CONTENTS

Section I: Background
A. Acknowledgement…………….…………………….……..…………3 B. Industry and Environment Analysis…………………………….……4
C. Brief Introduction of Hindustan Uniliver Limited…………………………….9

Section II: Detailed Analysis of HUL
1. Board of

Directors………………………………………………...... 11 2. …...11 3. Shareholding Ownership………………………………………………………

Pattern………………………………………………...12 4. Performance Trends of the

company………………………………..13 5. Ratio Analysis: Time Series

Analysis………………………………14 5.1. Liquidity Ratios…………………………………………………….....14
5.2. Solvency Ratios…………………………………………………...……16 5.3. Profitability Ratios…………………………………………………….18 5.4. Market Based Returns………………………………………………... 22 6. Dupont Analysis……………………………………………………...23 7. Economic Value Addition……………………………………………24

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8. Accounting Policies…………………………………………………..26 9. Ratio Analysis: Inter Company Analysis –HUL and ITC……………29 10. Conclusion…………………………………………………………..34

A. Acknowledgements

We are highly grateful to Prof ……………….. for making the course of Financial Accounting interesting to learn and easy to understand. We wish to thank XI ! Academic "eam for assigning Prof. ……………… to take the introductory course on Finance and Accounting. We #ay heartily gratitude to $amana sir for gi%ing us his %alua&le time and the immense interaction o##ortunities to resol%e our 'ueries. We are also thankful to r. Alok for answering our 'ueries regarding the 'ui((es and

assignments) es#ecially when ………….. was not a%aila&le in the cam#us.

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B. Industry and Environment Analysis:
Indian FMCG Sector in a nutshell: "he Indian F C* sector is the fourth largest sector in the economy with a total market si(e in e+cess of ,-. /3./ &illion. It has a strong 0C #resence and is characteri(ed &y a well esta&lished distri&ution network) intense com#etition &etween the organi(ed and unorgani(ed segments and low o#erational cost. A%aila&ility of key raw materials) chea#er la&or costs and #resence across the entire %alue chain gi%es India a com#etiti%e ad%antage. "he F C* market is set to tre&le from ,-. //.1 &illion in 2003 to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015. Penetration level as well as per capita consumption in most product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin care, hair wash etc in India is low indicating the untapped market potential. Burgeoning Indian population, particularly the middle class and the rural segments, presents an opportunity to makers of branded products to convert consumers to branded products. Growth is also likely to come from consumer 'upgrading' in the matured product categories. With 200 million people expected to shift to processed and packaged food by 2010, India needs around US$ 28 billion of investment in the food-processing industry. The Indian FMCG sector gives employment for three million people in downstream activities. Within the FMCG sector, the Indian food processing industry represented 6.3 per cent of GDP and accounted for 13 per cent of the country's exports in 2003-04.A distinct feature of the FMCG industry is the presence of most global

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However. FMCG sector is also likely to benefit from growing demand in the market. if they are able to take the consumers to branded products and offer new generation products. would help the urban areas maintain their position in terms of consumption. Better infrastructure facilities will improve their supply chain. rural India accounts for more than 40% consumption 4 . Growth: With the presence of 12. hence providing better growth prospects to the FMCG companies. Hindustan %nil"er &imited 'H%&( has shown a healthy growth in the last )uarter.500 crores in 2005 to Rs 92. Because of the low per capita consumption for almost all the products in the country. Though the sector witnessed a slower growth in 2002-2004. they would be able to generate higher growth in the near future. increase in the urban population. At present.e. And if the companies are able to change the mindset of the consumers. That will translate into an annual growth of 10% over a 5-year period. with rural India accounting for the remaining 34%. However. What is in India for FMCG: FMCG Sector is expected to grow by over 60% by 2010. it has been able to ma e a !ine reco"ery since then. *n estimated dou&le5digit growth o%er the ne+t few years shows that the good times are likely to continue. i. 4air care) household care) male grooming) female hygiene) and the chocolates and confectionery categories are estimated to &e the fastest growing segments) says an HSBC report. It is expected that the rural income will rise in 2007. the Indian rural FMCG market is something no one can overlook. which ensures new product launches in the Indian market from the parent's portfolio. Also. Increased focus on farm sector will boost rural incomes. Nestle). P&G. FMCG companies have immense possibilities for growth.100 crores in 23/3.players through their subsidiaries (HLL. urban India accounts for 66% of total FMCG consumption.2% of the world population in the villages of India. along with increase in income levels and the availability of new categories. the demand in urban areas would be the key growth driver over the long term. #or e$ample. It has been estimated that FMCG sector will rise from around Rs 56. boosting purchasing power in the countryside.

including skin care. it is estimated that processed foods. coconut. etc Few indicatives of Indian FMG Market 5 . Within the foods segment. India also produces caustic soda and soda ash. and dairy are long-term growth categories in both rural and urban. For example. right from the supply of raw materials to packaged goods in the food-processing sector. Amul supplies milk as well as dairy products like cheese. sugarcane. after China & Indonesia. fabric care.in major FMCG categories such as personal care. • Labor cost comparison: Low cost labor gives India a competitive advantage. spices and cashew and is the second largest producer of rice. milk. Indian Competitiveness and Comparison with the World Markets: The following factors make India a competitive player in FMCG sector: • Availability of Raw Materials: Because of the diverse agro-climatic conditions in India. will keep growing at relatively attractive rates. which are required for the production of soaps and detergents. household care and feminine hygiene. home and personal care category. India's labor cost is amongst the lowest in the world. In urban areas. Low labor costs give the advantage of low cost of production. butter. • Presence across value chain: Indian companies have their presence across the value chain of FMCG sector. Many MNC's have established their plants in India to outsource for domestic and export markets. and hot beverages. The availability of these raw materials gives India the location advantage. wheat and fruits &vegetables. This brings India a more cost competitive advantage. bakery. there is a large raw material base suitable for food processing industries. India is the largest producer of livestock.

1: Rural –Urban Profile of Market 6 .1:Consumption Chart Table B.Figure B.

Figure B.2: Consumption Pattern Table B.2: Consumer Profile 7 .

as its products have become daily household name in India. is India's largest consumer products company. The Anglo-Dutch company Unilever owns a majority stake in Hindustan Lever Limited.000 employees are headed by Mr. formed in 1933 as Lever Brothers India Limited. erstwhile Hindustan Lever Limited (also called HLL). Its 41. the non-executive chairman of the board. Brief Introduction of Hindustan Uniliver Limited (Formerly Hindustan Lever Limited) Brief History: Hindustan Unilever Limited. the company has been renamed to "Hindustan Unilever Limited" to provide the optimum balance between maintaining the heritage of the Company and the future benefits and synergies of global alignment with the corporate name of "Unilever". soaps. Recently in February 2007. HLL is the market leader in Indian products such as tea. 8 .3: Labour Cost Pattern C.Figure B.Harish Manwani. detergents. headquartered in Mumbai.

as the CEO of consumer heavyweight HLL is seen as an indication of the parent company’s desire to hasten the process of ‘Unileverising’ the Indian subsidiary. Liril. Project Shakti: It is an initiative take by the group as a way of fulfilling its social responsibility by empowering the less privileged sections of the society we live in. 9 . Intuitively this made sense. Pepsodent and Close Up toothpaste and brushes. it was felt that there was some opposition from HLL’s senior management who wanted HLL’s ‘Indian ness’ to be maintained. The company's Vanasapti brand. Power Brands: In mid-2000 after M. the other brands have shrunk faster vis-à-vis the rate at which the power brands have grown. Kissan squashes and jams. Within Unilever.Prominent Brands: Kwality Walls ice cream. and Surf. Lipton tea. Dalda. Brooke Bond tea. is a case in point Appointment of Doug Baille : The appointment of an expat. the company decided that it would focus on 30 odd 'Power Brands' and carefully plan its entry into new businesses. Lux. Moti soaps. The objectives of Project Shakti are to create income-generating capabilities for underprivileged rural women by providing a small-scale enterprise opportunity. Pond's talc and creams. Breeze. Lakmé beauty products are some of the prominent brands of the company. Unfortunately. Doug Baillie. Banga took over the reins at HLL. Rin and Wheel laundry detergents. and to improve rural living standards through health and hygiene awareness. Hamam. Bru Coffee. Rexona. Informed sources said Unilever was not very satisfied with the pace of harmonization of HLL visà-vis other global subsidiaries. Lifebuoy. Fair & Lovely creams. instead of spreading your resources all over the place concentrate on a few brands.S. it is reliably learnt. Vaseline lotions. This has hit the top line of the company. But what it meant was that power brands had to grow at higher rates to compensate for the loss of sales from other brands.

K.Sharma Managing Directors Food: S. Network Marketing was pioneered in the United States of America in the 1940s by companies like Amway Corporation and operates by recruiting individuals as consultants. 1. Board of Directors: Chairman: Harish Manwani CEO and Managing Director: Douglas Baillie Vice Chairman: M. These consultants are paid a commission on the purchases made by them and on the purchases made by those recruited by them. This division markets a wide range of Fast Moving Consumer Goods through Network Marketing.Hindustan Lever Network: In February 2003 Hindustan Unilever Limited has launched a new division called Hindustan Lever Network.Ravindranath 10 .

Narayan V.Parekh C. 3. Ownership: The company is a publicly held organization.Ramadorai 2. The majority of the shares are held by the parent company Unilever limited.K.05. The names of the companies and their share %age are: 11 .S.2007): The majority of shares of the company are held by 9 foreign corporate bodies.Narayanan D. They hold 54.Sundaram Directors: A. Shareholding Pattern (as on 31.Director Finance and IT: D.Prahalad S.2% of the total shares.

49% 1.3%). 4.Unilever PLC Brooke Bond Group Limited Unilever UK & CN Holdings Limited Brooke Bond South India Estates Ltd Unilver PLC Unilever Overseas Holdings AG Brooke Bond Assam Estates Ltd Unilver Overseas Holdings AG Unilver Overseas Holdings BV 33.46% of the shares are held by other individuals and bodies such as the director & relatives.41). In addition to that.73% In non institutions. Hence the total public shareholding comes out to be 48. NRI’s and clearing bodies.52%.56% shares are held by individuals.39% 2.28).85% The public shareholding of the company is varied and comprises of Mutual funds/UTI (3.31% 1.7% 4.84% 2. Banks (. Performance Trends of the company: 12 . Insurance Companies (12.81% 1. corporate bodies hold 1. while 17. trusts.83%.3% 0.74%).72% 2. FII (12. thus the total institutional public shareholding is 28.

1: Performance Trend This table has been taken from the annual report of the HUL for the year ended on 31 st December 2006. 5. Ratio Analysis: Time Series Analysis 13 . This table contains key financial indicators which show the performance of the company in year 2006 and its performance trend for last 10 years.Table 4.

3. 5. These ratios indicate the availability of liquid asset to meet short term obligations.1. 5. Generally CL does not carry any cost and hence it increases the profitability of the firm. which might not get converted into cash when required to do so. is taken out of the current asset for calculating this ratio. Though Inventory and Debtors are considered liquid asset. Negative Working Capital.Net Current Asset is difference between CA and CL. the company may find itself unable to collect debt at right time and convert inventory into cash when it has to pay its creditors. For example if a company has CL more than CA. Absolute Cash Ratio: It is the best measure of the liquidity since only cash and near cash items are taken for calculating this ratio.e. 5.4 Working Capital: It is net current asset that a company has to have in order to smoothly run its day to day operation. Current asset consists of Cash.1.1 Liquidity Ratios: Liquidity Ratios indicate the company’s ability to meet its shortterm liability. 14 .2 Liquid Ratio: Liquid ratio is a better measure of Liquidity because inventory. Creditors usually check this ratio to assess the ability of firm to meet its short term obligations. Debtors and Inventory are taken out of the Current Asset and thus left part of current asset give a better idea of liquidity of the firm. i. Hence this ratio alone can not provide a clear picture of firm’s liquidity position.1 Current Ratio: Current ratio is obtained by dividing Current Assets by Current Liabilities. Current ratio gives a quick understanding of the company’s liquidity position but is subjected to window dressing. it implies that the company is financing its long term asset from short term funds. Inventory and Debtors as major items.1. It also indicates how the firm is financing its assets.5. 5.1.

. 5. -.21 40.0 0..Creditor Days. So.1.24-.5. The goods are purchased either in cash or on credit. It is a measure of firm’s policy of collecting debt. WCD is Debtors Days + Inventory Days..4...40 0..1.10 0.7.00 2004 0.6.0 0.2.1:Trend of Liquidity of HUL 15 . Working Capital Days: Working capital days indicate the time taken in completion of the operating cycle.40 0.0 0.. It also indicates for how long (on an average) goods are stocked.20 0. making payment to creditors and average inventory holding period. 2006 Current +atio &i)uid +atio *bsolute Current +atio 2n"entory 3ays 3ebtor 3ays Creditor 3ays 5or ing Capital 3ays 0. i. It indicates how efficiently the firm is collecting its debt. Inventory Days: How efficiently the firm converts its inventory into debtors.2. 5.-0 2005 0.1.1.-2 4...00../0 0.1/ -.014.4/ 0.-0 0..00 2002001 2004 Current +atio &i)uid +atio *bsolute Current +atio Figure 5. --. then it remains with the firm as inventory for some days. Debtors Days: Time taken to convert debtor into cash. 5.5.// 440.1..00 0. 4.00 0.-... how efficient the sales are.22 40. 40.e.1: Key Liquidity Ratio for HUL 4. then the cash is collected from debtors.. Creditor Days: It indicates how fast the firm is paying back to its creditors.-.1.24 Table 5./ 0. then it is sold and debtors are created. 40.0.01 0. 0.

5. 5. If the firm is closed down then first it is liable to pay back its loan and then if it is left with something that belongs to the share holders. On analyzing the operating cycle it can be said that HUL takes good amount of time to pay its creditors and this is how it manage to run its operations with negative working capital. These ratios indicate the ability of the firm to return the investment made by its owners and debt providers in the business. There is significant difference between CR and LR which indicates that the current asset of HUL consists of good amount of inventory.Analysis of Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio of HUL has been less than 1 for all the 3 years taken for analysis. 16 . Value of sundry debtors is quite low since there is minor difference between LR and ACR. Solvency Ratio: Solvency Ratios indicate the company’s ability to meet its Longterm liability. then the owner does not loose much and loan givers will have to bear relatively more losses. This implies that working capital of HUL is always negative. to financing its long term asset by short term sources that increases profitability because current liabilities are non interest bearing items. These ratios are usually seen by the debt providers or financial institutions in order to assess the risk involved in the business.e. This is generally considered an aggressive strategy i.2. If the company makes loss ad closed down subsequently.2. The liquidity ratios have decreased from previous year which shows that HUL has reduced its liquidity further. in case the company is closed down.1 Debt Equity Ratio: Debt Equity ratio is obtained by dividing Long Term outside Liability (Debt) by Net Worth. If it is too high then the owner may not be that much concerned for profit making since he has invested less in the business and hence getting less return. This ratio indicates the risk involved for loan givers. This ratio also determines EPS.

0 0. Debt to Total Funds: This ratio indicates the share of the debt in total sources used to fund the business.40 0.-.00 2002001 2004 3ebt 6)uity +atio 3ebt to Total Source +S to Total Source 17 ..2- Table 5.1. 0. 5. 0. ability to return the share profit made by the business that belongs to shareholders..04 0.5.02 2004 0.04 0.0 0.4.-0 0. this ratio is used to assess the firm’s ability to meet its long term liability towards its owner that is.2 Interest Coverage Ratio: ICR indicates the firm’s ability to pay the interest of the loans taken.2.20 0. 2006 3ebt 6)uity +atio 2nterest Co"erage +atio 3ebt to Total Source +S to Total Source 0.3.00 0. in case the company is closed down.40 0.04 0.10 0. in case the company is closed down.2.00 41/.04 2005 0. Reserves and Surplus to Total Fund: This ratio indicates the share of the Reserves and Surplus in total sources used to fund the business. Since total source are equal to total assets.-.. Since total sources are equal to total assets.2.02 . this ratio is analyzed to assess the firm’s ability to meet its long term liability i. ability to pay back its loan. 5.1: Key Solvency Ratios 0.20 0.e.0 42. It is ratio of PBIT to Interest.2.

2. It has decreased its loan and currently it is financing its business mostly by net worth and current liability. This ratio is a measure of the company’s profit generating ability on a given volume of sales.e.3. This is the most basic ratio of profit generating ability on sales i.3.1: Trend of Solvency Position of HUL Analysis of Solvency Ratios: The loans taken by HUL were high in 2004 which is indicated by high debt to total source ratio and this is why its ICR ratio was low (as compared to ICR in 2005 and 2006). 18 . Profitability Ratio: Profitability Ratios show how successful a company is in terms of generating returns or profits on the Investment that has been made in the business i. Debt to equity ratio has decreased over the years as it has reduced the loans. It can be said the higher these ratios the better it is for the company.Figure 5. Now HUL’s assets are financed by net worth and current liability with debt being a small component of total source. 5.1 PBIT to Sales: This ratio is obtained by dividing Profit before Interest and Tax by Sales. 5.e. the Profitability ratios indicates the ability of the firm to generate and distribute the profit. Its RS to Total source has increased which indicates that HUL invests accumulated profit into business with decreasing debt. It can be broadly categorized into profit generating ability (PGA) ratios and profit distributing ability (PDA) ratios. sales margin because it does not take into account the interest and taxes which the company has to pay.

19 . 5. This ratio tells how much profit the firm is making on owner’s investment on a single share of the company. 5.7 Earning Per Share: EPS is an indicator of profit distributing ability of a firm.3.4.3. Return on Net worth (RONW): This ratio gives an indication about the profit being made by the firm on the investment made by the owner.3.3. This ratio can be used to analyze the cost incurred and find out the ways to reduce the operational cost without decreasing the sales volume.2 PBT to Sales: This ratio is obtained by dividing Profit before Tax by Sales. 5. This ratio takes the profit after paying the interest in order to assess profit made (profit margin) after all the expenses except tax. RONW is an indicator of profit distributing ability of a firm. Operating Expenses to Sales: It is a measure of the expenses that are incurred on a particular volume of sales. This is a profit generating ability ratio which is seen by owners and debt providers.3. It is a profit generating ability ratio.5 Return on Capital Employed (ROCE): This ratio indicates the profit making ability of the firm on total capital employed which consists of owners fund and debt.3. 5. This ratio is used to analyze the business from the perspective of the owner. This ratio gives the company’s profit generating ability on a given volume of sales. 5.3.5.6 Return on Total Asset: ROTA tells how efficiently the firm is using its assets or total sources of fund to generate profit.

1.5.. On closely watching the financial statement. This implies that interest paid by the company is negative. 0.20 . Gross Sales.3.00 .0. That is because Income Received by the company is more than that to be paid. it has been found that Net Income from Interest for HUL is positive for the years 2006 and 2005 making PBT higher than PBIT. 0.402.44 -.4 2004 41. 0.1: Key Profitability Ratios for HUL Analysis of Profitability Ratios: PBIT as percentage of sales is moderately good and there has not been any significant change in it during last three years. PBT/Sales are higher than the PBIT/Sales for year 2006 and 2005 which indicate that PBT is more than PBIT. profit distributed to shareholders per share. Similar is the case of PBT/Sales../41.20 -./...e.14 00. It gives an idea as to how much profit is realized and how it is being used in different activities(Investment. 02.40../. 0.00 400.22 1.8 Dividend per Share: DPS ratio gives an idea of the actual distribution of profit to the owners i.1/ Table 5.3.-2 0. 5.1/ 0.1. Operational) Some of the profitability ratio in this report do not match with the values given in HUL’S summary of performance because the sales figures taken here are after excise duty whereas the sales figures taken by HUL for calculating these ratios are before excise duty i. financial./1 44.e. 20 .02 0.00 /0.9 CFO to PAT: CFO to PAT compares the net cash generated from operational activities with net profit made by the firm.44 1. 2006 7B2T8Sales '9( 7BT8S*&6S '9( :perating 6$pense ':ther than C:.2/ 2005 42.2 41.40 1.S(8Sales '9( 7*T8:#'+:<5( 7B2T8C6'+:C6( 7B2T8T*'+:T*( 67S 37S C#:87B2T '9( 40.-4 0.3.

xx in year 2006.00 -. The EPS increased over the years from Rs.. perhaps because of the decrease in debt (change in capital structure) and increase in current liability (non interest bearing item).00 4.. /. For FMCG business the operating expense to sales ratio around 30% can be considered good as the company has to spend heavily on its distribution network and promotional activities.5. Return on total asset (ROTA) has been moderately good with almost constant value of around 22% over the years.00 2002001 2004 67S 37S Figure 5. The profit distributing ability of the firm is excellent with return on net worth (RONW) being around 58% over the years.There has not been any significant change in operating expense as percentage of sales in last three years. 1. The profit generating ability similar to the profit distributing ability is pretty good with ROCE over 60% during the year 2005 and 2006. 8.1: Profitability Trends of HUL The face value of Equity Share of HUL is Rs.00 0. ROCE in year 2005 has increased from the figure of 2004.00 1.00 0. 21 . which are profit distributing ability ratios.3. 5 in year 2005 and 2006. for HUL we can see that it has been generating more than 500% times profit for its shareholders over the years. Analyzing the EPS and DPS. It has been generous in distributing the profit in form of dividend with DPS Rs 6 in year 2004 and Rs.xx in year 2004 to Rs.00 .00 .00 2.00 4.

Since the investors buy the share at its market price and not at face value or book value.2:Comparison of CFO and PAT The trend of CFO/PBIT is worth analyzing since the company’s CFO is close to its PBIT which indicates that almost entire profit of HUL comes from its operation and the profit is realized. 5.00 400.1 Price to Earning Ratio: Return associated with the shares on its market price. 5. 5.4.00 -0. 5. the company has realized the profit(in form of cash) and invested in long term assets or paid its long term outside liabilities(loans).00 440.e. first looks at the market capitalization of the company and return that he can expect on the price paid for the share.00 2002001 2004 C#:87B2T'9( Figure 5.2 Market Cap to Net worth (Price to Book Value Ratio): Comparison of market value of the firm with the owners fund.0.3.3 Market Capitalization: Market value of the firm. A small investor.00 . Market capitalization gives an indication of the company’s financial status in the market. this ratio gives information about the actual return on investment.00 40.00 0. This can give an idea about the success of the company in increasing the value of owner’s investment.00 420.4 Market Based Returns: Market based return figures indicate the firm’s position in the market and the benefits associated with the investment in company.00 20.4.4. In year 2005 the CFO is higher than PBIT indicating the negative CFF or CFI i. if interested in purchasing the shares of a company.C#:87B2T'9( 4-0. Market 22 .

It means an investor will get return around 1/30 times on his actual investment. Dupont Analysis: 2006 ROCE Operating Decisions 7B2T8Sales '9( C:.-1 4..00 Investment Decisions Sales8T* 4.0 4044/1.0/ 041. 0.0 4./10. 2006 7rice to 6arning +atio =ar et >alue to Boo >alue +atio =ar et Capitali?ation 'in =illion +s./4.-4 4...0./1 11.04 4.-2 2004 0..4 Average Market Capitalization: Average Market value of the firm over the year.22 02. 2004 2-..40 00.04 41..( 04.4- 42..04.-4 2005 0.0- 23 .capitalization is used to compare the size of the organization in term of market value.4.4/ 4..04 2005 02...// 41. 5.14 Table 5.11 4.4.1: Key Market Indicators of HUL’s Performance Analysis of Market Based Returns: PER ratio for HUL is not so good with values over 30 in year 2006 and 2005 and somewhat better with value around 25 in the year 2004.2 10. 6.. Market capitalization of HUL has increased after 2004.S8Sales '9( 3ep 8Sales '9( :perational 6$pense8 Sales '9( 40.0.. 02.... Average is taken because the market value of shares keeps on changing and so is market capitalization.

0.-2 400.-/ 00.404.4 2.. -ometimes) such assum#tion results in situations where the com#anies show the accounting #rofit &ut may &e destroying the wealth of the shareholders.04 4.1: Dupont Analysis for HUL 7.// .4/ 0. Ca#ital 7m#loyed< Cost of ca#ital 9 Cost of 7'uity + Pro#ortion of e'uity from ca#ital = Cost of de&t + Pro#ortion of de&t from ca#ital + :/5ta+ rate<. 2.. 6ne of the im#ortant accounting assum#tions is that the interest is treated as an e+#ense) whereas the di%idend is treated as distri&ution of #rofit. Cost of e'uity ca#ital is the o##ortunity return from an in%estment with same risk as the com#any has. 24. All figures are in Million Rs. Cost of ca#ital or weighted a%erage cost of ca#ital :WACC< is the a%erage cost of &oth e'uity ca#ital and interest &earing de&t. 78A measures whether the o#erating #rofit is enough com#ared to the total costs of ca#ital em#loyed./1 0.... Economic Value Addition: Profit is the out#ut of the *AAP dri%en accounting assum#tions. 78A 9 06PA" 5 :Cost of Ca#ital ./2 2.00.// 2.44 2..41 -.1 20.. 00.04 0.14 0.00 .2 ./ Table 6..2 2.22 Financial Decisions T*8C6 T*8&T& T*8:# T*8Capital T*8+eser"es Surplus 2.2/ 44.00 -.40..1 440.4.. 2006 2005 2004 24 ..4. 2/.2 2/.Sales8#* Sales8C* Sales8Stoc Sales83ebtors Sales8Cash ..4.

20 42.0 4240 44210 40110 420 40-. net of taxes..65% for 2006) + Market risk premium (taken at 9%) (x) Beta variant for the Company. 4240 0-00 22000 21-00 04 411 40.*"erage 3ebt 2.1: Economic Value Added Comments: Cost of debt is taken at the effective rate of interest applicable to an AAA rated company like HLL with an appropriate mix of short. Thus HUL’s cost of equity = 7.20 0/10 .65% + 9% (x) 0. 0100 41.*"erage Capital 6mployed @ '4( A '2( 4. 40.Cost o! 6)uity 9 -.90% for 2006 (5. 0/10 Economic !al"e #dded (E!# .0 1/ 4-4 41.C:C6.Cost o! 3ebt.'44( 41400 .0 Table 7.0 414.97 = 16. as per '.. HUL have considered a pre tax rate of 8.C:C6 @ '0( $ '-( 4-00 21410 2-.*"erage 6)uity 0.040 12 44. Cost of Equity is the return expected by the investors to compensate them for the variability in returns caused by fluctuating earnings and share prices.. (taken at 0.97) where Beta is a relative measure of risk associated with the Company’s shares as against the market as a whole.38%. a!ter ta$es 40. be!ore e$ceptional items /. Cost of Equity=Risk free return equivalent to yield on long term Government Bonds (taken at 7.0 0100 40440 44//0 .Cost of Capital Employed (COCE 4.*dd @ 2nterest.5eighted *"erage Cost o! Capital 9 '5*CC( .0 244-0 0.7ro!it a!ter ta$. post-ta$ 9 1.. EVA Trend over last 10 years: 25 ...10% for 2005) after taking into account the trends over the years and market situations. medium and long term debt.6>* @ '40( .( abo"e 42.<et :perating 7ro!its *!ter Ta$es '<:7*T( 44.

1: EVA Trend 8. . 8. Accounting Policies > -ignificant Accounting Policies> 8. Interests on in%estments are &ooked on a time #ro#ortion &asis taking into account the amounts in%ested and the rate of interest.1. !evenue !ecognition: -ales are recogni(ed when goods are su##lied and are recorded net of trade discounts) re&ates) sales ta+es and e+cise duties :on goods manufactured and outsourced< &ut include) where a##lica&le) e+#ort incenti%es such as duty draw&acks and #remiums on sale of im#ort licenses. ?i%idend 26 . Incomes from ser%ices rendered are &ooked &ased on agreements@ arrangements with the concerned #arties. Income from Pro#erty ?e%elo#ment Acti%ity is recogni(ed in terms of arrangements with de%elo#ers) where a##lica&le. It does not include inter5di%isional transfers.Figure 7. Basis for preparation of accounts: "he accounts ha%e &een #re#ared to com#ly in all material as#ects with a##lica&le accounting #rinci#les in India and the Accounting -tandards issued &y the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

Good&ill and other Intangi'le Assets: Intangi&le assets are stated at cost of ac'uisition less accumulated amorti(ation. 8. Com#uter software is amorti(ed o%er a #eriod of A years on the straight line method. I)pair)ent of Assets: Im#airment loss) if any) is #ro%ided to the e+tent) the carrying amount of assets e+ceeds their reco%era&le amount. 4owe%er) A. Ad%ertising e+#enses are charged against the #rofit of the year to which the acti%ities relate. 8. 8. $e%enue e+#enditure on research and de%elo#ment is charged against the #rofit of the year in which it is incurred. *oodwill arising on consolidation in accordance with A-52/ is amorti(ed o%er 4 years at 'uarterly rests commencing from the 'uarter of recognition of goodwill. ?e#reciation is #ro%ided :e+ce#t in the case of leasehold land which is &eing amorti(ed o%er the #eriod of the lease< on the -traight Bine ethod :-B < and at the rates and in the manner s#ecified in -chedule XI8 of the Com#anies Act) /CA1. $eco%era&le amount is higher of an assets net selling #rice and its %alue in use. Ca#ital e+#enditure on research and de%elo#ment is shown as an addition to fi+ed assets.%. 8alue in use is the #resent %alue of estimated future cash flows e+#ected to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its dis#osal at the end of its useful life. *oodwill and other intangi&le assets :e+ce#t com#uter software< are amorti(ed o%er the assets useful life not e+ceeding /3 years. #$penditure: 7+#enses are accounted for on accrual &asis and #ro%ision is made for all known losses and lia&ilities.(.incomes on in%estments are accounted for when the right to recei%e the #ayment is esta&lished.* Fi$ed Assets: Fi+ed assets are stated at cost less de#reciation.". 8. certain em#loyee #er'uisite5related assets are de#reciated o%er four to si+ years) the #eriod of the #er'uisite scheme B. com#uters and related assets are de#reciated o%er four years 27 .

certain assets of the cold chain are de#reciated o%er four @ se%en years +. Provisions: A #ro%ision is recogni(ed when there is a #resent o&ligation as a result of a #ast e%ent) it is #ro&a&le that an outflow of resources will &e re'uired to settle the o&ligation and in res#ect of which relia&le estimate can &e made. motor %ehicles are de#reciated o%er si+ years and #. Inventories: In%entories are %alued at the lower of cost) com#uted on a weighted a%erage &asis) and estimated net reali(a&le %alue) after #ro%iding for cost of o&solescence and other antici#ated losses) where%er considered necessary. "hese are re%iewed at each year end date and adEusted to reflect the &est current estimate. 8.10. assets of certain su&sidiaries are de#reciated on the Written down 8alue ethod :W?8<. Invest)ents: In%estments are classified into current and long5term in%estments.-. Bong5 term in%estments) other than in Associates) are stated at cost.C. Current in%estments are stated at the lower of cost and fair %alue. Pro%ision is not discounted to its #resent %alue and is determined &ased on the &est estimate re'uired to settle the o&ligation at the year end date. 28 . 8. 8.. "he difference &etween the -B &asis and W?8 &asis is not significant. A #ro%ision for diminution is made to recogni(e a decline) other than tem#orary) in the %alue of long5term in%estments.. Finished goods and work5in5#rogress include costs of con%ersion and other costs incurred in &ringing the in%entories to their #resent location and condition. Sundr. Assets identified and e%aluated technically as o&solete and held for dis#osal are stated at their estimated net reali(a&le %alues. 8. Interests in Doint 8entures Interests in Dointly controlled entities :Incor#orated Doint 8entures< are accounted for using #ro#ortionate consolidation method. In%estments in Associates are accounted for using the e'uity method.8. +e'tors and /oans and Advances: -undry de&tors and Boans and Ad%ances are stated after making ade'uate #ro%isions for dou&tful &alances.

$e%enue and e+#enses ha%e &een identified to segments on the &asis of their relationshi# to the o#erating acti%ities of the segment. 8. "he Com#anies also #ro%ide retirement @ #ost5 retirement &enefits in the form of gratuity) #ensions) lea%e encashment and medical.1".11.1 . 8. ?eferred ta+ is recogni(ed) su&Eect to the consideration of #rudence) on timing differences) &eing the difference &etween ta+a&le incomes and accounting income that originate in one #eriod and are ca#a&le of re%ersal in one or more su&se'uent #eriods. ?eferred ta+ assets are not recogni(ed on una&sor&ed de#reciation and carry forward of losses unless there is %irtual certainty that sufficient future ta+a&le income will &e a%aila&le against which such deferred ta+ assets can &e reali(ed. $e%enue and e+#enses) 29 .1%. *ains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary assets and lia&ilities denominated in foreign currencies are recogni(ed in the #rofit and loss account. 7+change differences relating to fi+ed assets are adEusted in the cost of the asset. Foreign Currenc. -uch &enefits are #ro%ided for &ased on %aluations) as at the &alance sheet date) made &y inde#endent actuaries. 2ranslations: Foreign currency transactions are accounted at the e+change rates #re%ailing at the date of the transaction. 2a$es on Inco)e: Current ta+ is determined as the amount of ta+ #aya&le in res#ect of ta+a&le income for the #eriod.8. !etire)ent 1 Post !etire)ent Benefits: Contri&utions to defined contri&ution schemes such as Pro%ident Fund and Family Pension Fund are charged to the #rofit and loss account as incurred. Seg)ent !eporting: "he accounting #olicies ado#ted for segment re#orting are in line with the accounting #olicies ado#ted in consolidated financial statements with the following additional #olicies &eing considered for segment re#orting> A. 8. B. Inter segment re%enue has &een accounted for &ased on the transaction #rice agreed to &etween segments which is #rimarily market led.

20 0.1.2. 0.arc-200....0.illion Rs9 $%&(2006' ()*+ Dec 0.11 04.4/ 0. 9.0 0. 4. 9.-0 0.... Ratio Analysis: Inter Company Analysis –HUL and ITC Ratio C"rrent Ratio #/sol"te C"rrent Ratio 0or1ing Capital Days De/t E2"ity Ratio 34I+5*ales (6 3#+5*ales (6 Depreciation5*ales (6 34I+5+#(RO+# 34I+5CE(ROCE 3#+5OF(RO70 E3* D3* . Working Capital Days for ITC is positive and WCD for HUL is negative.4. One more difference in liquidity position of the two companies can be seen through the difference between the CR and ACR.1..ar1et Capitali8ation (in .14 1-..2.04 4.44 1.01 0. .2-.0.-4 0.00 2a'le -..00 24-.1: 3e.40 20. This indicates that HUL has negative working capital and ITC has positive working capital. !atios of 45/ and I2C for the 6ear 00*70..which relate to the enter#rise as a whole and are not alloca&le to segments on a reasona&le &asis) ha%e &een included under unallocated cor#orate e+#enses.2 42.0. Comparison of Liquidity Position: Current Ratio for HUL is negative whereas it is positive for ITC./2 1-1.. 0.00..00 40. 0. It can be said that HUL 30 . ITC is funding its short term asset by long term funds and HUL funding its long term asset by its short term non-interest bearing sources (CL).2 4.02 00./0 24. There is huge difference in ACR and CR of ITC which shows that it has less cash or near cash items in its current liabilities whereas for HUL the difference is moderate.04 I+C(()*+ .-0 0..ar1et 3rice of *-are 3rice to Earning Ratio . 2.40 410.

0 -0 40 20 0 -20 -40 --0 -.1.1: Comparison of Liquidity Position of HUL and ITC 5or ingCapital 3ays .( 5or ingCapital 3ays Figure 9.2 4 0.4 4.. 0.0.2: Comparison of WCD of ITC and HUL 31 .0 -400 H%&'200-.04ST 3ec( 2TC'04ST =arch200.( Current +atio *bsolute Current +atio Figure 9.2 0 H%&'200-.04ST 3ec( 2TC'04ST =arch200.has more current liability to source its asset and ITC has high current asset which is sourced by long term sources of fund.4 0. 4. 4..4.1.

2. 9.9.e. ROCE for HUL is higher than that for ITC which is because HUL is using more current liabilities to fund its assets hence making more profit on its capital employed. The RONW for HUL is also higher than that for ITC because of the same reason.3. it can be inferred that HUL is generating more profit for on its owners fund than ITC. The difference between PBIT /Sales and PAT/ Sales is lower in case of HUL due to its net income from interest being positive i. it has earned more interest than it has paid. The other profit generating ability ratios shows a different picture. Comparison of Profitability: Both the PBIT/Sales and PAT/Sales are higher for ITC than HUL and the difference in these ratios is quite high which indicates that ITC has higher profit margin on sales than HUL. The ROTA figure for ITC is higher than it is for HUL which shows that ITC is generating more profit than HUL on total asset (or total sources of funds). So. Depreciation/Sales ratio of ITC is almost double of that for HUL indicating higher depreciation and amortization charged by ITC than HUL. 32 . Comparison of Solvency Position: Two companies are similar in terms of their solvency position as indicated by various solvency ratios.

3.1: Comparison of Profitability on Sales for HUL and ITC 33 .( 7B2T8Sales '9( 7*T8Sales '9( Figure 9.01 00 21 20 41 40 1 0 H%&'200-.04ST 3ec( 2TC'04ST =arch200.

2: Comparison of Profitability on Investment for HUL and ITC 9. PER for HUL is high as compared with that of ITC which makes HUL less profitable on the actual investment made on equity shares.2 0.( Figure 9.4. Comparison of Profit Distributing Ability: Both EPS and DPS are higher for HUL than ITC which shows that HUL makes more profit for share holders and distributes higher profit in form of dividend as compared to that distributed by ITC.4 0. 0. Market capitalization of ITC is higher than that of HUL which shows that ITC has more equity capital than HUL.0. Market Price of shares of HUL is more than that of ITC’s share.4 0 7B2T8T*'+:T*( 7B2T8C6'+:C6( 7*T8:#'+:<5( H%&'200-.0.1 0.3. 34 .04ST 3ec( 2TC'04ST =arch200..0 0.

01 00 21 20 41 40 1 0 67S 37S 7rice to 6arning +atio H%&'200-.04ST 3ec( 2TC'04ST =arch200.( Figure 9.04ST 3ec( 2TC'04ST =arch200.4.4.2: Comparison of Market Price of Shares of HUL and ITC 35 .( Figure 9.1: Comparison of Profit Distributing Ability of HUL and ITC =ar et 7rice o! Share 210 200 410 =ar et 7rice o! Share 400 10 0 H%&'200-.

Conclusion: The aim of the FA course was to make us understand the business decisions behind financial transaction that results into a financial statement. which we feel have been achieved.3:Comparison of Market Capitalization of HUL and ITC 10.While working on this project we learned to analyze the ratios in order to arrive at a conclusion about the company’s performance and its financial position.( Figure 9.04ST 3ec( 2TC'04ST =arch200.( 1.4.( =ar et Capitali?ation'in =illion +s. Financial statements use a different terminology that we have understood while working on this project. 36 .0000 1-0000 140000 120000 100000 4.0000 4-0000 440000 420000 H%&'200-.=ar et Capitali?ation'in =illion +s. The ratio analysis helps one to know the financial health/position of the company and compare the firm’s current performance with its previous performance (Time Series Analysis) and its performance with the other firm’s performance operating in same industry (Inter Company Analysis).

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