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Materials Science & Engineering

Course Orientation Introduction

Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the lecture, the student should be able to:
1. 2. 3.

Relate major advances to civilization in prehistory, as well as more modern times, to advance in the ability to find, synthesize and process materials List the three fundamental types of solid materials and provide a reasonable definition of each Cite the four components that are involved in the design, production, and use of materials, and briefly describe the interrelationship between these components. Cite the four criteria that are important in the process of selecting materials to meet design requirements and goals.

4.

Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013

Historical Perspective
 Early civilizations have been designated by

the level of their materials development
 Stone Age  stone, wood, clay, skins  Bronze Age  pottery & various metals  Iron Age  metals, plastics, glasses & fibers

Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013

Overview: Fertile Crescent – a region of the Middle East incorporating ancient Upper and Lower Egypt. people melted copper from ore and alloyed it with native tin to make bronze. ancient Palestine. Then after the next two millennia. Phoenicia and Assyria (collectively known as the Levant) and Mesopotamia. Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . where civilization started.

The inherent hardness and brittleness of bronze made shaping by hammering impossible. the inherently slightly lower melting point of the naturally forming alloys allowed complex shapes to be more readily cast using molds. Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .Because of the discovery of copper and bronze. clay and stone where replaced. However.

safely and well. they need to understand materials The study of this structure-property relationship is known as Material Science Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .Because engineers are responsible for designing and producing the things societies and individuals need to live comfortably.

structure. manufacturing or construction and operation of efficient and economical structures. equipment. and system” Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . especially of atomic and molecular system. properties and reaction of matter.Physics – defines as “the science of matter and energy and the interaction between the two Chemistry – defined as “the science of the composition. Engineering – defines as “the application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as design.

Materials Science & Engineering 1. Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . Materials Engineering o On the basis of these structure-property correlations. designing or engineering the structure of a material to produce a predetermined set of properties. Materials Science o Involves investigating the relationships that exist between the structures and properties of materials. 2.

and/or develop techniques for processing materials Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .From a functional perspective Materials scientist o To develop/synthesize new materials Materials engineer o To create new products/systems using existing materials.

Metals – strong solid materials that can generally be deformed into shapes in the solid state or cast into shapes in the molten state. engineers are increasingly interested in materials that exhibit functionally specific properties. hard and brittle solid material that cannot be deformed into shape and can only be cast by mixing powdered material with water or some other liquid (binder). Ceramic – strong.In order to meet very demanding applications. pouring the slurry into a mold and allowing the part to dry. Polymers – known as plastics which are known to be solid material that are easily shaped by cold stretching or hot molding Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .

Understanding and manipulating the structure – property – processing – performance interrelationship is the job of materials engineer. Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .For engineers. understanding the relationship between the structure and properties of materials is not enough.

STRUCTURE Structure of a material usually relates to the arrangement of its internal components. Subatomic structure involves electrons within the individual atoms and interactions with their nuclei On an atomic level – structure encompasses the organization of atoms or molecules relative to one another Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .I.

Microscopic  subject to direct observation using some type of microscope  contains large groups of atoms that are normally agglomerated together Macroscopic  Structural elements that may be viewed with the naked eye Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .

PROPERTY Property o A material trait in terms of the kind and magnitude of response to a specific imposed stimulus. o Made independent of material shape and size Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .II.

Mechanical o relate deformation to an applied load or force  Elastic modulus (stiffness). Electrical o Stimulus is an electric field  Electrical conductivity & dielectric constant 3. Thermal o Can be represented in terms of heat capacity & thermal conductivity Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . strength & toughness 2.Properties of Solid Materials 1.

Optical o The stimulus is electromagnetic or light radiation   Index of refraction Reflectivity 6. Magnetic o Demonstrate the response of a material to the application of a magnetic field 5. Deteriorative o Relate to the chemical reactivity of materials Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .4.

Two other important components involved in science and engineering • Processing and Performance *the structure of a material depends on how it is processed *materials performance will be a function of its properties Processing Structure Properties Performance Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .

Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .

CLASSIFICATIONS OF MATERIALS 1. 2. 3. 4. Metals Ceramics Polymers Composites Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .

1. Atoms are arranged in a very orderly manner. Relatively dense in comparison to the ceramics & polymers. Extremely good conductors of electricity & heat Not transparent to light Polished metal surface are lustrous in appearance Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . Mechanical characteristic – relatively stiff & strong yet ductile & resistant to fracture. Metals  Composed of one or more metallic elements & often also       non-metallic elements in relatively small amounts.

Optical property – transparent. Ceramics  Compounds b/w metallic & nonmetallic elements (most      frequently oxides. translucent. SiO₂. SiC.2. cements & glass Mechanical behavior – relatively stiff & strong that are comparable to metals and typically very hard Insulates the passage of heat & electricity More resistant to high temperatures & harsh environments than metals and polymers. or opaque Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . nitrides & carbides – Al₂O₃. Si₃N₄) Traditional ceramics – composed of clay minerals (porcelain).

Polymers  Include the familiar plastic and rubber materials  Many are organic compound that are chemically based     on C. N & Si) Have very large molecular structures (often chainlike in nature) that often have a backbone of carbon atoms Have low densities Are not stiff nor as strong as metallic & ceramic materials Extremely ductile & pliable Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . H.3. & other nonmetallic elements (O.

Polycarbonate (PC) Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) .Polysterene (PS)  Nylon  Silicon rubber . Relatively inert chemically and unreactive in a large number of environments  Drawback of polymers – their tendency to soften and/or decompose at modest temperatures (limits their use)  Have low electrical conductivities & nonmagnetic  Common & familiar polymers  Polyethylene (PE) .

 Design goal  to achieve a combination of properties that is not displayed by any single material  to incorporate the best characteristics of each of the component materials. & polymers.metals.4. COMPOSITES  Composed of 2 (or more) individual materials . ceramics.  Naturally occurring materials that are composites  (wood and bone) Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .

ester)  relatively stiff. strong and flexible  it has a low density  The glass fibers are relatively strong and stiff (but also brittle). Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . Fiberglass . whereas the polymer is more flexible.one of the most common and familiar composites in which small glass fibers are embedded within a polymeric material (normally an epoxy or poly.

Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . as well as high-tech sporting equipment (e.g. golf clubs. tennis rackets.  used in some aircraft and aerospace applications. bicycles. and skis/snowboards) and recently in automobile bumpers..fibers that are embedded within a polymer that is atechnologically important material  These materials are stiffer and stronger than glass fiber– reinforced materials but more expensive. carbon fiber-reinforced poly-mer (CFRP) composite-carbon .

ADVANCED MATERIALS  Semiconductors  Biomaterials  Smart Materials  Nanomaterials Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .

1. Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 ...  Have made possible the advent of integrated circuitry that has totally revolutionized the electronics and computer industries (not to mention our lives) over the past three decades.e. ceramics and polymers)  The electrical characteristics of these ma. metals and metal alloys) and insulators (i. for which the concentrations may be controlled over very small spatial regions.terials are extremely sensitive to the presence of minute concentrations of impurity atoms.e. SEMICONDUCTORS  Have electrical properties that are intermediate between the electrical conductors (i.

 Must not produce toxic substances and must be compatible with body tissues (i. polymers. composites. must not cause adverse biological reactions). ceramics.2. Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . and semiconductors—may be used as biomaterials.. BIOMATERIALS  Employed in components implanted into the human body to replace diseased or damaged body parts.  All of the preceding materials—metals.e.

 This “smart” concept is being extended to rather sophisticated systems that consist of both smart and traditional materials. SMART MATERIALS  (or intelligent) materials are a group of new and state- of-the-art materials now being developed that will have a significant influence on many of our technologies.  The adjective smart implies that these materials are able to sense changes in their environment and then respond to these changes in predetermined manners—traits that are also found in living organisms. Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .3.

 Actuators may be called upon to change shape. Components of a smart material (or system)  some type of sensor (that detects an input signal) and  an actuator (that performs a responsive and adaptive function). natural frequency. electric fields. or mechanical characteristics in response to changes in temperature. position. and/or magnetic fields. Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .

 Materials/devices employed as sensors include optical fibers.and microelectromechanical systems Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . Four types of materials are commonly used for actuators:  Shape-memory alloys are metals that. after having been deformed. they also generate an electric field when their dimensions are altered piezoelectrics.  The behavior of magnetostrictive materials is analogous to that of the  Also. conversely. except that they are responsive to magnetic fields. respectively. revert back to their original shape when temperature is changed  Piezoelectric ceramics expand and contract in response to an applied electric field (or voltage). electrorheological and magnetorheological fluids are liquids that experience dramatic changes in viscosity upon the application of electric and magnetic fields. piezoelectric materials (including some polymers).

size. NANOMATERIALS  One new material class that has fascinating properties and tremendous technological promise polymers. Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 .4.  However. ceramics. but rather. the nano-prefix denotes that the dimensions of these structural entities are on the order of a nanometer (10–9 m)—as a rule. less than 100 nanometers (equivalent to approximately 500 atom diameters). they are not distinguished on the basis of their chemistry. and composites  May be any one of the four basic types—metals.

Prepared by: AjDomingo 2013 . if present in sufficient concentrations. Small nanoparticles have exceedingly large surface area–to–volume ratios. and that some. which can lead to high chemical reactivities. and digestive tract at relatively high rates. lungs. there are concerns that they may be absorbed into the body through the skin. will pose health risks—such as damage to DNA or promotion of lung cancer.  Although the safety of nanomaterials is relatively unexplored. its potential for harmful and toxicological interactions with humans and animals must be considered. Whenever a new material is developed.