“Effect of Post-Harvest Treatments and Wrapping Materials on Ripening, Shelf Life and Post- Harvest Quality of Mango

(Mangifera indica L.) cv. Dashehari.’’

A Synopsis Submitted To Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut

By Mr. Abhimanyu Kumar Singh ID. No. 2680 IN PARTIAL FULFILMENTOF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHYLOSOPHY IN HORTICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE SARDAR VALLABHBHAI PATEL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY, MEERUT-250110 (UP) INDIA

Shelf-life of mango might be extended by stopping or slowing down these physico-chemical changes. Name of the advisor/Chairman. Degree programme4. attractive fragrance.harvest quality of mango (Mangifera indica L) cv. Dashehari. pickles and chutneys. 7.No.Manoj Kumar Singh (Assistant Professor) 8. Name of the student2. DepartmentAbhimanyu Kumar Singh (2680/PG-13) Ph. The fruit is medium size (about 150 g in weight).Mango is recognized as one of the choicest and is well accepted fruit all over the world and also acknowledged as the king of fruit (Shahjahan et al. It is very yielder but irregular in bearing. Ripe mango slices and pulp can be preserved and canned for use when the fresh fruit is out of season. The fruits undergo many physiological and biochemical changes that lead to ripening and senescence. delicious taste and nutritional value. shelf life and Post. Due to lack of proper preservation technology. Horticulture 2013-2014 Horticulture 6. 2 . Pooran Chand Thesis Topic/Title: “Effect of Post-harvest treatments and wrapping materials on ripening. It is mid-season cultivar. The immature and green fruit is used in various ways in curries. Registration year/Batch5. Sunil Malik 3) Dr. The keeping and canning quality of the fruit is good. Meerut. attractive in shape (oblong oval) and colour..D. Mukesh Kumar 4) Dr. maturing toward the end of June. To reduce this loss and to increase the shelf-life. University– Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology. The pulp is also soft and sweet with pleasant flavour.Synopsis of the doctorate research work in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the doctoral degree 1. beautiful shades of colour. the post-harvest loss of mango due to decay is considerable. Ripe mango is exceedingly refreshing to eat and is an excellent source of Vitamin-A and C. Satya Prakash 2) Dr.3. In India mango is considered to be the best of all indigenous fruits because of its excellent flavour.Dr. ID. It comes in bearing even after four years of planting. Dashehari variety is most important and popular varieties of north India.’’ Introduction: . 1994). Member of the advisory committee: 1) Dr.

Recently.2 MT per hectare. JUSTIFICATION & PRACTICAL UTILITY This work focused on the evaluation and the comparison of difference post-harvest treatments and wrapping materials to find out the ripening behaviour of mango fruits when stored at room temperature and to determine the pos-harvest quality as affected by various physical and chemical treatments. 3 . SVP University of Agriculture and Technology. post-harvest handling can play a major role to reduce the losses. The total area under mango cultivation in Uttar Pradesh is 274. shelf life and Post.1 % in production of mango next to banana. India shared about 21. The following objects shall be achieved during the experimentation. The hypothesis is that if the fruits treated with appropriate method and concentration of a various physical and chemical treatment prior to storage with appropriate wrapping materials enhances the ripening of mango and the shelf-life of the fruits can be extended. The production of mango is 18002 thousand MT with productivity of 7. the present investigation entitled “Effect of Post-harvest treatments and wrapping materials on ripening. India is the second largest producer of fruits occupies about the area under fruit cultivation is 6982 thousand hectare with a production of 81285 MT and productivity about 7. adequate measures should be taken to prolong shelf-life of mangoes.7 thousandtons annually with a value of Tk 3. Department of Horticulture. respectively. producers and traders have to face about 27% losses (Hassan. Hence. 1. 2002). Meerut. Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of mango in the country after the state like Andhra Pradesh.2 MT per hectare in India. 2010) reported that the post-harvest loss of mango in supply chain was 27%. Post harvest handling is the problem of mango as due to climacteric nature of the fruit.0 MT per hectare (Anonymous 2013).harvest quality of mango cv.250110 in the year 2014 and 2015.000 lakh in the country (Haq.99 thousand MT and productivity is about 16. Dashehari” will be carried out at Post Harvest Laboratory. (Hassan.03 thousand hectare with production of 4386. inadequate storage or lack of post-harvest technical knowledge.efforts are need to develop post-harvest technologies. Keeping in view the above facts in mind. Due to mishandling. So. Total 2500 thousand hectare cultivated area under the mango cultivation in the country. 2010) and loss of this perishable commodity is estimated up to 320.

(1981) found that the TSS contents of fruits tended to increase with the maturity and. Dashehari as affected by different physical. The decay incidence showed progressive increase with increasing period of storage. peptic substances. Kesar. therefore the highest increased initial TSS contents at harvest. To determined the post-harvest quality as affected by different physical. Kapse (1993) found that the mango is highly perishable. To find out the ripening behaviour of mango cv. (1984) found that the fruits wrapped with different wrappers exhibited significantly less decay loss in comparison to unwrapped fruits. ripen faster during summer and unfit for consumption very soon. 2. has a great importance especially in export of mangoes. During the storage period the TSS contents increased up to 9th day on ripening in all stages with all treatments. OBJECTIVES: 1. The least decay (16. To find out shelf-life as affected by different physical. General aim of pre-cooling is to remove field heat and slower down the respiration which helps in minimizing the susceptibility to microbes and reduce water loss and thereby increase shelflife. The increase in TSS during ripening might be due to the alteration or transformation in cell wall structure and break down of complex carbohydrates. There was significant difference among the loss estimated at 15 days of storage. Pre-cooling of mango is very recent concept in postharvest technology but. chemical and wrapping materials. Maini et al. Butter paper and Nylon net were next in order of superiority. Wrapping of polythene sheet proved to be the least effective. Khumlert (1992) found that polythene provides a protective covering which slowed down the rate of respiration and delayed ripening on mango.4%) was observed in fruits wrapped in newspaper. 3. hemicelluloses or other polysaccharide into simple sugars and dehydration of fruits during storage. 4 . chemical and wrapping materials.2. BRIEF RESEARCH REVIEW Bhullar et al. 3. The pre-cooling at 12 and 16 ºC temperature resulted in improving the quality of ripened fruits and delayed ripening with the extension of shelf-life by about 4 days than control also completely inhibited the incidence of stem end rot and anthracnose till 13th day of storage with or without fungicidal treatments in mango cv. chemical and wrapping materials.

5%. sugar.50 days) was observed in brown paper bagged fruits and the closest (11. The maximum acidity (0. while yellow colour was developed on 10th day with 1. However. It was due to 5 . greenish-yellow and yellowish-green colour was obtained with 2. It was significantly improved the fruit quality (TSS content. (1994) study has got support by different post-harvest treatments showed highly significant variation in storability of mango.91.2. Kumar and Singh (1993) reported that pre-harvesting sprays of GA3 (50 or 75 ppm) or ethrel (500 ppm ) brought forward mango (cv. light green.17 days) of it was obtained in newspaper bagged fruits whereas minimum shelf-life was found in control treatment (7. 0. Krishnamurthy and Rao.5% CaNO3. White paper treated fruits required maximum time (5. (2002) who observed that when fruits were kept in low density polythene bag showed off-flavour due to fermentation and fungal growth which has conformity with the present findings.5 .0 and 2. The maximum shelf-life (11.290 days). Amrapali ) fruits maturity by 8-11 days and ripening by 10-14 days as compared to control. Gautam et al.lack of cool chain during transport and storage.83 days).17%) was found with Bavistin (500 and 750 ppm) on 10th day of storage. ascorbic acid and β.carotene concentration) and reduced the spoilage losses under storage condition. while it decreased markedly on 8th and 10th day of storage respectively. Fruit skin colour as affected by CaNO3 treatments increased up to 1.Koolpluksee et al. This is mainly due to the non availability of commercial low temperature store houses. Hiwale and Singh (2003) found that the more acidity content was recorded in all treatments on 6th day of storage. Thompson seedless) berries.39%) was recorded with fruit covered with polythene sheet (200 gauge) at all the stages of storage period. Shahjahan et al. (2001) reported that the post-harvest losses in mango are about 25 to 30 per cent. while minimum acidity (0. Srinivasa et al.8th day. (2003) found that the change in skin colour from green to yellowishgreen was observed on 6.5% CaNO3 on 6th. Singh and Sharma (1996) recorded that Ethrel 600 ppm treatment improved juice and total soluble solid content and reduced acidity in grape (cv.573 days) was need in control treatments. 8th and 10th days.42 and 0. On the other hand the minimum ripening time (3. (1993) reported that the post-harvest treatments of wrapping materials manifested highly significant differences in respect of time required for ripening.253 days) for ripening among the treatments followed by brown paper (4.

Amrapali. minerals and nutrient status. Minimum weight loss was recorded in fruits wrapped with newspaper and maximum weight loss was recorded in fruits wrapped with polythene sheet and control. (2010) an experiment was carried out to assess the effect of various chemicals and fungicidal treatment on post-harvest quality of mango cv. Ethrel 750 ppm treated fruits showed better results followed by ethrel 500 ppm. (2006) found that the application of the wrapping materials influenced the characteristics of mango fruits during storage at ambient the physiological loss in weight (PLW) of mango fruits increased in storage period.(2003) reported that the huge amount of important fruits crops are being spoiled due to prevailing temperature. proteins. whereas control fruits ripened in 12 days. Mango is one of the favoured fruits of the country and considered as a good source of vitamins. marketable fruit percentage was significantly more in fruits treated with pre-cooling treatments at 8ºC for 8 hours. pH. protein. In the initial period (5th) days of storage. Pandey et al. losses of resistance to different microbial attack and overall devastating deterioration of carbohydrate. Mumzuroglu et al. potassium. Physico-chemical parameters such as TSS. This spoilage of fruits is attributed to adverse biochemical changes. total sugars and total carotenoids showed increasing trend up to 8 days during ripening. lipid. Kulkarni et al. thereby slowing the rate of ripening. Singh et al. (2003) observed that the organoleptic characters of mango and sapota like fruit colour. iron and so many others. inappropriate post-harvest handling as well as sub-optimal knowledge in the field of post-harvest technology after harvesting. humidity. magnesium. This may due to higher rate of respiration and transpiration of fruits on 5. Singh et al. Treatment ethrel+bavistin (750+1000 ppm) were also found to be the significantly superior over control 6 . namely losses of weight owing to respiration and transpiration.(2004) reported that ethrel (500 ppm ) treated mango fruits ripened 8 days with excellent sensory quality attributes. some oxidative enzymes.slow rate of degradation in acidity in fruits covered with polyethylene bags reduced physiological losses in weight and enzymatic activity. Patel (2006) reported that the physiological loss in weight in mango could be decreased by pre-cooling treatment. Minerals play an important role in physiological function of the body especially in the buildings and regulation process. sugars. losses of flesh hardness. pulp colour and taste showed the highest score in the fruits when treated with pre-cooling at 8ºC for 8 hours. 10 and 15 days after storage. fat and dietary minerals including calcium.

Non-treated fruits were considered as control. Based on results of this study. Malik at el. while disease development. Among organoleptic characteristics better pulp colour core with better taste. During storage.e.in respect of post-harvest quality of fruit. particularly in neighboring markets of Iran and China.. 7 . physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics were assessed at ripe stage. i. Fruit subjected to HWT (48 degrees C for 60 min.) at 52 degree C for 5 min were more firm and had higher level of total sugars as compared to the fruit of other treatments. fruit peel colour and softness were recorded on 21. sugar content and sugar acidity ratio etc.) with additional treatments of hot carbendazim (40 g/100 Lit. Some more fruit were also subjected to HWT of 48 degrees C for 60 min with additional dip of hot carbendazim (40 g/100 Lit. moisture loss. (2011) reported that the late maturing (En Aug to Mid Sept) Pakistan mango cv.) at 52 degree C for 5 min. 27 and 32 days. in both cultivars under low temperature storage (11 degree C. texture and aroma was recorded in fruit stored at 10 degree C by the taste panel. After that ethylene treatment and at final day of ripening. decay. it can be concluded the ethrel 750 ppm was found to be the most suitable treatments in improving post-harvest parameters. 80-85% RH). Treated fruits were divided into two equal lots and stored at 10 and 12 degrees C (80-85% RH). Over all open top packaging was found to be more advantageous as compared to closed top packaging. acidity. specific gravity. Sufaid Chausa has high export potential.

22 3) Number of replication.No. peels are readily.Dashehari cv. 17. 15. 22. 18.3 4) Total number of treatments. pulp firm. 1. 10.66 5) Experimental Materials. 14. The quality of fruits is good excellent in test. 12. 11. 21. good to table purpose.). the mature 8 .Completely Randomized Design (CRD) 2) Number of treatments. ovate-oblong. 2. deep orange red fibreless.4. somewhat fiber. of mango shall be taken for the experiment in coming season. Details of Treatments Ethrel 500 ppm + Brown paper Ethrel 500 ppm + Tissue paper Ethrel 500 ppm + Butter paper Ethrel 750 ppm +Brown paper Ethrel 750 ppm + Tissue paper Ethrel 750 ppm + Butter paper Ethrel 1000 ppm + Brown paper Ethrel 1000 ppm + Tissue paper Ethrel 1000 ppm + Butter paper Bavistin500 ppm +Brown paper Bavistin 500 ppm + Tissue paper Bavistin 500 ppm + Butter paper Bavistin 1000 ppm + Brown paper Bavistin 1000 ppm + Tissue paper Bavistin 1000 ppm + Butter paper Bavistin 500 ppm + Brown paper Bavistin 500 ppm+ Tissue paper Bavistin 500 ppm + Butter paper Pedicillate fruit 15mm + Brown paper Pedicillate fruit 15mm + Tissue paper Pedicillate fruit 15mm + Butter paper Control Treatments T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17 T18 T19 T20 T21 T22 1) Design. 19. Dashehari is a medium season cultivar which is ready to harvested 25 June onward. 3. 16. TECHNICAL PROGRAMME S. 5. 6 7. 13. 8. 4. 20. good cropper and have biennial bearing tendency. 9. Its fruits are small to medium size (150 g.

TSS 2. Moisture loss 6. Sugar / Acidity Ratio 9 . Chemical qualitative characters 1. Marketability 5. respectively. OBSERVATION TO BE RECORDED To find out the effect of post-harvest treatments and wrapping materials on ripening. Department of Horticulture. Physical qualitative characters 1. Acidity 4. Specific gravity B.Post Harvest Technology Laboratory. 2014 and 2015. Decay% 7. 6) Experimental site. Fruit skin colour 2. Organoleptic test 4. Fruit firmness 8. shelf life and Post-harvest quality of mango.fruits are harvested in hard green stage and have a consumable life span up to 9 to 11 days at normal room temperature during transportation to distant markets. SVP University of Agriculture and Technology. Meerut-250110 in fourth coming year. Flavour / Aroma 3. Sugar content 3. A. The following observations shall be taken during in experimentation.

188 (A Research Jointly implemented by FAO and FPM of the under the National Food Programme Management Programme NFPCSP).S. Haq.A. P.K.V. and Agnihotri. S. Maini. and S. A.. Koolpluksee. S. 95p. Bhullar. 2011. J. pp: 1.15. Shajabad. 6(1):19-23.). S.. Kudachikar. Vasantha. B. M.. Hassan. I. M. Studies on effect of ethrel dip treatment on the of mango variety ‘Neelum’. B. 21: 27-31.645-651. K. Punjab Hort.J. Prolonging shelf-life of guava. thesis. V. Effect of GA3 and Ethrel on ripening and cv. 1981.A. Ind. Lal. 60. Sci. Rajwana. A. Saleem.A. and Anand. 1984. 2010. 29: 25-26. Performance of hot water phytosanitary treated mangoes for intended export from Pakistan to Iran and Biology. 1993. S. 2002. Effect of post-harvest treatments on shelf-life and quality of Banganapalli mango. R. 41(2):216- 10 .P. Rabiahameed and Mazhar.B. Khumlert.References Anonymous 2013... Effect of modified atmospheres on quality and chilling injury of Nam Dok Mai mango fruits. Malik. Studies on storage of Kinnow mandarin. S.G. and Ramana. A. J. Muhammad.Horticul.V. Prakash. Kaset. 27(2):115-124. And Subhadrabandhu.K. Kapse. Cultivar Kesar. S. Nat. 1-9. Ind. B.B.S. M. 1992.P. U.. M.B. Gautam.. B.. Journal of Food scienceand 220. Sarkar and Y..S..13:5.N. . Mango Res. Hiwale. B. Kumar. M. China. Effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on some physico-chemical characteristics of Kheaw and Sawoey mango fruit. 1993. Amrapali. Inst. Kulkarni. International Journal of Agriculture and quality of mango ripening behaviour Technology Mysore. Pasckage for mango production. 135-139..D. Post-harvest management of apples.K 2004.C. Ph... Singh 2003. M. S. 60. Indian Horticulture Database. R. Indian J.. An integrated Approach to post-harvest handling of mango (Mangifera indica L.. Hort..N. College Laguna ( The Phillipines). Diwan. Prasad.U.. Reddy 2003. Nagar. 1993. G. Mesta. M.B. N. S.A.k. J. Gurgaon Haryana (India).P..S. Horticulture Journal.S. and Ministry of Food and Disaster Capacity Strengthening Reduction of Stakeholders. A Study to Formulate Policy for Post-harvest Loss fruits and Vegetables and Socio-Economic Uplift of the Project Funded by USAID and EC. J.H. Horticul. Malik. K. Khakhar.. B. J. post-harvest techniques and its export prospects.and Singh. K. J.

R. and Tripathi. F. Singh. 63: 368-371. H... Patel. Indian J. No. M. Zaman. Baskaran. 2002. Ramesh.) cv. Hort. Sci.:. Tech. K.V. Haryana J. M. 11 . Bangladesh J.323-332 Singh.and Kumar. N. Food Chemistry.. M. 215(6):504-508. Indian Journal of Horticulture. Effect of ethrel on ripening and quality of Thompson seedless grapes. C.( 2010).Malik..53(3):202.N. S. and Tharanathan. Kumar and Goyal.K 1996. Singh.M. Amrapali and Neelphonso. 32(1&2): 54-55. Shell.K. Navsari.Mumzuroglu. M. O. Ram. 2006. K. Studies on storage behaviour of apple cultivars.. G. Optimization of harvesting maturities for major mango cultivars in Bangladesh. Res.Kumar. Navsari Agricultural University. R. 1994. S. and Geekil. Annals of Horticulture Vol.(Agri. Srinivasa. Gujarat. 12(2):209-215.A.) thesis. 2006. European Food Res. Prashanth. The vitamin and selenium contents of apricot fruit of different varieties cultivated in different geographical regions. P. 2003. Verma. Sci.. and Sharma. A. Effect of various chemical and fungicidal treatments on post-harvest quality of mango (Mangifera indica L. M.K. 2003. Storage studies of mango packed using biodegradable chitosan film. Amarapali. A. M.A . P.. Hort.. V. Shahjahan.205. R. H. Karatas.Sc... N. Pandey. P. U.) cv. M. Effect of oil emulsions and precooling on shelf-life of mango cv. 83: 205-12.. Effect of post-harvest treatments on storage behaviour of hybrid mango (Mangifera indica L. Dittander. and Sakur. A.. Amarapali.

512 BIOCHEM.503 GP.) Course Number GP.733 APH.) Course Number STAT.690 APH.610 APH.510 APH.731 APH-610 APH.501 GP.Technical program (year/semester wise) start to thesis completion:1st year (1st Sem.790 Subject Experimental Design Basic Biochemistry Nutrition of Horticultural Crops Thesis Research Credit Hours 3 4 4 2 Total credit-13 1st year (2ndSem.) Course Number GP.501 APH.711 APH.) Course Number APH.790 Subject Principles of genetics Principles of plant breeding Breeding for Biotic and Abiotic Stress Resistance Research methods in horticulture Thesis Research Credit Hours 3 3 3 2 5 Total credit-16 2nd year (2nd Sem.620 APH.790 Subject Seminar Thesis Research Credit Hours 1 6 Total credit-7 12 .790 Subject In situ and Ex situ Conservation of Germplasm Post Harvest Physiology of Horticultural Crops Seminar Special Problem Thesis Research Credit Hours 3 3 1 2 3 Total credit-12 2nd year (1stSem.

790 Subject Thesis Research Credit Hours 7 Total credit-7 (Signature of student) 13 .790 Subject Thesis Research Credit Hours 7 Total credit-7 3rd year (2nd Sem.) Course Number APH.) Course Number APH.3rd year (1st Sem.

Id. 2680 is original and the programme has been critically examined. Abhimanyu Kumar Singh. Mukesh Kumar) Member (Dr. Manoj Kumar Singh) Member (Dr. Satya Prakash) Member (Dr. Pooran Chand) Forwarded of the college Dean Forwarded to dean PGS HOD College Dean Approved Dean PGS 14 .Certificate from advisory committee Certified that the research work proposed in this synopsis. to be carried out by Mr. Sunil Malik) Member (Dr. Chairman/ Advisor (Dr. No.