long. of the type low the at response squarelaw have sections line or bolometer detectors used with slotted pattern wave standing observed the of ordinates signal levels received by the probe and the of the line.f relative of pattern linear. The general case is discussed the presence of standing waves on However.CHAP. dictated mainly by mechanical detectconsiderations. When this "slotted line section" is connected between a source and a terminal load in excitation the manner indicated by Fig. A narrow longitudinal move mechanically conductor along most of its length. If the detector is slot. are proportional to the square of the r. 81 will vary with frequency (i. The radii of the conductors of the slotted line section. carrying a small probeconductor which The most common commercial form of device for through the slot into the interconductor space of the line. in shown the slotted section of the line. 8. 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS 161 (c) the distributed In the presence of standing waves the losses per wavelength in both greater than they would resistance R and the distributed conductance G of the line are nonreflecting load. page 131.20). Instrumentation for standing wave measurements. that the input impedance of a in wavelengths). Fig.
with open circuit and short circuit termination in addition to the Z T termination. it is important that there be no abrupt geometry between the slotted section and the portion of the on the terminal load side. Mechanical considerations make the construction of a reasonably precise . The geometry of the slotted section is sufficientlyprecise that its high frequency characteristic impedance can be accurately determined from equation (6. normalized with respect to the characteristic impedance of the slotted section. Use of a slotted line section to measure the input impedance of a section of transmission line having terminal load impedance ZT .) Thus the cale culated normalized value of Z T can be converted to a value in ohms. 86 shows that the full description of a voltage standing wave pattern on a transmission line having negligible attenuation per wavelength requires observation over at least one quarter wavelength of line. 8 wave pattern observed in the whether the detector is linear or square law. 88. standing wave patterns must be observed using two or three different lengths of the main line. and phenomena will occur which are not covered by transmission line theory. 81. using k' = 1. if necessary. The reliability of calculations made from standing wave patterns in the slotted line section change in transmission line main line may then be seriously affected. slotted section. can be calculated. 87. or at any intermediate point of the line. adjustment of the terminal load impedance to eliminate the standing section will mean that the main transmission line is terminated nonreflectively. 88.59). provide data from which the value of the terminal load impedance Z T normalized relative to the characteristic impedance of the slotted section. (The effect of the slot is negligible. page 96. For random positioning of the pattern in the slotted section this would require that the slot be not less than one half wavelength long. Under these conditions the presence of a standing wave on the slotted section indicates that there are reflected waves and standing waves on the main line. Inspection of Fig. The only quantity that can be calculated from a standing wave pattern observed on a slotted line section inserted in a transmission line circuit in the manner described by Fig. Standard practice is to use a slotted line section whose characteristic impedance is the same as that of the transmission line to which it is connected and. the details of the standing [CHAP. including a voltage minimum and an adjacent voltage maximum. When a slotted line section is inserted into a general transmission line circuit like that of Fig. either between the source and the input terminals of the transmission line as in Fig. Although in principle the slotted line technique could be used to observe standing waves on a transmission line at any frequency. Otherwise the uniformity postulate of Chapter 2 will be violated. wave in the slotted Conversely. . 88 is the input impedance of the portion of the transmission line on the terminal load side of the slotted section. To obtain information about the attenuation or phase velocity of the main transmission line. signal isolator source attenuator transmission line slotted line section terminal load impedance Fig. the method becomes impractical at frequencies below about one hundred megahertz.162 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS For the circuit of Fig. or about the normalized or actual value of the terminal load impedance Zt. to make the transition from the conductor radii of the slotted section to those of the main transmission line by means of a coaxial line section with tapered conductors having a length of at least a few quarter wavelengths.
nor by the length or properties of the line between for the factor scale a is and the point of observation. in discussed modes and probe circuitry. Fig. the term Vie* comthe all of function a pattern but does not influence its shape. such as can standing wave detectors for transmission lines with noncoaxial 22.CHAP. in as parallel wires. To obtain from equation (8.11) from which P = loge = vIptI / and q = ~H T ^ 8 12 ^ ' «<»+*> Substituting from (8. several slotted line unit may be determined by any one of Typical Chapter 3.4. Pt the voltage reflection =  *T Pt e  = 6 «» + *> {8.e. The latter is little used in practice. The line has length I. limit of a frequency upper The lower frequency limit in the hundred megahertz region. ponents of the total transmission line circuit. and others illustrated At frequencies for which the wavelength is between several feet and several hundred obtain the data for a feet. design. connector as such factors. The scale factor is .13) V(d) = F e*v 1 p7(e +(p+iq) e +Yd + e^+^e^) . or propagation of the commercial slotted line sections are useful in the frequency range from a few hundred to a TE TM few thousand megahertz. in terms of the components in the transmission line circuit of Fig. of voltage standing wave pattern. As noted previously. being a graph of \V(d)\ as a function the terminal of value normalized is determined entirely by the terms yd and Pt i. and is terminated in an impedance T with (8. \V(d)\. Equation {84) is a general expression for the harmonic voltage V(d) at any coordinate Z d on a uniform transmission line. 8. characteristic impedance voltage produces a that Z propagation factor y = a + j/3. The analysis of standing wave patterns.1) not directly comprehensible in the general case from the complex number and (8.12) into (8. and by the total attenuation and total phase shift The pattern. it is often practicable on open types of transmission line to along the line intervals at voltage the of standing wave pattern by direct measurement region. .4) a graphable expression for coefficient Pt must be expressed as an exponential number. A reflection coefficient Pr at the terminal load end of the line in accordance a shape which has d. whose graphical representation as standing wave pattern is easily visualized. because its observa The A tion requires a coupling loop in the slot of the slotted line section. and which directly relate measurable features a of the pattern to desired circuit information. configurations. more obtained usually is patterns wave standing ever.4) and taking out a term = Vp7.2). line is Since the pattern of the variations of voltage and current magnitude along the equations {8. the of observation between the terminal load impedance and the point of signal the of impedance internal shape of the pattern is not affected by the strength or the source source connected to the line. howmegahertz hundred the below At frequencies itself. 81. Special units can be obtained for higher and lower frequencies. wave pattern less analysis will be carried out in full for the standing wave pattern of voltage magminor modification makes the same analysis applicable to the standing nitude on a line. of current magnitude. 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS 163 This establishes a slotted line section difficult for lengths greater than three or four feet. by the of line length the of load impedance.3). the information available from conveniently by other methods. (8. striplines. using a portable meter. which is mechanically convenient than a coupling probe. the analytical problem is to find expressions for \V(z)\ and \I(z)\.
being simply a cosine squared pattern with all ordinates offset a constant amount from the zero axis.164 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS Finally. which occur when cos 2 (pd + q) = 1. Phase variation of the voltage along a transmission line when there are standing waves present can be evaluated and plotted from (8.15).16).15) and (8. are all of the same magnitude. The offset term sinh 2 p is a function of \p T according to equation (8.12).U) The complex hyperbolic cosine can be expanded using the cosh (x + jy) — cosh x cos y relation + j sinh x sin y from which there follows the magnitude cosh (x + jy)\ = = = + jy) ' {cosh 2 x cos 2 y {(sinh 2 a + sinh 2 x sin 2 y} 1/2 sinh 2 a: sin 2 y} 1/2 {sinh 2 ic is + 1) cos 2 y + + cos 2 y} 1/2 The phase angle of cosh (x aiT xsm y \ tan" 1 ( ^ a.17) 8.5. as a function of d.16) from the general equation (8. the magnitude of the phasor voltage on a transmission line as a function of distance from the terminal load end of the line is \V(d)\ = 27ieT l vW {sinh £ of 2 (ad + p) + cos 2 ((3d + q)} 1 '2 (8. When a = 0. no significance attaches to the value or the functional form of the scale factor term feV x e~ yl tfp^. and these equations are therefore valid for all values of a. It can by therefore be replaced by any arbitrary real value of phasor voltage. which occur when cos2 (fid + q) = 0.17) becomes \V(d)\ = {smh2 p + cos 2 (pd . equation (8. In drawing a graph of a voltage standing wave pattern from (8.14). Then \V(d)\ Notation is simplified = {sinh 2 (ad + p) + cos 2 (/3d + q)} 1/2 (8. V(d) = Vi e~ yl \fp~{e + ad+p + »<0 d +«> + < ^ e (ad+p>. 81. Standing wave patterns on lossless lines. such as the feeding of the component antennas of an array from a common transmission line on which there are standing waves.15) d is The variation of the phase angle given by i(d) the phasor voltage as a function of the coordinate = tan' 1 {tanh(ad + p) tan (/3d + q)} (8. as are the voltage minima. The term cos 2 (/3d + q) oscillates in magnitude between zero and unity. The usual processes for making transmission line circuit calculations from standing wave measurements make no reference to the relative voltage phase %(d).j(0d+<j)i = 2Vi e* v^Tcosh {(ad + p) 1 + j((3d + q)} identity (8.18) Since sinh p is a constant for fixed values of Z T and Z the standing wave pattern for V(d) 2 is particularly easy to draw.1). although the shape of the graph is not easily visualized directly from this equation.15) is a graphable expression for the voltage standing wave pattern on a transmission line for the perfectly general case of the transmission line circuit of Fig. cosy/ \ cosh = tan i v (tanh x tan y \ ' Applying these results to equation (8. . using y [CHAP. 8 = a + j(3 and regrouping exponents. It is worth noting that no approximations have been used in deriving (8. + q)Y 12 (8. 2 \. The voltage maxima. but the phase information is important in many applications. letting this value be unity.16) Equation (8. p and p T .
of a voltage specification of three quantities is sufficient to ensure that the shape equation using full in drawn be can line transmission lossless standing wave pattern on a The (8. this result of the incimagnitudes the voltage magnitude in the standing wave patterns is the sum of wave standing the in magnitude dent and reflected waves. can be of V(d)* at a obtained only by plotting the square root of the ordinates of the pattern is available.12) that q = . and (8 . Conversely.CHAP. 8 frequency of quency of the source in hertz. apparent that VSWR = or J sxim2 p sinh + ^n ll 1/2 = i^^i fcosh 2 ^" 2 _ +v« = = cothp 1 i — + ~ e 2P VSWR =   ^j ~ 1 IptI (*•«) reflected wave to the using equation (8. dv (min)/A = i(l + 4> T M ± in (8.19) where A is the wavelength on the line.12). . If the measured the using equation. rather for establishing the reference to minimum voltage points of the pattern in (8. the relation cos 2 (pdvtmM + Q) = n= leads to 0. (b) (c) the location of any voltage minimum relative to the origin of coordinates = 0. it can be minima. the actual standing wave pattern obtained will be there is no difference in sharpness between the maxima and minima.00 x 10 m/sec and A is in meters. is that the 2 reason the is This sharper and the maxima become broader than in the curve for \V(d)\ . from the data of distance Normally the frequency of the source will be a known quantity. the distance between successive voltage minima. by in most transmission line writing. Since Pr is the ratio of the magnitude of the that the maximum shows magnitude of the incident wave on the lossless line. these are three quantities which can be directly measured any voltage standing wave pattern. .1 9) a with observed than maximum voltage points. 86. curve the sufficient number of values of d. c .19) the line slotted dielectric air the in waves the of required in item (c) is one half wavelength is the frewhere = c/2/. (a) These are: the ratio of the maximum voltage magnitude in the pattern to the minimum d voltage magnitude. A/2 given by / is which section at the frequency of the source. already illustrated in Fig. . same this from determined the source is not known.17).14) it is wave pattern.3. The true voltage standing wave pattern. 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS 165 noting from Using the symbol dy (mi n) for the dcoordinates of the voltage minima. No simple functional expression for become minima The general nature of the result. Referring to (8. From (8. 1. distance between successive voltage "voltage standing suggests the desirability of defining a quantity known as the notation the by designated is This wave ratio" of a voltage standing wave pattern. while the minimum voltage pattern is the difference of the same two magnitudes. and is defined Item (a) VSWR (8. a graph of \V(d)\ as a function of d.20) VSWR = S= in the voltage standing where F(d) max is the voltage magnitude at a maximum and V(d)min is the voltage magnitude at a minimum. If a voltage standing wave pattern is 2 and \V(d)\ of that squarelaw detector.%4> T . 2.
there is a VSWR of 36.50 If and £(1 X + 0TM ± $n = + 5. cos T = —0.9a) and (7.50 .22) and (8.5 cm. Example 8. \Pt\ _ ~ VSWR .21) can be solved for Pt and \ \ . Similarly.0 = 0.556 X = 0.933.23) together with (7. are functions only of the phase angle of the same reflection coefficient. IptI sin .21) present the important and valuable facts that the of a voltage standing wave pattern on a lossless transmission line is a function only of the magnitude of the voltage reflection coefficient at the reference location d = 0. _ . p T 2 .0.2(0. and from (8.405 X 73 = 29.75 = 0. X = 2 X 45.00 0.556.933) = 0.8 The distance between successive minima of the pattern is 45. of normalized value n duces a VSWR of n with a voltage maximum at the load if n > 1. the components of the normalized impedance terminating a lossless transmission line can be calculated from the numerical data of the voltage standing wave pattern.405 RT = 0. 8 Equations (8. The pattern can be sketched from the values of VSWR 0.1. Example 8. Describe the voltage standing wave pattern on the line.75 m.404 — v ± 2mr = 1.50. Table 8.360) 0.„ R T and 1 1 + .360 and sin T = 0.5 = 91.22). VSWR low attenuation per wavelength at its operating frequency of 400 megahertz has a characteristic impedance of 50 + jO ohms and is terminated in an impedance of 20 — j80 ohms.6 ohms.940 rad.20/tt) ± \n = = (3. expressed in wavelengths.123 m. and there is a voltage minimum cm from the load terminals. <p T = 4ir X 0.36.708 XT = 0. \ <t> T .— 166 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS [CHAP.404.23) Using equations (8. while the locations of the voltage minima in the pattern. lossless transmission line having a characteristic impedance of 73 + JO ohms. Then \ <f> </> „ /Z .9a) and (7. and produces a 1/n with a voltage minimum at the load if n < 1.IptI .2 p T 2 . On a 3. = °. + jO.2.9b). so that d vimin) and dVCmin) /X. page 129.164 air dielectric line is = c/f X 10 8 )/(400 X 10 6 ) X 0.19) and (8.608 X 73 = 44.l)/(3. </> T : .6 — 1 i = zjzj+i = o4ke + = 9.556 = — <t> X 0. An air dielectric transmission line with The voltage reflection coefficient produced by the terminal load impedance 1 is Then VSWR = <*v<min>/* — = " _j = i(l Z T/Z — 0. 1 +  PT 2   2(0.4 — il.0 cm and dVCmln) /X .308 .1 below summarizes the details of the voltage standing wave patterns that are produced on lossless transmission lines by several easily designated values of normalized terminal load impedance.664 = 0. For use in equations (7.80 ^^d = 0.1 VSWR + 1 — tt <*•**' 2Wtt <j> T = 47rdy (m in)/A ± (8. Since the distance between successive minima of any standing wave pattern on a lossless line is one half wavelength. = Equations (8.608 2 PT cos \ T 1. Determine the value of the terminal load impedance connected to the line.23).50 + 1) = 0. = cos 1 1  T + 0.8/91.308 .4 ohms. \p T = (3. From {8. pro VSWR of .164 The wavelength on the 0.19) and (8.0.36).„ X = T Z ° and 2 . The table shows that a purely resistive terminal load.
VSWR Table 8. Since d. but any value of total attenuation al. It has been seen that such patterns consist of consecutive positive half sinewave segments.21) equation (8. . and this is demonstrated graphically for the general case in Chapter that and i for all capacitively reactive terminations.17) that the corresponding upper and lower limits or envelopes of the standing wave pattern are proportional to cosh (ad + p) and sinh (ad + p) respectively. \Pt\ a constant. and between dv(min)/A lies between 9. it is seen from (8.jl —1 +1 n—1 n+ 1 n n . using the value of dvcmin)/A appropriate to the point d in the interval at which Z(d) is evaluated.CHAP.3) equation (8. that open circuit. patterns for which the minima are zero.e.1 &tI Aq \pt\ <t>T VSWR equation (8.6. and sinhp (= itl/VH" I I — Vf> T  ])• The ratio of the two + vTptI] limits is from equaeverywhere cothp = 1 ~ pj = VSWR. terminated in impedances that produce reflection coefficient magnitudes not too close to unity (\ Pt < 0.jl n 0.12)). shown by i (8. 89 is a voltage standing wave pattern calculated from equation (8. i. Standing wave patterns on transmission lines with attenuation. short circuit.17) for a transmission line with an attenuation of approximately one neper/wavelength (a/p = 1/6 . 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS 167 The table suggests. and all purely reactive terminations produce patterns for which the is infinite. the ratio of a maximum voltage magnitude in the standing wave pattern to an adjacent minimum voltage magnitude one quarter wavelength away gives a VSWR value from which the line impedance Z(d) at any point in that quarter wavelength of the line can be calculated with useful accuracy.19) 1 + infinite 1 iO jO 1 V infinite infinite 0.18) to _i_ be proportional respectively to coshp (= i[l/\/pJ tion (8. This suggests that the VSWR concept and its uses might not be applicable. B/2 + jO (n>l) + jO (n<l) n . the variations of the voltage magnitude are confined between constant upper and lower limits along the line.1/2 1/4 1 + 1 + + jO jl none 1 none 3/8 1/8 1/4 + jl 1 1 . If a line has attenuation factor a. n n1 n+1 1n 1 n 1/n +n JT 0.1/2 8. Quantitatively it is found that for the important case of lines with low attenuation per wavelength (a/fi < 1).5 is a conservative criterion). The ratio of the limits at any value of d is coth (ad + p) I 1 +  e 2(ofd+ P ) e 2(«d + p) 1 ~ 1 +   2ad Pt e~  p T  e ~ 2ad all maxima and minima in any standing wave pattern occur at different values of appears from this equation that in a pattern on a line with attenuation all the maxima and minima will each have different magnitude. and for all inductively reactive terminations. In a voltage standing wave pattern on a lossless transmission line.„ 7T/2 infinite infinite 0. £ i The table confirms a statement made previously. it \ Fig.
For an ordinary metal conductor line with low dielectric losses the attenuation factor a increases as the square root of the frequency at high frequencies. or carbon dispersed in a nonconducting binder. Although Fig. and the phase angle of the reflection coefficient is about jt/4 radians. and a comparable pattern could occur on a high frequency slotted line section only if the line conductors were made of some extraordinary material such as intrinsic germanium. at a frequency of 100 megahertz.~ ~ 168 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS [CHAP. 89.7 x 10 4 mally occur only under conditions where it would not be usual practice to make standing wave measurements. sintered ferrite. 89 is therefore not a realistic illustration of a possible voltage standing wave pattern on a high frequency transmission line. page 55.5. The magnitude of the reflection coefficient produced by the terminal load impedance is about 0. On the other hand. for the standard 7/8" rigid 50 ohm copper coaxial line of Problem 5. The pattern has four parameters which. and it is evident that f3 — alv v increases as the first power of the frequency. shows that this value of a/(3 could occur for a 19 gauge cable pair at a frequency somewhat higher than 30 kilohertz. 89 would cover about 5 miles of the cable pair. for transmission lines of reasonable construction. are entirely independent.60 x 10 3 nepers/m. Reference to Table 5. These are: . 8 which is far from qualifying as "low attenuation per wavelength". the attenuation factor a = 1. as shown in Chapter 6. Thus the quantity exactly). a case . Voltage standing wave pattern on a transmission line having a substantial attenuation per wavelength. its exaggerations help to emphasize the important features of all standing wave patterns on lines having attenuation. and that the three half wavelengths of Fig. 89 will nor2. graphically. since v P is quite accurately constant for such a line. a //3 = (1/2tt) (line attenuation in nepers/wavelength) usually varies approximately inversely as the square root of the frequency in the frequency range from a few megahertz to several gigahertz. while the phase factor /5 = a>/v P = Thus a standing wave pattern like Fig. page 64. Fig.6.09 rad/m and a/ (3 = 7.1.
19). on a line with the incident voltage wave is Pt . This point then corresponds to d represent the length Thus the interval Xl to x 2 on the x scale is converted to is connected. quantitative details of the circuit. diminishing of d given by equation {8. standing wave pattern deriving from the term cas*(pd + q) it is through simple scale sal" standing wave x. If. Since the median ad (6) The fm*. One half wavelength on the of contact of the pattern with one points line is the distance between consecutive of the envelopes. as curves two the 81 lie between pattern. is to fit into this bounded space the in amplitude from right to lett.19) and values making contact with the sinhz lower envelope at between the lower contact points. by the range of the pattern. (c) The value and curves sinh(«d of p. + p) Id) The value of the oscillating portion of the which determines the phase at d = in equation {8. will lie between the curves Having established that any specific standing wave pattern e in e n having and x to 2 ! for sinhz and cosh*. applicable to all transmission line circuits Because of the independence of these four features. the at the right to about 3 or 4 at scale of x increasing from uniiorm any on occur might that shows that all standing wave patterns of practical interest and envelopes. and factor scale to d = I on the transmission line. on a linear against plotted are changes. resemble a damped sinusoidal oscillation curve.0025. a shift of the origin. the incident wave is larger in magnitude by magnitude of ratio of wave is smaller by the factor e—. total length of the pattern in wavelengths. not possible to draw a "univer transmission line in the circuit of Fig. about 1. 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS total attenuation al covered 169 (a) The sinh(«d + p)] = (£e p)e . by the use of a d = to the magnitude of At d = 0. and in is a major reason why the * scale Section 8. and ordinate of the two envelopes is i[cosh(«d + p) + the median ordinate at d = I to the median e* = 1/VW\ is a constant. the ratio of calculated from appropriate is e* and the total attenuation can be ordinate at d = measurements on the envelopes of any pattern.CHAP. of q. At any the factor e«« and the reflected attenuation. 89 that when the attenuation correctly by equation (8.01. where the source in nepers.17). which determines the ordinates of the envelope cosh (ad + p) at d = 0. The reflected wave magnitude pattern are about the standing wave of the incident wave magnitude. points of contact with the lower . This is reason second beyond x = 3 oi 4 A the procedure described above need not be extended than less values not measure VSWR that most commercial slotted line sections will (W l . are not given envelope. where al is the total line attenuation interval occupied on the x scale is given by x 2 = I on the transmission line. however.2 are present to only a trivial extent. the ratio of the magnitude of the reflected voltage wave other value of d. transmission the of between Xl and x 2 to correspond to the d coordinates This will fluctuating component of the pattern. This point then corresponds to d = The left hand limit x* of the coefficient Pt reflection the produces Z T load impedance = al + p. upper envelope at values of d midway per wavelength is can be seen from Fig. by definition. ^ ^^* ™ ^jj^ ^*? of the . the fluctuations in of standing waves listed in consequences undesirable the \% of its average amplitude. in an interval of x from xi fl final step the line. the functions sinha and cosh a. procedure following the left. extend over some interval of the x scale determined by the by the ^standing wave The right hand limit xi of the interval on the x scale occupied p T )• given by Xi = p = log e pattern occurring on a specific transmission line circuit is terminal connected the where on the transmission line. It with the cosh a.  ^ • : i. Hence at a general point the voltage wave is \p T \e ~e the reflected voltage wave to that of the incident only tVo then is When (ad + p) = S e~ 2( « d+p) = 0.
there is an obvious difference in the locations of corresponding maxima and minima of the two patterns.4 0. However. that the upper and lower envelopes of the standing wave patterns on such a transmission line are straight lines parallel to the d axis. 810. are confined between the envelopes coth (ad + p) and tanh (ad + p).2 1. The step of converting it to a d coordinate scale introduces the indeterminacy 0/0. 89 with the addition of the current standing wave pattern. 811 below is a graph of \Z(d)\ = \V(d)\/\I(d)\ obtained from Fig. Fig. within the precision of experimental measurements. page 178. For the same transmission line circuit whose voltage standing wave pattern is given by Fig. Z(d) is the input impedance of the portion of the transmission line circuit on the terminal load side of the coordinate d. and the symbol dvc mM is inappropriate.1 I I I 1. 810. 89 and 810.6 0. 2. 810.9 0. This means that the input impedance of any combination of transmission line \ . the current standing wave pattern as determined in Problem 8. When (ad + p) = 3. 86. For an idealized lossless transmission line having a = identically.3 1. 810. It shows that the fluctuations of the normalized impedance magnitude \Z(d)/Zo\ along the line. the value of \Z(d)/Z fluctuates only \% on either side of unity. the maxima and minima of the current pattern will occur at the same values of d as the minima and maxima respectively of the voltage pattern. For practical high frequency lines the error introduced by this discrepancy is not important. is shown superimposed on the voltage pattern in Fig. If the attenuation does not exceed a few tenths of a decibel per wavelength. As noted previously.4 and Fig.170 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS [CHAP.1 1. the interval Xi to x 2 in the procedure described becomes a point of magnitude zero. The points of contact of the current pattern with either envelope lie midway between the points of contact of the voltage pattern.1. 8 in fact points of minimum voltage magnitude in the pattern.0 0. Same as Fig.5 0. The implication is simply the fact presented in Section 8.7 0. when the attenuation per wavelength is as large as in Fig. corresponding to the voltage and current standing wave patterns of Fig.3 adj p I d = d = Fig. 89.8 0.
812. 812. deviates less than \% from than 0. 89. In the absence of dl. the characteristic impedance of the line. If (ad + p) ^ 4. 89. The line for relative phase of the voltage as a function of position along the the standing wave pattern of Fig.1%. . phase relative the waves reflected from (8. The normalized impedance magnitude as a function of for the standing wave pattern of Fig. 811. position along the line calculated The relative phase of the voltage in the standing wave pattern of Fig. 810.16). is shown in Fig. 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS 171 and terminal load impedance for which (ad + p) ^ 3. to d from = would increase linearly at the rate of 2k rad/wavelength 5 £ Fig.CHAP. the deviation is less section Fig.
the maxima of the voltage standing wave pattern occurring on that portion of a transmission line circuit for which (ad + p) — 1 will all have the same relative magnitude of unity at locations where cos 2 (pd + q) = 1.1. the occurrence of values as high as 5 or 10 would be virtually inconceivable. 81 only if the magnitude of the reflection coefficient produced by the terminal load impedance is very near unity. the ratio of two outputmeter readings gives a value accurately only if the assumed response law of the detector is valid over the range of signal levels in the pattern. adjacent to the load terminals. the ideal smallsignal square law response is unlikely to hold at the voltage maxima of a pattern with high VSWR. for which the total attenuation ad does not exceed a very small fraction of one decibel. 8 8. the approximations cosh (ad + p) = 1 and sinh (ad + p) = (ad + p) are accurate to better than \% for (ad + p) ^0. but there are transmission line measurement techniques at high frequencies that involve observing values of 100 or higher. which is seldom the case in standard commercial units. Accuracy VSWR mum VSWR second hazard in the measurement of high values arises from the fact that the voltage magnitudes at the minima are very small. and only along that portion of the line. but at a voltage A VSWR maximum circuit sufficiently to the line admittance is very low and the probe admittance change the voltage from its correct value.7. may alter the Both of the difficulties described are avoided if high VSWR values are measured by an method often referred to as the "double minimum" technique. and the voltage minima on the same scale will have magnitudes of (ad + p) at the values of d for which cos 2 (/3d + q) = 0. a Taylor series expansion produces . which covers all VSWR values greater than 10. This introduces a localized shunt admittance across the line at the location of the probe. The "double minimum" method usually has no particular advantages for VSWR values below 10.172 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS The problem of measuring high [CHAP. indirect A high value of VSWR can exist on the transmission line circuit of Fig. The attainment of sufficient sensitivity to measure such low signal levels accurately may require increasing the penetration of the pickup probe into the slot of the slotted section. the voltage magnitude will increase rapidly as the term cos 2 ((3d + q) increases from zero. This is equivalent to saying that a high value of VSWR is synonymous with a value of (ad + p) very small compared to unity. It is exactly analogous to the familiar procedure of measuring the Q of a resonant circuit by observing the width of a resonance curve between the points on either side of resonance at which the observed power level differs by 3 db from the power level at resonance. For such values of (ad + p). On each side of any voltage minimum in the pattern. For the case (£/? Ad) < 1.17). Introducing these approximations into equation (8. Unless there is provision for insertion of a calibrated high frequency attenuator between the pickup probe and the detector of a slotted line section. the voltage magnitude will have increased by a factor \/2 above the minimum value. but the relation VSWR (8. At d = dvcmm) ± ?&d such that cos [/?(dy (m in) ± %Ad) + q]\ = (ad + p). VSWR values. At a voltage minimum the line admittance Y(d) is high and the effect of a small probe admittance is likely to be negligible. On VSWR VSWR in experimental values requires that both the minimum and the maxivoltage magnitudes in a standing wave pattern be observed with the same adequate precision. There is therefore no unique value of on the line. This in turn requires that the minimum voltage magnitude must be far above the threshold sensitivity or noise level of the voltageindicating circuitry. For the sensitive crystal and bolometer detectors generally used with slotted line sections. transmission line circuits intended for the efficient transfer of power from a source to a load.24) VSWR = gives the l/(adv (mta ) + p) VSWR accurately at each voltage minimum in the pattern.
24) the VSWR values obtained .53 X 10 3 and 2. Z 50 gives loge (b/a) by the short circuiting plane to the coaxial transmission line at the frequency of 800 megahertz is RT = From the (2.a) is [(7. and partly because the effects of line attenuation on the respective locations of the observed points on the two sides of any voltage minimum are of opposite sign.8XlQ4)(li.CHAP. R = 2. This is always justified. 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS 173 the result i0 Ad = (ad (8. 1. was ignored.3. as and (6.61 X 10 For The Substituting characteristic impedance of an airdielectric coaxial transmission line is Z = 60 loge (b/a). where / is in hertz. » \ With <p T = tt.8 Z t/Z q + X 10" 4 )(1 + i)/50 + 1 1 and v . In deriving equation (8. The values of d at the first three minima are therefore respectively 18. The corresponding values of (ad + p) are 7. (See Problem 6.) 7 V7 ohms/square. partly because a/(3 < 1 for the conditions postulated.833/(2*) = 9.j)/50.11.96 x 10_5 w^*1 hi£h accuracy.25 cm on the air dielectric line at a frequency of 800 mega4 .25) a term « Ad. The imaginary part of measurable effect on \p T or on the departure of the phase angle of p T from v radians.loge (! + !. The section is terminated in a short circuit consisting of a plane transverse copper disc making firm contact with the peripheries of the facing surfaces of the two conductors. the minima in the standing wave pattern are located at precise half wavelength intervals from the plane of the short circuit.25).8 X 10 ~ 4 ohms equation (645).61 X lO.2J>) it follows that + p) on dropping second order small quantities. according to equation (8.30 = 2Z n magnitude Z^/Zq \pt\ ^ .38 XlO3)/(2. of facing radii a The resistance between concentric circular contacts s and b (b > a) on a resistive sheet of surface resistivity R s ohms/square is R T = (RJ2v) loge (b/a) ohms. Example 8. and all the observations are made in a region of the line where Y(d) is large. and cancel one another to a first approximation. presented impedance load terminal the of = component = resistive the Hence 0. with copper conductors has a characteristic impedance at high frequencies.75. the inductive reactance component value.833.0096)] X 3. hertz. Assuming no dielectric in the line. Ad is evidently the width of the minimum in the standing wave pattern between points where the voltage magnitude is greater than the adjacent minimum voltage The name "double minimum" method arises from the fact that with the by the factor \/2 square law detectors usually used in standing wave observations. page 121. it is necessary The attenuation factor of the to evaluate the attenuation factor a and the quantity p = loge (1/vIptI).X 100 0.5 ZT has no The reflection coefficient (9. (6) find the widths (at y/2 times minimum amplitude in each case) of the three voltage minima nearest the short circuit plane. a copper plane under skin effect conditions.1 1 (9. page 85.96 x 10_5) = !. (a) locate the voltage minima in the slotted section at a frequency of 800 megahertz.75 X 10 any of of the equal voltage magnitudes at the maxima the ratio as and from (8. 37.7 V8 X 10 8 ) X 0.92X10. and from equation VSWR = 2/(/3Ad) {8M ) In equation (8. the output meter reading .96 cm. XT of the terminal load impedance has same To determine the required widths of the standing wave pattern at the voltage minima. instead of VSWR 1.49) line is given by equations (5.19). at these same points is double the reading at the voltage minimum. The inner diameter of the outer conductor is 0.50 and 56. so that any effects of the shunt admittance of the pickup probe are minimized.4 1.9) a _ ~ (R s /2*b)(l + b.29 X 10 3 at the three minima.3. representing the attenuation of the line across the length increment Ad. and (c) find A slotted section of coaxial transmission line of 50 ohms the VSWR values at the locations of the minima. The advantages of this voltages in a standing method over direct measurement of the maximum and minimum wave pattern are that the ideal law of the detector must be maintained : : over a voltage range of only 1.
the widths of the three minima in the standing wave pattern. (The accompanying current wave is ignored in this analysis. up to this point. 8. impedance relations and standing wave patterns.) of the line is Vs Zo % PT i % e yz a ^ an y time after the wave reaches that location. if accuracy better than 5% to 10% is expected. and the phasor value of this first reflected wave when T7 returns to the coordinate z will be „ 7 1 e^p^e^ 6 <v ziTYo At the input terminals coefficient ps * wave will experience a reflection it of the line this first reflected its = {Zs /Z — 1)/(Z S /Z + 1). measured in the manner denned are 9. discussions of If in the circuit of Fig. At coordinate z this initial harmonic voltage wave will have the phasor value switching transient. to provide a method for determining the attenuation factor of a transmission line by measurement of the widths of two or more successive minima in a voltage standing wave pattern produced on a line by a short circuit termination. In a lumped constant circuit the transient time interval during which steady state conditions are established after switching a timeharmonic source into the circuit is determined by a time constant which is a function of the value of the circuit components.25) and noting that p = 2^/0. since the input impedance of the line is equal to its characteristic impedance when there are waves traveling in only one direction on the line at the input terminals. and phasor value when p s° returns to coordinate z will be Vs Zo zT+Zo* _. but in addition there is another transient interval. 81. 1. and 2. The results of the example show that the impedance of a physically excellent short circuit connected to a typical slotted line section is at or beyond the limit of sensitivity of standing wave measurement methods. Steady state harmonic conditions on a transmission line circuit have been assumed in all wave propagation.3 X 10~ 5 m. In a transmission line circuit there is in general a similar switching transient time interval after the source is connected to the input terminals. is the sum of an infinite series of such contributions.84 X 10~ 4 m. the source is connected to the transmission line by closing a series switch at a certain instant. superposition theorem the total phasor voltage at the coordinate z after an indefinite the steady state value. 8 along the slotted section to the voltage magnitudes at the minima are about 1290. usually far longer. With an ordinary micrometer these distances can be measured to an accuracy of a few percent.8.375 = 16. Multiple reflections. in which waves are partially reflected back and forth along the length of the line while equilibrium is being established. Hence . and that the measurement of any terminal load impedance producing a VSWR as high as only 10 or 20 must be corrected for the attenuation of the slotted line section between the observed voltage minimum and the point of connection of the impedance. a harmonic voltage wave will start to travel along the line. 650 and 436. With higher values of VSWR the correction factors can become very large. An analysis of this multiple reflection process produces some useful relations.e. i. The procedure illustrated by the example can obviously be reversed.174 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS [CHAP. Using (8. On reaching the terminal load coefficient it end of the line the voltage wave will be reflected by the complex reflection = (Z T/Z — 1)/(Z T/Z + 1). the highest value occurring nearest to the load terminals.7 rad/m. as is any The phasor value of this initial voltage wave at the input terminals VsZ /(Z s + Z ).74 X 10~ 4 m. page 156. yl p r° By the time.
15).)Jlw * ^— 81. the phase of the voltage wave traveling in the direction of decreasing d (i. shows that the undetermined coefficient Vi in the latter is given by y = (&+Z. and their product can be made very nearly equal to 1+ JO in a practical circuit. ( e * + Pt *~ 2yl eyZ ) I 1 + PrPs e + (PrPs 6 " 271 ) 2 + ' • • ] e™ + p T e™ey* VsZo 2yl Zs + Zo' 1 .p T p s eV<iZ n e. for a value of pd of about 1 rad. 813(a) by rotating the two phasors through equal angles in opposite directions. . the incident wave before it reaches the load terminals) is greater by the amount /3d radians. 813(6) below. For a standing wave pattern. obtained from Fig. Equation (8.27) with (54). (8.27) is discussed in Chapter 10. 8. For a lossless line. and the reflected wave phasor is rotated clockwise at the rate of 2/3d rad/m. is shown in Fig. only the magnitude of the sum of the two phasors is of This quantity is more easily visualized if the incident wave phasor is kept constant at the value 1 + jO for all values of d. Then at the load terminals of the transmission line where is also d = 0. Fig. Zs and Ps at the source.w +P T e . It is then obvious from Fig.28) and (8. and the ordinates for constructing such patterns can be taken directly from the diagrams.9. (os) in terms of the various elements of the circuit of Fig. On a lossless The resultant phasor line there has been no change in the magnitudes of the phasors. while the phase of the reflected wave traveling in the direction of increasing d has decreased by the same amount. since the magnitude and phase of p T ps and e~ 2yl in the denominator term are all independently adjustable. the phasor value of the incident voltage wave represented by the term e 1 + jO.4) becomes V(d) ~ = y e» (« . wave Phasor diagrams provide a simple graphical perspective of the formation of standing patterns. . 813(a) below shows these two phasors.2yl 175 V(Z) = Y^Y. page 157. diagram.e.w I i ) line circuit and can be given the In this equation arbitrary phasor value 1 + jQ. The effect of circuit parameters on the ordinate scale of such a pattern can be calculated from (8.CHAP. The investigation of transmission line resonant circuits by means of (8. At any other value of d. Standing wave patterns from phasor diagrams. 813(c) that the maximum ordinate interest. 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS ~Y .26) + Pr e ~ yd Comparison of (S.27).yl e yd (8. and their sum which on the same scale is the phasor value of V(d) at d = 0.27) demonstrates explicitly that the shape of a standing wave pattern representing \V(d)\ as a function of d on a transmission line is in no way affected by the quantities Vs . and the phasor value of the reflected wave at the same location is p T a function only Vie~ m is a constant for any transmission m . A hint at the possibility of a resonance phenomenon in transmission line circuits is also provided by (8. of Zt/Zo.
176 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS [CHAP. All previous references to voltage reflection coefficients have been to the voltage reflection coefficient p T produced at the terminal load end of a transmission line by a connected impedance ZT . 813. The value 1 incident wave voltage phasor has the reference .10. The reflection coefficient is 0. 8. Finally. The phasor diagram for any value of d is easily drawn. of the concept Z(z) or Z(d). the impedance at a general coordinate z or d on a line.19). agreement with (8. in \ When the transmission line has a finite attenuation factor a. (a) At the load terminals.625 /tt/4 rad /?d (6) (c) At a coordinate d such that Phasor diagrams = v/Z rad. . the voltage of the reflected wave. magnitude seen to vary if \p T \ much more maximum. and that there is a voltage reflection coefficient P (z) or P (d) at the point which is determined by the normalized value of Using the abbreviated Z(z) or Z(d) in the same manner that Pt is determined by Z T/Z notation P for this reflection coefficient at any general point on a transmission line. The diagram gives correct relative magnitude information for all V(d) phasors. however. in a standing wave pattern on a lossless line is proportional to 1 + p T and the minimum ordinate is proportional on the same scale to 1 — \p T in agreement with (8. meaningful to consider that at a general coordinate z or d & transmission line is in "terminated" by the impedance Z(z) or Z(d) at that point. . if \p T = 1. and the total voltage. (a) and (6) combined to have a common incident voltage phasor. Phasor diagrams for the voltage of the incident wave. being the ratio of the phasor voltage to the phasor current on the line at that coordinate. There has been considerable use. It is also directly apparent that the lowest value of d at which a voltage minimum will occur will be  \. 8 p Te 1+/0 (a) (b) (c) Fig.21). It has been demonstrated that the meaning of Z(z) or Z(d) is the input impedance of that portion of a total transmission line circuit on the terminal load side of the coordinate z or d. The circle is then the locus of the tip of all totalvoltage phasors on the line. at two points on a lossless transmission line. the voltage rapidly with d at a voltage minimum than at a voltage the small fluctuations in the pattern are approximately sinusoidal. . and the abbreviated notation Z for the impedance at the point. but < 1. + . the magnitude of the phasor representing the incident wave increases with d by a term e ad while that representing the reflected wave decreases by a term e~ ad The phase changes are the same as in the lossless case. but to obtain true relative phases each V(d) must be multiplied by e& d . The generalized reflection coefficient. we have It is effect . when separated from the portion of the circuit on the signal source side. but no simple diagram displays the phenomena for all values of d. given by 2(3d is <1> T + Tr.0.
or conversely . \p\ _  VSWR vSWR + (8.^* ~ »^^3S 1 side of the point. it may be easier to^evaluate termmaUoad impedance and the propagation factors of the the impedance at d from TtTom (8 3) p from (8M). . dona transmission line in terms of the In evaluating the impedance at a coordinate line.20). page 144.3) that P ~ ~ Vi reflection coefficient at the load terminals of the circuit transmission line circuit is less than the value at length of line between the two locations. through exactly the same reflection coefficient and impedance at that Thus apply at the load terminals of the line. a conclusion that Since on a lossless line the VSWR Similarly. the impedance °™ ** is small can be wavelength per attenuation mission line whose voltage a from wavelengths m VSWR on the line.S1) 4»(dv(nu.82) is * = Using (8. and the normalized components of the impedance at d more than to attempt to calculate Place of Thus the magnitude of the voltage any general coordinate dona by the "« te£Z> $%Z£$ib) uTg I in directly Pt . which is twice the phase foad wave would experience between the points.1) and Vi {8. or their admittance and {8. at the point. must VSWR = i^ at <**°> any point. at the point.SS).31) 1 indicates that value is the same everywhere (8J1) any one value for line for all points on such a the reflection coefficient magnitude is the same physically.1 CHAP It _ g] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS 177 along the portion of a transmission also be true that the standing wave pattern the any general point on the line is determined by line circuit on the signal source side of that relations point. of the voltage wave traveling toward the signal source phasor value. The converse equation to (8. with the help of (7. is easily understood of terminal load impedance. when the point's location is measured of location the or value the either mfnTmum of tie pattern. or equivalents in Problem 7.now the distance of In this case negative values pattern. No reference need be made to line.2.9a) and (7. from {7. . page 131. the voltage mission line is given P by = traveling toward the terminal load phasor v alue.9b).ss ) page 128.)/A)  » + 2»x (*. wave line from a voltage minimum in the standing terminal load of dv A result if the distance is measured to a voltage minimum on the . the of involving twice the attenuation f actoTe d is less than that at the anftL phase Ingle of the reflection coefficient at the coordinate change that a single traveling by the amount 2fid. the terminal load impedance connected to the at any general point on a transreflection coefficient ^^^^CirotZ f°«"f^ f P By physical definition. of the volta ge wave It follows from Vie~ yz {8. > dvcmin)A = i(l + *M + fr {8 ' 32) any general where the meaning of dv (min is .
it is required to \ show that for arbitrary fixed \ZT \ + jO. In Problem 7. that if to a load . If the susceptance at either of these locations is cancelled by the equal and opposite susceptance of an appropriate stub line connected in parallel with the main line.14) to the coefficient of \I(d)\ in the equation above is \. the normalized admittance at the point becomes 1 + jO. (Some authors have used SWR as a common symbol. which proves the theorem. design formulas were developed for the technique of "single stub matching". {sinh2 ( a d = 2V x eyiyTf T y + p) + sin 2 (/3d is + 9 )}V2 and the phase angle y(d) of the current as a function of position v(d) = tan" 1 {coth (ad + p) tan (pd + q)} The obviously \Z ratio of the coefficient of \V(d)\ in (8. is a function of \p \p T only. . Derive an expression of the form of equation (8.2.1.) becomes 1(d) is obtained which differs and a negative sign for = cos S i nh {(ad + p) + j(fid + q)} it is identity used is that Binh(s + jV) The + jy) = sinh x = (sinh2 x + sin2 y)V2. The choice among them would depend on the performance feature to be optimized.!78 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS [CHAP. Show if power a low loss transmission line is to be designed to supply high frequencyimpedance Z T the lowest will occur on the transmission line the characteristic impedance of the line has the value Z = \Z T + jO.12). sinh (x \I(d)\ y + j cosh x sin y. Starting with (8.15) from which the standing wave pattern of current on the transmission line circuit of Fig. 810 the ratio of the scales for \V(d)\ and \I(d)\ is \Z \. There was no mention of a standing wave pattern on the line. 8. 8 Solved Problems 8.7. Thus \Pt T \ = Zj'/Zq Z T/Z — + 1 is 1 minimized by 1/2 Z = The value of by a minimum value of Equating \ \ R T/Z + jXT /ZQ — 1 R T/Z + jXT/Z + 1 Rj< + 2R tZq + Zq + Xj< VSWR — (1 + p T )/(l — \p T is minimized by a minimum value of \) \p p T 2.3.) 8.7 the locations and lengths of the matching stubs were determined in terms of the normalized value of the terminal load admittance. the locations being referred to the load terminals of the line. Reflected waves are eliminated on the portion of the main transmission line between the signal source and the point of connection of the matching stub.11) and (8.13) for V(d) only in the appearance of a multiplying factor 1/Z the term e<p+i«> e yd The result is that (8. The technique is based on the fact that when there are reflected waves on a transmission line. Other practical solutions to this situation would make use of single stub matching or quarter wavelength transformers. it follows l from the above expression for \I(d)\ that 7 (d)lmax/J(d)min = COth p = (1 + p T )/(l  p T ) = VSWR Hence the "current standing wave ratio" and the "voltage standing wave ratio" have identical values on any low loss transmission line circuit and the symbol VSWR serves for both. If a line has negligible losses. page 146. so that in Fig.5) and using (8. In Problem 7. VSWR \ Since the VSWR on a transmission line .1 J. from which easily established Finally. 81 can be plotted. there are two locations in every half wavelength of the line at which the real part of the normalized admittance is equal to unity. ZT and variable real Z the quantity The procedure is straightforward. an equation for 1(d) from (8.  T and hence also \ to zero the derivative with respect to PT leads directly to the result Z\ = R? + Z of the square of the above expression for X%.
= 3. this becomes I = (Up) cot" 1 {± (VSWR .75 X 3. 1.0598 .P \) can be expressed \ is an angle less than w/2 radians.2.00 X 10 8 (Z T/Z .   —v±\ cos 1 cos 1 To find the lengths of the required matching stubs.21).686 X 30.682. . or \ \ cos*) p). The two solutions of cos" 1 (.l)/(1000/60 + 1) = 8.02 X 10 2 nepers/m 8 = 2. page 164. <j> Then using (8.45.48) ) 0. cos <t> + 2 P cos = — \p\ and   <f>) hence sin </> — ± Vl — p 2 Since the normalized input susceptance Substituting these expressions. The sum of the stub lengths for the two different solutions is one half wavelength. given in terms of the voltage page 144. A transmission line 30 ft long operating at a frequency of 100 megahertz has a characteristic impedance of 60 + /0 ohms.357 and cos(/3J + g) = 0.887/0 P Since 0. the locations of the two possible matching stubs per terms of the half wavelength being referred to a voltage minimum in the pattern. B/Y = ± 2 p/Vl p circuit termination is. using notation appropriate to a general point on the G/Y Equating this to unity gives cos expressed as a function of VSWR.297 = 30. <f> can be The locations of the points at which relative to matching stubs can be connected to the line are found.8 volts.15) or (8. Inspection shows that the stub line less than one quarter wavelength long is to be used at the location on the terminal load side of the voltage minimum.4. the ratio of the voltage magnitude at transmission line circuit to the voltage magnitude at d = I is d = on a IV/y VtI ^inpl 1 I .31) their location can be expressed as a function of VSWR.2 for the normalized susceptance at any point on a transmission line where the reflection coefficient iS p: B/Y = 2 is p (sin <p)/(l + 2 p At the points where the stub line to be connected.365. On substituting for \p\ 2\ \ \ — from (8.P 2)/(1 + P + 2 P = cos 1 (— = \p\.~ CHAP. an attenuation factor of 8. into {8. either side of a voltage minimum and cannot be more than one eighth wavelength from a voltage minimum.84 cosg = + p = 0. smh 2 sinh2 p ( al + p) + cos2 g + + cos2 1/2 1 W q)j Quantities required in a /? making the calculation are: PT = = = = m.297 and the rms value of the input voltage to the line must be 40/1. Using {8.31).0598. 8. I iog e al (i/vra) = °. sinh (al + p) = Then °.32). as given by (7.1)/(Z T/Z + 1) = (1000/60 .P 2 ). sinh p = 0. q = &T + = 0 = 9. 8} STANDING WAVE PATTERNS 179 Show that if the voltage standing wave pattern on a transmission line is observed.0 db/(100 ft) and a phase velocity of 75%. <p = (1 . use is made of the expression in Problem 7. Also. the required stub lengths are I = (1//3) cot" 1 (±2 P \/y/l . by substituting for <f> Thus dv( ml„)/A = t jl +  C°S j~  \ ± i^. !^r/^in D T' inp I pi +q= 27.0/(8.1)/VVSWR }. The line is to provide a signal voltage of 40 volts rms across a terminal load resistance of 1000 ohms. It follows that the points where as \p\ \p\ 1 They are equidistant on for connecting matching stubs are given by dVimia) /\ = ± cos p /4jt.17).0036 l I = \l ^ q 13 g + q 465 C = 1. VSWR reflection coefficient at the point The normalized conductance at any point on a transmission line by an expression from Problem line: 2   is 7. the solution of the single stub matching procedure can be expressed completely in on the line. short customary with the length I of a lossless stub line of cot pi.79 rad/m = w /vp (2n X 10 )/(0.I . any voltage minimum in the standing wave pattern. (a) What is the required rms voltage at the input terminals of the line? (6) What are the peak values of voltage and current along the line and where do they occur? (a) From equations (8.31).
338. and the power can be calculated independently for the waves traveling in the two directions on the line.5. and the funcform of yp is of no concern. which must not exceed 15 amperes.e.9 volts rms.1 and 8. A standard 7/8" rigid copper coaxial transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 + jO ohms is to deliver 4.) X of the harmonic current wave traveling toward the load and Ib the rms value of the harmonic current wave traveling toward the signal source. page 136. Hence the voltage maxima are located at 0. t) = Va (coscot s*.t) = Vb COS (cot + Bz) Va (z. With Ia + Ib = 15. the highest It is clear l 40/V 1. sinh (ad + p) = 0. and the minimum phasor voltage where cos 2)82 = —1.705 amperes rms or 1.9/Z = 39.Bz) respectively. (See Section 7. and cos or (/3d + q) = 1 by definition.*) The peak phasor magnitude of this voltage is the coefficient of the term cos (cot + ^).7 b ) = 2. From Problem 8. i. 2. The attenuation per wavelength is 2W/3 = 2w X 3.00 m.25.56 m. 8 from the preceding calculation that the scale factor \2V 1 ey \/^\ has the value = 39. the above expression for the power gives Ia — Ib = 4000/(50 X 15) = 5.6. where Va and V b are real.1 volts rms 59. and Vb (z. 1.5.6. it follows from Section 7. the instantaneous voltage at any point is ftl tional + Vb + 2 Va V 20z)i<'2 cos (at b cos .6 volts peak current maximum will occur one quarter wavelength closer to the input terminals than the above voltage maximum.332.180 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS (o) [CHAP.81.6 2 that the power delivered to the load is la Z — llz = Z (Ia + b)(Ia I b ) = 4000 watts. specifically equations (7. The rms value of current in the line conductors must not exceed 15 amperes at any point.665 rms amperes. The scale factor for the current standing wave pattern is 39. t). cos/32 + sin sin /3z) and V b (z.25 X 108/108 = 2.0 kilowatts of power at a frequency of 10 megahertz over a distance of several hundred feet to a load.S5) with = 0. the rms current value at the maxima in the current standing wave pattern is Ia + Ib . t) = V b (cos at is cot cos pz — cot (3z) the instantaneous voltage at any point {(Va + Vb cot ) cos pz) cos + cos {(Va — Vb xf>).068 nepers. From Problems 8.9V0.12.79 = 0. whence e*V(max) /\ = r/(4n) + w/2 = w/2. . The instantaneous voltage at any point on the line is Va (z. This result assumes Va > V b which would be true on a lowloss transmission line using the coordinate system of Fig. the is then given under = (Ia + I b )/(Ia .00 amperes peak 8. at d = 9.34) and (7.665 V0. At this location (ad + p) = 0. . On a lossless transmission line two voltage waves traveling in opposite directions are represented by the equations Derive an expression for the magnitude of the peak phasor voltage as a function of position along the line. I^maxl = 39. sin sin cot Using Va (z. Because the line has a finite attenuation factor.(Va + Vb )/(Va — V b ). 81.3322 + 1 = 42.25 m. with Z T ¥= Z . t) + V b (z. and for the value of the VSWR on the line.02 X 102/2. meters from the load terminals.t) = Va cos (cot . these limiting conditions by If Ia is the rms value — VSWR VSWR . It follows that .9/60 = 0. which is small enough to justify the approximation that the voltage maxima occur where cos2 (/3d + q) = 1. The wavelength on the line is v p /f = 2. The maximum phasor voltage occurs at the points on the line where cos2/3z = +1. What is the highest value of VSWR that can be tolerated on the line? On a low loss line such as this the characteristic impedance has a very small phase angle.0036 . The maximum current at any point on the line is then l^maxl A = 0.33 rms amperes. at d = 9.355 2 +1 = 0. VbWR 8. voltage on the line will occur at the value of <?v(max) nearest the input terminals. ) sin pz) sin cot An inversion of the same cot identity has the sin form A Using cos + B = y/A 2 + B2 (cot — where ^ given by = tan 1 (B/A) this identity.5.
i0.34. In the present case the simplest way to obtain a positive value for /? is to increase <j>(d") by 2v.5 cm from the input terminals of the cable being tested.9.35/7. From the observed is \p(d)\/\ P (d')\ = e 2a 1) = 2.08 + 2w = 8 8.9 = 2. Used directly.530) 2 L  X 2. and \ P (d')\ = 5. and a test for other values of n shows that none gives a velocity greater than about one half of this. From equation (8. If two or more answers are about equally reasonable on physical grounds. both angles are confusion arises The /? and for v p in subject to an additional term ±2mr where n may be zero or any integer.8.60)  v = 2.25 with a voltage minimum 28. values. It is therefore necessary to test other values of n and to decide from the results whether a unique acceptable answer is indicated.00 X 10 8 /(5. When a 25 foot length of the same cable is terminated in a short circuit and connected to the slotted section. 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS The impedance 181 as to produce a VSWR of less than of the load receiving the 4.35 = a  log (0.120 0.1)/(Z T/Z + 1) = = ) .9 cm from the input terminals of the cable. the standing wave pattern observed in the low loss slotted line section of characteristic impedance 50 + jO ohms has a VSWR of 3. A low loss transmission line with phase velocity of 75 of 82% and characteristic impedance at the operating frequency of 50.36 rad.CHAP.36)/(2 X 0.62 m.322  Since = a/vp = 2v X 50 X 10 6/(0.d"). From the given data. 8.25 = 0. 88.) Then <f>(d") = 2. but the voltage minima in the slotted section are found at 54.25/4. Calculate the attenuation factor and phase velocity for the From equation (8. additional measurements must be taken .51 db/(100 ft) ™ 7. the VSWR value changes only slightly..0 kilowatts of power would therefore have to be such 2. e _±£_L the ratio of the reflection coefficient magnitudes at two locations d and d' .83 rad on other lengths of line until the uncertainty is resolved. this data would give a negative value for and <p(d") ir = 2. the observed VSWR is 6. What phase difference exists between the phasor from the load voltage at the load terminals and the phasor voltage at a point 3.20 /0.0 megahertz is terminated in an impedance of 100 .728.1)/(1.333 (8.^ „ „.35.333 + 1) = = °.1)/(VSWR + = 25 ft = 7.j25 ohms. cable.00 X 10 8 ) = 1.d ">. from the fact that in calculating <f>(d) and <f>(d"). /? = (2. page 162. page 164. When a 50 foot length of the cable with short circuit termination is connected as the transmission line element in the circuit of Fig.667 '  jO.333 . The choice of n = each calculation has given an incorrect answer.83 .00 X 10 8 ) = 0. It is desired to find the attenuation factor and phase velocity for a flexible high frequency coaxial cable of characteristic impedance 50 + jO ohms at a frequency of 500 megahertz.8. \ Using d  P (d)\ d' = (VSWR .185) = 14.08 rad. on a transmission line having attenuation factor a VSWR 0. This is an acceptable result. 8.2 .2/?(d .160 = = (Z T/Z .40 + jO ohms m terminals ? The answer PT will be obtained from equation (1.50 cm is cut off the length of the cable.0.275 rad/m .<t>(d") = .11 X 10 m/sec = 70%.728/0.16). When 18.34) the difference in the phase angles of the reflection coefficients at two locations d and d" on a transmission line is <f>(d) .9 and 24.. but it must be the same for each line length and should produce a reflection coefficient of high magnitude. ™ „„ 5.^.805 and tanh P « ~ °.j n ) = 0.549 from the original data. 0. (This is equivalent to choosing dy(n.644 rad Then p log e (1/V\p~t\ /J = °.249/0.81 on the line of characteristic impedance 50 + jO ohms.7.00 X 10 8/14.).285/0.530. is 3. .62 The nature of the terminal load impedance is not a factor in this measurement or calculation. = = 4jt(0. and vp = 2v X 5.60) — <t>(d) 47rd V(min) /X v = 4^(0. The usual plastic dielectrics used in flexible cables have dielectric constants much too small to produce such low velocities.82 X 3.333 . From the observed values of dVimin) and since the wavelength on the slotted section .60 m.08 „ nepers/m = X lO.
149 m 8.0 = 1. (6) the resistor is disconnected.29 the attenuation factor of the line is approximately 0. that the total length of the diagram represents a transmission line 30 m long: = 0.4 + jl.) 8.55. maxima in the pattern. 89. 8. is approximately 43°. and is evidently 1. and tan (pd + q) = +18.16). and how far is the nearest voltage minimum in the impedance of 73 VSWR standing wave pattern from the load terminals? The line losses are assumed negligible.yl Zs + Z yd <> ~ Pre. The phase difference between the voltages at the two points is 1.33 rad.27 + v = 4.371).200 — jr/2 = 0. = 3. the actual phase difference should be not far from this value.322 = 4.667 X 0. if dV(min) = 0. page 168. (a) VSWR = 2. Ans. (a) The voltage envelope.40) = tani (0. where tan (pd + q) = tanq = 0. are: total attenuation ad for the length of the diagram = 1. (More precise data.13. Since the VSWR on the line is not large.43. Show by (a) (6) (c) from Fig.00.300. What is the on the line. or <ZV (min) = 0045 VSWR m 8. the phase difference between the voltages at the same two points would be pd = 1. (6) VSWR = infinite.000 nepers. The (8.40 + 0.223 = 0. page 131. It is terminated in a 30 ohm resistor shunted by a capacitance of 15 picofarads.27) for V(d) is () and that the ratio of V(d> from Z(d).yd ptPs*™ ' 1  (Note. If there were no standing waves on the line. the magnitude of the reflection coefficient at d (d) (e) the phase angle of the reflection coefficient at d = = is approximately 0.27) to this expression for 1(d) gives equation (7£0).657 rad at the point in question. (6) considerable attenuation per wavelength? Ans. scaling values dVCmin) = 0.0.667 X 18.49 — 0. ratio p/a = 6. VS e.334) = tan" 1 0. Ans. Then (0) = tan" 1 (0.27 ± nv rad.11. q = 1.49 ± mr rad.12. The phase must also be evaluated at d = 0.0) = tan~i 12. approximately 31 m. p = 0. With high VSWR values the phase discrepancy between the two cases can exceed one radian.5. (6) The points of contact of the pattern with its upper . The phase of the voltage at the point is therefore 1(3.41 rad.334. for reflection coefficient for current waves is always the negative of the reflection coefficient for voltage waves.033 nepers/m the wavelength on the line is db/m = 8. the normalized value of the terminal load impedance is approximately 1.10. An air dielectric transmission line operating at a frequency of 200 megahertz has a characteristic + jO ohms.182 STANDING WAVE PATTERNS pd + q [CHAP.9 db/(100ft).35. Solve Problem 8. Supplementary Problems 8. 8 = 1.275 X 3.9.030. dV(mta) /\ = 0.22 ± mr = 1.40 = 4.9 if (a) the capacitance is disconnected. The statement of the problem implies a = 0.275 X 3. what is the location of the reference points of zero phase angle for the phasor voltage in any standing wave pattern if the line has (a) negligible attenuation per wavelength. In equation (8.219 ± nv rad. Show by consideration of multiple reflection of current waves on a transmission line that the expression for 1(d) corresponding to equation (8. from which the curve was calculated.
The stub line may be connected at a distance of 0.33) to obtain the phase angle of the reflection coefficient at d. successive maxima and minima in a standing wave pattern on the line differ so much in magnitude that there no literal meaning to the concept of VSWR. the distance Ad — X/2. Use the results of Problem 8. If a transmission line 8. successive is has an attenuation of a few decibels per wavelength.25 for all impedances whose normalized imaginary component is negative.25 and 0. and lies between 0. \p\ where is Then show that q = ir/2).9b).55 on a lowloss transmission line.14. From the reflection coefficient the normalized impedance at d can be calculated using (7.5 for all impedances whose normalized imaginary component is positive.373 wavelengths (plus any number 8. There is a VSWR of 2. mum.75 on a low loss transmission line whose characteristic impedance is 50 + JO the value of the impedance at the voltage maxima and at the voltage minima in the pattern on the line? Ans. 28. is line has low .15.5 + jO ohms at the maxima. measuring such a value that can be measured by the method of Problem 8. Where can a stub line be connected in shunt with the transmission line to remove the standing waves from the line on the signal source side of the stub. Show also that d VCmin) /X for the point at coordinate d can be usefully defined as the distance in wavelengths from that location to the nearest point of contact of the voltage standing wave pattern with its lower envelope. If the stub is connected on the signal source side of a voltage minimum. If the stub is connected on the terminal load side of a voltage minimum. (£/? and for 8.089 wavelengths on either side of any voltage minimum in the standing wave pattern.18.17.9a) and (7. and what must be the length of the stub? Ans. 87. of half wavelengths). Show from equations (8. and — 2q is the phase angle of the reflection coefficient at the origin of the d coordinates.5 ohms at the minima There ohms. is 1.x 2 P sin (2 fid) y = tan .CHAP. it should have a length of 0.414.20. is a VSWR is What standing wave 8. VSWR > in (corresponding to £/? Ad this result is in agreement with equation (8. Show in that on a low loss transmission line the voltage magnitude at any coordinate d can be expressed terms of the voltage magnitude at a minimum of the pattern by 4 \v(d)\ \p\ = \v(d)\ min ^i + (1 + cos2 [p[)2 ^+ 1 "2 g) the constant magnitude of the constant voltage reflection coefficient at all points of the lowloss line.31) to give the magnitude of the reflection coefficient at that point. that the normalized impedance at any point on a transmission line is given by Z/ZQ = where p is the reflection coefficient at the point. it should have a length of 0.3. if the origin of the d coordinates is chosen at a voltage on the line as the equation can be written in terms of the minimum (which makes VSWR \V(d)\ = y(d) min {l + (VSWR2l)sin2^}i/2 Finally.3) and (8.18 VSWR. VSWR VSWR 8.127 wavelengths (plus any number of half wavelengths).19) that <i V(min) /\ lies between and 0. which may be chosen anywhere on the line. and that this value of d v(mln) /\ can be used in (8.25).16. measured from a voltage maximum in the standing wave pattern if the or from a point of contact of the pattern with its upper envelope otherwise. Show that the lowest VSWR and that 8. and the envelopes of the pattern are drawn. i _ Show (1 + p)/(l — p)   . 8] STANDING WAVE PATTERNS 183 8.19. Show that if a graph is made of the standing wave pattern of voltage magnitude produced on such a line by some terminal load impedance. Then show that the phase angle y of the normalized impedance at any point is . of 1. in the direction of the signal source. P when d losses. show that \V(d)\ if Ad is the distance between two points on either side of any voltage mini. at which = V2 V(d) min then sin* a/3 Ad) = 1/(VSWR 2 1) 1 and «^ 1) Vl + sin 2 (i/3 Ad) VSWR = „ % sin Ad) V1 . it is meaningful to define the of the pattern at any coordinate d as the ratio of the ordinate of the upper envelope to that of the lower envelope at that location. and that such a value can be used in equation (8.
published by A. and there have been frequent occurrences of exponential numbers with complex exponents and of hyperbolic rents. particularly on highfrequency systems.Chapter 9 Graphical Aids to Transmission Line Calculations 9. hyperbolic functions and of the assistance available from mathefunctions of real variables. but for high frequency systems with low loss per wavelength they are more cumbersome than other graphical forms now available. Kennelly of Harvard University in 1914 and widely used for several decades. Arithmetical evaluation of complex exponential and functions inverse to these are timeconsuming. For calculations on systems such as cable pairs and openwire lines at voice frequencies and low carrier frequencies. This of graphical aids in transmission The graphs have taken many different forms. is more versatile and more generally satisfactory than any of the others for solving the most commonly encountered problems.e. the charts are still useful. \ \ third type of chart that was much used in the past and may still be encountered occasionally is plotted on the normalized impedance plane. charts were intended particularly for the solution of impedance problems by the use of equations (7. E. The preceding chapters have developed several equations for calculating voltages. The Smith chart is plotted on the voltage reflection coefficient plane or pplane. and the matical tables is less effective than for the corresponding is undoubtedly the reason for the long history of the use line calculations. impedances.1. i. The variables in these equations have generally been complex numbers. presented loci of the real and imaginary parts of the complex hyperThe bolic tangent and other functions over the complex variable or neperradian plane. Naturally the chart can also be considered as plotted on rectangular coordinates of the real and imaginary components of p. [7. it is often euphemistically designated as the "Jones" chart.e.20). label "rectangular impedance" chart is also applied to it. Smith of the Bell Telephone Laboratories. Good significantfigure precision over a large portion of the neperradian plane was achieved by the large graph size of about twenty inches square.19) and (7. commonly known as the "Smith" chart. H. 184 .18). reflection coefficients functions of complex arguments. on linear polar coordinates of P = P e j * where P is a general voltage reflection coefficient at any point of a transmission line. i. The A . It is named for P. curand standing wave data on transmission lines. A Chart Atlas of Complex Hyperbolic Functions. on rectangular coordinates To distinguish it from the of general normalized impedance components R/Z and X/Z Smith chart in references. who in 1939 published one of the first descriptions of the uses of the chart. Since the 1940's there has developed a quite general agreement that one particular form of transmission line chart. and by presenting separate graphs of various portions of the plane on different scales. Transmission line charts.
impedances can occur for certain ranges of Z T when Z is complex. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 185 One of the several important advantages of the Smith chart is that. coordinate. Extending the Smith chart to a radius of 2. P is the ratio at any point on the line of the where P is .2. as is effectively true for most transmission lines used at high frequencies. having low attenuation per wavelength to ensure that the characteristic impedance is very nearly real and that the relation between standing wave data and reflection coefficient values is simple. In the form in which it is now always printed.Z/Zo ~ 1 ~ ziz^Ti (9 1) {9J) the complex voltage reflection coefficient at a point on a transmission line.414 in the reflection coefficient plane allows it to handle all possible problems of transmission lines with complex characteristic impedance and a partial range of situations involving active network elements connected to transmission lines. the Smith chart displays orthogonal curvilinear coordinates of normalized impedance components on the voltage reflection coefficient plane. within a circular contour enclosing a finite area of the voltage reflection coefficient plane. and From the defining equation = (Z/Z  1)/(Z/Z f + 1) it is ' easily seen that = \   n <j> <f> handle transmission line problems with all possible values of characteristic impedance and all possible values of connected impedances with both positive and negative resistance components. i.29). is an active network or easily can be produced Such normalized occur when Z is device.10) it is coefficient may have a magnitude as great as 1 + \/2. by substituting 1/\ P for each P value of radial — for each value of angular coordinate. understood to be the input impedance of the total transmission line circuit on the terminalload side of the point. passive transmission line circuits at high frequencies. it has been seen in Section 7. it presents complete information relating all possible values of normalized impedances. This is the situation for which the Smith chart as normally printed is primarily intended. reflection coefficients and standing wave pattern data for all transmission line circuits involving only passive connected impedances. circuit. When found that a reflection coefficient of magnitude greater than unity only by impedances ivhose normalized value has a negative real part. i. shows that the magnitude of the voltage reflection coefficient at the terminal load must lie between zero and unity for all passive values of terminalload impedance Z T and equation (8. subject only to the limitation of low attenuation per wavelength. or 2. page 128. For the simple case when the characteristic impedance of a transmission line is real.414.6 that the reflection From equation (7.e. as it is for telephone lines at frequencies near 1 kilohertz. shows that this is then also true of the general voltage reflection coefficient P at any point of any line. In terms of the traveling voltage waves on the line. Equations for constructing the Smith chart. P changing that suggests This lip. or can real if Z T has a negative resistance component. and ZIZq is the normalized value of the impedance at that point.10). but without restriction as to the total attenuation of the . Z/Zo to Z/Zo results in a reflection coefficient P given by P will be parts real a separate complete Smith chart for normalized impedances with negative if the parts real identical with the standard chart for normalized impedances with positive plane on which the standard chart is plotted is recalibrated as the lip plane or negative reciprocal reflection coefficient plane. The Smith chart for this case is completely contained within a unit circle of the pplane centered at the origin. equation (7.CHAP. The two charts taken together will 9. page 176.e. It is thus derived from the relation p . the characteristic impedance of a transmission line is complex.
0. Table 9.1 rn = R/Z Q Coordinates of center of circle Radius of V 1 circle u 1/7 1/3 1 1/8 1/4 1/2 7/8 3/4 1/2 1/4 3 3/4 7/8 7 1/8 15 15/16 1/16 bounding illustrate All of these circles except the last one are plotted in Fig. traveling toward the terminal load. these circles are on the reflection coefficient plane or pplane. complex number notation to The algebra of deriving the equations for the Smith chart is Let P = u + jv. the first being the circle of the standard Smith chart. and let P and to Z/Z . The table shows .2) 1 Cross multiplying and grouping real and imaginary terms yields two equations. traveling toward the signal source. 7.3) + x n (u — 1) = —v 2urn (94) Eliminating x n and regrouping terms in order of powers of u and powers of u2 (rn + Dividing all 1) + v 2 (rn + 1) = 1  r„ (9. for the circles which are the loci of several constant values of r„ distributed over the zerotoinfinity range of that variable.5) terms by (r„ + 1) and is completing the square of the resulting two terms conT" rn taining u2 and u. and whose radius is l/(r„ + 1). 91 below. pass through the point 1. The following table gives the coordinates of the center.186 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS [CHAP.6) On any value of rectangular coordinates of u and v this is the equation of a circle whose center for r„ is located at « = rj(rn + 1). (2 in which the radius of any circle is half the radius of the previous circle. From the definition of u and v. 3. The values listed have been chosen to \ \ two features of the construction of the chart which are useful memory aids for visualizing the relation of the rn circles to one another. and the radius.1) becomes components U + JV Tn T" J%n J Tn + jX n + (9. .. The unique positions of the normalized resistance circles for rn = and r„ = 1 are easily remembered. P = 1. to the phasor value of the incident voltage wave. 1. gives (9. the result u + V+ 1. Equation (9. . simplified by assigning Z/Zo(=R/Zo + jX/Z ) = Zn = Tn + jXn its the subscript n and the lower case letters implying that the impedance and are in normalized form. 15. v .0. rn (u rn v — 1)  xnv = —(u + 1) v. . v2 (rn * + l) 2 (9. All the circles fc .1) constitute a series that the circles for normalized resistance values 0. 9 phasor value of the reflected voltage wave.
Coordinate circles for constant normalized resistance on the Fig. an equation {9. the intersections with the central horizontal axis of the chart of the circles for r„ and r« = l/r„ occur at points symmetrical with respect to the center of the chart.5 0. 92. Smith chart.5 5 ±2 ±1 ±0. If the procedure in deriving is of x n .CHAP. The result is . xn = Fig.5 ±0.2 ±1 ±2 ±5 0. within the bounding circle p = 1. 92. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 187 The second feature to be noticed is that for any value of rn .2 ±0. „ vo (Ulf + (VllXnf = . for the circles corresponding to values of x n of equal magnitude but opposite sign. The radii of the particular circles shown are related by simple fractions.3) and (9.4) is repeated eliminating r« instead found for the locus of any constant value of x n on the u. v coordinates.6) from (9.„ . (9.„ 2 In „. 91. Table 9. The point of intersection of any x n circle with the .7) from which the following table is constructed. (1/Xn) . The most obvious symmetry exhibited here is the mirrorimage symmetry about the horizontal central axis of the chart.2 xn = X/Z u Coordinates of center of circle Radius of circle V infinite infinite 0. similar to one of the symmetries of the r„ circles.2 These circles are plotted in Fig.2 5 5 5 2 1 0. Coordinate circles for constant normalized reactance on the Smith chart. Inspection reveals another symmetrical aspect.
A standard commercially available form of Smith chart graph paper. Copyrighted 1949 by Kay Electric Company. 9 bounding circle of the chart is diametrically opposite to the point of intersection of the = l/x n with the bounding circle.' i 'i'i'i'i'i §1 Fig.. 93. Pine Brook. J. These two symmetries combine to give the result that the point of intersection with the bounding circle for any x n circle is the mirror image. N. 93 is detailed Smith chart in its standard published form shown in an extension of the procedures that have been described. and reprinted with their permission..V 188 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS [CHAP. of the point of intersection of the Xn circle. The construction of the Fig. with respect to the central vertical axis of the chart. when x n = l/x n circle for x' n . .i 'i' V i i' W hi" b b ' ' l ' 'i' > ' I A 'I 'i' M 'i'i' T^I S i z • 92 I ' I S ' ' I 'l ' I II 'l ' ' I I I I M * 1 I s 1 I s 1 P 6 I I I I \ / W b i' b . The meanings of the IMPEDANCE OR ADMITTANCE COORDINATES RADIALLY SCALED PARAMETERS 3 8 8 g £ g s> ' TOWARD GENERATOR   TOWARD LOAD ' J ' V I 8 i' 8 ' .
'2. 93.00.j"2. Example 9.22 + j'O. Two values of normalized pure resistance that produce a reflection coefficient of 0. and the locus of all normalized impedances which are purely resistive when normalized relative to a real characteristic impedThere are two answers to the problem.'2.52. In the standard chart of Fig. with the zero of the scale at the center of the chart. which shows a phase angle of 309° to the radial line through the normalized impedance 0. The angular scale Fig.50 Fig. Determine the reflection coefficient at the terminal load end of the line.64. what is the normalized value of the impedance at the point? coefficient At a 0.. point on a transmission line the reflection is measured as having a magnitude of 0.00.CHAP. cients of Fig. as shown in Fig. 94 can therefore be found as the ratio of two lengths.) If the impedance at that point of the line is a pure resistance. The normalized terminal load impedance is z n — rn + jx n = (25 — .1.64 .00.3.55 + i0 or 0.50 .82. 96 shows the locus of all reflection coeffimagnitude 0. Reflection coefficient coordi .00.00 is p = 0. Reflection coefficient and normalized impedance. scales 9.1). at each of the intersections of the two loci.i0. The value for the point plotted on Fig. and the characteristic impedance of the line is real. one ance.. Location on the Smith chart of the normalized impedance z n — 0. The answers are rn + jx n = 4. 93 is a scale of reflection coefficient phase angle.2. .2. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 189 around the periphery of the chart and of the set of auxiliary scales accompanying the chart at the bottom of the figure are discussed in succeeding sections of this chapter. 94.50 — J2. immediately outside the periphery of the Smith chart of Fig.00. Example 9. 94 shows where this value of normalized impedance is located on the Smith chart. Thus the reflection coefficient produced by a normalized impedance 0. Reflection coefficient magnitude is a linear radial scale reading from zero at the center of the chart to unity at the periphery. (A device called a reflectometer can make such a measurement. 95.2.50 — J2.309° Fig.64. . (radius to the point)/(outer radius of the chart). 95. nates of the point having normalized impedance coordinates zn = 0. it can be used to solve graphically problems that would be solved analytically by using equation {9.22 + j'O 4.50 — . the upper right hand scale of the radial scales at the bottom of the chart is provided for making this measurement. A 25 — transmission line with characteristic impedance Z = 50 + i0 ohms is terminated in an impedance ilOO ohms.64.82 /309° = 0.55 + .50 .'100)/(50 + jO) = 0. and when laid along the radial line through the normalized impedance 0. it shows the magnitude of the reflection coefficient produced by this value of normalized impedance to be 0. From the description of the Smith chart given in Section 9. 4. 96.0 Fig.
wave ratio it produces.25 Fig. 98. and there is a voltage minimum in the standingwave pattern at a distance dy(min)/A in wavelengths from the point. only for this case that the concept of voltage standingwave ratio has a useful empirical meaning.5 0.3125 0.8) and (9.8) 1IpI = i(l+<£/7r) ± \7l (9. 97 and the dvcmuo/A coordinates in Fig.190 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS Coordinates for standingwave data. plane.4.9375 2v The VSWR coordinates listed are plotted in Fig. source. Table 9. These were VSWR dv<min)/A 1 + (9.9) it is a simple matter to place coordinates of VSWR and on the reflection coefficient plane on which the Smith chart is drawn. () . 2. Circle loci of constant VSWR Fig.3125 0. 97.25 tt/4 tt/2 IT 0.50 or 3 0. 0. From dv(min)/A Table Reflection coefficient 9.875 15 31 3ir/2 0. 3. 98. The since it is equations (9.2 0.25 0.375 0.3 Voltage standingwave ratio Reflection coefficient magnitude IpI phase angle <P Distance of voltage minimum in wavelengths from point of reflection VSWR 1 1. In Chapter 8 two simple equations were derived which respectively related voltage standingwave ratio to reflection coefficient magnitude.125 0. on the reflection coefficient Radial line loci of constant d V (min)M on the reflection coefficient plane.50 0. and the locations of voltage minima to reflection coefficient phase angle. is the voltage standing. For such lines the characteristic impedance is real. and .9) Here p = pe j * is the reflection coefficient at any point on a transmission line. in the direction of the signal VSWR relations are valid only on lines which have low attenuation per wavelength.75 7 0. 9 9. to 1 4.3 gives data for a few such coordinates.375 0.5 0. [CHAP. circles The four intermediate have radii proportional n with n = 1.
This is in agreement with a result shown in Chapter 8. the lowest one at the left is a scale of determined from equation (9. either by reference to a radial scale. Fig.9).415. the point of tangency being on the = radius. 99 shows this point on a Smith chart and indicates how the resulting value can be found. with r„ > 1. 910. . On a line whose characteristic impedance is real. wavelengths from the terminalload end of the line.4. Printed forms of the Smith chart displaying both the (rn> x n and the (VSWR. Such a scale is printed on the chart of Fig. it was shown in Section 7. What is the voltage standingwave ratio on the line. and where are the minima in the voltage standingwave pattern located relative to the terminalload end of the line? At To enter the chart.6° Fig.415 The numerical value for a Fig. = 0. 93. Of the radial scales at the bottom of Fig. 91 shows VSWR circle is tangent to the rn circle of the same numerical value. since dvcmuo/A is a function of only. 910 shows that the value of d V(min) /\ for the same point is 0.. 1. it can be determined for any point on the chart by a radial scale derived from the radial scale for reflection coefficient magnitude. 97 with the data and form of Fig. The answer is VSWR = 4. Since is a function of P only. 93 immediately outside the angular scale of reflection coefficient phase angle.6. VSWR A Fig. discussed in Example the terminalload end of a lowloss transmission line there is a reflection coefficient of —0.415. Similarly.CHAP. refers to a different use of the chart. it can be measured for any point on the chart by a linear angular scale derived from the linear angular scale for <j>.3. (The inscription \ \ VSWR VSWR <j> "WAVELENGTHS TOWARD LOAD" Section 9.) 9. the VSWR produced is numerically equal to r„. or by making use of the fact mentioned above that a nor.30 + /0.63 /118. etc. The magnitude of the reflection coefficient for power under these conditions is then the square of the magnitude of the . the reflection coefficient must be expressed in polar form as p — 0. dy (m in)/A) pairs of coordinates are occasionally encountered. 99. 0.415.915. that if a transmission line is terminated in a normalized impedance of value rn + JO.8) in terms of the linear radial scale of reflection coefficient magnitude. VSWR coordinate circle is equal to the numerical value of the normalized resistance coordinate circle (rn > 1) to which it is and d V(mln) /X coordi nates of a point on the Smith tangent. VSWR VSWR malized impedance of value rn + jO produces a equal to rn when rn > 1. meaning that minima in the voltage standingwave pattern are located at 0. VSWR chart. Two more of the radial scales at the bottom of Fig. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 191 Comparison of the data and form of Fig.6 that the power in a reflected harmonic wave is proportional to the square of the phasor voltage magnitude of the wave. using equation (9. but the resulting density of lines in some that each </> ) parts of the chart is confusing. 93 can now be explained in terms of the scales that have been described above.55.
With permission of The Emeloid Hillside. N. on strip's radial scales. 93 is a radial scale of power reflection coefficient magnitude. derived as the square of the voltage reflection coefficient magnitude scale immediately above it. Fig. . 93 printed on it. J. The transparent radial strip.. When the strip's center line and the cursor's transverse cross at a point on the chart. The second scale from the top in the righthand group of radial scales in Fig. 9 voltage reflection coefficient. line line the Co. has eight radial scales similar to those of Fig.192 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS [CHAP. with one end pivoted at the center of the Smith chart. A transparent cursor slides along the strip and is marked with a single line transverse to the center line of the strip. the cursor's transverse shows eight types of information about the point. 911. A Smith chart "slide rule".
50.. the second from the bottom on the left gives the decibel values for the VSWR values on the scale immediately below it. is assigned as Problem 9. In a commercially available form of Smith chart "slide rule". In addition to being useful for handling data in the coordinates indicated.10) calculations. 912. S.375 m Hence dv (mln )A = 0. and a transverse line on a transparent plastic cursor that moves along the strip. It is sometimes convenient to work with impedances expressed in polar form rather than in complexnumber component form. The characteristic impedance of the section at the operating frequency What is the of 800 megahertz is 50 + . this chart illustrates another and very striking form of symmetry of the . VSWR For the data of Example is 9.35 .35 — . with the result VSWR in db = Expressing a 201ogi 20 logic VSWR (9. and there is a voltage minimum in the standing wave pattern 8. current or power it some reference.3. calculated from equation (9. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 193 Many communication to engineers become so attached to decibel notation that they prefer to express all possible quantities pertaining to voltage. eight radial scales similar to those of Fig.0875/0. and the VSWR 13. 93. 93 are printed on a strip of transparent plastic.50. because it was first published by P. Carter of R. 9) of Fig.00 X 10 8 m/sec. 912.C. where z„ = R/Z + jX/Z = \z n \[6_.233 value of dy (niin) /\ is located as shown in Fig.75 cm from the terminal load end of the section. 9. Determination of the normalized terminal load impedance on a lowloss transmission line from standing wave pattern data. 0.0.4.j25 ohms.0. With the addition of a central diametral line on the transparent strip.5. The voltage standing wave pattern observed on an airdielectric coaxial line slotted section shows a VSWR of 2.00 X 10 8 )/(800 X 10 6 ) = this Fig. Since like VSWR is by definition a ratio of voltages.375 = 0. such as facilitating other become a widely accepted conventional notation. in a manner indicated by Fig. the radial distance from the center of the chart to any point on the chart can be referred to any of the eight radial scales.10). in 1939. It would then be helpful to be able to perform Smithchart computations without having to bring all impedances to the complexnumber form required by the chart (z„.A.50 and X = (3. which is mounted at its center point to rotate about the center point of a Smith chart printed on opaque plastic. page 36. the power reflection coefficient is 0.233 The point on the chart with VSWR = 2. The derivation of the equations for the coordinates on the reflection coefficient plane. on the line is therefore = 0.21. Coordinates of magnitude and phase angle of normalized impedance. The graphical nature of the result is shown in Fig.0 db. The actual value of the terminal load impedance in ohms is therefore (2. 911 above. The normalized impedance coordinates of this point are found to be rn + jx n = 2. in decibels relative lends itself directly to a decibel formula equation {415). value of the terminal load impedance? The adjective "airdielectric" establishes that the phase velocity on the slotted section is the free The wavelength space value of 3.50)(50 + jO) = 117 . 93. The Smith chart in this form is sometimes called a "Carter" chart.0 ohms.40. but has in decibels has no particular practical value. 913 below.CHAP. Of the radial scales in Fig. Example 9.
2j0(d 1 d) (9. then the reflection coefficient p = pj e 1 *1 at t any other coordinate di is given by px It follows that = \ p eao^d) e . What impedance of normalized magnitude unity connected as the terminalload impedance on a transmission line will produce a of 3. The results are: . \ : +90^*> §5y( +60° 0. and the circle locus of all points for which the is 3.12) (9.60.0) coordinates are the answer to the question. 914 shows the straightline locus of all impedances of normalized magnitude unity. the reflection coefficient magnitude and phase angle will both be greater than at d.1°.0. Determining an impedance of normalized magnitude unity that will produce a VSWR of 3. x n = T/Z = ±0. The vertical central diameter of the chart is the coordinate \zn = 1.80. Fig. The Carter chart. .1. the locus of all impedances of normalized magnitude unity. i. or rn = \z n — \Z T/Z T/Z .13) Pl \ = \ 2«(d 1 d) p e \ 4> t = 4>2p{d d) 1 At points on the signalsource side of d (i.00. the reflection coefficient magnitude and phase angle will both be less than at d. At points on the terminal load side of d (di < d).5.00? VSWR R Fig. 9 Smith chart.00.10 that if is the voltage reflection coefficient at any P = P e coordinate d on a uniform transmission line. These loci intersect in two points whose (rn .194 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS [CHAP. Applied to the Smith chart.11) (9. e — ±53. i4> It was shown in Section 8. VSWR \ \ X 9.e. 914. Example 9.25/ s2 A +30° 9 4 2 1 "' —f\Y^ lv\ = 0°  3CT ZL 6Q5^ 90^ Fig.x n ) or (z„.e. these results provide a very simple and direct graphical procedure for finding the normalized impedance at any point on a transmission line in terms of the normalized impedance at any other point on the line and the values of total attenuation al and phase shift (31 for the length of line I between the two points. Two impedances of equal phase angle but with reciprocally related normalized magnitudes lie at mirrorimage points relative to this central vertical diameter. 913. Coordinates of normalized impedance magnitude and phase angle on the reflection coefficient plane. dx > d). Impedance transformations on the Smith \ \ chart.6.
4 chart "slide rule" mentioned in Section these scales can be set at any relative to the main body of the chart. is conveniently expressed attenuation of the line between the two locations. r„ and x n are the normalized components of the impedance at some coordinate d on a transmission line having a It is desired to finite attenuation factor. The intervals of at U = 0.794 for every decibel attenuation of the line between will be reduced by a factor e" chart of Fig. cases involve only angular motion around the of stub lines susceptances input the are VSWR coordinate as the original.794. From equathe reflection coefficient at coordinate di will have a phase angle smaller by 2p{dxd) = (47rA)(di . This attenuation coefficient magnitude at d x > d in decibels. The normalized impedance at the point di will therefore be on a radius of the tion (9. but On the radial scales 1. the second at P = 0. The procedure adopted on the Smith  from the value The magnitude of the reflection coefficient at the coordinate di will differ closer to the be **<aia>.CHAP. know the normalized impedance components a point di on the line. The outermost angular scale from 93 is such a scale. 915.686 decibels. di being r' and x' n at n on the signal source side of d. by an angle in radians which normalized impedance transformations is 4r times the length of transmission line in between two locations on a lossy transmission line. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 195 In Fig. so that the origin of indicates desired point. is an identical scale increasing in the counterclockwise on the WAVELENGTHS TOWARD LOAD for transformations from d to di when di isfor both that the origin terminal load side of d. Examples   .d) than the phase angle of the reflection coefficient at coordinate d. direction and labeled inside it. quite length over which the transformation occurs is at the same P or being point final the chart. points.631. 93 this is the 1db step occurs first the hand linear scale of reflection coefficient magnitude shows that scale as printed 2 this = 0. 915. and the inscription WAVELENGTHS TOWARD GENERATOR clockwise on this scale if di is that transformation from a coordinate d to a coordinate di is Paired with the above scale and just closer to the signal source or generator than d is. especially near the periphery. marked the between advantage of the inherent precision of the chart. by a = without numbers. The angular scale on the chart to be used for a transmission line determining the impedance transformation between two locations on full rotation) around the should therefore be a linear scale at the rate of 1n radians (one on the Smith chart of Fig. the at top the from scale second of Fig. 13) al on 1 DB STEPS scale dt d X on WAVELENGTHS TOWARD GENERATOR scale chart that lies clockwise (decreasing <f>) imthe angular location of the normalized Fig. wavelengths between the two points. In interpolating scale. some calculations most comUndoubtedly a large majority of the impedancetransformation attenuation of the line total the where monly made using the Smith chart are for situations calculations in these The negligible. Use of Smith chart for determining pedance at d. the reflection 686 2' 8 = 0. 93 for handling coordinates d and di. the of effort must be made to allow for the nonlinearity     this factor graphically is the provision of a radial scale marked at 1 decibel intervals. The angular coordinate scales is on the left hand horizontal axis has no coordinate scales angular the of rotation permits 9. For these transformation problems the fact Smith significance. Since 1 neper = 8. starting at the periphery of the chart where P with the top rightComparison left. chart for every half wavelength.794 taking full permit to on the standard chart are too large. etc. The normalized impedance at di will therefore at d by the factor e on the total dependent factor center of the chart than the normalized impedance at d.
and there are successive voltage minima at 0.5 + j'35 ohms.900 = 4. The i.17 WAVELENGTHS TOWARD LOAD.86.196 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS [CHAP.70)(50 + jO) = 37.77 + jO. The value is then the same on the transmission line. 4. counterclockwise. it was not in fact necessary to calculate the impedance at the connector as an intermediate step. wavelengths Fig. Example 9. using the method of Example 9. the transformations of quarterwavelength transformers (Section 7.4.00 X 10 8 /0.75 m long and is terminated in an antenna. TEM slotted section is 0. and the same attenuation (zero). and the line length in wave lengths is 3.6. The result is rn + jx n = 1. 917.7. its characteristic impedance is 72 + jO ohms.20 + 4.900 = 0.37.25 and a dVimi^/X of 0. the same phase velocity.122 ohms at that frequency when the terminalload end of the section is m .17 wavelengths.0 megahertz.25 and dVCmin) /\ = 0.4. The normalized impedance of the antenna as terminal load impedance. What is the impedance of the antenna at the frequency of the measurements? airdielectric slotted section is connected to istic An As in Example 9.200 are used. 916. the terminal load antenna impedance can be evaluated directly from the fact that it produces a VSWR of 2.180/0. Since the slotted section and the transmission line in this problem have the same characteristic impedance. and the input impedance of the section is measured to be 105 + . an airdielectric transmission line of the same characterimpedance 50 + jO ohms by a reflectionless connector.630 m from the connector.e. The transmission line is 3. Normalized impedance transformation toward the load on a lossless transmission line. which is 4.25 long.180 and 0.900 The separation of 0. 3. Fig.450 m between consecutive voltage minima shows that the wavelength on the m.75/0.70. along the constant VSWR circle through the normalized input impedance point. A section of flexible plasticdielectric coaxial highfrequency transmission line is 24.3). the use of the adjective "airdielectric" is a way of indicating that the phase velocity of the voltage waves on both the slotted section and the transmission line is the free space value for electromagnetic waves.00 wavelengths of the transmission line length have no effect on the result.00 X 10 8 m/sec. is found to be 0. The normalized terminal load impedance connected to the line is therefore found by moving 0. Example 9. and the impedance is (0.77 + j'0. the values VSWR = 2. the input impedances of short feed lines terminated in transmitting antennas.4). The frequency of measurement is 3.17 wavelengths long. The total attenuation of the line and slotted section is negligible. The location of the point on the Smith chart is shown in Fig. For calculating the normalized impedance at the connector. This value of rn + jx n is the normalized input impedance of the transmission line. and in general the transformations occurring whenever a short section of transmission line acts as a connector between two components of a high frequency circuit. At a frequency of 50.25. Determining the attenuation factor and phase velocity of a transmission line from the normalized input impedance of a section of the line with short circuit termination. If the slotted section and transmission line are regarded as a single continuous length of uniform system.900 = 333 megahertz. 9 (Section 7.62 i0. On the slotted section the voltage standing wave pattern is observed to have a VSWR of 2. since they merely represent eight complete rotations around the chart back to the starting point.17 = 4. 916.
1. However. it is impedance load terminal the Since 917 above. the normalized impedance of any length of stub line (the name implies negligible losses) will also be found on the outer boundary of the chart.193 wavelengths. in shown the Smith chart is the central horizontal axis. 9.0.6 through one quarter wavelength (i. on motions identical involve would in the series 0. that 24.. termination. The angular distance measured clockwise from the radius through the short circuit point to the radius Example 9. 1. 0. all of which m. 1.852. wavelengths and hence of fi and v p will be found.e. electromagnetic velocity of plane the chart.46 + jl. The normalized input susceptance of a section of lossless line with open circuit Other answers are 0. 93.25 m length of Une must have that found it is 1 db steps. the normalized rotation found by be will impedance of the section according to the method of Section 9. 918 shows that the rotation required to reach the normalized reactance value of +0. halfway around the chart) with no change of radial opposite distance from the center of the chart.193. and this Generally only one pair of terms will coincide closely in the two series of fi will be the correct value for the line. 1. line is 2.193 offered by the measurejustify a decisive choice among the possible values 5.0.CHAP. What must be the length of a stub line with open circuit termination.193.0 frequency The free space wavelength for TEM waves at a dielectric constant of about 2. etc. The factor of about 1/V2T25 this approximate reasoning cannot However. 5. 50.35 X some other term be therefore must wavelengths in length The waves. Fig.4).693. on the outer boundary of the chart at the right hand end of the central horizontal axis.67. Scaling the located at the zero impedance point of the chart. 6. Fig.8.00 megahertz of 50. the generator being implicitly at the end opposite the terminal load open circuit impedance) through an angle corresponding to the length of the line in wavelengths. The normalized value of terminal of its value normalized the of reciprocal input impedance of such a section is the A quarter wavelength load impedance.693. 6.75? Entering the Smith chart at the open circuit or infinite normalized impedance point as in Fig.75 is 0. taken as the normalized terminal load impedance of input a lossless transmission line section one quarter wavelength long.25/24. cate a wavelength of 127 m and a phase velocity of 6.0107 nepers/m. 2.70. the attenuation factor of the line? What can be determined about the phase velocity from the measured impedance? of this point on The normalized value of the measured input impedance is 1.0 of frequency a long at wavelengths 0. at the left end of impedance point along the scale of input normalized the chart to the of periphery the from radial distance the 24.25. 918. and the line be therefore may line the = on wavelength 0. section of lossless transmission line has the property of being an the inverter of normalized impedance values (see Section 7.352. in order that the stub shall have a normalized input reactance of +0.0 m.693 and 7.25 m of transthrough the input impedance point is 0.25 about of attenuation an on the line 0. the same line.193 only mission line should be times the free space twenty than more 10° m/sec.193. which tion.. wavelengths. after clockwise rotation (WAVELENGTHS TOWARD GENERATOR.7.25 . 918. second from the top at the left in Fig. The location is a short circuit. Fig. it is impossible since this would indimegahertz. The quarter wavelength transformer If any point on the Smith chart is .352 wavelengths. Normalized admittance coordinates. with short circuit terminaof length shorter for a measured is impedance input If the ments. The plastic is 6.852.193. The new point will thus be diametrically numerical the that states property the original point. about be case that in would wavelengths in length 6.693. another sequence of values of the line length in values or vp values.093 db/m the factor of attenuation the Hence decibels. is an answer to the quesetc. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS What is 197 shortcircuited. and the have a lines coaxial flexible in used commonly dielectrics most free space value by a wave velocity on transmission lines filled with these materials will be less than the about 4. tion.
198
GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS
[CHAP.
9
value of this normalized input impedance is the reciprocal of the normalized value of the initially chosen terminal load impedance which, by definition, is the normalized admittance value of that impedance.
It follows from this example that rotation of the (r„, x n ) coordinates for the chart as a whole through 180° on the reflection coefficient plane around the center of the chart will substitute normalized admittance coordinates (g n ,b n ) at every point for the normalized impedance coordinates (r„, x n ). The nature of the (g n b n ) coordinates is shown in Fig. 919.
,
The equation
of
K is always opposite to that of x n
(g n
+ jbn) =
l/(rn
+ jx n =
)
.
rn/(r n + x n )
2
The upper
 jxj(r n + x n ) shows that the sign half of the Smith chart contains all nor2
2
2
malized impedances for which x„ is positive, or all normalized admittances for which &„ negative. In the lower half of the chart the signs are reversed.
is
Fig. 919.
The Smith chart with normalized conductance and susceptance coordinates on the reflection coefficient plane.
CHAP.
9]
GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS
199
such practical situations as In the general study of circuit analysis and its application to that the language indicates experience amplifiers, filters, matching networks, and electronic importance fully an has elements, circuit of admittance, appropriate to parallelconnected circuit elements seriesconnected to appropriate comparable to the language of impedance, are connected sections line transmission different In the case of transmission lines, when at the parallel connected invariably almost together in a multibranch system, they are partly be may that reasons for (Fig. 920(6)), series junctions (Fig. 920(a)) rather than in in stubline coaxial a connect to possible fact in electrical and partly mechanical. It is not outside the of property shielding the destroying series with another coaxial line without difficulties. conductors, but a parallelconnected junction of the two raises no
m
(a)
«»
(a)
Fig. 920.
A
(b) in series
branch transmission line connected with a main transmission
in parallel
and
line.
The analyses of Chapter 7 and the discussions of the Smith chart in the preceding secbut this tions have used impedance terminology much more freely than that of admittance, must and presentations, was solely in the interest of better uniformity and continuity in the engineer An kind. any of not be taken to imply that the impedance language has priority
equally using the Smith chart for calculations on transmission line circuits should be admittance normalized or well prepared to use the chart in either normalized impedance
coordinates.
disUnfortunately, textbooks and other writings about the Smith chart have used two switching in used be to tinctly different conventions as to the manipulative procedures between normalized impedance and normalized admittance coordinates. The distinction between the two conventions is a simple one on the surface, but it can be a source of considerable confusion and error. normalized In the one convention, used in this book and already described above, the Fig. 919 and 93 Fig. by illustrated impedance and normalized admittance coordinate grids The plane. coefficient reflection the respectively, are used as separate plots or overlays on coeffireflection with constant, kept absolute orientation of the coordinates of this plane is any physical cient phase angle increasing counterclockwise from zero at the right. Since identified uniquely is impedance structure connected to a transmission line as a terminal load locageometric the unchanged leaves by the reflection coefficient it produces, this procedure shortcircuit, a representing point the as tion on the chart of all physical connotations, such assembly of resistthe point representing an opencircuit, the point representing any given for dvcnmo/X coordiangle zeroreference anceinductancecapacitance components, and the at the achieved is chart the on correspondences nates. This stability of all the physical grid. coordinate the obtain n 6„) to grid (g expense of having to rotate the (r„, x n) coordinate conthis of use the facilitates above mentioned The design of the Smithchart "slide rule" the to relative circle unit the within vention by permitting rotation of the coordinates unit the of appearance the convention, this In using peripheral angular coordinates. 921 (a) below normalizedrealpart circle on the right of the symbolic Smith chart of Fig. normahzedunit the if while used, being are coordinates signifies that normalized impedance coordinates admittance normalized below, Fig. 921(6) in realpart circle is on the left as
,
are being used.
200
GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS
[CHAP.
9
(a)
(6)
Fig. 921.
Symbolic representation of the relation between Smith chart orientation and the use of normalized impedance or normalized admittance coordinates. With the unitnormalizedrealpart circle on the right of the chart as in (a), the chart is oriented for normalized impedance coordinates, and the small circle represents unit normalized resistance. When the small circle is on the left, as in (6), the chart is oriented for normalized admittance coordinates, and the small circle represents unit normalized conductance.
In the alternative convention, the (rn x n ) coordinates as printed in Fig. 93 are declared impedance or normalized admittance coordinates as needed, being kept in the orientation shown in both cases. All the physical features of the chart are then rotated through 180° when changing from the (r„, x n ) coordinates to the (g n b n ) coordinates. The shortcircuit point, for example, will be at the left for normalized impedance coordinates and at the right for normalized admittance coordinates.
,
to be either normalized
,
Printed Smith chart graph sheets generally have a statement on them reading "Impedance or Admittance Coordinates", which can be seen at the top of Fig. 93. They also have, as mentioned in Section 9.3, a fixed peripheral angular scale identified as "Angle of Reflection Coefficient in Degrees", reading counterclockwise from zero at the right. The discussion of Section 9.2 has shown that (rn x n ) coordinates appear in the form of Fig. 93 for such a reflectioncoefficient phase angle scale. Hence the label "Impedance or Admittance Coordinates" is valid only when accompanied by the additional instruction that if the chart is to be used in admittance coordinates, either the (rn x n ) coordinates must be rotated 180° on the reflection coefficient plane to become (g n b n ) coordinates, or the reflection coefficient phase angle scale (i.e. the entire reflection coefficient plane) and all of its physical concomitants must be rotated 180° to allow the (r„, x n ) coordinates to become the (g n b n) coordinates without change of position. This book chooses the former of these alternatives.
, , ,
,
Example
9.9.
of 3.25 is observed on a slottedline section, with a voltage minimum 0.205 wavelengths from the terminal load end of the section. What is the value of the normalized admittance at the terminal load end?
A VSWR
Following the convention of Fig. 921(6), the point corresponding to VSWR = 3.25 and dVCmin) /X = The normalized admitis located on the chart oriented for {g n b n ) coordinates as in Fig. 922 below. tance value is found to be 0.33 + jO.26. Note that the origin of the dVCmia /\ coordinates is still the left hand radius of the chart.
0.205
,

)
Example
of 75
9.10.
length of lossless transmission line with short circuit termination and characteristic impedance will have a capacitive input susceptance of 0.0250 mhos? The characteristic admittance of the transmission line is F = 1/Z — 1/(75 + ;0) = 0.0133 + jO mhos. The normalized input susceptance required is therefore 0.0250/0.0133 = 1.87. The normalized input admittance + j'1.87 is located on (g nr b n ) coordinates as shown in Fig. 923 below. The required line length in LOAD over which this wavelengths is found as the angular distance in normalized admittance will transform to the infinite admittance of a short circuit. (Alternatively, the GENERATOR over which a short required length is the angular distance in
What
+ jO ohms
WAVELENGTHS TOWARD
WAVELENGTHS TOWARD
CHAP.
9]
GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS
201
d V <mln)A
=
0.205
Fig. 922.
Determination of normalized terminal load admittance from standing wave data on a lossless line.
Fig. 923.
Normalized input susceptance of a lossless line section with short
circuit termination.
transform to the desired value of normalized admittance.) The result is found Answers of 0.922, to be 0.422 wavelengths. 1.422, etc., wavelengths are equally correct.
circuit will
Just as the Carter chart of Section
9.5
0.25
and Fig. 913 presented coordinates of magnitude and phase angle of normalized impedance on the reflection coefficient plane, so the same coordinates rotated 180° on the plane become coordinates of magnitude and phase angle of
normalized admittance, as indicated in Fig. 924. Fig. 924 is obtained from Fig. 913 by changing the sign of the phase angle coordinates and changing the value on each normalized magnitude
coordinate to
its reciprocal.
Vn\
=0
Fig. 924.
The Carter chart with coordinates of magnitude and phase angle of normalized admittance.
9.8.
Inversion of complex numbers.
It is
worth noting that the Smith chart can be used as a graphical device for finding the reciprocal of any complex number, even if the calculation has no reference to transmission
lines.
Example
It is
9.11.
Find the reciprocal of 244
— j3S.
,
obviously not satisfactory to take these numbers directly into the Smith chart as (rn x n) coordiInspection of Fig. nates, since the result would be indistinguishable from the infinity point of the chart. most 913 shows that the magnitude and phase angle scales for normalized impedance or admittance are magnitude is of normalized the where chart, i.e. the of line vertical central the expanded in the vicinity of the order of unity. number such as 200 or If the complex number 244 — jSS is "normalized" relative to some simple real result will be located 300, approximately equal to the magnitude of 244  j3S, the arithmetic is easy and the "noron the (r n x n) or {g n b n ) coordinates of the chart near the unit normalized magnitude locus. The obtained result final the chart, and the on point opposite reciprocal is found at the diametrically
,
,
malized" by denormalizing this relative to the original normalizing reference.
has the value 0. This requires that the attenuation per wavelength on the lines be much less than one neper. x n ) Its reciprocal. but are which Fig. of the chart for some of these purposes are assigned 9.22 — i0. is coordinates The location of shown in Fig. and from relations derived in Section 8. and by extension sinh {x + jy) and cosh (x + jy). 1. return loss = 10 log™ 2 \p\ decibels (9 . As the names suggest. Use of the Smith chart to find the re identical.e. . 93 remain to be explained. For Heaviside's "distortionless" line the difference is zero. 9 — ^38 relative to 200 gives this point 925. they are various ways of expressing power relations on transmission lines in the presence of both reflected waves and line attenuation. and the one at the top left.6. Other mathematical uses of the Smith chart. All three scales are valid only for lines whose characteristic impedance is real. It will be seen that the "normalizing" and "denormalizing" processes in this operation are not reciprocally related as they were in the transformation calculations of Section 9. tanh (x + jy) and coth (x + jy) and. as special cases of these. i.11*) where p is the voltage reflection coefficient at the point in question. At any specific point on a uniform transmission line the power carried by the reflected wave (traveling from the terminal load toward the signal source) will be less than the power carried by the incident wave (traveling from the signal source toward the terminal load) when the magnitude of the reflection coefficient at the terminal load end of the line is less than unity. circular tangents and cotangents tan * and cot x. These are the two at the bottom right. on (rn . The probable error in each component in such a calculation should not exceed about 1% of the larger component.00 + . reflection loss. and transmission loss. giving the result (4. but places no limitation on the allowed total attenuation of a line.10.80 found as the coordinates of the diametrically opposite + i0.62) X 10"3 is the answer found for the reciprocal of 244 — j38. the specification on attenuation per wavelength applies to the difference between the two contributions.) The concept of "return loss" is a simple and straightforward one.124.202 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS Normalizing 244 [CHAP. Multiplying by 1/200 denormalizes this. (If a line's attenuation factor is caused partly by distributed resistance R and partly by distributed conductance G. and the characteristic impedance is always real. for all values of attenuation per wavelength. and "transmission loss coefficient".9. derivations given previously in this chapter and in Chapter 7.19. or when there is attenuation between the specific point and the terminal load. fairly simple graphical procedures make it possible to use the Smith chart to evaluate complex hyperbolic tangents and cotangents. The return loss in decibels at a point on a transmission circuit is defined as the total loss or attenuation in decibels which the incident wave power at the point would have to experience to be reduced to the reflected wave power at the point. point.ix+jv) . e. "reflection loss in db". ciprocal of a complex number. Three of the radial scales shown on the Smith chart of Fig. It can also be used to evaluate complex exponential numbers. 9. 925. designated respectively as "return loss in db". From The demonstrations of the uses as problems below.10.0. Return loss. From this definition.
since the input impedance of the line is also Z is U\Vs /Zo)ealso the power of multiplereflection analysis of Section 8.12). The is length angle. at the terminal load impedance where 2 loss is defined from the Reflection to the load is therefore given by l{\V. respectively. page 194. to the circuit. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 203 equations (4. and (9. is \   . from the reflected waves being disturbing echo signals. wave and the total power in the incident therefore give. the power in the first wave reflected by the termination will be i(\Vs 2/Z )e.6. 926. The design specifications for some forms of transmission line communication circuits may state a minimum value of return loss that must be maintained over some portion of the system. so that none of the power reflected by the terminal load impedance is The above expressions for power rereflected on returning to the input end of the line.15)  The value to which of the return loss at a point on a system is useful as an indication of the extent reflected waves may be degrading the operation of the system at that point. be noted that the return loss scale (second from the bottom at the right in Fig. Such degradation might result. the scale increases by 2 decibels for each 1 db step of the transmission loss scale. 926. db steps of transmission loss (second from the top at the left) discussed in Section 9.CHAP. the total power in the occurs. 93) embodies the proposition that power reflected by a terminal load impedance Z T not equal to Z is lost power. in which the source impedance is equal to the characteristic impedance of the The concept line. or from their affecting the frequency or power output of a signal source by causing the input impedance of the connected transmission line circuit to be different from the characteristic impedance of the line. At the signal source end of the line the reflection coefficient p s = Pt (because Zs = Z ).686 x 2ad decibels (9. this is load. for example.\*/Zo)e**{l Pt ). If the terminal load impedance Z T is not equal to Z . the return loss at a point distant d meters from the terminal load end of the line will be From . page 36. It differs in having a numerical scale reading from zero at the periphery of the chart to infinity at the center. It will 93) is identical in structure to the scale of 1 of "reflection loss" (presented by the bottom scale on the right in Fig.16). The concept is directly applicable only to transmission line circuits of the form shown in Fig. \ the source connected to the line.2al \p T \\ where = (Z t Zo)(Zt + Zo). given by return loss = 10 log 10 2 p T + 8. page 174. to a nonreflecting terminal load impedance Z T = Z Applying the watts. relative to the power that would be delivered to a nonreflecting terminal load. and because of the "return" factor. after terminal the initial wave that travels the length of the line and is incident on the For this circuit the 2 2* 1 power delivered . if the voltage reflection coefficient at the terminal load end of a line is Pt and the line has an attenuation factor a nepers/m. A transmission line circuit to which the "Reflection Loss" scale is Smith chart's radial applicable.8. value of total attenuation provided the attenuation per wavethat the characteristic impedance has a negligible phase ensure small enough to line may have any = zn Z real Fig. The power delivered reflection reflected wave.
Applying equations (7. (7. i \V S /Z 0> and the power _2al the initial incident wave in ¥power the Z Z If T reaching the terminal load is P e P e~ 2o!l The power in still is wave) incident only the reaching the terminal load (which is 2 2al and the power received by the the reflected wave at the point of reflection is P e~ p T 2 2al e(lp loadisP T ).p 204 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS wave.18) l = 0) = /lnp = .8. when the terminal load impedance is changed from nonreflecting to reflecting. .3) and (7. and "mismatch as language often referred to in circuit [CHAP.17) (9. Zq Zq — Pt 6 (9.19) (9. conservation of energy demands that the presence of a singly reflected wave must cause the source to deliver less power to the input terminals of the line by exactly the amount of power in the reflected wave. 2 The definition is (9. the input impedance of the line may lie anywhere on the circle of constant Pt on the Smith chart.T e~ v ). Then the power input . 926. . \ When its power level is reduced by \ . The following analysis confirms that the indicated reduction in power does occur. Pt = 0.16) reflection loss = 10 log 10 (1  Pt )  decibels The negative sign always stated as a positive in equation (9. loss". 926 is lossless. by the convention that reflection loss is If the transmission line of Fig. Since the line length is arbitrary. tion analysis of Section 8. ^inp /inp _ 1 "*" Pt Zq Zq (7.Pr0*") 2 Therefore Vi(l + p T e~ 2yl ) = Vs .16) is required number of decibels.20).Vi(l. But ylnp = V s LnvZs = VsIin P Z and Vi = %V S a result which could have been written directly by using the multiple reflec.18) can then be rewritten. and shows in addition that if the line has finite total attenuation (but a real characteristic impedance) the reduction in power delivered by a nonreflecting source to a line. Fmp 7i„p = Ws(l + P T e~™) = UVs/Z )(lp T e'^) (9.1). it is not at all obvious that the required reduction in input power will occur identically for all of these possible values of input \ \ impedance.14). _ Rjnp . X"inp _ 1 .19) and Zjnp (9.17) Z T = Z and pT = 0.20) From equations (9. Finp It is important to note that this statement if is not equivalent to = %Vs. ZT = Z . to the line is Pq . = 2 \ . Equations and (9. which would be true only (9. (Vi/Zo){l. 2 V(z = 0) b 7(2 Vinp = V + V = l 7i(l + p T e. Viewing the situation as a circuit problem.2 ^) (9. to become P e~ Pt .   the reflected wave returns to the input end of the line 2 4al a further factor e~ 2al . 9 ratio of this It is power to the power in the incident is invariably expressed in decibels. is equal to the power in the reflected wave at the point of reflection less the power lost by the reflected wave in the attenuation of the line.8) to the circuit of Fig. where Pt is the reflection coefficient produced by the terminal load.21) which agrees with equation If page 130.
Although the power delivered by the source to the line is thus shown to be reduced by the amount of the reflected power returning to the input terminals. not The phasor voltage at the input terminals of a line is the sum of the phasor voltages of the incident and reflected voltage waves at that point. This is easily seen by considering the simple case of changing Z T from Z to 2Z on a lossless line whose length is an integral number of halfwavelengths. For the circuit of Fig. final radial scale in Fig. the scale is applicable with useful accuracy only to certain relatively The eighth and unimportant situations. . If Po is the input power to the line when Z T ¥> Z . the problem is therefore to show that or Since Po' PoPo = P e~ \Pt\ = Po(l\p T 2 e*« = U\Vs\ 2/Z Q )(l\p T 2 e™) 4al l ) \ \ Po = Zo + ttinn — VI Zo II Ri inp Zh + Z inp /Z R\) \ z7 the requirement is to prove that l+Z To in p/Zo 2 Zo let = i(l\p T 2 e™) \ (9. Zinp Zo so that _ l+'(C + jD) _ l(C2 + D 2 + 2jD l(C + jD) ~ 1 + (C2 + D2)2C ) flinp _ 1 Zo 1(C2 + Z>2 + (C2 + D 2)2C ) (9. be discussed is the "transmission loss This scale purports to give the numerical ratio (not in decibels) of a line's attenuation losses in the presence of reflected waves to the attenuation losses in the absence of reflected waves.CHAP. 1 l + (C2 + D 2 )2C 4 + Ziap/Zo + C + jD) 1+(C2 + D 2 )2C 2(1 (9M) From equations (9. p T e~ 2yl = C + jD. in agreement with the conclusion obtained by applying the principle of energy conservation to the multiply reflected wave model of the system. for the same power delivered to the terminal load in each case. 1 \1+Zinp/Z \ Rim Zo U1(C + D )} = 2 2 i(l PT 2 e^)  which proves the theorem. 926.23) and (9. using circuit analysis concepts.24). Then C2 + D 2 = Pt e~ 4al . In fact. this will in general result from a change in both the output power of the signal source. and the relative phase of these two voltages can have any value whatever. that for all values of Z T and yl the reduction in the power delivered by the source to the line when the terminal load impedance is changed from Z T = Z to Z T ¥° Z is identically equal to the amount of reflected wave power that returns to the input end of the line. 93 to coefficient" scale at the top left. depending on the terminal load reflection coefficient Pt and the electrical length of the line pi in radians. The multiply reflected wave model deals directly only with current or voltage waves. and the amount of power dissipated in the source impedance with power.21). is incorrect. Zs — Zo. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 205 It is desired to prove. \ From equation (9. when the power input to the line is reduced by the amount of any reflected wave power reaching the input terminals.23) Also. the implication of the latter reasoning that the reflected wave power is entirely absorbed in the source impedance without affecting the total output of the signal source generator.22) 2 \ simplify the arithmetical work.
with terminal reflection coefficient p T and low total attenuation (al < 1). The source impedance is equal to the characteristic impedance Z = 50 + jO ohms. there is T always an absolute increase of attenuation losses for the transmission line circuit of Fig. independent of the line attenuation.2al (l . (b) the reflected wave suffers dissipative power loss in the attenuation of the line. the power reaching the load. — i It will be noted that if loss coefficient becomes 1/(1 the total line attenuation exceeds about 20 db. When the terminal load impedance Z T is changed from Z to some other value. 926. There is no radial  scale in Fig. i. the magnitude of the source voltage is 10. 1 ~ —  \Pt\ The transmission e 2ai loss coefficient scale in Fig. (d) the total attenuation losses in the line are increased. 9 as follows: For the circuit of Fig. and the power supplied by the source to the line.2al ^ (9. p T being replaced in this case by the reflection coefficient p at the center of the particular halfwavelength segment. which is the unusual case of the Heaviside line whose losses are equally divided between distributed resistance and distributed conductance.— 206 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS The analytical basis of the scale is [CHAP. when the terminal load impedance Z T is changed from Za (real) to some other value. A second somewhat more general application is to any half wavelength segment of a line with fairly low losses per wavelength (a/p < 1). with Apparently. the total power losses in the line. the power input to the transmission line when . . Po(l — e~ 2al ).   \ \ \ all To make the power delivered to the load have the same value in both of the above cases. Example 9. In a transmission line circuit having the form of Fig. which constitutes a nondissipative reduction in the power delivered to the terminal load. it has been shown above that the power input to the line falls to P (l — p T 2 e _4al )> while the power delivered to the load becomes P e.e. with no alteration in the signal source. 926.12. The power reduction (a) is equal to the sum of the power loss (b) and the power reduction (c).p T 2 ). The difference is P (l . the scale is directly applicable only to lossless lines.e~ 2al )(l + Pt 2 e. (This argument requires that ZQ be exactly real.0 volts r. 93 is calculated from this equation. The power reaching the load is Poe~ 2al and i the power dissipated by attenuation is the difference between these two figures. When Zt ¥* Z but produces a reflection coefficient p T at the terminal load. The first is that of lines many wavelengths long. 93 for this result. or to impractical lines whose characteristic impedance is identically real. without changing Vs. It then follows from the definition that l + p T 2 e. In using the concepts of reflection loss and transmission loss coefficient to make calculations on transmission line circuits having the form of Fig.s. ZT = Zo /Z . Find the reflection loss. which is the power dissipated in the line. as seen previously.) is Po = \Vs\ 2 .00 db and is 100 wavelengths long. The extra dissipative power loss (d) is identical to the power loss (b). with finite line attenuation. The ratio of this to the power dissipated in the first case is (1 + \p 2 e~ 2al ). 926. for which the transmission loss coefficient is meaningless.2al ). (c) the input power to the line is reduced. The terminal load impedance Z T is 150 + jO ohms. The line has a total attenuation of 6. therefore. Actually.25) transmission loss coefficient = z  — . with Zq real. care must be taken not to count any of the loss components twice. it has been seen that several changes in the power relations in the circuit occur simultaneously: (a) a reflected wave is created. the scale gives useful approximate values of the factor by which line losses are increased in the presence of reflected waves in two cases.m. for practical high frequency lines whose characteristic impedance is nearly but not exactly real. the transmission — p T 2 ). 926. Since this quantity must always be greater than unity. The analysis has shown that these different aspects of the situation are not independent. quantities in the second calculation must be multiplied by 1/(1 — p T 2 ).
at —x/X. to find the locations of these points.125/P T) = 1.375 watts. find the length of lossless stub line with open circuit or short circuit termination whose normalized input susceptance will be equal and opposite to the values found in (a).0937 watts. loss. .031 watts from the case Z T = Z remains derivation of equation (9. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 207 93. problem previously considered (a) The problem has two parts: To show that on a transmission line having negligible attenuation per wavelength there are two locations in every half wavelength at which the real part of the normalized admittance is unity.500 p T e   .7. and the power dissipated in the line attenuation is the difference.3. The distance of each such point from a voltage (6) To VSWR VSWR > +x/X (a) Fig.398 watts. 927. Hence the line losses with Z T = 150 + jO ohms are 0.1.031 — 0. created by the connected On the transmission line of part (a) there will be some value of value is drawn on a Smith chart oriented for admittance terminal load. at +*/X. The normalized input susceptance of a stub placed at +x/X must be +b n and the normalized input susceptance of a stub placed at — x/X must be — 6 n . and to determine the normalized susceptance on the line at each of the locations. which has the value 1. the factor by which reflected waves increase line losses when Vs constant is given by the numerator of the equation.500 watts. or 0. a reduction of 0. Use the Smith chart in Problems to solve the "single stub matching" 7. 927(a)). .023 watts The reduction in the power delivered by the source to the line is finally relative to the case Z T = Z 2 4aI 0. If the circle for this coordinates (Fig.5. (a) The stub may be placed at +x/X (WAVELENGTHS TOWARD GENERATOR) or x/X (WAVELENGTHS TOWARD LOAD) from any voltage minimum in the standing wave pattern. so that PT = 0. the power delivered to the load is 0. and 8.008 watts which can also be calculated from 0. li is for a stub with short circuit termination to 1 2 is for a stub with open circuit termination to 13 is for a stub with short circuit termination to 14 is for a stub with open circuit termination to be be be be placed placed placed placed at +x/X. the points at which the normalized conductance on the line is unity occur in pairs at locations equidistant on either side of any voltage minimum. Use of the Smith chart to solve the single stub matching procedure. ohms.5 + jQ. it intersects the unit normalized conductance circle in two points A and B. . which are symmetrically above and below the left hand horizontal radius of the chart.CHAP. at —x/\. . the input the reflection loss is found to be 1.  Solved Problems 9. For the same circuit with Z T = Z = 50 + JO power to the line is easily calculated as 0. The terminal load reflection coefficient is 0. Since this radius represents the location of all voltage minima on the line (it has the coordinate dVCmin = 0).25 db.062 for the above data.062 = 0. page 146.25. page 178. From the definition of reflection log 10 (0. an increase of 0. (6) Determination of the matching stub lengths. From the radial scale of Fig.375 X 1.25).125 watts. the power reaching the load when Z T = 150 + jO ohms is P T given by 10 Referring to the The result is P T = 0.023 = 0. .
63 17.55 3.15 2.02 1.97 .87 3.0 10.17 1.20 .00 3.68 2.76 . 927(6). the on the slotted section would be (1 + p)/(l .88 1.26 .00 8.19 3. the near its input terminals will have this same value.27 .57 1.09 .56 .52 . The table can therefore be used to solve all problems dependent on equation (9.54 8.01 12.2.15 .38 .47 1.70 6. confusion is reduced if reference is made to a second Smith chart. 927(a).70 7.4 13.37 5. as ±x/\ in Fig.12 .19 5.002 1.82 .36 4.15 7.01 1.92 3.98 .50 al db 1.268 .91 199 99 66 49 39 32 27.86 .37 . From equation (9.0 1.72 . Table \p\ 9.52 .08 5.41 2.45 3.41 1.11 8. on which the normalized admittances y n = ± jb n have been located. VSWR VSWR as functions of al in decibels.2 .08 .22 2.67 1.71 1.20 1.001 .132 1.66 .23 4.455 .94 2.03 .55 1.88 4.31 .85 al \p\ VSWR 1.79 .1 2. Since \p\ is the \p\ and linear radial coordinate of the Smith chart.13 1.44 1.75 9.08 5.44 2.02 20.208 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS minimum can [CHAP.51 1.87 . l t is the length of a stub line with short circuit termination that could be connected at point A.76 .08 2.3 11.57 3.32 1.6 24.43 .00 2. at any value of \p\ on the chart. reading radially inward from the periphery of the chart.13 1.2al )/(le2«i) = cothaZ.76 .41 .7.94 .0010 .25 5.0 21. if a transmission line section of length I and attenuation factor a is terminated in a short circuit at d = 0.46 .24 1.52 1.85 2.0005 .84 2.75 1.34 .33 . the magnitude of the reflection coefficient at the input terminals will be \p\ = e~ 2al since the magnitude of the reflection coefficient produced by a short circuit is .0 8.2 10.49 3.22 2.18 2.96 8.0 26.73 .29 3.005 1.86 .67 3.90 5.32 .39 .86 9.17 3.79 7.177 .95 .83 .61 2.59 . 927(6).06 . Because of the poor detail in the scale of "1 db steps" accompanying the commercially printed Smith chart. al \p\ VSWR 6.90 .60 2. as indicated in Fig.84 . The normalized susceptance coordinates of the two points are of equal magnitude but opposite sign.53 2. Table 9.81 .43 1.40 .96 .33 2.69 .30 .73 1.26 3.21 .07 12.19 1.18 .29 .47 db 3.89 .54 .67 5.70 .17 .00 3.8 10.03 1.77 .49 1.71 .81 .67 .45 .04 .45 3.22 7.0 30.93 .91 .70 7.07 1.02 . and are found as +b in n Fig.01 9.45 2.00 .6.28 3.35 1.5 .39 . If the transmission line section itself has low attenuation per wavelength.0 33.24 .65 3.64 .48 .87 2.20 7. Create an appropriate table that can be used in place of the scale.10 1.23 1.0 17.13 9.61 .55 4.80 1.06 1.25 .50 . l2 is the length of a stub line with open circuit termination that could be connected at point A.28 .63 .47 3.78 .68 4.58 .44 .28 2. If the input terminals of the transmission line section were connected to a slotted line section of the same characteristic impedance and negligible losses.79 1.59 10.74 db 1.09 4.13 4. four possible lengths of stub line with open circuit or short circuit termination are found to be solutions to the problem.10 7.99 1.64 6.53 .78 2.87 .51 2.71 2.61 .00 7. 9 be read directly from the chart.13 .12).0 23.08 2.56 4.0 14.21 db 6.81 .0025 1. 927(a).15 al \p\ VSWR 2. By the processes described in Section 9.57 .36 .35 2.4 VSWR inf.53 1.56 .68 .314 .65 .10 1.76 3.66 .25 3.94 5.4 shows these values of VSWR such as Example 9. To find the lengths of stub lines required to achieve the matching operation.7 14.16 .42 .37 2.72 4.67 1.08 1.43 4.p) = (l + e.80 .42 6.2 15.14 .31 .05 1.31 4.57 2.22 .38 1.83 .98 4. graphical calculations on lossy transmission lines cannot be made with as good accuracy as calculations for lossless lines.22 5. 9.60 6.85 6.24 .407 . Fig. unity.043 .60 .10 .99 .91 13.39 .95 1.52 .20 4.04 1.92 6.26 1.01 1.35 .59 .87 1.62 . l3 is the length of a stub line with short circuit termination that could be connected at point B.33 .27 4.222 .46 .68 5.71 1.0 15.29 2.06 1.55 3.77 1.92 .37 . the values of al are exactly the values that would be read from the "1 db steps" scale.96 .087 .5 4.01 .4 10.360 5.9 11.11).51 .005 .2 19.3 . and l4 is the length of a stub line with open circuit termination that could be connected at point B.
.06. It is transmission line is 2. The normalized value of the terminal load impedance relative to the characteristic impedance This is of the transformer section of line is 2.62. The second motion required is to Smith chart. At specific value of of 1.21./1.4.01. There is a VSWR of 1.30.80.25 . With a is impedance at such points is found from the Smith chart to be 0. phase angle of Inspection of the Carter chart of Fig. yo 400 + acteristic impedance of which percent by the determine chart to Smith the 1.17.CHAP.5.25 is evident. The transformer input impedance renormalized relative to the characteristic impedance of the main transmission line.68 section exceeded and that would be the graphically determined answer if the total attenuation of the VSWR of approximately 20.0°. The resulting normalized input impedances for the transmission line section are (a) 0. for a specified maximum value of VSWR.0 (d)10. the normalized such points the reflection coefficient phase angle is ±90°.25 on a low loss transmission line.4.25. impedance of the section. VSWR VSWR 9. (c) 1. normalized relative to the characteristic impedance of the trans former (6) section. A operation.98) = ±12. To find the normalized input LENGTHS TOWARD GENERATOR 25 or 30 db. 913 and 924 shows that the maximum line for any the normalized impedance or admittance that can exist on a low loss transmission occurs at points where the normalized impedance magnitude is unity.00 + jO. pedance of the section if its total attenuation is {a) zero. A which Z = is matched to a parallel wire transmission line for quarter wavelength transformer consisting of a a 200 + jO ohms by parallel wire transmission line having a charlossless quarter wavelength section of on the At the design frequency the ohms. This second indicated amount of attenuation on the "1 db steps" radial scale of the chart and table via between transferring Table 9. Determine the maximum phase angle possible for the impedance at any point on the line. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 209 9.0db? The normalized terminal load impedance fairly close to the perimeter.0 db. value the JO toward 1 + progression j'0.3. shown with the VSWR specification. (a) The locus of the impedance at the transformer input terminals. Use 200 ohm line is less than this causing without value design the below and above varied the frequency can be resistive load of 800 + jO ohms VSWR VSWR to increase above 1.08 jl. What is the (c) db. 9. . 3.j'1. A 1.00 wavelengths long at its frequency of input imnormalized terminated in a normalized impedance 0. Determining the bandwidth of a quarter wavelength transformer matching a constant resistive load to a low loss transmission line.98 ± jd. (a) Fig. at a is located in the fourth quadrant of the Smith chart. 928. which is assumed not to vary with frequency.21/0.00 WAVEon a circle of constant VSWR. (d) il.80. (6) 1. This results in returning move radially inward by the identically to the original point. using motion can be performed more accurately either reflection coefficient magnitude or VSWR. and the phase angle tani (±0. the first motion required is 2.11 (6) 0.
928(a). 9 point A on the Smith chart of Fig. .7. and differs in employing three variablelength stubs at fixed locations in the system instead of a single stub variable in both length and location. 9.10 — J0A0 with an accuracy of about 0.222 wavelengths respectively. When the real part of the angle has unit value. The angle in of lossless transmission line terminated in an open circuit.6.00 + i0 transforms to these values at the input of the transformer section for transformer section lengths of 0.j'2. Evaluate cot 133.82 nepers. 9.2(7r/180)/27T = 0.8.20) the normalized input impedance of a transmission line section of length I with short circuit termination is Z inp /Z = tanh (al + jfil). — Thus l/\ = 133.14 rad. At frequencies above and below the design frequency the input impedance of the transformer section normalized in this way will lie respectively above or below the point B. the hyperbolic tangent is 1. For this problem al = 0.14) = 1.340 wavelengths and al = 0.30. in agreement with the on the 200 ohm line being less than 1. When any normalized impedance on this circle is denormalized with respect to the characteristic impedance of the transformer section (by multiplying by 400 + jO ohms) and then renormalized with respect to the main transmission line (by dividing by 200 + jO ohms). It passes through the center point of the chart at the design frequency.12 db. The graphical procedure for finding the normalized input impedance of such a line section is to start from the short circuit point ZIZq = 0.0.51 ± jO.370.3.82 X 8. Drawing radial lines through these points in Fig. 928(a) (not shown) indicates that the normalized load impedance 2.82 . Starting from the open circuit point on the Smith chart (Z/Z = infinite) and moving clockwise 0.75 and 1.935.27. Evaluate tanh (0. The total circuit therefore has a bandwidth of ±11%. VSWR VSWR VSWR Also shown on Fig.30. 928(6). then divided by 2v to become a line length in wavelengths. pi = 2. This intersects the plotted locus line at normalized impedance values of 1. Zinp/Z — degrees must be converted to radians. and become the points 0.01 in From each component. part of which is shown in the figure. and the answer is Zinp /Z Q . When the real part of the angle exceeds about 5.2° = —0.2° using the Smith chart. In systems such as coaxial lines it has obvious mechanical advantages. pl/2v . 928(6) is the circle for constant VSWR = 1. Inspection of the process shows that the real part of the hyperbolic angle fixes limits on the range of both components of the hyperbolic tangent. Hence cot 133. for all values of the imaginary part of the angle. These values transform back to the chart of Fig. and then move radially inward from the periphery through 8. It is an alternative to the single stub matching process.370 wavelengths on the periphery (lossless line) finds a normalized input impedance + j'0.686 = 7.02 ± i0. From equation {7. usually given as 22%. the real part of the hyperbolic tangent is confined between about 0.210 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS [CHAP.J0A0. with an accuracy better than 1%. with an accuracy of about \%. within which the VSWR on the main transmission line does not exceed 1.50 + j0.14) using the Smith chart.1'10 . which is the input impedance of the transformer section normalized relative to the characteristic impedance of the transformer section.278 and 0. 928(a) on multiplying by (200 + j'0)/(400 + jO).i2. and the imaginary part cannot lie outside the range ±0. the data.686«Z decibels on the "1 db steps" scale. The locus of such denormalized renormalized values for a range of frequencies above and below the design frequency is shown on the Smith chart of Fig.82 .01 at that frequency. The basis for the calculation is the equation for the normalized input impedance of a length I j cot pi. for which ^inp/^o . The transformer section which is 0. Hence tanh (0.935 in the second quadrant.00 + jO. move clockwise on the periphery of the chart pl/2ir wavelengths on the scale WAVELENGTHS TOWARD GENERATOR. Transformation of this normalized impedance over the quarter wavelength of the transformer at the design frequency produces the point B at 0.250 wavelengths long at the design frequency has these lengths at 111% and 89% respectively of the design frequency.135 on the VSWR = 2. 9. For a lower maximum VSWR specification the bandwidth would be smaller. the resulting normalized value when plotted on a separate Smith chart determines the on the main transmission line at the frequency corresponding to the original point. Performing the corresponding motions determines a point in the fourth quadrant of the Smith chart.35. on the constant circle through A and B.00 circle for the transformer section of line. A "triple stub tuner" is a standard device used in many forms of high frequencytransmission systems to perform the function of matching a load to the system.
. Schematic diagram of a triple stub tuner. side. a triple stub tuner can match any impedance or admittance. the normalized admittance at the point A must have the unique value 1 + jO.D and E. If the triple stub tuner correctly performs its function of matching a terminal load admittance. same characteristic In Fig. have the impedance. Point C is 3/8 wavelengths from point B. The length of the stub lines is generally adjustable by means of movable short circuiting conductors. showing three stubs of variable lengths U. can be brought to the value 1 + jO at the point A by adjustment of the stub length l v The unit conductance circle on the Smith chart of Fig. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS 211 Fig. Similar statements apply to the other two pairs of points. Loci of matchable and nonmatchable normalized admittances at various locations in a triple stub tuner. distance x between cenand the stub lengths U. connected at the right hand end. At the point B any normalized admittance of the form 1 ± jb n where b n is any magnitude of normalized susceptance. reference is Since the stub lines are invariably connected in parallel with the main transmission line. 929. 929. as is made to the Smith chart in admittance coordinates. This means that there is no measurable length of transmission line between the points A and B. The locations of the signal source and terminal load are E immaterial. 930. the stubs. Assume that all parts of the system. reading from the signal source side of the triple stub tuner to the terminal load A.B and C. to the transmission line at the left hand end.CHAP. line locus of all matchable normalized admittances at B line locus of all matchable normalized admittances at C area locus of all nonmatchable normalized admittances at D area locus of all nonmatchable normalized admittances at E Fig. connected at one end of it. and point is 3/8 wavelengths from point D. with equal spacings x between adjacent stubs. but that adjustment of the length l t of the left hand stub line can cause the normalized susceptance at point A to differ from that at point B by any amount of either sign. 929 represents a triple stub tuner diagrammatically. h and U are variable over at least one half wavelength. also the case in single stub matching. h and U.F are three pairs of points such that the two points of each pair are located at infinitesimal distances on either side of the points of connection of the three variablelength stub lines. including AB CD EF Fig. . Show that if the ter lines of adjacent stubs is 3 A/8. at the other end. 930(a) is therefore the locus of all matchable admittances at the location B. to the transmission system of which the tuner's longitudinal section is a part.
Triple stub tuners are invariably adjusted by trial and error. and the purpose of this problem is to demonstrate that matching can always be achieved if a tuner is used whose design meets the conditions specified. while of phase angle 45° are in the upper half. 930(c). impedance of the form zn = 5. the matching procedure would not work.10. 930 will show clearly that the separation of adjacent stubs in a triple stub tuner were any integral number of quarter wavelengths. Thus if the normalized admittance at point D had the value y n (Di) in Fig. What value of normalized admittance of the form Ans. If the normalized admittance at D had the value y n {D 2 ) in the figure. B The graphical process of adding normalized susceptance to the normalized admittance value at any point on the Smith chart consists of moving along a circle of constant normalized conductance. 9 moving 3/8 wavelengths counterclockwise (toward transforms to a value at location C that is found by load) along a circle of constant VSWR. yn = 0. the adjustment of stub length Z2 could change it at point C to a value on the locus of matchable normalized admittances at C. on the other hand.9. since the two outer stubs would then be effectively in parallel. that can be produced by any normalized Determine the range of reflection coefficient phase angles Ans. however. All normalized admittances at point F can therefore be matched to the transmission line at point A. —11. 930(eZ).5°. In principle.0±jx n where <j> . Once stub length Z 3 has been set at an appropriate value. stub length Z3 can always be adjusted to produce at point E a normalized admittance lying outside the shaded circle. Supplementary Problems 9. By the same transformation process used between points B and C. no value of Z2 could achieve this result. 930(6). spacings of any odd multiple of 1/8 wavelength are satisfactory and variations of a few percent from these values are not serious. The entire circle locus of matchable normalized admittances at B therefore transforms to another circle 3/8 wavelengths counterclockwise. review of the operations undertaken in the various steps of Fig. < x n < °°.0. It will be noted that for any particular value of the normalized admittance at point F there is no unique solution to the problem. This is not possible. and the matching procedure can be completed by adjustment of stub lengths Z x and Z2 as before. which is the locus of all matchable normalized admittances at C. .212 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS Any normalized admittance at location [CHAP. 930(6). lt is required. however. then stub length Z 3 could be adjusted for zero normalized input susceptance and the matching process could be completed by adjustment of the stub lengths Z x and Z2 If. Hence the area within the normalized conductance circle tangent to the circle which is the locus of all matchable normalized admittances at the point C is the locus of all nonmatchable normalized admittances at the point D.365. A .5° < <p < +11. the normalized admittance presented at the point F lies inside the shaded circle. The conclusion of the proof of universality for this particular triple stub tuner is that if the normalized admittance presented at location F by the connected terminal load lies outside the shaded circle of Fig. as shown in Fig. the shaded circle shown in Fig.11. only two specific settings are possible for stub length Z2 and for each of these a unique setting of . not by calculation. phase angle 45°? of normalized admittance of the A — jA will produce a reflection coefficient of 9. as indicated in Fig. 930(d) is the locus of all nonmatchable normalized admittances at the point E. Large values of the stub separation in wavelengths have the disadvantage of a reduced operating if A bandwidth. All admittances all reflection coefficients + jA are in the lower half of the Smith chart. What value angle 45°? form A + jA will produce a reflection coefficient of phase Ans.365 . Spacings near 3/8 wavelength are often a good compromise between mechanical convenience and electrical performance. 9..
44. diminishing to 0. 9.CHAP.1) and using the notation of equation (9.35.  Fig.0.20.18.5 + . Starting from equation (9. Use the Smith chart to show that if a lossless transmission line is terminated in a load impedance that produces a reflection coefficient of magnitude 0.1 and 8.5 + .1). (a) Remains unchanged at 2. show that the locus on the reflection coefficient (u. Use the Smith chart to show that the normalized input impedance of any transmission line section with open circuit termination is numerically equal to the normalized input admittance of the same transmission line section with short circuit termination. Use the Smith chart to verify the results of Examples 8. v = —cot 0. A terminated in a resistance (a) (b) What If the resistance on the line? component can be varied from 20 ohms to 500 ohms without changing the reactance component. Use the Smith chart to verify the answers of Problems 7. 0. (c) VSWR = 2.271. The normalized admittances 0.57 + jO.062 value in each case What will happen to the parallel with the terminal load impedance? VSWR when a 50 ohm (c) resistor is connected in Ans.35.2) with zn = rn + jx n = \zn \l±. and radius cosec 6. 9.16. Use the Carter chart to demonstrate that the maximum and minimum admittance and impedance values on any transmission line of low attenuation per wavelength are always purely resistive.9.44. and 1. and that the maximum normalized reactance component of the impedance at any point on the line is ± 1. . what is the lowest possible VSWR and what value of resistance will Ans.0205 at bn = 5. These are the data for drawing the Carter chart of \ 9.9.15. the maximum impedance at any point on the line has a normalized value of 2. The Carter chart shows directly that for all terminal load impedances or admittances of any given normalized magnitude value. The last of the three.0215 at bn — 3. v = 0. (a) About 3. VSWR = 2.7) from equation (9.4.12.5 ohms.20 to 5.V3.77 with a resistance of 58.21.0025 at b n 9.14.3. 9. dV(mta) /X = 0.2. page 166. the lowest VSWR will be produced by the one with the smallest phase angle.35.2). l.5 and 7. Show that on the same line the maximum normalized admittance at any point is 2. page 186. What range of values of d V(mln) /\ results when the capacitive susceptance is varied over its full range? Ans. dVCmin dVCmia) /X A= = 0.19.7.08.20. 9. and radius 2jz n /(z n 2 .35.57 + jO and the maximum normalized susceptance is ± 1.75 in parallel with a variable capacitor whose normalized susceptance at the operating frequency is variable from 0. lowloss transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 + jO of 150 ohms in series with a capacitive reactance of 30 ohms.18.17. 9. 9.08. 9.22.Vl. = 0.O + jV&O.75. (b) reduced to 1. to a maximum of 0. 0. v) plane of all points having any constant value of \z n is a circle with center at u = (zB * + l)/(s« 2 .0. A transmission line is terminated in a normalized conductance of 3.0. increased to about 2.75 all have the same normalized magnitude of 2. Which produces the lowest VSWR when connected as terminal load admittance on a transmission line? Ans. 7. the resulting standing wave patterns on the line are described respectively by the following data: (a) (6) VSWR = 2. A lowloss transmission line has a characteristic impedance of 50 + jO ohms. 7. 9] GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS ohms is 213 9. and that the locus on the same plane of all points having any constant value of e is a circle with center at u = 0. Derive equation (9. produce it? is the VSWR 9. When three different terminal load impedances are separately connected to the line. and that they occur at minima or maxima of the voltage or current standing wave patterns.1).395. and that the normalized input admittance of any transmission line section with open circuit termination is numerically equal to the normalized input impedance of the same transmission line section with short circuit termination. regardless of the terminal load connected to the line.13. 913. (6) About 1.
9. required stub lengths are 0. 931. The phasor diagrams of Sections 8. 931. joining the center of the chart to the point on the chart identified as associated with the coordinate z.1). 2: Fig. z. This makes it possible to measure the phase angle of the normalized impedance at any point on the Smith chart with a protractor.24. The directed line segment C is then the total phasor voltage V(z) at normalized relative to Show that the directed line segment D is the phasor value of the current I(z) at coordinate z. At point B.214 GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS [CHAP. In Fig. after suitable normalization. (b) The normalized susceptance at point A is —1. There is a VSWR of 3. normalized relative to (V 1 /Z )eyz. represents the phasor value V2 e +yz a. The Smith chart lends itself to direct construction of phasor diagrams.12 can be of Fig. 9 9. if the left hand horizontal radius of the chart (the directed line segment A) is designated as a reference phasor 1 + jO.136 wavelengths long. 931.15 to cancel this value.15. A stub with short circuit termination connected at A should be 0. if the characteristic impedance of the stub lines is the same as that of the transmission line itself? Am.386 wavelengths long to have a normalized susceptance of +1. might stub lines be placed to remove the standing waves on the signal source side of the stub? (6) What lengths of stub lines with either open circuit or short circuit termination are required to perform the matching operation. A phasor diagram constructed on the Smith chart. and that the acute angle between the extended line segments C and D is the phase angle of the normalized impedance Z/ZQ at coordinate z. representing in normalized form the phasor value V 1 e~T at any coordinate z on a transmission line of the harmonic voltage wave traveling in the direction of increasing z. With open circuit termination the stub required at A should be 0.083 wavelengths on the generator and load sides of any voltage minimum on the line.tz of the harmonic voltage wave traveling in the direction of decreasing z. relative to any voltage minimum on the line. 927(a). being positive in the upper half of the chart and negative in the lower half. then the directed line segment B. the locations A and B at which matching stubs might be placed are respectively 0. This follows from the fact that A = 1/0 and B = \p\[± in the reflection coefficient plane. that C/D = (1 + P )/(l p) and note the result of substituting for p from equation (9. drawn on the Smith chart in the manner . from which graphical evaluation can be made of phase and amplitude relations between harmonic voltages and currents at any point on a transmission line.0 on a lossless transmission line. (a) Where.364 wavelengths with open circuit termination. (a) In the notation of Fig. Show page 185.23.114 wavelengths with short circuit termination and 0.9 and 4.
When the magnitude of the measured parameter passes through a maximum or a minimum at some frequency. The diagnosis is confirmed if the circuit shows a decaying oscilsame or nearly the same frequency when excited by a discontinuous the principal practical applications of resonant circuits exploit the frequency sensignal sitivity property.1. in harmonic The generators. At frequencies above a few gigahertz the same functions are performed more efficiently by cavity resonators. or the oscillatory response property. For reasons stated in earlier chapters the analysis is presented in the radian frequency domain rather than the complex frequency domain. can be far superior to those of lumped element circuits in the same frequency range. latory response at signal such as a voltage step. resonance is the Any most likely explanation. Experimentally. one resonant consisting of a length of lowloss line with lowloss terminations. Circuits The nature of resonance. circuit containing a single inductor and a single capacitor has just for measurements made at any prescribed pair of terminals. oscillators. admittance. or hybrid for the special case of twoport networks in Section 7. and its phase angle changes sign at or very close to the same frequency. the of parameter some impedance. filters. because their quantitative resonant properties. even for simple and inexpensive types of transmission line. The resonant properties of transmission line circuits are best appreciated through their analogies with the familiar resonant properties of lumped element resistanceinductancecapacitance circuits. page 140.2. In the frequency range from a few tens of megahertz to several gigahertz. in filter networks. one passive lumped element linear wport electric circuit that contains at least if the resonance.7. of phenomenon important the inductor and one capacitor can exhibit the occurresistors in the circuit do not introduce excessive dissipation. A brief review of the latter will therefore be given to provide the notation and context in which to understand the former. the on result that the circuit has an infinite series of resonant different distinctly the produces frequencies. resonant transmission line sections are widely used in amplifiers. circuit transmission line a distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line uniform the other hand.Chapter 10 Resonant Transmission Line 10. which under certain conditions may be quite precisely integral multiples of a A lumped element lowest or fundamental frequency. The basic lumped element series resonant circuit. 10. For frequency.. 215 . etc. of frequency with variation the observing investigated by rence of resonance in a circuit is described those such as circuit.
The specific subscript s refers to the elements being in series./\# [CHAP. i.0 is (10. r having a reference connected to the input terminals of the circuit of Fig. o> is Q r referred to simply as the Qvalue or the resonant Qvalue for the circuit. and in the assumption that the value of each is independent of frequency or signal strength.1) an ideal capacitor Cs in series.6) The Q value mate. 101 j[a>L s circuit consisting of Z mv = R + s R — l/(a>Cs)) s. defined as the impedance at the resonant frequency.3) and in this particular case the resonant impedance the input impedance magnitude \Zi nv identical with the minimum value of Equation (10. r )] (10. model of Fig. The coefficient %LJR S plays such a fundamental role in the analysis of resonant circuits that it has become universal practice to designate it by the symbol Q r or Q. 101. If a constant harmonic voltage at the resonant angular frequency o> . Hence for the circuit of Fig. 101 a> rL s = l/(<o r Cs ) and «r = 1/VTC S (10. This current flows through the inductor L s and the capacitor C s whose impedances at the resonant phasor value Tin P + JO.5) For frequency deviations from resonance not exceeding one percent.1) that the resulting phasor current will be Vm P/R s + J0. It is sometimes called the "quality factor" of the circuit. consisting of an ideal inductor and an ideal _ ~" capacitor in series. . OUUL^ Lumped element sistor series resonant The input impedance is of the circuit of Fig. 101. 10 The simplest analytical expression for resonant behavior in a lumped element circuit is obtained / from the an circuit ideal resistor. the reactive component. the phase angle and the magnitude of Z inp can all be obtained with better than \% accuracy from the approximate equation ^i„ P = Z r [l + i2Q r (Ao/o. 101. and are not the distributed circuit coefficients of transmission line theory.e. Ls ° Fig. The radian resonant frequency «> r of any resonant circuit is defined to be the radian frequency at which the input impedance (or other observed variable) is real. but more often .1) can ndw be written The analysis of a practical high frequency resonant circuit is of interest only in a very narrow range of frequencies centering around a> r It is therefore appropriate to express the angular frequency variable as to = o r + A<o.4) and expanding the final term by the binomial theorem gives ^inp = Zri 1 + j2Q (W» r)[l r (Ao>/o> r) + i(Ao/o> r 2 ~ ) KAo/ov) 3 +••]} (10. . it is evident from equation (10. exact or approxithe important aspects of the circuit's resonant behavior. Introducing and Aw into equation (10. The elements are ideal in that each embodies only a single circuit property.2) The resonant impedance Z r 1S of the circuit. L and C serves as a reminder that the quantities are lumped. an ideal rean ideal inductor L s and (10.216 RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS R V/\. is . in terms of its deviation Aw from the resonant angular frequency. Z = R + r s \. The use of a subscript on R. of all of a resonant circuit at its resonant frequency is a measure.
The maximum instantaneous energy stored in the magnetic field of the inductor Ls then 2 = occurs at the peak value of the harmonic current and is given by Lg = iL s (?inp W ) The average power dissipation in the circuit is PRs = (I iap ) 2 R s = (VmP ) 2/R s From the defining relation Qr = *>L s /Rs it follows directly that WlJPr. = Q U r r . If in the circuit of Fig.4) it is easily found that the difference between the 3 db angular frequencies <0 X and <o 2 is related to the resonant Q value and the resonant angular frequency <o by r the simple and exact expression wl  «>2 = "r^r (10. designated A/3 .8) fr/Qr where fr = t* r l2rr the resonant frequency of the circuit in hertz.9) it is _ o m aximum instantaneous energy stored during cycle total energy dissipated during cycle is ' ' ' understood that the excitation harmonic and at the resonant frequency.7. . The phasor voltages across the two elements r s r 8 are therefore respectively jo>L s V. n (10.CHAP.J(<» rCsR^ = jQ r V inv making use of equation (10.(%RJL S) the natural angular frequency of can be written i(t) oscillation. (See Problem 10. Z r (l — jl). 101 the capacitor is initially charged to voltage V from a dc source and the input terminals of the circuit are then short circuited. and are not given by any comparably simple expressions. This is a particular instance of a general expression for the resonant Q value of any circuit or system.10) = Io e<»r'2Q r » sin [^11/(2(^)2] (10. applicable to any type of system. + jO.) It follows from equation (1 0. Thus the magnitude of the phasor voltage across each of the reactive components of the series circuit at the resonant frequency is exactly Q r times as great as the magnitude of the phasor input voltage to the circuit.10) (10. With an rms phasor input voltage V mp + . is given by A/ 3 is = . . Since makes no reference definition of resonant Q to specific elements. (10. 101 is varied in frequency." 1 sm» n t 2 S) (10. the resulting wellknown "natural" response of the circuit is in the form of a damped oscillatory current i(t) = n (V /» nL a )e<***' L .12) . the rms phasor input current is /Jp = VnJR. 101. and when expressed in hertz is commonly called the "bandwidth" or the "3 db bandwidth" of the circuit. and ~JV. there is a "resonant rise of voltage" in the circuit. The difference between the two frequencies is a measure of the "sharpness" of the resonance behavior of the circuit. it can be regarded as a very basic physical value.0 at the resonant frequency o applied to the r input terminals of the circuit of Fig. y Simple calculation shows that at each of these frequencies the input power to the circuit will be one half of the input power at the resonant frequency.11) where is <o = ^1/(L S C . n where (10. From equation (10. there will be a radian frequency Wl above resonance at which Z inp = Z r (l + jl) and a radian frequency a> below resonance at which Z inv = 2 . Using (10. .7) that the 3 db bandwidth of the circuit in hertz. iL. 10] RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS 217 frequency are j<a L and —j/{<o C ) respectively.7) The frequency deviations of <a x and «> 2 from « r are not equal in magnitude.2) and the definition of Qr . Since Q r > 1 for circuits of practical interest. If the harmonic voltage of constant magnitude inP connected to the terminals of the circuit of Fig.np/R s = jQ r V^.{\/2 Vmv/Rs) 2 . They are therefore generally known as the "half power frequencies" or the "3 db frequencies" of the circuit.2).
1) to (10. Cv (10. and in combination with the angular resonant frequency a> r determines the damping factor of the natural oscillations. 10 Equation (10. The basic lumped element parallel resonant circuit. and equations (10. Of more practical importance than the series resonant circuit of Fig. U) on 10. ings. a high Q circuit will "ring" longer than a low circuit.4).5) is similar in form to (10. It is evident that for this circuit the resonant frequency <o r at which the input impedance is real is identical with the frequency at which the input impedance magnitude is a maximum. provided the values of tions using equations (10. o R„ Fig. r r and Q. .6) be written directly. Correspondingly similar forms of equa can (10. tities at the .15) where Y = VZ = 1/R p + jO. the errors are negligibly and relations concepts. an ideal an ideal inductor re Lv and an ideal capacitor parallel.9) applicable to the parallel resonant circuit without change. 101 between windand 102 in several ways. = RJi* A) (10. meaningful establish in circuits of high Qvalue. and that the reactance of the inductor and capacitor are also equal in magnitude at this same frequency. This governs the design of microwave "echo" cavities. 101 is the parallel resonant circuit whose input impedance magnitude passes through a maximum at or near the resonant frequency at which it is real. Subject to this stipulation.16) are only of the order 1/Ql. however. and is the dual of the circuit of Fig.7). Losses in capacitor dielectrics and to the surroundwith frequency.15) tions (10. 102 is the simplest representation of a parallel resonant circuit. The diverse physical forms of lumped elements calculain cause they errors fractional phenomena.12) is that.12) shows that the resonant Qvalue of the basic series resonant circuit determines the fractional deviation of the circuit's self oscillation frequency from its defined resonant frequency.8). 102.3. circuits deviate and Practical lumped element from the ideal representations of Fig. physical implication of equation (10. The circuit of Fig. line transmission notation for use in the analysis of resonant s and C . Lumped element parallel resonant circuit consisting of sistor Rn . The plates and leads of capacitors have distributed vary cores magnetic inductor subject to skin effect. 101. There may be radiation losses or various forms of coupling of these analysis general any prohibit ings. the methods used in Section produce the result Y inr> = r [l+*Q r r («/«r»r/«)] (10. A signal level at the Q 10. values of these quaneffective the are in the equations or RP Lp and CP used s small resonant frequency.16) Equation (10. and the equations sections. Inductors have internal distributed capacitance are conductors All inductance.13) Thus WW* and RP + jo (10. the R L s. (10. after excitation to the same initial same resonant frequency. (10.12) are then found to be and (10. Except in extreme cases.218 RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS [CHAP.2 In the admittance notation appropriate to this circuit.
0. The nature instructive to consider a Before proceeding to a formal analysis of transmission line resonant circuits few simple situations and suggestions. 105. 104. the normalized impedance having a small real part and a positive imaginary part. but with the difference that the section's input reactance is not in general directly proportional to frequency. 10. indicating that the input reactance of the line section increases with increasing frequency. the normalized input impedance at terminals XX of a lowloss transmission line circuit with short circuit terminations at each end varies with frequency in the same manner as the input impedance of a lumped one half wavelength long. Point decreases with increasing frequency. Around the frequency for which it is one half wavelength long. Applying the above reasoning to a point B. Show that if a length l2 of the same line with short circuit termination has a capacitive input reactance. 10] RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS of resonance in transmission line circuits. the points are symmetrical relative to the central horizontal axis of the chart. varies with the angular frequency u according to l 1 u/(2vv p ). in analogy with the behavior of the circuit of Fig.25 < l2 /\ < 0. as the frequency is increased or decreased from this value. 103. the normalized input impedance at terminals XX of a lowloss transmission line circuit with short circuit terminations at each end varies with frequency in the same manner as the input impedance of a lumped element series resonant circuit in the vicinity of resonance. X/2 X/2 XX Fig. but with ance of a similar line section whose the difference that the section's input reactance is not length in wavelengths is between 0. 101. being proportional to l t /\. any point A on or near the periphery of the upper half of the chart represents the normalized input impedance of a length Z x of transmission line with short circuit termination and low total attenuation. it is Example a Smith chart show that if a length ^ of lowloss highfrequency transmission line with short circuit termination has an inductive input reactance.1. and 0. the input reactance becomes inductive or capacitive. 103. 104 has at least one of the attributes of a series resonant circuit at the terminals XX. Around the frequency for which it is Fig. the point A for a fixed line length l x will move clockwise as the frequency rises.25 in general reciprocally proportional to the frequency.50. The line section is therefore analogous to a lumped inductor.1 CHAP. Since v p is virtually inde The angular pendent of frequency for the type of line specified.25.50. shows that the input impedance of a length l2 of lownormalized input impedance of a lowloss highfrequency transmission line with short loss transmission line section with short circuit termination has a capacitive reactance if circuit termination whose length in 0. Furthermore.25. Hence the transmission line circuit of Fig. Point A on the Smith chart marks the or near the periphery of the lower half of the chart. What is the total length l = I + l r x 2 of two such lowloss highfrequency transmission line sections with short circuit termination. respectively. It is clear that if the reactance magnitudes are equal at points A and B. 219 10. The line section B marks the normalized input impedis therefore analogous to a lumped capacitor. on Fig. and l + x 2 = X/2. Since the characteristic impedance of a "lowloss highfrequency" line is to be assumed real.4. and that the capacitive reactance wavelengths l^X is less than 0. whose input reactances (or susceptances) are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign? Referring to the Smith chart of Fig. element parallel resonant circuit in the vicinity of resonance. . the reactance increases with increasing frequency. that the input reactance is zero at the frequency for which the circuit length is one half wavelength.25 location of the point A. the input reactance of the line will be inductive if On < lx /\ < 0. the reactance decreases with increasing frequency.
106. (6) When the frequency reaches the value at which the line length is one quarter wavelength. For a length I by L t = LI. show that as the frequency increases continuously from zero.2) or (10. Fig. The phase velocity 1/y/LC. = idlv. on the lowloss highfrequency line is = Example 10.13) gives the Equation required angular frequency as vp u = l/y/C tL t .2. the maximum of the normalized input impedance magnitude will occur at a fre quency for which the line length one quarter wavelength. at the frequency for which the circuit length is one half wavelength. Fig. 104 and 105 are any integral number of half wavelengths in length. section. it must be concluded that the resonant frequencies of transmission line circuits are not related in any significant way to the total inductance and total capacitance of the circuits. 106 is slightly less than shows enlargements of portions of the Carter chart (Fig. 913. and as the frequency is increased or decreased from this value. 105 above has zero input susceptance at the terminals XX. what is the length of the transmission A m line section in wavelengths? (10. 10 Similarly. above statements continue to apply if the circuits of Fig. Show also that the impedance magnitudes at the maxima and minima are respectively very large and very small compared to the characteristic impedance of the line. Example 10. and the total capacitance Ct is given by C t — CI. the input susceptance becomes capacitive or inductive. the horizontal axis.3. It follows directly that w = v p /l and l/X = Since this result is independent of the nature of the terminations connected to the line l/(2ir) — 0. lowloss highfrequency transmission line has a distributed inductance of L henries/m and a disof the line the total inductance L t is therefore given tributed capacitance of C farads/m. The dashed line shows that if the transmission line has appreciable attenuation that increases with frequency. in analogy with the behavior of the circuit of Fig. 106(a) contains the short circuit terminal page 194) at the two ends of impedance of normalized magnitude .220 RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS [CHAP. that it then diminishes to a minimum value at a frequency 2f u rises to another maximum value at / 3 == 3/ 1( and continues to oscillate in this manner indefinitely with increasing frequency. and since it disagrees with the result of Example 10. until it reaches a maximum value at a frequency f x for which the line length f2 is very close to one quarter wavelength. Using a Carter chart. Contours are for constant \Z/Z (a) \ (b) Fig.1. and that the terminals XX in either case may be located anywhere along the length of the line. the transmission line circuit of Fig. respectively.159. It is easily seen that the 102. the magnitude of the normalized input impedance passes through an indefinitely large maximum if the line has negligible losses (periphery of the chart). the magnitude of the normalized input impedance of any lowloss transmission line section with short circuit termination also increases continuously from zero. (a) A portion of a Carter chart showing that the magnitude of the normalized input impedance of a section of lowloss transmission line with short circuit termination in creases as the frequency increases from zero. At the frequency at which a lumped element circuit having inductance L t and capacitance C t would be resonant.
the point representing the normalized input impedance of the displaced radially inward from the periphery of the chart by an amount that depends on the total attenuation of the section at that frequency. portion of an exaggerated spiral is shown in Fig. zero. the line having characteristic impedance Z ohms. 106(6). at angular frequency w rad/sec. the frequencies at which the is an integral number of quarter . As a practical matter. or 2{2l = nn. page 134. reaching infinite magnitude at a frequency for which the line length is exactly one quarter wavelength. or purely capacitive terminations should all be satisfactory. the length in wavelengths of a transmission line section also and the point on the chart representing the normalized input impedance of a section with negligible losses moves clockwise along the periphery of the chart from the short circuit point. Because of skin effect. is to Q in equation (10. terminations of zero impedance. — n/4. but finite. short circuit.6. Except in special cases. as Zmp = Zotanh (a + j/3)l (10. For a total attenuation independent of frequency. the attenuation of air dielectric transmission lines at high frequencies increases approximately with the square root of the frequency. and the sequence continues indefinitely. It then decreases to zero at precisely twice this frequency. i. and to achieve the additional advantages.3. resonant transmission line circuits usually have a short circuit termination at one end. or any purely reactive impedance satisfy this requirement by having zero losses.Zo ~ r cosh2«l + cos 2^ {10J8 > tion will be real at Adopting the simplifying assumption that Z is all frequencies for which sin 2/31 real. maximize the resonant Qvalue. attenuation factor a nepers/m and phase factor /3 rad/m. the terto have the smallest possible losses.25). for coaxial lines. is given by equation (7. Resonant transmission line sections with short circuit termination. 106(6). the point representing the normalized input impedance enters the portion of the chart's periphery shown in Fig. as described in Section 9. this relation is equivalent to l/X input impedance is real are those for which the line length — 0.CHAP. This is one of many second order effects in resonant transmission line circuits analogous to those listed for lumped element circuits in Section 10. For a total attenuation directly proportional to frequency. than the line itself. the input impedance of the line sec Since /3 = 2nA. and they reduce the resonant Qvalue of any line section to which they are connected. purely inductive. As increases. the frequencies for maximum normalized input impedance magnitude will be slightly less than they would be for a lossless line section of the same length and phase velocity. but the If the line losses are small section at any frequency is spiral is not an elementary one.5. but they provide no mechanical support between the line conductors. however. The normalized input impedance point on the Carter chart (or Smith chart) then moves on a spiral path with increasing frequency. As the frequency continues to increase.9). Under most conditions open circuit terminations are electrically adequate. The input impedance of any length I of uniform transmission line with short circuit termination. From the coordinates of the chart it is obvious that the normalized input impedance magnitude increases with frequency.17) Using a standard identity this expands to Zinp 7 sinh 2al + j sin 2/?? . and open circuit. the point would move along a true logarithmic spiral. to combine low terminal loss with conductor support. where n is any integer. or of conductance to capacitance.e. almost invariably. 10] RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS 221 the frequency increases from zero. terminal inductors or capacitors always have higher ratios of resistance to inductance. In principle. the point would move on a circular locus just inside the bounding circle of the chart. the goal. From the energy definition of minations forming parts of such circuits should then be chosen In the design of transmission line resonant circuits. It demonstrates that if the attenuation of a line section increases in any manner with increasing frequency. of complete electrical shielding and precise termination location (by avoiding the fringing fields that occur at any form of open circuit design). A 10. infinite impedance.
At a frequency differing by a small fraction A©/a> < 1 from the resonant frequency r r at any impedance minimum.. the indicated frequencies are integrally related. value given in (10. If the phase velocity v v is the corresponding frequencies are given by w r = independent of frequency.23) is The indicated resonant Qvalue the . it follows that in the vicinity of every frequency © r at which Z top is a minimum. r p there is negligible variation of the total line attenuation al. irnv p/(2l). 2pl (10.  The indicated resonant Qvalue of the transmission line resonant circuit is Q r = pr /2ar <o (10. Defining Zr = Z a r l. Two additional simplifying assumptions must be made.18) that the variation of Z inv with frequency in the vicinity of each of these frequencies is similar to the variation with frequency of the input impedance of a lumped element resonant circuit near resonance.2 or 10.05 . equation (10.17) in admittance form.19).e.20) \Z inp To demonstrate that resonance behavior also occurs near the frequencies at which r is a maximum.19) A term (al) 2 has been dropped.6).„. when n is odd in the above relations).18) can now be written the line's attenuation factor at the frequency r equa Z>m = zAl + A l^)\ (10. 10 wavelengths. The second is that the actual value of the total attenuation al is small enough to permit use of the approximations sinh 2al = 2al and cosh 2al = 1 + 2(al) 2 (For reasonable accuracy this requires al < 0.3.e.. and has a minimum value Z al when sin2/?Z = and cos2/3l . the simplest procedure is to rewrite (10. the fact that n is now odd = rtTT results in two sign changes. sm ylnB = Y smllal cosh 2al — j sin lf.22) becomes yinp i Yr\l+3^(~)\ which is functionally identical to (10. To establish that each of the frequencies at which the input impedance of the transmission line circuit is real is a "resonant" frequency in the sense of Sections 10. (10.20). = <a/v p . nepers. \ Fmp = Y coth (a + j/3)l (10. sin (2A<oZ/t> p) sin (2£ r l(Ao)/a> r )} = 2p r l(Ao>/o> r where ) and cos 2^ = +\/lsin 2 2# = is /3 r = o> r /v p <o .6) and (10.«. relative to unity. in the denominator. sin 2pl = —2pjL(AaU r) and cos 2/8 J = —1.) With these assumptions it is easily found that Z tap has a maximum value Z /(al) when = and cos2/3Z = 1 (i.. when n is even). it is necessary to show from (10.  sin 2pl <* sin2(3l = = sin{2(0 r + Aa>)l/v p } = +1.l 222 RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS Substituting /? [CHAP. where a r tion (10. the input impedance of a lowloss transmission line section with short circuit termination displays the resonance behavior of a lumped element series resonant circuit near resonance. The first is that over a narrow range of frequency centered at each of the resonant frequencies given by <o = 7rnv /(2l).22) v ' in 2pl Yr = Y Making the same assumptions and approximations as before. Defining ar l. Since this equation is identical in form with (10.21) which can be expanded as .+1 (i.
At 100 megahertz the circuit length is about 30 in. it appears that resonant quarter wavelength sections of standard rigid 7/8" copper coaxial line with short circuit termination would be very superior resonant circuits over the .9 7. and I = X/4 = 2jrvp /(4w r) Hence vp = 0.10 21. 0. and the distributed resistances at the four frequencies had the respective values 0.CHAP. The characteristic impedance is 50.28 6.0210 0.6. since it is an identity (see Problem 10. and calculate the resonant Qvalue and resonant input impedance in each case.440 u megahertz 1 ar a rl nepers/m 1.10 3.0161.167 microhenries/m.. for frequencies of 1.4. 100 and 1000 megahertz. 0. The circuit length. Critical applications might justify use of the line at this frequency.998 X 3.67 1000 5. however. 10. by the standards of lumped element circuits.0 ohms.24 206 632 13. but the Qvalue and resonant impedance are considerably higher than lumped element circuits could provide.161 and 0. the distributed inductance of the line was calculated to be 0. Example The 10.0 m 74. bulky. the Qvalue and resonant impedance are enormous.20 Qr 65.6..99 velocity is given as 99.10) that UfL/R. specifications of standard rigid 7/8" copper coaxial line are given in Problem 5. 0.4 X 104 X 103 X lO.100 206 652 100 1.49 X 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 X X X 100 6. Depending on the total structure to which the unit is connected. The values of /r /3 r = o> r/vp at all four frequencies. and almost up to 100 megahertz. At the two lower frequencies the circuit lengths are totally impractical.749 1000 10 9 0. the factor and from phase is easily determined resonant frequency resonant Qvalue at any the attenuation factor of the line and is independent of the line length.2 X lO" 3 10 5.135.63 X 103 4.00 X 10 8 at the four frequencies are X/4 = Pr rad/sec 6. in the vicinity of all frequencies for which the line length is an integral number of half wavelengths. page 64.8% X 10 8 m/sec. when the losses are due entirely to distributed resistance.82 1. 10] RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS 223 In summary.28 6.4 Zr ohms 4.28 0.509 ohms/m. The phase 2.0509. At each of these frequencies determine the length of a quarter wavelength resonant line section with short circuit termination. Qr = From the above results it is seen that at frequencies of 1 megahertz and 10 megahertz. in the vicinity of all The frequencies for which the line length is an odd number of quarter wavelengths. and expensive lowloss transmission line are not as high as can be obtained from simple compact lumped element resonant circuits consisting of a wound coil and a parallel plate condenser.000 2062 The values of UfL/R are added for comparison.49. this could result in the stray fields at the open input end substantially modifying the resonance performance. The resonant Qvalues determined from Q r = /3 r/(2a r).0749 The attenuation factors given for the line at the four frequencies in db/100 ft are respectively and 1. 0.0425. As a general conclusion. is about 3 in. page 64.28 megahertz 1 rad/m 0.210 2.170 UyL/R 65. At 1000 megahertz. the input impedance of a section of lowloss transmission line with short circuit termination varies analogously to the input impedance of a series lumped element resonant circuit around resonance.61 nepers 1. where L and R are respectively the distributed inductance and resistance of the line.2 X 10. the values of Q r and Zr available from quarter wavelength sections of even this heavy. and varies analogously to the input impedance of a parallel lumped element resonant circuit around resonance. In Problem 5.200 1866 119.22 X lO" 3 X lO" 4 40. and the resonant input impedances determined from Zr = Z<J{uJ) are 0. only three times the line's diameter.
5 are therefore almost invariably highly accurate. The error introduced is of the order 1/Qr. including hundred are more limits to tolerable physical length. page 59. In contrast to the situation for lumped circuit elements. For high frequency lines with a substantial amount of dielectric in the interconductor space. 10.01 this to be considerably larger than the resistance of a typical short circuit termination. The former value applies if the losses are all due to distributed conductance. Specifically.23) because the effects of this variation on the deviation of the two half power frequencies from the resonant frequency are of opposite sign and cancel to a first approximation. It follows from equation (10. and values of several typical. The accuracy of the approximation for sin [2(o> + Ao>)l/v is good if it is not necessary r p A<o more than a few percent on either side of The half power or 3 db points of a r resonance curve will be covered by such variations if the value of Q r for the circuit exceeds ] vary a> . The radiation loss can be eliminated by terminating a parallel wire line with a short circuit in the form of a plane transverse metal sheet about 1.6.224 RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS [CHAP.24) where s is the separation is likely resistance between conductor centers. that the phase angle of the characteristic impedance of a lossy line lies between the values tan" 1 (+<*//?) and tan 1 («/£). Particularly in the case of fully shielded coaxial line circuits or shielded pair circuits with short circuit terminations at each end in the manner of Fig. maximum fractional frequency deviation for which the approxi The fact that the attenuation factor of high frequency transmission lines varies finitely with frequency across the frequency range of a resonance curve introduces only a second order correction in deriving (10. for example. The validity of the approximations.3 wavelengths in diameter.20) from (10. For many reasons.5 improve in accuracy for circuits of higher resonant Qvalue. The assumption that the line's characteristic impedance is real. the phase angle will lie somewhere between the two extremes. and their use might be indicated in applications involving high power levels or requiring high selectivity. 10 frequency range from about 100 megahertz to 500 megahertz or somewhat higher. It has been established both theoretically and experimentally that open circuit or short circuit terminations of parallel wire lines radiate as small dipole elements. But al/(/3l) = l/(2Q r) and j3l for resonant circuits with short circuit or open circuit terminations is a small multiple of tt/2. mation the reciprocal of twice the is acceptable. of the approximations for sinhaZ and coshaZ depends on the total line attenuation al being small. The approximations made in Section 10. . practical resonant trans mission line circuits very seldom have resonant Qvalues less than 100. and the latter if the losses are all due to distributed resistance.20) that if a resonant transmission line circuit is calculated or measured to have a resonant Qvalue of Q r the phase angle of the characteristic impedance of the line cannot exceed approximately l/(2Q r) rad and might be much smaller. transmission line resonant circuits designed from the formulas of this chapter and Chapter 6 can be expected to have experimental characteristics agreeing very closely with the design specifications. allowance to be made for an additional phenomenon. and it may have a marked effect on the Qvalue of the resulting circuit. with radiation resistance given by Rraa = 60tt 2 (s/A) 2 ohms (10. is an approximation to the fact first stated in equation (5. All of the approximations made in deriving the resonant transmission line circuit relations of Section 10. Even with s/X as small as 0. .30). 105.19) or (10. for a quarter The accuracy wavelength circuit to (31 = tt/2 and al = 1/Q r . there are no significant intangible factors not covered by the theory. When may have resonant circuits are constructed from parallel wire transmission line.
and the other terms are as defined above. detector probe . With distance d adjusted for maximum detector output. of the line. When the unknown impedance on the line is produces a reflection coefficient of magnitude fairly close to unity. 107. Its location on the line can be varied. instead of a standing wave minimum. An alternative duce reflection coefficients of large method of measuring transmission line terminal impedances that promagnitude takes advantage of the phenomenon of resonance and observes the width of a resonance curve maximum of current or voltage.(£?: Fig. the circuit length I is varied through a resonant value.CHAP. but the circuit on which the measurement is made is not a resonant circuit. and the VSWR VSWR independent variable is neither source frequency nor a circuit reactance. . This can be achieved by using a source having low internal impedance. where Vs is the rms source voltage. relative to the location of the impedance Z T The resonance curve of output at the detector is obtained by varying the line length I through a resonant value. 10] RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS 225 10. page 175.7. Z s the source impedance. one of which is shown in Fig. —z = d. page 172. V Taking out a factor e~ yl ^ = ZT+To l. the can be values high which such technique by high. it requires a sensitive detector. Z the line's characteristic impedance. Since both z and I are independent variables. Because this method observes signals at a voltage minimum. 107. and attention to the reduction of noise and interference. the at value of a voltage minimum. the on locations two between determined in terms of the separation minimum. The detector shown is a voltage probe. 107 is given by equation (8. which produces a voltage reflection At the other end of the line the signal source coefficient Pt of magnitude close to unity.26). describes a side each one on line. The practical instrumentation of the method can have any of several configurations. Resonance curve methods for impedance measurement.7. Section 8.PTPs e™ and noting that I {1 °'25) in the numerator. usually by sliding contacts at or near the source end . at which the voltage magnitude is y/2 times the This procedure is obviously analogous to that of finding the "3 db" bandwidth of a resonant circuit. In Chapter 8 it has been seen that the normalized value of any impedance connected as the terminal load of a transmission line can be determined from measurements of the voltage standing wave pattern it produces on the line. y = a + jp the propagation factor of the line. Circuit for measuring an unknown impedance Z T by resonance curve observations. The voltage at a coordinate z on the transmission line circuit of Fig. Here Z T is the unknown terminal load impedance to be measured. . such as that used in a slotted line section. produces a reflection coefficient Ps whose magnitude should be comparable to or larger than that of Pt for best accuracy in the final results.
terms in (10. (aU When + u) < 0. If W/X is the width of the resonance curve in wavelengths between these "3 db" points.18. given by Al'lx = (alr + u)/(2tt).8 or greater. The adjustment of this value is not critical. unknown Z T connected. change Al from a resonant line length lr.29).30) The resonant value of \Vd (l)\ is Vdr .23) Comparison with equation Usa curve.26) are functions of d or the same for all \V(d.28) the phase angle ^ of PsPt \ \ is determined from any resonant line length Air(l r /X lr by $ = 2v =  nil) (10. The maxima of \Vd (l)\ therefore occur quite precisely at the resonant line lengths lr for which sin 2 (pl r + v) = or ph. W/X = 2AZ7A = (alr + u)/* (10.1.28) ) sin 2 (pi + v)] m 1U ^ 9 {lom \ ) Although this resonance curve method of impedance measurement is usable for values \psPt\ from unity down to about 0. Since only the exponendetector and tial I. it is easily seen that the value of d that maximizes values of I. let = J) Then ^(I) Wl = 1/(2V . I. throughout a measurement. given by l Fd 'l = sinh (air + u) ( 10 31 ' "> which has the same voltage scale factor as (10. its advantages outweigh its additional mechanical complexities in comparison with the slotted line standing wave method only for fairly of large values of PsPt .33) . For a small line length \ 1 L + tf+z) J shows that \V d (l)\ varies with true resonance The value of \Vd (l)\ drops to Fd r/\/2 for line length changes A V on either side of any resonant length lr.* (al + u) + ^ (10.1 * and since T a is usually of the order 10 3 nepers/m for suitable transmission lines at frequencies appropriate to the method. (10.4. SI) into (10.2(u+iv) \ainh[(al + u) + j{pl + v)]\ V{2V [smb. the usual approximation can be made that sinh (air + u) = (air + u). the voltage magnitude \Vd (l)\ at the fixed coordinate where \V'\ is a phasor voltage magnitude that is not a function of 8. 10 The experimental procedure.l)\ is d is As a function of now given by the circuit length I. with a maximum at resonance. ^ \psP T e5 * \ = = e. For such cases.226 RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS [CHAP. sin [p(lr + Al) + v] = /3 Al. say 0.+ v = nn. The distance between the detector probe and the terminal impedance Z T is therefore fixed at the experimentally determined optimum value. Let \V'\ = 1.  \ From (10. Using the mathematical procedure of Section PsPt page 163. since it is at a maximum in a standing wave pattern. sinh 2 (al + u) changes only infinitesimally across the width of a resonance curve.29). is to vary I and d until a detector indication is found. where n is zero or any integer. Substituting these approximations and the expression for \Vdr from (10. Then d is varied at fixed I until the detector output is a maximum. u = loge (l/V\psP ) < O. after the circuit has been assembled with the source.
10] RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS (10.35)  With the values of a and A known. it follows from widths of the corresponding resonance curves are respectively that equation (10. the wavelength is obtained from lr l r = A/2. \ \ When  alternatives to the detector arrangement in the circuit of Fig. W a = 2tt(W'W)/\ . . (10.36) since u has the same value in both cases. If the resulting resonance curve measurements are W" and IV.80. both « and A can be measured directly and accurately with the circuit itself. Equation (10.„„ „„x v .37) and  Pt  = *{«<ww">M«<i r i r">> (10. ' j<t. the complex number value of Ps p T can therefore be and lr using equations (10.33) nn 2 . with K > lr.01.30) and either (10. (10.T T = 6 7r + 4ir(ir £')/* (10. It is therefore necessary to determine Ps This is done by connecting in place of Z T a short circuit for which — = = 1 + yo 1/^. page 128.33). from and (10.CHAP.35). and low line attenuation.34) or determined from measured values of W .38) where as W and U are the measurements with \p T \ ZT connected.29) are then unsatisfactory.30) 227 Finally.39) = l2{ir{WW")/ka(lr£')} 0.9b). If the and W.9a) and (7. when the exponent is less than this resonance curve method of impedance measurement is extended to values of between 0. The information desired from this resonance curve procedure is the complex number value of p T from which the normalized components of the unknown terminal impedance Z T can be calculated using equations (7. by observing resonance curves at two consecutive values of k without changing the line's terminations. or the source and Z T can be at the same As end of the line with a low impedance coupling loop detector connected as the termination at the other end. . 107.01.34) PsPt  which can easily be the case for lowloss terminations can be simplified to = l2{*W/\alr) (10. If the resonant lengths are lr and l' r . The best procedure is to construct graphs relating W/k to ps p T for various values of the parameter air. the width in wavelengths of a resonance curve at the "3 db" Ps P T points can increase to a maximum value of £. Provided the total circuit length I is variable over a sufficient range.18 and 0. the resonance curve procedure can be used with a low impedance coupling loop detector in series at either the source end of the line or the Z T end of the line. equation (10.38) can be written (10. Many of the approximations made after equation (10. the Pt will be made from final determination of p T = \p T \e .ah) is less than about 0. \ PsPt \ = e «»™«ir> (10M) If 2(ttW/\ .
therefore. 101 and 102 the voltage across the capacitor is a maximum at an instant when the current in the inductor is zero. it is evident that / = \V where Z Q is the line's characterT inp \/Z istic impedance. as required in equation (10. rising from zero at the input terminals to a maximum at the short circuit. . the current is everywhere zero.15). however.5). it follows from the derivations in Chapter 8 that Pt — the standing wave pattern of voltage magnitude on the line is very accurately one quarter of a sine wave. G and C are the usual distributed circuit coefficients x = of the line at the operating frequency.t) The simultaneous power loss L is Ad i(d. W P W . t) are respectively the instantaneous voltage and current values at coordinate d on the line at some instant t. increasing from zero at the short circuit to a maximum at the input terminals. Evaluating the energy stored. and vice versa. page 127. and the time variation of the voltage and current were not discussed. and the losses produced by line voltage in the line's distributed conductance. \ \  . however. must include both the losses produced by line current in the line's distributed resistance. equation Qr where fr is the resonant 2 "frWZo + [RW^/ZolHm + G\Vinp 2 (X/S)](l/fr frequency in hertz. This is analogous to the fact that in the lumped element circuits of Fig. The losses calculated for a full cycle. along a quarter wavelength section of line involves only the integrals x. attention was focused on the standing wave patterns of voltage and current magnitude along a line as a function of the distance coordinate d. 10 . and the instantaneous energy stored in the distributed inductance of the element is 2 = %LAdi(d. and the line losses.t) . For a resonant section of lowloss transmission terminated in a short is circuit. and the standing wave pattern of current magnitude is a mirror image of the voltage pattern. t) 2 + G Ad v(d. Solved Problems line 10. R Since the short circuit termination on the line produces a voltage reflection coefficient — 1 + JO. Comparing the scale factor for \V(d)\ in equation (8. L. show that the definition of resonant Qvalue given by equation (10. 1 The functional difference of the expressions for current and voltage in the coordinate z is equivalent to the difference noted above for the standing wave patterns of \V(d)\ and \I(d)\ on a lowloss terminated in a reflection coefficient of magnitude unity.9).5. The result will then apply to each quarter wave For any element of length Ad at coordinate d of the line. the sum of these two expressions. \V(d)\ = \V inv sin (3d and \I(d)\ = \I cos (3d where the T coordinate d increases from the short circuit toward the input terminals. except in Problem 8. X Referring to equation (7.tt/2 J»ir/2 sin 2 (3d d(/3d) = X/8 and (1/(3) I cos2 (3d d(/3d) = (10. becomes 2V cos at cos (3z. Thus in phasor magnitude notation. t) 2 .228 RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS [CHAP. which are also required in the equation. has not been explored in previous chapters. where R. equivalent to the A quarter wavelength section will be assumed.fiz) and (VJZQ ) cos (at + (3z) respectively. the corresponding current waves are represented by (V x /Zq) cos (at . In that problem it was shown that if two equal amplitude harmonic voltage waves of angular frequency w and phase factor (3 travel in opposite directions on a transmission line having negligible losses. the instantaneous energy stored in the distributed capacitance of the element is 2 c = ±CAdv(d. and their sum is (2V /Z ) sin at sin az. and the line losses are very small. length section of any longer circuit. the instantaneous voltage at any time t at any coordinate z can be represented for the two waves by the expressions Vj cos (at — fiz) and V x cos (at + (3z) respectively.20).1. The implications of the functional difference of the timevarying terms. In Chapter 8. By a trigonometric identity. it is sufficient to calculate either the total energy stored in the line section's distributed capacitance at an instant when the voltage on the line is everywhere a maximum or the total energy stored in the line section's distributed inductance at an instant when the current on the line is everywhere a maximum. which is the total voltage on the line as a function of z and *. t) and i(d. For purposes of the present problem it has the important significance that at an instant when the voltage at every point on the line is a maximum. with the scale factor for \I(d)\ in the corresponding equation in Problem 8.9) Combining becomes all of the above. page 180. and v(d.1. page 164.9) value given by equation (10. line In calculating the peak energy stored in a transmission line resonant circuit. page 178. and taking _ 2" yinp to be an rms phasor quantity. and vice versa. Using Z = yjhlC and multiplying ) \ ^C(x/2lyinp p2(X/8) G) all terms by ZQ .
50 ) (3. I the line length. It is evident that the resulting frequencies are not harmonically related. Any 10. Also. resonant at the amplifier's operating frequency of 250 megahertz. Solving. at the resonant frequency.5 X 108) x 7. determine the one quarter wavelength long with short impedance that would be measured between the line conductors at a cross section distant d from the short circuit. —d= . consisting of the amplifier's input capacitance of 7. cosh2a rd = cosh2ar2 = 1.00 X 10 8 )/(2. A parallel resonant circuit is to be created at the input terminals of an amplifier. sinh 2aTj? = 2ar«. the input capacitance of the amplifier and Y — 1/Z —Y . 10] RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS a ry/LC 229 pr from equations It is (5. noting that Expanding the hyperbolic cotangent and tangent by equations (10. It therefore intersects each of the cotangent curves at an « r coordinate which is a resonant frequency of the circuit.5 micromicrofarads connected in parallel with the input terminals of a section of lowloss airdielectric transmission line having short circuit termination. tables of the function (cot x)/x are available.4. obvious that the result will be the same for every separate quarterwavelength of the standing wave pattern on a line of negligible losses.CHAP. The line has attenuation factor « r phase factor p r and characteristic impedance Z at that frequency. The other section has length (X/4) — d and is terminated in an open circuit. What are the resonant frequencies of the nected across the input terminals. Thus Y . Then z. from equation (7. Yd Let (X/4) = Y [coth (a r + j/3 r)d + tanh (a r + jjB r)(X/4 .18) sin 20^ = sin 20^ and cos 2p+z = —cos 2/3. What length of transmission line section is required.60 m) can be added to this value. line section .2.5 X 10~ 12 X 80] = 0. Then. subject to the "high frequency" approximations. For a resonant transmission circuit termination. 10.3. I = = (v p /w r) cot 1 (w r CampZ 2.5) and (5.156 m integral number This solution gives the shortest line length that will produce the desired resonance. Camp cot (u r l/vp ) = —a rCamp is the characteristic admittance of the line.2. and using the approximations sinh2a rd = 2a rd. The straight line represented by the function urCZ on the same coordinates passes through the origin and has a finite slope. 10. terminated in either an open circuit or a short circuit.d)] respectively.22) and (10. A section of lowloss transmission line of length l/X wavelengths has characteristic There is a capacitance C conis terminated in a short circuit. The input admittance Yd at the location d is the sum of the input admittances of the two line One section has length d and is terminated in a short circuit.r X X 10 8 ) cot" 1 [(2* X 2. of half wavelengths (0.3.6). where <o r is the resonant angular frequency. each extending in ordinate from minus infinity to plus infinity. combination ? impedance Zq and The equation for stating the problem is that used in Problem 10. Hence sections on either side.21). . if the line's characteristic impedance is 80 + jO ohms ? For parallel resonance. cot (u r l/vp ) = « rC It can be solved graphically or by testing a series of This is a transcendental equation in <o r numerical values. which can be used if the above equation is brought to the form [cot( Url/vp )]/( Url/v p ) = vp C/(lY Q) Plotted against <o r the cotangent function for any value of l/v p has an infinite number of parts. the input susceptance of the transmission line must be equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the input susceptance of the amplifier. both denominators become 1 — cos 2/? rd = 2 sin 2 /J rd.
59). ratio of the radii of the facing conductor surfaces b/a will result in the highest value of Z r. page 91 and (6. 10. r using equations {649). With a circuit of the form of Fig. = + b/a) 2 reduces to 2/(b/a) + 2 = log e (b/a). a resonance curve of width at the half power level is observed with a resonant line length of 0. This to be solved graphically or by trial. and the reflection coefficient at the source end if the termination is assumed to be a perfect short circuit. Since the energy storage and power loss relations are always those of the quarter wavelength resonant circuit.1.37 X 103)/0.11 X 10"2 nepers/m \  Using this value in equation (10. Thus Z = 2Z2J(Rl).i sin2/? rd d is real at every cross section because the circuit is resonant. The resonant Qvalue of the circuit constructed from this line would be about 20% less than for a line with the same outer conductor and a ratio b/a = 3. Z the characteristic impedance (assumed real) and a the attenuation factor at the resonant frequency.5.35) with p T \p = 1. R 7200[loge (b/a)}* (R s/2*b)(l + b/a) The value of b/a (at constant 6) that maximizes Zr is found in the usual way.37 X \  103)/0. a transcendental equation The approximate result is b/a = 9.36 is observed when the resonant line length is 1.S5) (10.60 for minimum attenuation. and is far from optimum by any other criterion. In terms of conductor radii.750 2 = 1.078 m. Determine the attenuation factor of the line.36 X 10~3  3. the attenuation factor is given by a = R/(2Z where is ) the total conductor resistance per unit length. 10 ~ 3 sin 2 @rd 2a rz + J sin 2)M\ J a r (d + z) a r \/4 sin2/J rd 2sin2/? rd 2sin2j8. and a  2^(4. page 96. this simple proportion does not hold at other locations.v f 2ard [CHAP. The input impedance at the cross section d is Z d = 1/Yd = Zo/(a X/4) sin2 r p rd = Zr sin2 /? rd where Zr is the resonant impedance at the input terminals of the resonant quarter wavelength section. 107.230 RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS V Y .75  1. 3.703] = 0.37 With the same termination a resonance curve of width 4.11 X 10" 2 X 0. consisting of a length of air dielectric transmission line operating at a frequency of 400 megahertz. [log e (6/a)]2 (1 dZr d(b/a) _ after deleting the coefficients. Equation (10.750 m. mm mm At line lengths differ the stated frequency the wavelength on the air dielectric line is 0.9874 . and the two resonant by one half wavelength. Although r the resonant impedance at the center of the quarter wavelength section is one half the resonant impedance at its input terminals.703 m. the resonant Qvalue governing the impedance variations at any location d must have the constant value /3 r /2a r Thus the selectivity properties of the circuit are available at any level of resonant impedance less than Z by suitable choice of the connection location d. A quarter wavelength resonant section of lowloss airdielectric highfrequencycoaxial transmission line with short circuit termination has a resonant input impedance Z r = Zo/a l according to Section 10. Thus \ Ps \ = 1  2[s(3.6. The resulting coaxial line 1 2(a/b) loge (b/a) + b/a 10.86) therefore applies directly. . has the very high characteristic impedance of 132 ohms.5. if the value of the inner radius of the outer conductor b is fixed? What Since there are no dielectric losses. the value of \  Ps is found directly direct from either set of data. where I is the line length.
e.12. and to the expressions Q r = a.5 micromicrofarads across its input terminals. Equation (10.Xinp and Flnp for Z lnp . is given by .3 to the circuit of Problem 10.8. Show by the methods of Section 7. If equation (10.530 ohms for a threequarter wavelength circuit. and an attenuation factor of 2. analogous to the result obtained for  \  a lumped element tion that the input is circuit.10. .e.05 db/(100 ft) at a frequency of 100 megahertz. consisting of a 0.15) shows that the same graphs are also universal resonance curves for parallel resonant circuits if 2? inp is substituted for . Q r = 205 for all the circuits mentioned. 101 the fractional frequency deviation is — )/« r above resonance at which the circuit's input impedance Zr (l + jl). If the frequency coordinates are normalized relative to « r and the reactance and impedance magnitude coordinates are normalized relative to Z r such graphs become universal resonance curves for series resonant circuits.4). G = 0).600 ohms for a one quarter wavelength circuit and 4. Show that VtI/IVjI = 1. to the expression Q r = a rC/G if the line losses are caused entirely by G (i. at 60 hertz. Applying the result of Problem m + Ans. provided the frequency scale is logarithmic but not otherwise. R = 0). while the generator remains connected. a phase velocity of 66%. Show that for the circuit of Fig.u r)/<o r = l/(2Q r) + l/(SQ r ) 2 + 1/(128Q*) + + • • • and that the equivalent statement for the corresponding frequency w 2 below resonance (<o is .CHAP. Approximately 1210 and 2180 megahertz.) is due to G. 10. \ .156 with short circuit termination and a j'O ohms) lowloss airdielectric transmission line (Z = 80 capacitance of 7. The device can be used as a transformer required to to develop high voltages. This phenomenon must be protected against in very long high voltage commercial power lines If for any reason the terminal load becomes disconnected from the line.4) is equated to .9. the voltage at the end of the line remote from the generator can rise to values far in excess of the operating voltage of the line.U2 )/Wr = r l/(2Q r)  l/(8Q r)2 1/(128Q?) • • • Thus at the level of the half power points. the resonance curve for this ideal circuit is "off center" by a fraction of approximately l/(8Q r) of the width of the resonance curve at that level. This is the phenomenon of "resonant rise of current". the phasor magnitude of the current in each of the reactive elements of the circuit is Q r times as great as the phasor magnitude of the current supplied to the circuit by the source.11.2. 10.7 or otherwise that if a voltage of rms phasor magnitude V4 is applied to the input terminals of any quarter wavelength section of transmission line with open circuit termination. From («! equation <o r (10.    10. 102. at the resonant frequency. length of 10. L. 10. xcirL/R = (1 — x)u rC/G if a fraction x of the losses is due to R and a fraction (1 In these relations R. What Qvalue will a resonant section of the line with open circuit or short circuit termination have at that frequency and what are the resonant input impedances of a quarter wavelength section and a threequarter wavelength section with short circuit termination? Ans. Zr = 13. Z inv = R mp + }Xilip show that the graphs of lX^I and \Zmp plotted against the frequency « are symmetrical about the ordinate « = u r. determine the next two frequencies above 250 megahertz at which parallel resonance will occur at the input terminals. Hence a large source current produce a large output voltage.13. but is subject to the complicaimpedance has the low value Zyal for lowloss lines. 10. show that for the («! circuit of Fig. This is a form of "resonant rise of voltage". 10] RESONANT TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS 231 Supplementary Problems 10. that the approximate expression Q r = p r/2a r for the resonant Qvalue of any resonant section of lowloss transmission line terminated in an open circuit or a short circuit is equivalent to the expression Q r = UyL/R if the line losses are caused entirely by R (i.7. Show — 10. G and C are the line's distributed circuit coefficients.27 Q r. the rms phasor magnitude of the voltage V T at the open circuit termination is given by \VT = \Vi\/(sinh at) = \Vi\/(al) if the total attenuation of the line is small. Standard RG8/U flexible coaxial cable has a characteristic impedance of 52 ohms.
INDEX
Admittance matrix, 141, 154 Admittance notation, 16
Analytical methods, 2 Approximations in resonant circuit analysis, 224 Arnold, A. H. M., 97 Attenuation factor, 29, 31 calculation by polar numbers, 46 high frequency expression, 49 measurement by impedances, 135 measurement by resonance curves, 227 on Smith chart, 195, 208 transition frequencies, 54
Circular conductors, tubular, distributed internal inductance, 109115 distributed resistance, 8690
Coaxial
line, 9,
12
distributed capacitance, 92 distributed conductance, 93 distributed inductance, 86
distributed resistance, 91
Ber and
bei functions, 74
high frequency relations, 96 optimum geometries, 115, 230 RGll/U, 65 rigid copper 7/8", 64, 180 Complex characteristic impedance, 1369 Complex number inversion, 201 Conductance, distributed, 15
coaxial line, 93 parallel plane line, 107
parallel wire line, 102 Conductivity of metals, 80 Conventions for Smith chart, 200 Coordinate notation, 13
Bessel equation, 73 Bessel functions, 74
Binomial theorem, 48
Cable pair, 19 gauge, 52, 54 Capacitance, distributed, 15 coaxial line, 92 parallel plane line, 107 parallel wire line, 100
Carter chart, 193 admittance coordinates, 201 impedance coordinates, 194
Carter, P.
Current distribution,
plane conductors, 85 solid circular conductor, 7576 tubular conductors, 86
Current symbol, 14
193 Characteristic admittance, 17, 32, 144 Characteristic impedance, 17, 32 coaxial line, 96 complex, 1369 measurement by impedances, 134 parallel plane line, 108 parallel wire line, 104 reactance component, 50, 59
S.,
Decibels and nepers, 35
De
Forest, Lee, 6
Dielectric constant, 93
complex, 94
Differential equations of
uniform
line,
1823
Distortionless line, 45, 59, 206
Circular conductors, solid, distributed internal inductance, 71, 78 distributed resistance, 71
Distributed capacitance, 15 coaxial line, 92 parallel plane line, 107 parallel wire line, 100
233
234
INDEX
Hyperbolic functions, 130
Distributed circuit coefficients, and electromagnetic theory, 12 and physical design, 70
from Smith chart,
identities, 221,
202, 210
222
and propagation characteristics, 46 from propagation factors, 58
postulates, 10
Impedance at a point on a line, 34 Impedance, characteristic, 17, 32
calculation
symbols, 15 Distributed conductance, 15 coaxial line, 93 parallel plane line, 107
parallel wire line, 102 Distributed inductance, external, 15 coaxial line, 86 parallel plane line, 107 parallel wire line, 103 Distributed inductance, internal, 15 plane conductor, 109115 solid circular conductor, 71, 78 tubular conductor, 109115 Distributed internal impedance, plane conductor, 84 solid circular conductor, 78 Distributed resistance, 15 coaxial line, 91 parallel plane line, 106 parallel wire line, 97 solid circular conductor, 71 tubular conductor, 8690 "Double minimum" method for high
from distributed
circuit
54 high frequency, coaxial line, 96 high frequency, parallel plane line, 108 high frequency, parallel wire line, 104 measurement, 134 Impedance matching, 133, 146, 178, 207 Impedance matrix, 141
coefficients, 47, 49,
Impedance measurement, from resonance curve, 225 from standing waves, 161 Impedance notation, 16
Inductance, distributed external, coaxial line, 96 parallel plane line, 107 parallel wire line, 103 Inductance, distributed internal, plane conductor, 109115 solid circular conductor, 71, 78 tubular conductor, 109115 Inductive loading, 5, 60, 66 Input admittance, lumped element resonant circuit, 218 transmission line resonant circuit, 222 Input impedance, 130 maximum in standing wave, 151 minimum in standing wave, 151 resonant circuit, lumped element, 216, 218 resonant circuit, transmission line, 221 stub lines, 131 transformer sections, 132 Inversion of complex numbers, 201 Iterative impedance, 17
VSWR,
172
Electric field, 10, 12 minimizing in coaxial lines, 116 Electrical transmission systems, 1
Equipotential surfaces, 92 parallel wire line, 101
Frequencies, definition of "high", 49 definition of "transition", 51 Frequency domain equations, 22
Jones chart, 184
General transmission line circuit, 126 Generalized reflection coefficient, 176 Graphical aids, 184 Gray, Stephen, 3
Ker and
Kelvin, Lord, 4, 9 kei functions, 74
Half wavelength transformer, 132
Loading coils, 66 Loading of transmission
lines, 5,
Harmonic waves,
traveling, 2628
Lumped element resonant
circuits,
60 215
Heaviside distortionless line, 49, 59, 206 Heaviside, Oliver, 59 High frequency, definition, 49 High frequency distributed internal inductance, plane conductors, 109115 solid circular conductors, 71, 78 tubular conductors, 109115 High frequency distributed resistance, plane conductors, 106 solid circular conductors, 78 tubular conductors, 8690 High frequency propagation factors, 48 High values, measurement, 172 Hybrid matrix, 142
Magnetic field, 12, 72, 82 Matching, single stub, 146, 178, 207 Matching, triple stub, 210 Matrix, hybrid, 142, 155 open circuit impedance, 141 short circuit admittance, 141 transmission, 142, 155 Multiple reflections, 174
Nepers and
decibels, 35 Nonreflective termination, 33
VSWR
Normalized admittance,
from
reflection coefficient, 144
INDEX
Normalized impedance,
Reflection coefficient (cont.)
235
from
in
reflection coefficient, 128
standing wave, 171
Open circuit impedance matrix, 141 Open circuit termination, 129 Optimum conductor thickness, 148 Optimum geometries,
coaxial line, 115, 230 parallel wire line, 123
Parallel plane line, 9 distributed capacitance, 107
for various terminations, 144 generalized, 176 phase angle, 127 Reflection coefficient plane, 185
Reflection loss, 202 Resistance, distributed, 15
coaxial line, 91 parallel plane line, 106 parallel wire line, 97 plane conductors, 82 solid circular conductors, 71 tubular conductors, 8690
distributed conductance, 107 distributed inductance, 107
distributed resistance, 106 high frequency relations, 108 Parallel wire line, 9 distributed capacitance, 100 distributed conductance, 102 distributed inductance, 103 distributed resistance, 97 high frequency relations, 104 Permeability, 72, 80, 83 complex, 122, 125 nonmagnetic media, 87, 96 Permittivity, 92 complex, 94 free space, 93
Resonant circuits, 215 lumped element circuits, 215218
transmission line circuits, 219231
Resonant curve method for impedance measurement, 225
Short circuit admittance matrix, 141, 154 Short circuit termination, 128131, 167, 173 Single stub matching, 146, 178, 207 Skin depth 8, 74, 85
in copper, 80
Skin
effect, 73 onset at low frequencies, 56 plane conductors, 8286 solid circular conductors, 7481 tubular conductors, 8790
Phase factor, 30, 31 from impedance measurements, 135 Phase velocity, 27, 31, 49
coaxial line, 97 parallel plane line, 108 parallel wire line, 104
Slotted line section, 161
Smith chart, 184
attenuation scale, 195, 208 commercial form, 188 complex number inversion, 201
Phasor diagrams, 37 and standing wave patterns, 175 on Smith chart, 214 Phasor quantities, 22, 27 Plane conductors,
distributed internal inductance, 82, 109115 distributed resistance, 82
normalized normalized normalized normalized normalized normalized
optimum thickness, 149 Polar number solutions, 46 Postulates of analysis, 9 Power calculations with reflected waves, 138, 205 Power loss in plane surfaces, 86, 147 Propagation characteristics, 46, 57 Proximity effect, 97100
Q
value, 217
hyperbolic functions, 202, 210 admittance coordinates, 197 admittance transformations, 200 impedance coordinates, 193 impedance transformations, 194 reactance coordinates, 187 resistance coordinates, 186 orientation convention, 200 power reflection scale, 191 reflection coefficient scale, 189 reflection loss scale, 202 return loss scale, 202 slide rule form, 192 transmission loss scale, 202 trigonometric functions, 202, 210 scale, 190 scale in decibels, 193
lumped element
VSWR VSWR
line,
circuits, 216, 218 transmission line circuits, 222
Quarter wavelength
short circuit termination, 151 Quarter wavelength transformer, 133
bandwidth, 152, 209
Reactance component of characteristic impedance, 50, 59, 150 Reflection coefficient, 126 and normalized impedance, 128, 129 and standing wave patterns, 165 for current waves, 144
Smith, P. H., 184 Standing wave patterns, 156160 analysis, 163 from phasor diagrams, 175 lines with attenuation, 16772 lossless lines, 164 of current, 170, 178 Smith chart data, 190 Stub lines, 131 Surface current density, 84, 85 Surface resistivity R s 77
,
Surface roughness, 81
236
INDEX
94
tan
8,
and TEM modes, 1112 Telegraph transmission lines, 4 Terminal quantities, symbols, 16
TE,
TM
Tubular conductors,
distributed internal inductance, 109115 distributed resistance, 8690
Twoport networks, 140143
Velocity, phase, 27 at low frequencies, 31 at high frequencies, 49
Textbooks, 78
Time domain
differential equations, 19
Transfer impedance, 143, 155
Transition frequencies, 51
Transmission line basic circuit, 126 Transmission line equations, frequency domain, 22 high frequency solutions, 48 polar number solutions, 46 time domain, 19 transition frequency solutions, 51 summary of solutions, 57 Transmission line history, 37 Transmission line resonant circuits, 215231 Transmission line sections as twoport networks, 140143 Transmission line transformers, 132133 Transmission loss coefficient, 202 Transmission matrix, 142, 155 Triple stub matching, 210
coaxial line, 97 parallel plane line, 108 parallel wire line, 104 Velocity, signal, 39
Voltage minima, 147, 165 Voltage standing wave ratio, 165 Voltage symbol, 14 von Guericke, Otto, 4 VSWR, 165, 180 in decibels, 193 measurement of high values, 172, 183 minimum value, 178
Waveguide modes, 10 Wavelength on line, 30 Wavelengths toward generator, 195 Wavelengths toward load, 195
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