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Unit – IV


Dr. K. Devendranath Ramkumar

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The Metals Handbook defines hardness as "Resistance of metal to plastic deformation, usually by indentation” Also referred to as “ Resistance to Scratching, abrasion and cutting” It is the property of a metal, which gives it the ability to resist being permanently, deformed (bent, broken, or have its shape changed), when a load is applied The greater the hardness of the metal, the greater resistance it has to deformation.

Hardness – Its impact in the design of Mechanical Systems Normally in design of mechanical members.  The value of hardness can be employed indirectly by means of tensile strength.  That doesn’t mean that the hardness has no impact over the design. the hardness value won’t be taken into account.  .  Also it has its influence over the tensile and compressive properties of the metal or alloy.

Based on the heat treatment. Hardness correlates with heat treatments.Cont…     Hardness can be correlated with wear resistance also. the hardness value can be changed. . which is having maximum hardness.8% eutectoid steel produces martensite. So the influence of hardness comes in indirect mode of design. For example the hardening process followed by rapid quenching of 0.

Hardness tests Elastic hardness Test or Rebound test  Resistance to abrasion or scratching  Scratch Test File Test  Resistance to Indentation Brinell hardness test Rockwell hardness test Vicker’s hardness test Knoop hardness test .

creates an impression.Elastic Hardness Test / Rebound Test    Uses Sceleroscope which is a device measuring the height of rebound of a small diamond tipped hammer after it falls from the definite height by its own weight onto the surface of the specimen. This test is really a measure of resilience (Spring steels etc. The higher the rebound.) . the harder the work piece.

Flourite (No. Apatite (No.10). Gypsum (No.5). The test material is rubbed against any one of the minerals. Calcite (No. • because the heat-treated specimens shouldn’t produce a visible cut when it is subjected to filing action Scale consists minerals of Talc (No.   Whichever the mineral is producing scratches.Resistance to abrasion / scratching Scratch Test   File Test 10 different • Test piece is subjected to cutting action of a file of known hardness.1). Topaz (No.6).  The range of scale is arranged from lower to higher grade of hard minerals. Corundum (No.7). • Normally this test is carried out for heat-treated specimens. Orthoclase (No.8). the value of that particular mineral would be the hardness of the test material .2). • Basically this test is carried out in quality and inspection areas for acceptance or rejection of lot.9) and Diamond (No.4). Quartz (No.3).

Resistance to Indentation Brinell Hardness Test   Brinell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a 10 mm diameter hardened steel or carbide ball subjected to a load of 3000 kg.15 seconds. the indenter is removed leaving a round indent in the sample. After the dwell time is complete. normally 10 . Brinell tests are frequently done on large parts The indenter is pressed into the sample by an accurately controlled test force. The size of the indent is determined optically by measuring two diagonals of the round indent using either a portable microscope or one that is integrated with the load application device Procedure     . The force is maintained for a specific dwell time.


Therefore the typical range of Brinell testing in this country is 500 to 3000 kg with 5 or 10mm carbide balls A well structured Brinell hardness number reveals the test conditions. and looks like this. Aluminum and other softer alloys are frequently tested using a 500Kg test force and a 10 or 5mm carbide ball.Cont…     Brinell testing is typically done on iron and steel castings using a 3000Kg test force and a 10mm diameter carbide ball. "75 HB 10/500/30“ – What do you mean by this?? .

sample can normally be reused.  .PROS & CONS Pros One scale covers the entire hardness range.  This requires that the test point be finished well enough to make an accurate measurement.  Cons The main drawback of the Brinell test is the need to optically measure the indent size.  A wide range of test forces and ball sizes to suit every application. although comparable results can only be obtained if the ball size and test force relationship is the same.  Slow  Testing can take 30 seconds not counting the sample preparation time.  Non-destructive.

. The indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor load F0(Fig. so reducing the depth of penetration (Fig. While the preliminary minor load is still applied an additional major load is applied with resulting increase in penetration (Fig. 1C). the additional major load is removed but the preliminary minor load is still maintained.Rockwell Hardness Test      The Rockwell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond cone or hardened steel ball indenter. When equilibrium has been reached. Removal of the additional major load allows a partial recovery. 1B). an indicating device. When equilibrium has again been reached. which follows the movements of the indenter and so responds to changes in depth of penetration of the indenter is set to a datum position. 1A) usually 10 kgf.

E = a constant depending on form of indenter: 100 units for diamond indenter.002 mm. F = total load in kgf.e F0 = preliminary minor load in kgf. D = diameter of steel ball. F1 = additional major load in kgf. . e = permanent increase in depth of penetration due to major load F1 measured in units of 0.HR = E . 130 units for steel ball indenter. HR = Rockwell hardness number.

Superficial Rockwell: Minor load is 3 kgf and major loads are 15. 30. 100. In both tests. the indenter may be either a diamond cone or steel ball. or 45 kgf. the major load is 60. depending upon the characteristics of the material being tested . or 150 kgf.Cont…     There are two types of Rockwell tests: Normal Rockwell: Minor load is 10 kgf.


Typical Applications • Quality control for metal heat treatment • Incoming material inspection • Weld evaluations in steels and other alloys • Grade verification for hard plastics • Failure analysis .

The indenter is the same for both ranges therefore Vickers hardness values are continuous over the total range of hardness for metals (typically HV100 to HV1000). In other words. micro (10g to 1000g) and macro (1kg to 100kg).1kg to 100kg ISO 6507-1.2. to cover all testing requirements. the Vickers values will be the same if tested using a 500g force or a 50kg force    ASTM E384 – micro force ranges – 10g to 1kg ASTM E92 – macro force ranges . With the exception of test forces below 200g. Vickers values are generally considered test force independent.3 – micro and macro ranges . if the material tested is uniform.Vickers Hardness Test      The Vickers (HV) test was developed in England is 1925 and was formally known as the Diamond Pyramid Hardness (DPH) test. The Vickers test has two distinct force ranges.

3. 6. All Vickers ranges use a 136° pyramidal diamond indenter that forms a square indent. The indenter is pressed into the sample by an accurately controlled test force. normally 10 – 15 seconds. 2. 5. The size of the indent is determined optically by measuring the two diagonals of the square indent. . After the dwell time is complete.Vicker’s Test Procedure 1. The force is maintained for a specific dwell time. The Vickers hardness number is a function of the test force divided by the surface area of the indent. 4. the indenter is removed leaving an indent in the sample that appears square shaped on the surface.

.854 F/d2 The constant is a function of the indenter geometry and the units of force and diagonal.Cont…     The average of the two diagonals is used in the following formula to calculate the Vickers has HV = Constant x test force / indent diagonal squared HV = 1.

The Knoop hardness number is a function of the test force divided by the projected area of the indent. normally 10 15 seconds.Knoop Hardness Test     Knoop (HK) hardness was developed by at the National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) in 1939. so a high powered microscope is necessary to measure the indent size. the indenter is removed leaving an elongated diamond shaped indent in the sample. Knoop tests are mainly done at test forces from 10g to 1000g. Knoop tests have mainly been known as microhardness tests. The indenter used is a rhombicbased pyramidal diamond that produces an elongated diamond shaped indent. Because of this.  The indenter is pressed into the sample by an accurately controlled test force.  The force is maintained for a specific dwell time. The size of the indent is determined optically by measuring the longest diagonal of the diamond shaped indent.    . After the dwell time is complete.

Knoop Test Procedure KHN = F/A = P/CL2 F = applied load in kgf A = the unrecovered projected area of the indentation in mm2 L = measured length of long diagonal of indentation in mm C = 0. .07028 = Constant of indenter relating projected area of the indentation to the square of the length of the long diagonal.