japanese paintings and works of art

erik thomsen

japanese paintings and works of art

erik thomsen

asian art

Sales exhibition March 31– April 5, 2006 The International Asian Art Fair The Seventh Regiment Armory Park Avenue at 67th Street, New York, NY 10021

Cover: Flowers of the Four Seasons, detail, pair of six-fold screens Anonymous artist of the Rimpa School (Nr. 1)

japanese paintings and works of art Table of contents 5 7 33 45 59 75 84 86 92 foreword and acknowledgements screens paintings bamboo baskets ceramics lacquers signatures. seals and inscriptions notes bibliography erik thomsen asian art .

4 .

and my parents. of the Cotsen basket collection. Bamboo baskets such as the ones presented in this catalog were made for the Way of Flowers. reveal superb details. and Inger Sigrun Brodey. where I apprenticed 23 years ago. Kadô. today. Hanging scrolls and folding screens have been an important part of Japanese art and culture for over a millennium. like most artwork in Japan. such as writing boxes and paper boxes. Most of the objects here were made with one or more of the four classical arts in mind: the ways of tea. are particularly effective against the mirror-black roiro ground. calligraphy. Shodô. mirror Japanese aesthetics especially well. for all her support. we see works of art that were clearly created in line with Japanese aesthetics and traditions. my sister. Highly prized by tea masters. They were meant to be used. in immaculate condition. paintings. in the skillful workmanship of the fine details. which uncovered several surprises. Lacquerwork. were carefully stored away into fitted boxes when not in use.  . professor in Japanese art history at the University of Chicago. ceramics and lacquers. As a result.foreword and acknowledgements It is with great pleasure that I present this inaugural catalog. as well as in performances of classical arts. where they functioned as dramatic or festive backgrounds to the event. Hans Bjarne Thomsen. Harry and Ene Marie Thomsen. imperfect shapes of tea ceramics draw our attention to their beautiful textures and colors that can only truly be appreciated upon holding them in one’s hands. 1910 to 1940. the photographer Klaus Wäldele for his patience. Instead. student and artist. owner of the gallery Tanaka Onkodô in Tokyo. attention to detail and boundless energy. They also represent another important element of the tea ceremony. Kadô. upon closer inspection. The simple. Signed bamboo baskets such as these were largely unknown in the West until the acclaimed exhibition in 1999 at the Asia Society. flowers. Shodô. when examined up close. a tea master would often select a scroll with a painting or calligraphy that provided the best match for the season and occasion. which includes a selection from my five specialties within classical Japanese art: screens. are intrinsic to the Way of Calligraphy. exhibitor. I can think of no one else who better manages the many tasks as wife. professor in literature at the University of North Carolina. Unlike most Japanese art objects seen in the West. and help that she has given me now during the catalog production and over the years. decades later. In the tea ceremony. Sadô. for giving me the foundations upon which I could grow. not with exports in mind. imaginative design. mother. or Way of Tea. Cornelia. but rather for the Japanese market. I would also like to thank Mr. such as in catalog item 22. for his invaluable research. all items presented here were made. Such artwork avoids many of the compromises and alterations in artistic traditions that mark the art made to fit foreign tastes. bamboo baskets. New York. and incense (Sadô. I would like to thank those who made this catalog possible: the designer Valentin Beinroth for his clean. The simple designs. to present ikebana flower arrangements. Their beauty is obvious in their form. but. for her proof-reading and good suggestions. Screens were also used within the tea ceremony. which kept me focused on the catalog in spite of fairs and travels. and Kôdô). ca. my brother. long working sessions and good eye. and. they are therefore Erik Thomsen March 2006 Above all I want to thank my wife. Daizaburô Tanaka. encouragement. and. they commanded princely sums in the peak years of basket making during the Taishô and early Shôwa periods. Ceramics used in the Way of Tea.

.

screens .

At the very end. ominaeshi. bush clover. aoi. and gofun on gold foil. and kiri. these two Similar examples may be seen in a number of museum collections. mineral colors.1 halves combine to form a coherent program: the panels furthest to the right display the only cluster of spring flowers. Each of the twelve clusters on the screens represents a group of plants from a particular season. lily. The fall by the chrysanthemum.1 Flowers of the Four Seasons Anonymous artist of the Rimpa School Edo period (1615–1868). For example. The grouping of the clusters is according to a larger plan: the larger cluster of chrysanthemums growing around a fence forms the left-most panels of the right-hand screen. sumire. This fine pair of Rimpa School screens presents a journey through the four seasons of the year by representative plants and flowers for each season. and we travel through groups of summer and autumn clusters. early 19th century H 65" × W 144" each (165 cm × 366 cm) Pair of six-fold screens Ink. and susuki. The summer is represented by the iris. we meet with the only winter group in the screens: a small group of narcissus peeking from around the farthest corner. from this. And the winter is represented solely by the narcissus. the directions (like that of a handscroll) goes left. This group connects to another autumn group in the right-most panels of the lefthand screen. and yamabuki. plants representing the spring are the kodemari. 8 . Placed next to each other. morning glory. nadeshiko.

.

.

.

The sole winter plant is the pine. the flowers of the autumn are clearly favored: the autumn flowers are centered on an entire six-fold screen. and gofun represents a collection of the flowering plants of the four seasons. shakuyaku. The summer plants are represented by mizuaoi. kuzu. which conceals not only additional flora. and kobushi. willow. lily. and gourds. ominaeshi. Here. the ink modalities are carefully varied. as in other works. a process that involves dripping ink of differing modality into ink that has not yet dried. peony. in order to create a convincing sense of depth to the leafy undergrowth: there is a clearly articulated layering of leaves. important in a work with this many leaves and flowers arranged on top of each other in a small space. keitô. There are the spring flowers. suzushiro. The autumn plants include susuki.2 Birds and Flowers of the Seasons Circle of Ogata Kôrin (1658–1716) Edo period (1615–1868). colors. A favorite technique of Rimpa artists can be seen here. This pair of folding screens with painting in ink. thus producing a mottled effect. tsuyukusa. thistle. namely the tarashikomi. while the other six-fold screen is divided among the flowers of the three other seasons. kodamari. In addition. and an eggplant. early 18th century H 65" × W 142 ½" each (165 cm × 362 cm) Pair of six-fold screens Ink. 12 . wisteria. and gofun on paper An anonymous Rimpa School artist has created a luxurious and dense undergrowth of flowering plants and trees. bush clover. morning glory. uri. colors. but also a pair of quail and pheasants among its vegetation. iris. kikyô. nadeshiko.

.

.

.

.

.

may all be markers to various poems within the Tales of the Ise. Of the twelve. identification was the key in examples where all the fans on a screen stemmed from one narrative.e. Fuji in the distance. as with the other. In the case of the two-fold screen. early 18th century H 64 ½" × W 74" (164 cm × 188 cm) Single two-fold screen Ink.3 Fan Screen with Scenes from the Tales of Ise Follower of Tawaraya Sôtatsu (?–1643?) Edo period (1615–1868). In addition. looking at a snow-clad Mt. the ensemble of fans. The source of the image is a poem by Narihira that describes Mt. where each fan relates to a specific literary source. the main character of Ise Monogatari. scattered on a gold ground. In the six-panel screen. a courtier appears among fans whose subjects are all seasonal markers. Fan screens present us with distinct puzzles: was the placement of the fans on the screen controlled by the artist? Are the groupings and placements of the This particular screen may also contain an inner meaning: a meaning that focused on the only figural representation in the screen. this leaves the viewer (and the reader of this catalog) with a distinctly challenging game: the identification of all the specific poems represented by the images on the screen. a six-fold screen by the school of Sôtatsu. a fan with a seated figure appears at exactly the same position. on horse.2 18 . two are closed and ten are either fully or partly opened. as we have another screen. The placement of the Prince may be significant. fifty-four fans representing each of the fifty-four chapters of the Tales of Genji. for example. spring is represented by cherry blossoms and the willow.3 In this case. vigorous waves are associated with the stormy seas of the autumn. the pairs by Sôtatsu in the Kunaichô and the Sanbôin of the Daigoji Temple. For example. the summer is represented by the hydrangea (ajisai). that is roughly contemporary to the two-fold screen in this catalog. second to bottom fan. as. poem. Most of the fans are seasonal in nature and depict flowers or plants in bloom or in the process of changing colors.. for example. the distance between the rider and the far-away mountain is here represented by separating the scene onto two different fans. If so. Fuji as seen on a journey: Indifferent to the seasons Mount Fuji stands aloft Flecked like a kanako cloth With fallen snow The visual representation of this famous poem usually centers on the Prince on horseback. if indeed intended as an ensemble. which depicts Prince Ariwara no Narihira (825–880). fans significant? And are there inner meanings within the fans themselves? There was certainly an element of play within some fan screens. Fuji in the neighboring fan. The winter is represented by a pair of fans to the lower left corner. or chapter from the available evidence. namely Prince Narihira. i. and the autumn by the bush clover (hagi) and the maple leaves. mineral colors.1 The object for the viewer was then to be able to identify each scene. looking over his side at the snow-clad Mt. with gold foil ground A follower of Sôtatsu painted this fine and early two-panel screen with the depiction of twelve fans. on the last panel. the lower left corner. Likewise. and gofun on paper.

.

the land mass to the extreme right and left represents autumn. Although the work is a very fine example of the 18th century Tosa School. as intended. mineral colors and gofun on paper and gold foil Here four pairs of cranes are shown inhabiting a marshy landscape against a rich gold background. all of which are shown. Another name was probably removed and replaced by one which reads »by the brush of Tosa Mitsuoki. represents summer. the [honorary] Imperial Guard« and a seal marked Fujiwara. a balanced. large growths of autumn flowers anchor the extremes of the larger composition. a previous owner apparently felt it necessary to try to improve on the pedigree of the screen by changing the artist’s name to that of a better-known artist. in striking poses. When placed next to each other. the space that unites the two. are the cranes and plants. all of which occupy about the same space and have been shrunk (or expanded) to appear to be the same height and volume as each other. independent composition. 20 . as can be seen by the discoloration of the gold surrounding the signature. 18th century H 28 ¼" × W 98 ¾" each (72 cm × 251 cm) Pair of six-fold screens Ink. Traversing this distance in time. of course. represents an ideal space. blooming at the same time within the space of the screen surface.4 Cranes of Summer and Autumn Tosa School Edo period (1615–1868). The signature was clearly added later. and the lake that is depicted on both was constructed as the spatial unit that In other words. the spacings and compositions had been ably planned out on the basis of the twelve individual panels of the screens: the artist has succeeded in creating within each panel pair (traditionally thought out as a unit). the most important Tosa school painter of the last four hundred years. one in which the stylized cranes can strike poses and be shown next to the flowers and plants of different seasons. seasons. The image. The artist has incorporated a relationship of equality between the plants and cranes. both autumnal plants (chrysanthemums and marshy reeds) and summer plants (iris and mizuaoi).1 Both names and honorary title are associated with the artist Tosa Mitsuoki (1617–1691). The autumn flowers are composed of various types of chrysanthemums as well as the kikyô plant (a Chinese bellflower). combined the two compositions. The cranes represent the different species that frequent the Japanese archipelago. and the lake. Moreover. The two halves of the screen pair were made to be shown together. The area between the two large groups of plants is punctuated by smaller plant groups. and space. one after the other. An interesting aspect of the screen is the signature to the right extreme of the combined pair.

.

.

.

gofun. Within these panels the four undergo humorous changes: the musical 24 . black lacquer and mineral colors depicts women and men partaking in the four classical Chinese elegant pastimes. with Zeshin jar seal Pair of six-fold screens Ink. The four pastimes. colors. were traditionally the koto (musical instrument). It is one of four variations on a theme by an older painting. and lacquer on paper This pair is an important work in the oeuvre of Shibata Zeshin. 19th century H 48 ½" × W 109" each (123 cm × 277 cm) Signed (right screen): »Zeshin. or the kinki shoga.5 Four Elegant Pastimes Shibata Zeshin (1807–1891) Meiji period (1868–1912). calligraphy. chess. The screen pair with painting in ink. and painting. Zeshin« (Koga ni narau Zeshin).« with Zeshin jar seal. (left screen): »emulating older paintings.

As a truly inspired artistic personality. six-fold screen from the early seventeenth century. calligraphy becomes the act of letter writing. a single. chess becomes backgammon and go.1 The screen is presently in a Hikone museum. The left screen is signed »emulating older paintings.instruments become the samisen and the biwa. and paintings become the pair of standing screens located within the right screen. From the study and reworking of the Hikone Screen emerged four innovative variations on the Hikone theme. Zeshin based his composition on the famous Hikone Screen. Zeshin (Koga ni narau Zeshin) and sealed Zeshin. but was at the time of Zeshin in a rich merchant’s house. where Zeshin was allowed to study it closely. while the right screen is signed and sealed Zeshin. Zeshin was not satisfied with making a 25 .

such as the innovative use of black lacquer in the women’s hair. Likewise. 219–220. Of the four sets that Zeshin made from the Hikone original. most notably the three central dancers. both the new and old versions show a similar emphasis on textile patterns. Zeshin started with a single six-panel screen (one that likely joined four panels of one screen with two from another) and stretched it out into a unified twelve-panel composition. The second is in the Lee Institute for 26 . ills. Zeshin also introduces new features. vol. but many others are adaptations. For example. In this particular version. Up close.mere copy and made all four versions significantly different from each other. In effect. two of the figures are straight copies from the Hikone Screen. many by slightly changing angles of depiction. entirely new figures abound. and illustrated in Gôke. 1. New York. however. the girl pointing at the two screens in the present version appears in the Hikone Screen as a girl pointing in the opposite direction. one is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum.

Tokyo: Gakken. ed. vol. 1. but rests in a private Japanese collection. illustrated in Gôke. 2 vols. vol. 27 . in the collection of the industrialist Fujiyama Raita (1863–1938). vol. CA. for a long time. Provenance: Collection of Fujiyama Raita 藤山雷太 (1863–1938) Exhibited: Yugei no Bi at the Fukuoka Municipal Art Museum in 1997. ills.2 The third is the present screen pair. Published: Gôke Tadaomi. 221–222. Shibata Zeshin meihinshû: Bakumatsu kaikaki no shikkô kaiga. 1. 1981. Hanford. 1. item 221–222.3 Most of the four have been passed down in prestigious collections. the present pair was. And the fourth is a pair that has not yet been illustrated. 210–211. and illustrated in Gôke.Japanese Art at the Clark Center.

whose identity cannot be ascertained.C. here seeming to dance with two young women. leaving.1 The interior scene describes a number of courtesans in relaxed modes. This is a typical genre scene showing the various contemporary games and occupations. One group of courtesans. 28 . where a woman is seated and attending a reclining figure. however. 7. 1996). with not only paintings. The combination may well connect to the possible authorship by Bai’ôken Eishun. We have a prominently placed blind masseur. Osaka. this may well refer to the Yoshiwara area of Edo. Japan Published: Kobayashi Tadashi. others breaking a branch off the cherry tree. complete with interior scenes of lounging courtesans and outside scenes of playing children and performers. circa 1710–1720 H 42" × W 89 ½" (107 cm × 227 cm) Single six-fold screen Ink. shows a larger group of people enjoying a whole range of activities. Ukiyoe nikuhitsu taikan. Other girls are playing. be seen to the back of the building. some with a long stick. here the doors are almost closed. but with an oeuvre that includes both surimono prints and illustrated books. (Tokyo: Kodansha. The room seems to be lit by an andon lamp. including key works in the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington. The scene to the right describes two buildings within a certain pleasure quarter. ed. who was an Osaka artist known for his wide repertoire. cat. enjoys the flowering cherry trees from an open room that has had its sliding doors removed. mineral colors. A dog painted on the far left completes the last of the six panels. 32. vol. Manno Bijutsukan.6 Flower Viewing Season in the Pleasure Quarters Attributed to Bai’ôken Eishun 梅翁軒永春 (active 1704–1763) Edo period (1615–1868). Judging from the bucket and brooms attached the roof of the building seen below and from the blossoming cherry trees lining the streets surrounding the two houses. and playing the samisen. they are seen conversing. a three-stringed musical instrument. and gofun on paper This early nikuhitsu screen presents the viewer with a festive flower viewing scene. and the other showing the daily occurrences of commoners. drinking rice wine. An interior room can also The painting is unusual for its creative combination of two known genres: one a type that shows scenes within the Yoshiwara quarters. that occupies the entire left side of the screen. still others are playing with a kemari ball. whose light casts the shadows of the shapes within the rooms on the paper-covered sliding doors. a crack open to allow the viewer a voyeuristic glance into the interiors.3 Provenance: Formerly in the collection of the Manno Art Museum. in finely-differentiated kimono. The exterior scene. while observed by a large male figure. D. usually in terms of street scenes.2 A number of paintings are known by the hand of this exceptionally long-active artist. nr.

.

.

.

.

paintings .

including other forms of the seated Bodhidharma. facing a blank stone wall. Although brushed in only a few strokes. is a singularly apt symbol of strict adherence to ritual. after falling asleep during meditation. Hakuin was able to create a dramatic mottling effect within the individual lines of the figure. and placed it in the context of a meditating Bodhidharma (J. including a Sengoku period (1334– The painting is not. the vigorous speed of the brush. simply an illustration of a Buddhist dictum. In addition. there are artistic traditions and other layers of meaning behind the painting. The technique is closely connected to the message: they reemphasize the immobility and greatness of the Zen Buddhist patriarch and create a sense of timelessness for Bodhidharma as well as for Buddhist rituals and doctrine. circa 1765 H 35 ¼" × W 9" (incl. mounting 66 ½" × 12 ½") (90 cm × 23 cm. and the immediacy of the brushwork significantly heightens the intensity of the painting. he tore away his eyelids. credited with bringing Zen Buddhism from India to China in the sixth century CE. in which the robes were described with a bare minimum of strokes. for nine years. ink on paper Bodhidharma in Meditation. as seated meditation (zazen) The painting is clearly also intended to take a place in the »one-brushstroke Bodhidharma« (Ippitsu Daruma) tradition. Hakuin and Ekaku Hanging scroll. said to have been conducted in a cave. however.5 The tradition ultimately derives from early Chinese depictions of the patriarch. and do not let it master you. However. in which the robes of the Bodhidharma were drawn with one continuous stroke of the brush. By depicting the meditating Bodhidharma beneath this phrase. Facing a Wall (Menpeki Daruma 面壁達磨) Inscription: 「為心之師莫師於心」 Become the master of your heart. by using coarsely ground ink and heavy-sized paper. Daruma) figure. kokoro no shi wa nashi In this dramatic hanging scroll. the figure acquires paradoxically a sense of monumentality that goes beyond its actual space on the paper.2 Moreover.7 Hakuin Ekaku (1685–1768) Edo period (1615–1868).4 was one of the key rituals in Zen Buddhism.1 The sutra text admonishes the reader (and. Hakuin’s choice of the seated meditating Bodhidharma seems quite apt. A meditating Bodhidharma. but in few other example has he so successfully created a simple figure of monumental strength through so few lines. Kokoro no shi to nari. One striking aspect of the painting is its brushwork and ink modulation. was seen as his single-minded period of meditation. the Zen Buddhist monk Hakuin has adopted an admonition from the Six Parmitas Sutra. Hakuin uses the mottled ink technique in other paintings. or worldly matters. 169 cm × 32 cm) Three seals of artist: Kokanki. and to instead focus one’s energy on ruling the passions. Hakuin may well be indicating that strict adherence to Zen Buddhist doctrines and rituals such as seated meditation is the correct way to become the master of one’s passions. 34 . Numerous examples of one-brushstroke paintings exist. a semi-legendary monk. defining event in the life of Bodhidharma. Distractions were done away with. paying little attention to finer modulation of line. the curious mottling effect of the ink also increases the presence of the figure: the lines seem to imply age and a sense of permanence. for example. in extension. here facing an imaginary wall. Hakuin his viewer) to disregard his or her own heart. The central.3 The dramatic tonal contrasts within the lines. It is clear that the brush moved quickly to create the seated figure and inscription in a few dramatic strokes.

.

and other Zen monks of the Edo period. that of incorporating hidden characters and messages into an image. reduced to simple Chinese characters of gu and in. The question then arises for the viewer: what specific character? Various authorities have attempted to describe Hakuin’s seated Bodhidharma figure as one character: Katô Shôshun suggests that it represents the character gu (愚. this would also play in with the Hakuin we know from other paintings. however. Published: Morita Shiryû. giving it a profound sense of depth and importance and. »foolishness«). The idea of hiding characters within images is an older Japanese tradition that has been incorporated into a number of media. representing Gudô and Hakuin. In other words.1392) example at the Erinji Temple in Kai that may have served as a prototype for Hakuin as well as examples by Shôkai Reiken (1315–1396). where the painter sometimes takes the place of Daruma.8 This is then a clear case where the seated Daruma can represent the name of Hakuin and also a clear indication that Hakuin’s Menpeki Daruma may have multiple meanings. Hakuin challenges our preconceptions through flashes of insight and humor. Although this painting was probably performed as a sekiga (»seat painting«) or a performance piece completed in an instant with only a few brushstrokes at a communal occasion. Hakuin. From reading the inscriptions.7 The two paintings of the pair were painted by Hakuin at the same time to commemorate the meeting between him and Gudô 愚堂. Another possibility is the character in (the right part of the character 隠) that forms Hakuin’s own name. the seated Bodhidharma painting in this catalog may also be a playful representation of the monk Hakuin himself engaged in seated meditation. 36 . Both are possible in terms of the standard Japanese reductions of Chinese characters. 1980. nr. at the same time. This is supported by a pair of Menpeki Daruma paintings in the Konchi’in Temple in Tokyo. 279. The painting is housed in a fitted kiri wood box. Kyoto: Bokubisha. it is clear that the two seated figures were the two friends. or other figures. Hakuin’s paintings were never entirely serious or entirely playful: forming a key element within his complex and timeless art. Hotei. takes that pictorial tradition a step further by incorporating another word-and-image tradition. including sutra frontispiece paintings and lacquer boxes. If so. and others the character nin (忍 endurance). in Hara. Isshi (1608– 1646). however. By representing himself as iconic figures. the painting is by no means a trifle of little meaning. certified and inscribed in 1960 by Tsûzan Sôkaku (1891–1974). Many layers and traditions operate behind this seemingly simple painting.6 Hakuin. a fellow Rinzai sect monk. the seventeenth abbot of Hakuin’s temple. playing humorous games with the viewer. seems to have been the first to combine the two into a single image. Bokubi Tokushû: Hakuin Bokuseki. the Shôinji Temple. thereby gaining complexity from the layering of identities and depth from the deeper implications of this switch in identities.

.

symbols of his knowledge of herbs. and Ekaku no in Hanging scroll. A long tradition of depicting Shennong in paintings and sculpture exists throughout East Asia. while Japanese artists have tended to depict him alone. and through the antiquarian interest of Japanese sinophile cultural figures. One curious departure in this painting.1 He is said to have taught humans a variety of abilities. wildly unkempt hair. the ways of agriculture. Another unusual feature of the painting is the Shennong’s legendary status is also emphasized by visual media that usually depict the god with horns. seated on a rock in wilderness. He usually also holds blades of grass in his hand or mouth. mounting 60 ¾" × 18 ¾") (32. including his conception at the sight of a dragon and an upbringing in the wilderness. The complex mythological status of this god is retold in numerous sources.5 cm × 32 cm. and the knowledge of herbs and medicine. and printmakers participated in the tradition. upon looking through Hakuin’s extant oeuvre. Notable Japanese depictions of Shennong include those made by Hakuin. hinting at the ox connection through the pair of horns on his forehead. 38 . and Ike Taiga (1723–1776).8 Hakuin Ekaku (1685–1768) Edo period (1615–1868).5 cm × 47. a legendary ruler of China first mentioned by Mencius and also known as the Emperor of Fire. While Hakuin has made a number of waterfall-viewing Kannon figures with similar compositions. the visual tradition has persisted in depicting his head in mostly human form.4 Hakuin’s depiction of a fully bovine face makes that aspect explicit and marks a significant departure from tradition—seemingly unprecedented in the visual culture of Japan and China. Hakuin may in part have been influenced by Hakutaku images. At one time. Kano Tsunenobu (1636–1713). but a whole range of painters. kubi wa ushi / Shidô Shinnôshi The exotic figure with human form and ox head in this painting is Shennong (J. it becomes apparent that At the same time. this painting by Hakuin presents us with a number of innovations in this venerable tradition. Hakuin. he is also said to have harnessed dragons in order to measure the circumference of the earth. including the use of fire. where depictions of the ox-headed creature vary between a human face and an ox-like head. uprooting trees to plow the land. which the Hakuin scholar Takeuchi Naoji has described as possessing a strange expression for a works from his last years. Hakuin has in fact taken the iconography of the waterfall-viewing Kannon Takemi Kannon and adapted that to the Shennong.5 cm) Three seals of artist: Rinzai seishû.2 Interest in the god increased during the eighteenth century—at which time this image was made—partly through the renewed interest in Chinese culture. carvers.5 Chinese versions usually showing him in a group image with other legendary rulers. Late 1750’s H 12 ¾" × W 12 ½" (incl. suki to nasu / Karada wa hito. Shinnô). 154.3 is the ox head and the rope leash worn around its neck. with placement of a seated Shennong by a waterfall. While the ox head was long an aspect of the literary tradition of Shennong that emphasized a human body and an ox head. Sesson Shûkei (1504–1589). and clothes made of natural leaves. through the importation of Chinese visual materials. yaku o shiru / Ki o koroshite. Human body and head of ox: this is the way of the Shennong Kusa o uchi. ink on silk God of Agriculture Viewing Waterfall (Takimi Shinnô zô 瀧見神農像) Inscription: 撃草知薬 / 劉木為犁 / 人身牛首 / 斯道神農氏 Crushing herbs to understand medicines.

.

except to point to other examples where Hakuin has excluded. 40 . certified and inscribed in 1960 by Tsûzan Sôkaku (1891–1974). merged. We know that it was a common yearly ritual for medical doctors and pharmacists to display an image of Shennong at the winter solstice and to make offerings to the god. according to other documented cases. It would make perfect sense for Hakuin to have made this finely painted work on relatively costly silk for such a person in return for a generous contribution to Hakuin’s Shôinji Temple.6 The composition may also relate to the unusual small. and the unusual calligraphic style. Hakuin. Published: Takeuchi Naoji.7 The combination of unusual factors of this painting. the unusual square format. the seventeenth abbot of Hakuin’s temple. point to a special occasion and purpose. The painting is housed in a fitted kiri wood box. and otherwise adapted iconographical features of his subjects. which is how Hakuin usually presented Shennong in his paintings. its appearance on silk. 1964). the high state of finish and details. In such variations we clearly see the hand of an experimenting artist. in Hara. 80. in which the god could hardly be seen standing up. unafraid of trying new ideas in his paintings. square format of the painting. It is hard to give a specific reason for this change in iconography. Here we may look at the topic of this painting. And we also know that Edo-period doctors were often wealthy collectors of art works. Perhaps it was made for a special customer? Hakuin often did so.this work represents the unique example of a waterfall composition centered about a person who is not the Kannon. (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobô. the Shôinji Temple. including the above-mentioned features.

.

Gentai started an atelier of his own and succeeded in establishing a smaller school by training sons and relatives. and as a result. such as the setting and the idea of the freedom-loving horses are kept. The inspiration if not prototype of this particular painting was likely a work of this school: we see the characteristics through the strong color contrasts of the horses. The artist of this painting. the lush. After his apprenticeship with Bunchô. 138 cm × 85 cm) Inscribed: Hen’ei Seals: Hen and Ei Hanging scroll. 42 . The season is clearly spring and the soft. Each of the horses seems to be of a different color and type and each is shown in a different activity: whether drinking water. however.3 cm. as well as the light blues and grays of the lake and far-away shores. interacting with each other in an equine paradise. who in turn trained their offspring. perhaps by balancing the public’s interest in China and other foreign countries with domestic needs. was one of the many talented students of the Edo-based painter Tani Bunchô (1763–1840). looking away. in which eight horses of different colors and types belonging to a legendary emperor are shown in a marshy meadow. Gentai’s connection to Bunchô may be seen here in his interest in naturalistic detail and harmonic color patterns. such as paintings of animals for the various zodiac years. marshy placement of the work. as well as in his interest in contemporary Chinese paintings.4 cm × 69. get lost in the translation to this particular Japanese painting. Shen traveled to Japan and. or simply lying down. and the strong ink brushwork of the tree trunks. without the interference of human beings. Typically they are shown in expressive freedom.9 Watanabe Gentai (1748 – 1822) Edo period (1615–1868) H 19 ½" × W 27 ¼" (incl. which is popularly referred to as the Nagasaki school of painting. form the stage for the bright and assertive colors of the five horses. during his This painting seems also to be a loose adaptation of the popular Chinese Eight Horses of Mu Wang theme. he left behind a growing group of followers. particularly the type made popular by the Qing dynasty painter Shen Nanping and his followers. colors and ink on silk The artist has depicted five finely-detailed horses in a marshy meadow by a lake. short time in the country. for a discriminating merchant who needed a painting for the year of the horse. He seems to have been successful in gaining customers during a time of intense competition between artists. the connection to the story of the Chinese emperor becomes loosened. Gentai may have chosen a smaller number of horses in order to better show the individual details of the horses. grazing. light greens of the willow branches and meadow. Three Chinese horses. After his departure. the balanced composition of the work. scratching its head. Watanabe Gentai (1748– 1822). but other elements. This painting was very possibly created for such a purpose. created great interest in his painting style which was new for the Japanese. mounting 54 ¼" × 33 ½") (49.

.

.

bamboo baskets .

he started out making intricate baskets in the karamono-style but went on to develop many new ideas and techniques. 46 . The sixth son of the basket maker Hôsai I. 1989. crossing each other below and thereby forming a dynamic pattern on the bottom. The red oval seal is consistent Rôkansai is widely acknowledged as the greatest Japanese basket maker of the 20th century. In keeping with the simple form. which is inscribed on the top of the beveled lid »Hanakago« or »Flower Basket. The two wide flattened bamboo sections are the most striking feature of this basket. e. including the Tokyo National Museum of Modern Art and Idemitsu Museum of Art. a cubic brazier (ca. 1927) and item 32.« It comes with the original fitted sugi wood box. see Iizuka Rôkansai: Master of Modern Bamboo Crafts. The cubic form is simple yet bold and dramatic. His works are in the collections of many institutions.« and sealed Rôkansai.« which refers to the wide bamboo strips on the four sides. It is signed on the side with an incised signature reading »Rôkansai saku« or »made by Rôkansai.. signed »Rôkansai saku« or »made by Rôkansai.« On the inside of the lid it is titled »Shikô« or »Four Bright Things.5 cm) Signed: Rôkansai saku The striking bamboo ikebana basket illustrated here is a masterpiece by Rôkansai. the handles are composed of two short cylindrical sections. a flower basket using a similar architecture of dark vertical supports against a light body (ca. the box signature most closely matches those illustrated for 1936–41. 1932). which continue from the inside to the outside and from one side to the other. with those illustrated for 1936–1949 in Iizuka Rôkansai: Master of Modern Bamboo Crafts (Tochigi Prefectural Museum of Fine Arts. He pioneered modern bamboo crafts and exerted great influence on numerous post-war bamboo artists. circa 1936–1941 H 9 ¾" × L 10 ¼" × W 10" (25 cm × 26 cm × 25.10 Iizuka Rôkansai (1890–1958) Shôwa period (1926–1989). For similar bamboo works by Rôkansai. pages 118–119). The body is woven with light-colored split bamboo in the triangular asa-noha pattern and is dramatically offset by dark brown vertical supports. item 18.g.

.

For biographical details on Rôkansai. together reading Rôkansai. It comes with a fitted kiri wood box. According to Iizuka Rôkansai: Master of Modern Bamboo Crafts (Tochigi Prefectural Museum of Fine Arts. using more valuable kiri wood. pages 118–119). The signature is consistent with those illustrated in this catalog of the large Rôkansai exhibition in 1989 at the Tochigi Prefectural Museum of Fine Arts. Accordingly. The original box had been lost and he signed this replacement box later for the owner of the basket. 48 . but the basket itself is an earlier work by him. see Iizuka Rôkansai. For a similar bamboo basket using the same weave in a round form. a flower basket from circa 1924. 1910’s H 11 ½". this set of three red seals was used by Rôkansai from the early 1920’s to circa 1934. where 110 of his works were exhibited. made probably in the late 1910‘s.« and stamped three red seals. Rôkansai must have inscribed and signed this box between 1920 and 1934. item 5. which is inscribed on the top of the beveled lid »Hanakago« or »Flower Basket. 1989. The basket is signed on the bottom with an incised signature reading Rôkansai.« On the inside of the lid.11 Iizuka Rôkansai (1890–1958) Taishô period (1912–1926). see previous catalog entry. 30 cm) Signed: Rôkansai This round ikebana basket by the bamboo artist Rôkansai is woven with darkly colored split bamboo in the square yottsu-me pattern. here arranged diagonally. the inside bottom is in the hexagonal kumo-no-suajiro (spider web) pattern. D 11 ¾" (29 cm. he signed »Rôkansai kyû-saku« or »made long ago by Rôkansai.

.

Chikubôsai II (1917– 2003). 50 . it could. It is a delight to examine the basket details up close. The basket is signed on the bottom with an incised signature reading »Chikubôsai kore tsukuru« or »this made by Chikubôsai. however. a very similar basket is illustrated and entitled »Moon-shaped flower basket« in Japanese Bamboo Baskets: Masterworks of Form & Texture from the Collection of Lloyd Cotsen (Los Angeles.12 Maeda Chikubôsai I (1872–1950) Shôwa period (1926–1989). which is inscribed on the top of the lid »Taiko-shiki Hanakago« or »Drum-shaped Flower Basket. Indeed. Apart from the dramatic design. continued the tradition and was named a Living National Treasure for the bamboo crafts in 1995. this outstanding bamboo ikebana basket is made in the shape of a drum. item number 91. circa 1930 H 16" × L 15 ¾" × W 6 ½" (41 cm × 40 cm × 16. Cotsen Occasional Press. His son. the exceptionally fine details using numerous weaving techniques sets this basket apart.« On the inside of the lid it is signed »Senyô Kuzezato Chikubôsai-zô« or »made by Chikubôsai of the Senyô Studio in Kuzezato« and bears a red seal reading Chikubôsai. Chikubôsai was one of the greatest basket makers of the Kansai region.8 cm) Signed: Chikubôsai kore tsukuru According to Chikubôsai’s box inscription. equally well be in the shape of the full moon. 1999).« It comes with a copper liner for ikebana use and with the original fitted sugi wood box.

.

« On the inside of the lid it is signed »Chikuami zô« or »made by Chikuami« and bears a round red seal reading Chikuami. D 7 ½" (61 cm.« It comes with the original fitted wood box.13 Morita Chikuami Active circa 1900–1935 Taishô period (1912–1926). which is inscribed on the top of the lid »Hanakago« or »Flower Basket. Chikuami was the artist name of Morita Shintarô. 19 cm) Signed: Chikuami kore tsukuru This elegant basket in the karamono-style has a tall handle and a hexagonal body that becomes round at the opening. The basket is signed on the bottom with an incised signature reading »Chikuami kore tsukuru« or »this made by Chikuami. 52 . It is woven using a combination of very narrow split bamboo strips and wide lacquered bamboo pieces. circa 1920 H 24". who lived in Kyoto and was active from the late Meiji to early Shôwa periods.

.

circa 1950 H 23 ¾". In spite of its size. The basket is signed on the bottom with an incised signature reading »Chikuunsai kore tsukuru« or »this made by Chikuunsai. this basket was made by his son Chikuunsai II. in 1991.14 Tanabe Chikuunsai II (1910–2000) Shôwa period (1926–1989). Chikuunsai I lived from 1877 to 1937. The attractive shape is enhanced by the superb details throughout the basket using numerous weaving techniques. it is surprisingly light in weight. one of the most important bamboo-basket makers of Osaka. Chikuunsai III (b. 1940).5 cm. which is inscribed on the top of the lid »Hyô-gata Taka-te Hanakago« or »Gourdshaped Flower Basket with Tall Handle. he in turn passed on the artist name to his oldest son.« On the inside of the lid it is signed »Sakaifu Nansô Chikuunsai zô« or »made by Chikuunsai of the Nansô Studio in Sakai-fu« and bears two red seals reading »Tanabe no in« (»seal of Tanabe«) and Chikuunsai. 54 .« It comes with the original fitted kiri wood box. D 8 ¼" (60. 21 cm) Signed: Chikuunsai kore tsukuru This tall bamboo ikebana basket in double-gourd shape is woven with very narrow strips of split bamboo. The artist name Chikuunsai belongs to the Tanabe family.

.

which is entitled on the top of the lid »En« and inscribed »Kikkô-sukashi-ami Hanakago« or »Hexagonal Open-Mesh Weave Flower Basket. 56 . see previous catalog entry. dated 1969 H 9". it bears the inscription »Dai Hachi-kai Nihon Gendai Kôgei Bijutsu Tenrankai Shuppin« or »Exhibited at the 8th Japanese Contemporary Art Exhibition« and is signed »Tekisuikyo Chikuunsai zô« or made by »Chikuunsai of the Tekisuikyo Studio« and stamped with two red seals reading »Tanabe no in« (»seal of Tanabe«) and Chikuunsai. D 14 ½" (22. 37 cm) Signed: Chikuunsai zô The illustrated large bamboo ikebana basket is woven in the hexagonal muttsu-me pattern using very narrow split bamboo strips.15 Chikuunsai II (1910–2000) Shôwa period (1926–1989).6 cm.« it was exhibited at the 8th Japanese Contemporary Art Exhibition in 1969. The artist signed the basket on the bottom with an incised signature reading »Chikuunsai zô« or »made by Chikuunsai.« On the inside of the lid. For biographical details on Chikuunsai.« It comes with the original fitted kiri wood box. Entitled »En« or »circle.

.

.

ceramics .

it describes the »three-character ink inscription« on the wooden box to have been written by a Hokô 甫公. which represent evidence of appreciation and constant use of the object within the tea world. who is Kobori Sôchû Masayasu 小堀宗中政優 (1786–1867). these could have been bubbles in the glaze that hindered the direct contact of the glaze to the clay surface. who. The bowl seems to have been praised for the colors and for the poetic connotations that they would awaken. creating rows of lines on the lower half of the bowl and culminating in a slightly asymmetric. The wabi aesthetics of incompletion are especially effective when areas of unbalance and spontaneity are contrasted with such areas of planned symmetry. Named Usumomiji »Pale Fall Colors« Edo period (1615–1868). the tea term that denote the sense of incompleteness and imperfection. Another layer in this trail of tea appreciation and tea bowl ownership is provided by the unidentified writer of this inscription. The areas of imperfection are here balanced by areas of total control and symmetry. for example. by tradition. uneven rim. adding to the sense of spontaneity that was highly prized by the tea connoisseurs. Kobori Enshu 小堀遠州 (1579–1647). The word itself appears quite often in Japanese poetry and many poems use the word as a marker of the season and for creating specific settings with their deeper implications. which varies in color from creamy white to light red as one looks across the mottled surface of the bowl. these imperfections have become emphasized through the tea stains on the glaze on the inside of the bowl. a sign of the speed with which the application was undertaken. formed while turning on the potter’s wheel. or »snake-eye« foot. Some glaze was even splashed on to the foot itself. 60 . The inscription to the lower left describes the nature of the various layers of appreciation and inscriptions that have grown around this particular tea bowl. does not write his own name.5 cm × 14 cm) With fitted silk brocade pouch and inscribed kiri wood box. or »pale autumn colors. which we know to be one of the artist names used by the noted tea master. as listed on the outermost paper wrapper. 18th century H 3 ¼" × L 5 ½" (8. With time. especially in the fall tea season. The bowl has been immersed in a vat of glaze into which it was dipped two or three times. the eighth generation head of the Enshû school.5 We can only assume that he was the owner of the tea bowl after Sôchû parted with it. The bowl was turned on the potter’s wheel as seen in its overall symmetric form: the body curves out gracefully from a small well-formed foot.4 The inscription goes on to say that a paper attachment (kakitsuke) has a »four character inscription« by a Sôchû.1 can be seen in the small circles of unglazed areas on the side of the bowl. Other spontaneous expressions of wabi. as can be seen in the uneven application of glaze close to the foot. it was important to choose a name that would awaken poetic connotations. This striking Hagi tea bowl (chawan) carries with it a long history of the tea ceremony and a complex layering of meaning.3 the finely carved foot with the janome kôdai. completed with a finely formed Kugibori »carved nail« pattern in the center. The bowl has received its name from a tea master and it has been handed down in Japanese tea master collections for centuries and comes with its set of pedigree.2 In giving names to bowls. This bowl has a fascinating pedigree. First of all.« likely refers to the unusual patterning of the glaze. Usumomiji. either to specific poems or to broader poetic sentiments. The stains have with time highlighted the glaze imperfections by forming circular stains around them. The name of the bowl. originally founded by Enshû. The piece was made by a potter who was highly aware of tea aesthetics and of the need to produce imperfect elements within a controlled framework.16 Hagi Tea Bowl.

.

the layering of provenance provides layers of meaning surrounding the bowl within its box: here. This bowl is a case in point: the bowl itself has taken on layers after frequent use over two centuries and the staining by tea has now changed the original appearance of the bowl and glaze. who gave the bowl a box in the style of Enshû. The Sôchû inscription could be genuine and the anonymous owner after Sôchû may have interpreted the calligraphy as being that of Enshû. Also. One is a list of objects in the collection of Enshû. the age of the ceramic bowl itself. Sôchû was known for his reinvigoration of the Enshû line. which is a long list of items owned by Enshû and his son. moreover. other elements need to be taken into consideration before conclusions can be made. The tea ceremony is celebrated for its ability to give layers of meaning to objects and rituals. as written by Kobori Sôjitsu. Also.It is possible to match other evidence to these assertions. the link of previous owners includes a misinterpretation of one and the lack of identity of another. One possible conclusion is that the bowl was given a name and a box by someone before Sôchû. he was known for his immense collection of tea utensils and also for his unusual running script calligraphic style.6 While we do see both the Enshû-like three-character inscription on the box and a Sôchû-like four-character inscription on a (now tattered) piece of paper that belongs to the top of it. which had fallen into disrepair. the inscription on the box is done in his well-known calligraphic style. The complexity of meaning in the tea ceremony itself is here aptly echoed in this fine Hagi bowl that continues to echo the pale colors of early autumn. Likewise. Enshû was known for his ability to provide poetic names and many examples of bowls that were named by him exist. Our bowl is not listed on this document. 62 . Sometimes the layers harmonize with each other and at other times there are contradictions. is more likely to be eighteenth century than seventeenth century. the third generation head. the Enshû kurachô 遠州蔵帳.

.

17 Takatori chawan Edo period (1615–1868).2 cm. and stones. incompletion. and astringency. ashes. some areas on the outside did not get covered with glaze.2 This kiln. they are seen as the embodiment of tea ceremony aesthetics of rusticity.5 64 . forming the origin of the Takatori kiln. The Takatori potters combined Korean technology with Japanese tea aesthetics. these glazes were thick and of various colors and consistencies. which was highly refined to a density and strength approaching that of porcelain. In the tea world. the Takatori line of potters was in charge of a number of kilns in the domain throughout the Edo period. At the time of the production of this tea bowl.1 In the process of the next generations. such places of imperfection are considered to imbue a tea object with its own personality. the third-generation Takatori Hachizô was in charge of the Higashi Sarayama Kiln. producing mutations in colors where glazes mix and a drop design along its bottom edge. On this bowl. where tea utensils were made.4 The glazes applied on the bowl are also typical to the Takatori tea wares. The glaze application method is also typical for Takatori wares: broad bands are applied and allowed to run down the sides.5 cm) With inscribed kiri wood box This Takatori tea bowl (chawan) was created by the descendants of Korean laborers taken from Korea during the Japanese invasions in the 1590’s. The glazes were then applied to the objects and mixed in a rich tapestry of colors. The yellow-gold glaze forming the central glaze on this tea bowl is called the dôkeiyû and is one of the more famous of the Takatori glaze types. the first generation Hachizô even traveled to Kyoto with his son to receive instructions in tea ceramics from the famous tea master Kobori Enshû (1579–1647) and their tea ceramics bear the traces of the tastes of the Kyoto tea masters. and. rather than detractions.3 This tea bowl bears the marks of the type of clay used at Higashi Sarayama. D 5 ¼" (7. which was modeled on Korean climbing kilns. mainly produced by mixing different minerals. 18th century H 2 ¾". 13. The Korean potter Palsan (later given the Japanese name Takatori Hachizô) left Korea with his wife and family and set up a kiln in the domain of Kuroda Nagamasa. is the likely source of this bowl.

.

as stated above. First. Such a design could easily be imagined to have been ordered by a tea master or artist with a keen sense of play and visual design. for its visually appealing. In Japanese visual culture. framed by the outer zone with the design of vines and fruit. it is in fact highly sophisticated. and.3 cm × 15. The viewer is rewarded for looking closely and the puzzle is now solved. would have provided a pleasantly tactile surface to hold during the meal. for ease of use: the central area could easily hold a small amount of food without spilling. The stoneware vessel was then covered with a thick feldsparic glaze. the bowl would have created an interesting temporal program: when food was served. In addition.4 »carved nail« indentation in the center of this area: this indentation forms a single curving wave in the middle of the three birds.1 The design on the upper surface of the bowl is separated into two zones.2 and the lack of waves on this design is at first puzzling until one notices the fine under-glaze kugibori Similar Shino bowls and dishes were often made in sets of five and ten and used in the tea ceremony. round area is decorated with a simple motif of three flying plovers (chidori) on a blank ground. indicating that it was fired as a stack of smaller bowls and dishes. in which guests were served from small dishes filled with various refined dishes. such as the grape. The decoration here is formed of quickly-drawn. the three feet giving the vessel stability.18 Shino Serving Bowl Momoyama (1573–1615) to early Edo period (1615 . 66 . Three loop feet were then added to the bowl and it bears traces of spur marks on both the top and the bottom of the bowl.3 cm) Stoneware with underglaze iron. the central design of the plovers become gradually visible.1868). the uneven surface of the vessel. Finally. sophisticated design. curling out from two diagonally opposed corners. the food would have been in the center of the bowl. perhaps accented by the food’s liquid runoff settling in the wave-shaped indentation. The fine perforated design of round clusters are placed close to the vines and may well represent clusters of fruit. which fired milky-white over a simple iron decoration that had been applied with a brush. With kiri wood box inscribed Shino Perforated Small Bowl This small Shino bowl was made for the kaiseki section of the tea ceremony. during the kaiseki meal. It was initially thrown on the wheel and then sculpted by hand. Second. This vessel was created through a number of separate steps. stylized vines. when the food was entirely gone.5 This particular type of bowl would have been appreciated as a kaiseki vessel for a number of reasons. Two other sides are marked with series of parallel lines along the edges of the vessel.6 The second zone of decoration is on the rim. The inner. first half of 17th century H 2 ¼" × L 6" × W 6" (5. Upon eating the food.7 cm × 15. with its heavy glaze. The bowl carries yet another association as both the plover / wave design and that of the vines/grapes carry an autumnal association. the indented central wave would suddenly become visible. plovers are almost always paired with waves.3 While the design appears simple and spontaneous. This Shino bowl would have been an ideal vessel to serve that important guest at the autumn tea setting.

.

it made excellent economic sense for the government to also control the production of the Japanese imitations. on the edge of the shoulder and halfway between the second line and the mouth.7 His certificate. It is important to remember that the act of copying in East Asia is significantly different than that in the West. Katsura Matasaburô (1901–1986) has certified this particular piece to have come from the Seto kiln and to date to the mid-Muromachi period. he set up production here. The Seto kiln also seems to have been one of the most favored kilns at the time. The vase ends in a firm shoulder and a generous neck and mouth. it certainly seems true that Chinese and Korean ceramics played a large role in the early history of the kiln. Upon returning to Japan and the Seto area. however. 15th century H 9 ¾". An earlier type of Ko-Seto vases with similar forms were produced in the Kamakura period (1185–1392). near the present city of Seto. As the government also largely controlled the importation of luxury vessels from outside Japan. including the size of the vase.6 This particular vase was made in the imitation of Chinese Yingqing ware porcelain vases from the Jingdezhen area. »lotus blossom«) type that were imported to Japan at this time.7 cm) Stoneware with green wood-ash glaze With inscribed kiri wood box This early stoneware vase stems from a Seto ware kiln.4 Recently. the latter with a large midriff. These vases have in the past been discarded by some commentators as mere imitations. while on the wheel) on the mid-body. This earlier type. which has been formed on a potter’s wheel. and it is entirely possible that the Asihikaga shogunate government in the city of Kamakura was a close sponsor of the kiln in its earlier days. The vase has been decorated with three sets of lines (again. is placed on the underside of the kiri box lid. Tenmoku bowls from China were imitated as were Celadon vases from Korea and China. judging from the A foremost ceramic expert. 16. which also appears in this catalog. who traveled to China in 1223 and learned the Chinese way of producing ceramics. as many of the first products were imitations of foreign luxury objects. in present-day Aichi Prefecture.5 Seto ware excavated throughout the country.5 cm. The Seto kiln is traditionally seen as one of the Six Old Kilns. rather.8 This type of vase was used for storing liquids for both religious and non-religious occasions. taken to be the six medieval kilns active in Japan at the time. No matter whether a historical Katô Kagemasa existed or not. however.3 As the Japanese potters could not produce porcelains at the time. The pronounced midriff on the neck allowed ropes and stiff paper to be tied to the top for a close seal over the plug. a Katô Kagemasa. through a generous application of ash-glaze. and it is likely that the imitations were seen as acts of homage to the luxurious imports from exotic places.19 Ko-Seto Vase Muromachi period (1392–1573). There is no stamped decoration. persuasive arguments have been made for the aesthetic values of these remarkable objects. 68 . small rivulets of olive-green glaze (caused by the reductive kiln) run down the sides of the vase. and his signature and seals. Later research has shown that there were a much larger number of kilns active at this time. the next best solution was to produce stoneware with a thick wood-ash glaze to give the impression of a celadon porcelain vase. is elegantly shaped in the meibing shape with a gradual outward curvature as one goes up the object.1 This particular piece is in excellent condition with only a small chip on the mouth that has been repaired with gold lacquer. According to tradition. including Suzu ware. had various stamped patterns.2 The type of vase was the meibing (lit. whereas the type seen in this entry was without the stamped designs and is seen to stem from the Muromachi period (1392–1573). D 6 ½" (24. the Seto kiln was founded by one man. The vase.

.

The first pieces of Suzu ware that clearly differenciated from Sueki ware can be placed in the twelfth century during the late Heian period (794–1185) and the last pieces in the fifteenth century during the Muromachi period (1392–1573).6 A distinctive kiln mark can be seen on the shoulder of this work in the form of three arcs that form a circle. 29 cm) Stoneware with natural ash glaze The Suzu 珠洲 kilns were located on the northern tip of the Noto 能登 peninsula in present-day Ishikawa Prefecture. which. the kilns enjoyed sponsorship by religious institutions and aristocratic families. judging from the relatively large number of pieces produced at this time. displays traces of the clay coils from which the upper part of the body was formed on top of a sculpted base.5 cm. dark gray coloring. perhaps due to intense competition from the nearby Echizen and Tokoname kilns. such as Tamba or Shigaraki. reaching as far as southern Hokkaido. As usual with works of this type. resulting in a distinct appearance. on the coast of the Japan Sea. was initiated by Korean potters that had arrived in the twelfth century from the Korean peninsula. 13th century H 13 ¼". was a period of high activity for the Suzu kilns. but rather a thin glaze with traces of white spotting from ash that fell on the parts of the body that were exposed during the reductive firing.20 Suzu Jar with Paddled Design Kamakura period (1185–1392). a type of ceramics closely related to Korean prototypes that once spread across Japan.2 Whatever the origins of the kilns.4 Marks such as this. and this particular pot is notable for carrying this technique The Suzu kilns have gained considerable attention since the discovery of the kiln site in the 1950’s and Suzu objects are now eagerly collected by museums and collectors. in attempts to renew the lost traditions of the Suzu kilns. possibly made from the carved end of a bamboo stick. This outstanding jar dates from the thirteenth century. After this period.3 The pieces from this period often display a highly developed paddling technique (tataki 叩き) – where wooden paddles with incised lines are beaten on the still-soft clay. the kilns were abandoned. Specialists have speculated on the exact meaning of these marks. to a high point of technical sophistication. an egg standing on its thin end. The outwardopening short mouth of the jar is segmented into two parallel parts and successfully counter-balances the widening shape of the jar beneath it. The kilns are thought to be a development of the medieval Sueki ware culture. theories often center on possible religious functions of the vessels. partly through the large Wakayama manor on the same peninsular.5 It is certainly possible that this particular vessel with its sophisticated and carefullydone design may also have been created as a commission for a special religious ceremony. not very far from the Noto area. the resulting texture alternates seamlessly between areas of horizontal lines and diagonal lines. often likened to plowing marks or pinecones. are sometimes found on Suzu vessels of this period. Although the kilns were discontinued during the Muromachi period. the area has since fund new ceramic life as numerous potters have now set up businesses in the Noto peninsula. and egg-shaped vessels. 70 .1 Some scholars have posited that the production of the Suzu ware with its characteristic sandy clay. This jar does not display the heavy ash glaze of other contemporary kilns. the outline of the jar. Through these connections Suzu vessels spread widely: vessels have been excavated from numerous places along the western coast of Japan. D 11 ½" (33. On well-designed pots.

.

D 15 ¼" (47 cm. where pebbles were forced out of the hardening clay during the firing process. Other times. including firing spots. sometimes (in the case of feldspar and quartz) fusing and partly melting away. Shigaraki kilns. 15th century H 18 ½". 72 . for storing food and seeds for the next season. its asymmetry displays a complex sense of movement. The jar embodies a sense of austere beauty and a tour-de-force display of surface detail. In this last group of light spots. leaving a burst pattern in the clay. however. made larger than the mouth. and for Buddhist rites. stone inclusions. partly balanced by the firm base. however. partly due to its proximity to the capital city of Kyoto. and where it was placed right next to other ceramic vessels (the light oranges). a mountainous area in the modern-day Shiga Prefecture.2 We know now from excavations that dozens of other kilns were also active during this time. were one of the kiln sites to gain fame from an early date. Prior to the discovery of the kiln by the tea aficionados. the large amounts of ash from the burning pine wood settled on the vessel during firing and created a pattern of gray glazes. for burials and the storing of ritual objects. The surface of the jar.3 Their jars were used primarily for storage. and religious institutions. The neck and mouth was added at the end. it is possible to map out the location of the jar within the kiln: from the amount of glaze. The broken mouth The Shigaraki kiln was thought to be one of the Six Ancient Kilns that were thought active during medieval Japan. and partly due to the many tea masters. with its warm. from the sixteenth century onwards. where partly exposed to fire without being touched by it (the lighter browns). merchants. where objects shielded the jar from the ash-carrying wind that blew at high speeds through the kiln. it becomes clear that the jar was created in four rounds of clay-coil construction. many pieces of rocks and minerals became exposed during the construction and the firing. producing minor explosions during the firing. to the southeast of Kyoto. Reading the surface of the jar provides us with a close.1 of this vessel possibly also occurred through the spontaneous accidents of the firing process. on the strongly articulated shoulder. generously bulging jar echoes that of other jars from this period: from its silhouette. Here. Yet in other places are holes. for example. we can see which side of the jar faced the fire at the front of the kiln and we can tell from areas untouched by glaze. where the clay was allowed to partially dry between applications. blow-by-blow history of its firing process. glowing mosaic of earth tones and textures presents the viewer with an exciting spectacle of spontaneous events. too. including the Suzu kiln. who actively promoted the ceramics from this area. it is possible to locate sections where a ceramic object next to the jar actually touched it during firing and became fused together – the resulting chip occurred when the two vessels were separated after the firing.21 Shigaraki Jar Muromachi period (1392–1573). As the clay used in this unpretentious country kiln was largely unfiltered. Larger pebbles appear in the surface. In addition. and that the medieval ceramic world was quite complex and differentiated. The dramatic color patterns on the jar shows us where the jar was placed within the kiln: where it was partly exposed directly to the fire (the dark koge spots). the Shigaraki kilns made unpretentious objects for local farmers. cracks and melted minerals throughout the vessel. 39 cm) Stoneware with natural ash glaze This stoneware jar stems from the Shigaraki region. As the jar was not turned on a potter’s wheel. The construction of this bulbous.

.

.

lacquers .

Kôda Shûetsu 迎田秋悦 (1882–1933) was a major twentieth-century Kyoto lacquer artist. In 1927 he formed Kôgei Shunsôsha (Spring Grasses Society of the Arts) together with Ida Kôshû and in 1930. And in 1932 he was selected by the government to take part in a large governmentsponsored exhibition for export of the arts. The artist has hidden his signature inside the writing box. the ink stone. He actively took part in national and regional exhibitions and in forming artist organizations to further the work of fellow lacquer artists. and the softly rounded shapes of the abstract flower designs and the quails. which must be Shûetsu took part in numerous major exhibitions. The box interior is formed by a textile pattern in the togidashi technique on a nashiji ground. He was one of the artists to take part in the influential Kôshuen (Fragrant Lacquer Garden) under the direction of Asai Chû (1856–1907) in 1906. his father being the fifth-generation lacquer artist Yamamoto Rihei (1839–1908). he. and he became one of the leading lacquer artists of his generation. The artist. On the outside is the finely delineated design of seven quails. Shûetsu’s works are in many major institutions. the design playfully alludes to the fine brocade silk interiors of many writing boxes. inscribed by the artist. which was one of the more important exhibitions of the Taishô period (1912–1926). removed for the identity of the artist to be known. beneath the ink stone. two on the upper lid and five around the four sides.1 The forms of the box are placed in a dynamic balance between the angular forms of the water pourer. 76 . including the Tokyo National Museum. He was born into a family of lacquer artists. took part in the first Tokyo exhibition. was the author of an important book on lacquer design. starting with the exhibition in 1915 to mark the seventh anniversary of his father’s death. In 1920. are crafted in gold takamakie with a high degree of naturalism and are shown peacefully flocking in nature. This finely executed stacked writing box (suzuribako) is composed of a lower box for paper and an upper box for recessed ink stone and water dropper.7 cm × 22. a symbol of autumn.22 Stacked Writing Box with Quails Kôda Shûetsu (1882–1933) Taishô period (1912–1926). and the outer box. which dissolved following his untimely death three years later. Kôda Shûetsu. he took was the leading force behind the formation of the Kinki Shukôka Kyôkai (The Kinki-Area Lacquer Artist Association). together with Akazuka Jitoku (1871–1936). 1920’s H 7" × L 13" × W 9" (18 cm × 32.5 cm) Signed: Shûetsu saku (»Made by Shûetsu«) With fitted kiri wood box. The quails. forraging for food on the roiro mirror-black lacquer ground of the box exterior. and that expertise seems to have come to good use in deciding the particular textile pattern that would fit with the overall design of the box.

.

23 Box with Pines and Sakura Blossoms
Taishô period (1912–1926) H 5" × L 15" × W 13" (12.9 cm × 38.2 cm × 32.8 cm) With fitted black lacquer kiri wood box The anonymous designer of this spectacular lacquer box for paper documents (ryoshibako) designed the box with a finely detailed décor of pines and blossoming cherry trees across its outer surfaces. Moreover, he has divided the top cover into two opposing sections, the lower right being occupied by pine trees among flowering plants and the upper left showing a misty landscape with flowering cherry trees, pine trees, and smaller flowering plants. The plants are detailed with the most luxurious gold lacquer effects, including details in makie, takamakie and kirigane techniques on kinpun and nashiji ground. The cover opens to reveal generous profusions of autumnal grasses and flowers in takamakie and kirigane on nashiji and kinpun clouds. Myriad types of fall flowers are represented, including the hagi, kuzu, sekichiku, Suzuki, kikyô, and otokoeshi, all The seasons of the plants were calculated to represent a contrast of the inside and outside: as the winter and spring seasons are represented on the outside, so the autumn season will contrast on the inside. The beginning of the year is represented by the buoyant spring scene on the front, while the autumn intimates the coming end of the year. And rather than inviting the viewer to look at individual details, the artist has elected to go for massive effects: the rich sweeps of plants, both outside and inside the box, stand in order to impress the overwhelming richness of design and sheer profusion of gold details and techniques. traditionally seen as symbolic plants of the autumn. To finish the box design, the artist has had the lacquered edges of the top and bottom halves encased in heavy silver rims. No expense is spared in producing the most luxurious effects. The only place left devoid of design is the inside bottom, which was purposely left bare, as this is where the documents were meant to be stored.

78

24 Box with Plum Blossoms
Taishô period (1912–1926) H 5" × L 15 ½" × W 12 ¼" (12.3 cm × 39.7 cm × 31 cm) With inscribed fitted kiri wood box The moment of triumph for the plum is often deInscription on lacquer box: Uguisu no haru »Spring of the bush warbler« This large black lacquer box for paper documents (ryoshibako) displays a thick takamakie décor of a flowering plum branch surrounded by straw and inlaid mother-of-pearl characters in the lower right upper left corners. The flowering plum tree is a symbol of perseverance of the tree in winter’s cold, and of the dying winter and of the spring which is fast approaching. The dramatic moment of triumph against the cold is further emphasized by the stark, mirror-black roiro background surrounding the flowers and by the straw, which has been wrapped around the plum tree trunk in order to keep it from dying in the frost. The inside of the document box The box comes with the original kiri wood box, which, according to an attached label, belonged originally to the Taishô Emperor before it was given as a present, to mark the anniversary of his death in the spring of 1927, the second year of the new Shôwa reign. If this is indeed the case, then the design of the cover plays perfectly along with the occasion: the inscription, »the spring of the bush warbler,« refers to a new start, the regeneration of a something old and venerable, and, here, the plum could be seen as the ancient Japanese imperial line and the new spring, heralded by the uguisu, is the ascent to the throne of the new Shôwa emperor. picted in the form of the uguisu or bush warbler, perched on the branches of the flowering plum. In this case, the bird appears to be absent, but, in fact, the two symbols, the plum and uguisu, are united in the form of the mother-of-pearl character for the word uguisu, which is located next to the lower right of the branch. Here, then, a word takes the part of an image, and the symbolic pair is united in two different media. has a relatively simple design of bamboo leaves by a flowing stream, which could also be interpreted as a winter design.

80

.

7 incidence of fire and the likelihood of masterpieces going entirely lost if not replicated. when he was asked by the Shogunate to make a faithful copy of »a box with a plum branch design. a raging sea with wild waves in hiramakie technique is pounding over a shoreline carefully formed by fitted lead plates using the ikakeji and kakewari techniques.25 Kôetsu Lacquer Box with Poem Ishikawa Rôseki 石川蝋石. The history of this box is also complex. in the process. he sees the act of recreating a famous work as an act of homage to the master who originally made the work. the copy that Kôrin made was clearly not an exact copy as we see distinct elements of Kôrin’s pictorial style in the depiction of the waves. 82 . 1996 H 3 ¼" × L 8 ¾" × W 8 ¾" (8. where both copies changed elements of the original. also made transformations. and there are many records of such events. is known for his creative recreations of major lacquer works from the Momoyama and early Edo periods. Furthermore.« Inscription on side of fitted box: Heian Shishô Rôseki zô 「平安・漆匠蝋石造」 »Made by Kyoto Lacquer Master Rôseki« Inscription on lacquer box: Does my bellowed / avoid the eyes of others / Even on dream paths / visited by night as [waves] / Visit Suminoe [shore]? 1 Copying lacquer works of prior masters was a timehonored tradition in Japan. and the last two lines run around the sides of the box. all in one. and images.5 According to the artist. There are two omissions. and the act of creating. right to left. (the fourth president of the Mitsubishi and one of the founders of the Seikadô Foundation) were known for commissioning copies of key works in their collections from artists and artisans.4 Yet Rôseki did not see the original box by Kôetsu but rather a copy that Ogata Kôrin (1658–1716) had made of the original. hence the title of this lacquer box. a writing box with utensils to a display box. starting on the top and going down. The poem winds its way around the box. poetry. however. partly caused by the high Suminoe no / [kishi] ni yoru [nami] / yoru sae ya / yume no kayoiji / hitome yoguramu This display box has a complex decoration and history. Rôseki. new visions in art. as the words for kishi »rocky shore« and nami »waves« are not included in words. for one thing. This copy is now in the Seikadô Foundation and comes with an inscription by Kôrin saying that he saw the original box in Kôetsu’s home in Takagamine.2 Moreover. 3rd generation (1950–) Heisei period (1989–present). when making his copy of the Kôrin copy. the images taking the place of the words. the present work is important for illustrating the process of transferring (and altering) designs of older masterpieces. industrialists such as Iwasaki Koyota. now lost. a lacquer artist active in Kyoto today. Documented examples of such events include the famous set of notes written by Kôami Nagasuki (1661–1723). So we have a copy of a copy of an original. The third generation Ishikawa Rôseki (1950– ). but are instead placed next to places with actual depictions of the objects. As for the decoration. was the original of this design. words. The third line is placed in the lower left corner. Thus the artist creates a witty and sophisticated design where the cover speaks through lacquer.2 cm × 22 cm × 22 cm) With fitted wood box inscribed on top: Kazaribako: Kôetsu utsushi suminoe makie 「飾箱・光悦写住ノ江蒔絵」 »Ornamental Box: Copy of Kôrin’s Lacquer Suminoe. A lacquer box by Kôetsu (1558–1637). The characters of the poem are in silver takamakie.6 Beside the obvious aesthetic appeal and high level of technical craftsmanship of his version of Kôetsu and Kôrin.3 Likewise.« originally made by Kôami Michikiyo (1432–1500). changing.

.

 11 Nr. 13 Nr. 8 Nr. 10 Nr. 22 84 . 12 Nr. 5 right Nr. 7 Nr. 15 Nr.signatures and seals Reproduced actual size Nr. 9 Nr. 5 left Nr. 14 Nr.

 12 Nr. 24 Nr.box inscriptions Reproduced half size Nr. 25 Nr. 10 Nr. 16 Nr. 19 85 . 15 Nr. 11 Nr. 14 Nr. 13 Nr. 8 Nr.

nr. (Tokyo: Shûeisha. (Tokyo: Gakushû Kenkyûsha. Koga bikô 『古画備考』has Hasegawa Mitsunobu 長谷川光信. 1976). of which there were many. Ii-ke denrai no meihô: kinsei daimyô no bi to kokoro. (Tokyo: Shûeisha. 1969). Nihon no bi: Rimpa ten zuroku. Tsuneo. 8–12 and 23. Hikonejô Hakubutsukan. ed. nr. and also a handscroll illustrated in Kokka 876. Other examples are fan screens where all fans had depictions of or allusions to famous sites. cat. cat. Ogata Kôrin. Takeda. 96–7. 14. (Tokyo: Shûeisha. 211 and Yoshiya and Yamamoto. However. 1996). cat nr. 1996). 39. 86 . 46. Eishun had a very long career. nr. anchored by an early handscroll dated 1704 (illustrated in Kokka 876) and works dated up to 1763. See also Minamoto and Hashimoto. not only in Edo and the eastern regions. ed. with 54 fans pasted on a screen with a depiction of flowing water. nr. cat nrs. This influential (Tokyo: Kodansha. Delightful Pursuits: Highlights from the Lee Institute for Japanese Art at the Clark Center. 1976).notes Nr. 1976). establishments that were gaining popularity at this time. (Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbun. ill. Tawaraya Sôtatsu. 3 Fan Screen with Scenes from the Tales of Ise 1 Minamoto Toyomune and Hashimoto Ayako. 5 Four Elegant Pastimes Nr. 2002). 3 See Shimada. cat. Nihon bijutsu kaiga zenshû. Nihon bijutsu kaiga zenshû. vol. 1 Flowers of the Four Seasons 1 See Kôno Motoaki. Nihon bijutsu kaiga zenshû. (Tokyo: Kôdansha. 97. See also Shimada Shûjirô. Nr. 6 Flower Viewing in the Pleasure Quarters 3 See reference in Gôke. 48. 6 vols. 51 and 95 / 6. Zaigai hihô.« see. Nr. Ukiyoe nikuhitsu taikan. 82–5. eds. This type of early fire-extinguisher was common to the Yoshiwara district. or he may be describing a generic pleasure quarter. 1977–81). Nihon byôbue shûsei. (Hikone: Hikone-shi Kyôiku Iinkai. 32. 14. in his Kanmon gyoki mentions such a screen. 7. since the artist may also be describing an expansive restaurant with garden. eds. 1 The full title of the sutra is『大乗理趣六波羅蜜多経』 and the above phrase appears as the eight rule in a set of ten admonitions for Buddhist followers: 「八者常為心師不師於心」T. 1996). 4 Cranes of Summer and Autumn 1「土佐将監光起筆」(Tosa shôgen Mitsuoki hitsu) this artist. Manno Bijutsukan. 1 See Asano Shûgô’s article in Kobayashi Tadashi. ill. (Tokyo: NHK Promotion. 1. 17. 17. Another well used artist name was Shôsuiken 松翠軒. Nihon no bi: Rimpa ten zuroku. vol. 1. 16. 34. ed. (Tokyo: NHK Promotion. 17. eds. et al. vol. vol. cat. for a discussion of Nr. Tawaraya Sôtatsu. from where the artist originally came. 8.898b. the identity should not be identified too firmly as the Yoshiwara. vol. Minamoto Toyomune and Hashimoto Ayako. 2 A diary entry from 1434 by Fushimi no Miya Sadafusa. VII. and Yamane Yûzô and Kobayashi Tadashi. Nr. eds. 2 See also Ishida Yoshiya and Yamamoto Yukari. but also in western Japan. 7 Hakuin Ekaku: Daruma 1 For images of the »Hikone Screen. 2. for an example by Sôtatsu. 2 Also called Takeda Harunobu 竹田春信 and 3 Yamane Yûzô and Kobayashi Tadashi. eds. 1993).

80–81. for example. 4 For example. vol. 3): »Hada samushi takekiri yama no usumomiji« (my skin grows cold / the pale autumn colors / of the bamboo cutters’ mountains. and 185. Kumakura Isao and Paul Varley. cat nr. 8 Hakuin Ekaku: God of Agriculture 1 Shennong was described the fist time in a 4th century BCE text. 31–33. 1981). Zen: Painting & Calligraphy. 332–334. 1970). 2 See images. publication. (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobô. and 337. for example. Takeuchi. 1970). Kôshirô. See also current Hakutaku research by Donald Harper. 1980). Japan. (Tokyo: Kôdansha. 1994. Wakan sansai zue. as having a head of an ox. 2 For a study on the legendary nature and historicity of Bodhidharma. Nr. (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobô. 7 Takeuchi.« In this case. 8 See Takeuchi. 16 Hagi Tea Bowl. 11–15. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. 36. eds. 3 Takeuchi Naoji. 2 For example. in Nihon Ishi Gakkai. (Kyoto: Bokubisha. 78 and 79 and a third exists in the Shin-wa’an Collection. the early 18th century encyclopedic 3 The ink was allowed to pool and naturally formed concentric circles around small pieces of unground ink. 1988). Zenga no sekai. vol. 81. 6 See. 99. addendum.« The sense of paleness also implies a sense of distance. hence »pale. 7 Besides this image. Fontain and Hickman. Addendum.phrase reoccurs in numerous other Japanese Buddhist writings. Bodhidharma Exhibition. Takeuchi Naoji. (Tokyo: Isetan. Bokubi Tokushû: Hakuin Bokuseki. (Tokyo: Tokyo Bijutsu. 202. for example. to the far- 87 . and 44. (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. (Kyoto: Tankôsha. and Zen Bunka Kenkyûjo. 9. see Haga. Named Usumomiji »Pale Fall Colors« 1 For a discussion of wabi aesthetics. 102–3. 1978). 6 The creative changes within Hakuin’s Hamaguri Kannon paintings is the subject of an upcoming article by the author. where he is first described as having detailed knowledge of medicine and the hundred medicinal herbs. 159. 1. 5 For Hakuin’s visions of the Hakutaku. 195–230. The pooling effect can also be seen within the characters of the inscription. Terashima Ryôan. a poem by Nozawa Bonchô (1640?– 1714) in Bashô’s anthology Saruminoshû (1691. 334 for a Menpeki Daruma in the gu character that had been in Gudô’s private collection. ed. cat. Takeuchi. 1964). 46. 150. Hakuin. for example. 5. Hakuin. 103. 9 and also ibid. Daruma. see Yanagida Seizan. see 4 See. Jan Fontain and Money Hickman. 26. when the fall colors are not yet fully developed. and Morita Shiryû. »The Wabi Aesthetic throughout the Ages« in Tea in Japan: Essays on the History of Chanoyu. in Nichiren’s »Reply to the Lay Monk Soya« 『曽谷入道殿御返事』. vol. Addendum. describe him in a text. 1981). nr. at least three Hakuin depictions of Shennong are known to be extant: two are depicted in Takeuchi. 18. 5 See. the words refer to the season: as bamboo are typically cut down in the eighth month. Zuroku Nihon iji shiryô shûsei (Tokyo: Mitsui Shobô. 『滕文公章句』.He was further elaborated by the Tang historian Sima Qian 司馬貞 (145–90 BCE) in his 『史記補・三皇本紀』. 1964). Nr. Katô Shôshun and Fukushima Shun’ô.

. see Andrew Maske. and Andrew Maske. edited by Matsuya Hisashige. However. 1974). »The Continental Origins of Takatori Ware: The Introduction of Korean Potters and Technology to Japan through the Invasions of 1592–1598. somewhat similar to the grape. 94–5. he must have left voluntarily. Agano. a native Japanese vinous plant with small fruits. the secret records of Enshû.« Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 4th ser. »Uta-mei: The Poetic Names of Tea Utensils. Nabeshima took with them 125. 1 Shino ware is thought to have been the first ceramic type in Japan to have decoration applied by brush.away bamboos and the workers who cut them. See also his upcoming book: Takatori Ware: Potters and Patrons in Edo Japan. 1994. eds. this does not necessarily follow.« 5 For a discussion of tea aesthetics. 1965). The Manyôshû. see Oda Eiichi. 80. Nr. which made utilitarian objects. 2 In contrast to the Nishi Sarayama. (New York and London: Columbia University Press. see Yagi Ichio. »A Brief History of Takatori Ware. 4 Japanese scholars have claimed that the Shino designs derive entirely from native sources. 9 (1994). Chadô no hako to hakogakii (Kyoto: Tankôsha. »A Brief History. for 3 The grape was a non-native plant. 85–95 and 136–140. 17 Takatori Tea Bowl 1 Many Japanese warlords took Korean potters and other laborers with them back to Japan. there amongst potters. 1975). For example. »The Wabi Aesthetic throughout the Ages« in Tea in Japan: Essays on the History of Chanoyu. see Takeshi Nagatake. Isao and Paul Varley. preserved at the Secret Transmissions of Hokô 甫公伝書. Kôshirô. one of the »four tea transmissions« Chadô shiso densho 茶道四祖伝書. Kumakura. / On the lake of Ômi. 116–7. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. For details. and Kumakura Isao (Kyoto: Shibunkaku. (Tokyo: Heibonsha. See. since Palsan left Korea with his family and received a generous stipend.« Chanoyu Quarterly 43 (1985). 88 . Takatori.« Chanoyu Quarterly 83 (1996). 18 Shino Serving Bowl 6 For examples of the two. For details on the Korean Takatori potters. 138. 3 Nagatake. my heart grows heavy. flying over the evening waves. 2 Influence of Kakinomoto Hitomaro and his poem in the Manyôshû: »O plovers. MA: Harvard University Council on East Asian Studies Publications. Another possibility is the yamabudô. / When you cry. the daimyô of Hirado. for example. 195–230 Nr. 36–48. Satsuma. Andrew Maske posits that. and »The Kizaemon Teabowl Reconsidered: The Making of a Masterpiece. 7–30. 4 Maske. 2003). see Haga. 5 For the various traditions associated with the inscriptions on boxes and documents. 3 For a useful discussion of this phenomenon. Matsuyama Yonetarô. Published in the Chadô koten sôsho 茶道古典叢書 series. 4 See. / With memories of by-gone days. 43–61. 50. 2006). see two articles by Louise Allison Cort.« Chanoyu Quarterly 71 (1992). »Looking at White Dew. 16–40.« Originally published on Morgan Pitelka’s Japanese Ceramics website. and »a large number« of Korean laborers. but was wellknown through its appearance in Chinese paintings and through references in classical Chinese literature.« 「淡海の海夕波千鳥汝が鳴けば心もしのにいにしへ思 ほゆ」Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkôkai. (Cambridge.

(Tokyo: Yûzankaku. 2 A number of other similarly-shaped vases were made from other models. 1982). especially as they were also used in the kaiseki section of the tea ceremony. giving them a curiously mottled and wrinkled appearance. 166–9. vol. Points of differentiation were the size and form of the mouth and the slope of the shoulder. 6 Numerous examples of both types can be found in museum collections. Lorna Price. and this bowl is such an example. 4 Soame Jenyns writes: »…Seto kilns’ attempts to copy these [Chinese] celadon wares were a failure. but sophisticated designs.  6. 1989). and Yoshiko Kakudo. 1982). »Utsushi: The Aesthetics of Imitation. ed. Nihon tôji taikan. Japanese Art from the Getty Collection in The Metropolitan Museum. 200. 1989). coagulated and ran down the surface of the vessels in rivulets. Ko-Seto. 62–4. Nihon tôji taikan. 136–7. (Sydney: International Cultural Corporation of Australia. (Seattle: Seattle Art Museum. et al. 5 See. The Toshiba Gallery: Japanese Art and Design. for the aesthetics of imitation Koga Kenzô. Hakone Bijutsukan: kanshô tebiki. and Lorna Price. see: Barbara Brennan Ford and Oliver Impey. Nr.« Chanoyu Quarterly 67 (1991). vol. such as vases from China and Korea. Japan: Masterpieces from the Idemitsu Collection. 1992). A Thousand Cranes: Treasures of Japanese Art. (London: Faber and Faber. 130–1. (Tokyo: Heibonsha. ills. (San Francisco: Asian Art Museum and Chronicle Books.« Chanoyu Quarterly 78 (1994). Ko-Seto. For the Kamakura types. 5 Similar bowls and dishes can be seen in many museums. Japanese Art from the Getty Collection in The Metropolitan Museum. 1989). for example. 14–27 1987). 204–5. 1989). The Art of Japanese Ceramics. 1972). 53. See color examples of both types in: Joe Earle. ed. (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (Seattle: Seattle Art Museum. 1987). 19 Ko-Seto Vase 1 In an oxidizing kiln. (Atami: MOA Museum of Art. 81. A Thousand Cranes: Treasures of Japanese Art. such as the imported Chinese Tianqi porcelain plates may also have influences Shino designs through their simply drawn. 42. the glaze would turn dark olive brown. ills. 6. 89 . 44. Examples of the Muromachi type can be seen in: Edmund Capon. 1972). (Washington DC: Freer Gallery of Art.example. Japan: Masterpieces from the Idemitsu Collection. Japanese Collections in the Freer Gallery of Art: Seto and Mino Ceramics. owing to the over-lavish application of wood ash. 1991). Barbara Brennan Ford and Oliver Impey. 182. (London: Victoria and Albert Museum. Japanese sources do seem to predominate. 11 and 12. ed. (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 7–46. ill. 1978). (New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill. 1982). Tadanari Mitsuoka. other sources. and Louise Allison Cort. Edmund Capon. The Art of Japan: Masterworks in the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. (Tokyo: Heibonsha. Okuda Naoshige. Smithsonian Institution. 3 See example excavated at Ehime Castle in Tsugio Mikami. They only achieved a brownish olive-green glaze. 7–34. Hakone Museum of Art. However. see Hiroichi Tsutsui. 1986). 14–27. 7 Katsura wrote over thirty books on older Japanese ceramics and was seen as the world’s greatest authority on old Bizen ware. 2.« Sekai tôki kôza. Nihon section. 6 For an English-language summary of the kaiseki meal. It was impossible to imitate these successfully with the clay that was available. See the various styles in Okuda Naoshige. 22.« Japanese Pottery. which. et al. (Sydney: International Cultural Corporation of Australia. »Momoyama jidai no tôgei. ills. 2. »The History of the Kaiseki Meal.

Nihon tôji zenshû. See also the collection of the Suzuyaki Shiryôkan. Hakone Museum of Art. ill. 126–7. 5 Sawada suggests that the marks were intended as marks or devotion or as specific prayers. (London: Victoria and Albert Museum. 1979). 2 Sawada posits that the Korean potters brought the tataki technique with them to the Noto peninsular. Japan: Masterpieces from the Idemitsu Collection. Sazawa Yoshiharu. 79. (Tokyo: Nihon Kokusai Bijutsu Sentâ. 6. It also states that the vase stems from an excavation. 1989). ill. Chûsei sueki no kenkyû. 1986). Potters’ Valley. 2 The Shigaraki area saw the production of sueki ware from the fifth to the twelfth centuries. refer to Yoshioka Yasunobu. Shigaraki Iga. (Tokyo: Chûô Kôransha. wrote the Kyô makie monyôshû 『京蒔絵文様集』 (Kyoto Lacquer Design Collection). Nihon tôji taikei. ills. (Tokyo: Heibonsha. p. 50. Sawada. vol. published posthumously by the Kyoto publisher Tankôsha in 1980. 1982). See Masahiko Kawahara. 125–6. 36–37. 1989). 90 . 25. Some jars were indeed also used as containers for sutra burials. 8. (Tokyo: Heibonsha. ill. 20 Suzu Jar with Paddled Design 1 For a thorough discussion of this question. Nihon tôji taikei. Gotô Art Museum. and excavated objects—while showing the works of contemporary artists. 1977). (Seattle: Seattle Art Museum. 2. 12. 6 A museum now stands in the area: the Suzuyaki Shiryôkan offers visitors and locals publications and tours of the local history. (Sydney: International Cultural Corporation of Australia. and in Yoshioka. 46–47. 84–85. The exact nature of contact between the sueki ware produced in the area and the succeeding Shigarakitype ceramics has not been established. Edmund Capon. and Joe Earle. firing patterns.8 The older inscription on the lid misdates the vase to the Kamakura period. 1989). 7. 4 A similar kiln mark formed of three circles can be seen in Gotô. ceramic traditions. et al. ill. (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Nr. 200–201. ills 78–81. 408 (113–5) and 410 (172). Ishikawa Prefecture. 125. Nr. Hakone Bijutsukan: kanshô tebiki. 1982). 1985). 31–35. and Louise Allison Cort. ed. 3 For examples of Shigaraki Jars from the same period in museum collections. A Thousand Cranes: Treasures of Japanese Art. Lorna Price. ill. Vol. Atsumi. 3 Other examples of this period can be seen in Sazawa. Suzu. Hakone Bijutsukan: kanshô tebiki. none of the kilns of the Shigarakitype predate the Muromachi period. Shigaraki. 1994). and San Francisco: Kodansha International. 1982). Tokoname. A clear attempt is made to unite the old and new traditions of Suzu ware. 1987). (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan. Nr. (Atami: MOA Museum of Art. and proportions can be seen in Mitsuoka Tadanari. Suzu. (Tokyo. Although a large number of ancient kilns have been excavated in the Shigaraki. ed. New York. see: Barbara Brennan Ford and Oliver Impey. Echizen. 22 Stacked Writing Box with Quails 1 Together with younger brother Gôda Katei (1886–1961). (Atami: MOA Museum of Art. The Toshiba Gallery: Japanese Art and Design. Japanese Art from the Getty Collection in The Metropolitan Museum. vol. Hokuriku no kotô: Echizen. 21 Shigaraki Jar 1 Two jars with almost exactly the same forms. Hakone Museum of Art. Shigaraki.

91 . Christine Guth. Tea. but not the originals. (Stanford: Stanford University Press. Ishikawa Yasuji. which are presumed to have been lost to fire. and Industry. 4 See. see Koga Kenzô. 2 vols. »Utsushi: The Aesthetics of Imitation. 170 and II. 495–509 and Andrew Pekarik. 7–34. 1985). Seikadô Foundation. (Tokyo: Seikadô Foundation. the first generation Rôseki established his workshop in central Kyoto during 1885 and was active until 1944. (Princeton: Princeton University Press. 88–89. Above translation by Helen Craig McCullough in Kokin Wakashû: The First Imperial Anthology. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. where the third generation Ishikawa Kôji became head of the workshop in 1992. 1992). Japanese Lacquer. Seikadô Art Treasures. Art. 1980). for example. the second generation relocated the shop to its present location in Fushimi. 3 These notes were themselves copied by Shibata Zeshin and we now have the copies of the notes. 7 For the aesthetics of recreating famous works.« Chanoyu Quarterly 67 (1991). 127. 6 Personal communication with the artist. 1993). 5 Ishikawa Kometarô. 2 See. 25 Kôetsu Lacquer Box with Poem 1 Poem 559 in the Kokin wakashû. 1600–1900. See Bijutsu Kenkyû 99 (1940). for example. ill. I.Nr. 121–3.

92 .bibliography Capon. Cort. Gôke Tadaomi. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. and Matsuyama Yonetarô. The Art of Japanese Ceramics. 12. 1970. Shigaraki. 1982. 1994. 1992. ed. »The Wabi Aesthetic throughout the Ages« in Tea in Japan: Essays on the History of Chanoyu.« Chanoyu Quarterly 71 (1992). 1989. Cambridge. Japanese Art from the Getty Collection in the Metropolitan Museum. Tokyo: Gakken.« Chanoyu Quarterly 67 (1991). 2006. MA: Harvard University Council on East Asian Studies Publications. Hokuriku no kotô: Echizen. Kyoto: Tankôsha. 195–230. eds. Tokyo: Chûô Kôransha. Atami: MOA Museum of Art. the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco.« Chanoyu Quarterly 43 (1985). Kobayashi Tadashi. Shigaraki. »The Continental Origins of Takatori Ware: The Introduction of Korean Potters and Technology to Japan through the Invasions of 1592–1598. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. Louise Allison. Sydney: International Cultural Corporation of Australia. Kumakura Isao and Paul Varley. 7 (Tokyo: Kodansha. Kakudo Yoshiko. Suzu. 1979. Smithsonian Institution. Fontain. Maske. forthcoming. Cort. »The Kizaemon Teabowl Reconsidered: The Making of a Masterpiece. »Looking at White Dew. Barbara Brennan and Oliver Impey. Japanese Collections in the Freer Gallery of Art: Seto and Mino Ceramics. Tokyo: Nihon Kokusai Bijutsu Sentâ. Kyoto: Shibunkaku. 1974. Louise Allison. vol. San Francisco: Asian Art Museum and Chronicle Books. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. London: Victoria and Albert Museum. The Toshiba Gallery: Japanese Art and Design. Tokyo. Takatori Ware: Potters and Patrons in Edo Japan. Manno Bijutsukan. 1991. Haga Kôshirô. 1982. 7–30. 36–48. Washington DC: Freer Gallery of Art. Louise Allison. ed. Potters’ Valley. Zenga no Cort.« Originally published on Morgan Pitelka’s Japanese Ceramics website. Ford. Hakone Bijutsukan: kanshô tebiki. Earle. Andrew. vol. Matsuya Hisashige. 2 vols. Koga Kenzô. eds. Andrew. 1986. 1996) Kawahara Masahiko. Shibata Zeshin meihinshû: Bakumatsu kaikaki no shikkô kaiga. sekai. 1978. 1972.. Ukiyoe nikuhitsu taikan. 1981 Gotô Art Museum. Edmund. 9 (1994). Kumakura Isao. Mikami Tsugio. »A Brief History of Takatori Ware. New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill. 43–61. and San Francisco: Kodansha International. 7–34. ed. The Art of Japan: Masterworks in Cort. »Utsushi: The Aesthetics of Imitation. 1977. Japan: Masterpieces from the Idemitsu Collection.« Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 4th ser. Maske. Katô Shôshun and Fukushima Shun’ô. et al. 1985. Louise Allison. Maske. Hakone Museum of Art. Andrew. Nihon tôji zenshû. Chadô koten sôsho. Joe. Jan and Money Hickman. New York. Zen: Painting & Calligraphy.

Tochigi Prefectural Museum of Fine Arts. Suzu. 2003. Atsumi. Yagi Ichio. 1972. ed. 1989.Mitsuoka Tadanari. Sazawa Yoshiharu. Ko-Seto. 16–40. Chadô no hako to hakogaki. Bamboo Masterworks: Japanese Baskets from the Lloyd Cotsen Collection. Hakuin. Tokyo: Heibonsha. Newland. vol. Agano. 1964. Inc.« Chanoyu Quarterly 83 (1996). 7–46. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan. 1970. Tokyo: Heibonsha. Tokyo: Heibonsha. Joseph N. Tochigi: Tochigi Prefectural Museum of Fine Arts. Echizen.. 1999 Nihon Ishi Gakkai. 6. Tokyo: Tokyo Bijutsu. 7. vol. »The History of the Kaiseki Meal. Iizuka Rôkansai: Master of Modern Bamboo Crafts. Los Angeles: Cotsen Occasional Press. Yoshioka Yasunobu. Morita Shiryû. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobô. 93 .« Chanoyu Quarterly 78 (1994). Nihon tôji taikan. 1989 Tsutsui Hiroichi. Vol. Nagatake Takeshi. 8. »Momoyama jidai no tôgei. 1980. Terashima Ryôan. 1988. »Uta-mei: The Poetic Names of Tea Utensils. 1989. Tokyo: Yûzankaku. Bodhidharma Exhibition. Wakan sansai zue. Japanese Bamboo Baskets: Masterworks of Form & Texture from the Collection of Lloyd Cotsen. Price. Tokyo: Heibonsha. 2003 Oda Eiichi. Bokubi Tokushû: Hakuin Bokuseki. 1989. Okuda Naoshige. Zuroku Nihon iji shiryô shûsei Tokyo: Mitsui Shobô. ed. Seattle: Seattle Art Museum. Shigaraki Iga. Nihon Keizai Shinbun. Nihon tôji taikei. Tokyo: Isetan. 1994. Inc. ed. Chûsei sueki no kenkyû. Nihon section. 1975. Lorna. 1987..« Sekai tôki kôza. Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shinbun.. ed. Mitsuoka Tadanari. Tokoname. Takeuchi Naoji. Takatori. Zen Bunka Kenkyûjo. Kyoto: Bokubisha. A Thousand Cranes: Treasures of Japanese Art. 1981. Kyoto: Tankôsha. Nihon tôji taikei.

erikthomsen.16–25: Hans Bjarne Thomsen Photography: Klaus Wäldele Design: Valentin Beinroth Production: Henrich Druck + Medien GmbH.1–9 and Nr. +49 – 62 51– 6 67 65 Fax +49 – 62 51– 61 04 99 info@erikthomsen.com erik thomsen japanese paintings and works of art © 2006 Erik Thomsen Text Nr. Frankfurt am Main Printed in Germany .Erik Thomsen Asian Art Ernst-Ludwig-Straße 30 D-64625 Bensheim Germany Tel.com www.

.

.

.

com .erikthomsen.www.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful