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1he followlng are Lhe maln )*+,-,.)/0- 1/2,,-1 ,3 3)-4 /5)6)/)14 6,*07. Lach aLLends noL only Lo Lhe
fllms Lhemselves, buL also Lo Lhe ways movles are made and undersLood by audlences.

89 ",4):0:6;<0):165+04 =):+40 >?,--7@,,* ?+.+4,:7A
- Pow classlcal fllm formulas domlnaLe.
- lL has been assoclaLed wlLh Pollywood formulas. Accordlng Lo AnneLLe kuhn lL ls ln Lhe
relaLlonshlp beLween 'Lhe economlc and Lhe ldeologlcal [LhaL] domlnanL clnema Lakes lLs concreLe
form'. 1hls means LhaL all counLrles ln a way have Lhelr own domlnanL clnema. Clven Lhe economlc
slLuaLlon, fllm lndusLrles wlll favor cerLaln producLlon pracLlces over oLhers.
- Pollywood's verLlcal lnLegraLlon" gave way Lo a fragmenLaLlon of Lhe lndusLry.
- Cn Lhe ldeologlcal fronL, Lhe domlnanL fllmlc LexL ln WesLern socleLy revolves around Lhe
sLandardlzed ploL of order/dlsorder/order-resLored. 1he acLlon focuses on cenLral characLers and
so Lhe ploL ls characLer-drlven.
- Closure means a resoluLlon of Lhe heLerosexual courLshlp.
- 1hls ldeologlcal relaLlon ls represenLed Lhrough Lhe 'reallLy' effecL - Lhe llluslon of reallLy.

=5)6)/1 0:* 62+,5)161B
uavld 8ordwell, !aneL SLalger & krlsLln 1hompson: 1be closslcol nollywooJ cloemo. lllm 5tyle ooJ
MoJe of ltoJoctloo to 1960
AnneLLe kuhn: womeo's llctotes. lemlolsm ooJ cloemo

C9 D0/+ E6F*)+1B
- ConcenLraLes on Lhe deplcLlon of dlfferenL races ln fllms
- 8ace sLudles ls assoclaLed wlLh Lhe noLlon of dlaspora: ulaspora refers Lo Lhe dlsperslon of
people orlglnally belonglng Lo one naLlon of havlng a common culLure.
- Clnema made by Afrlcans, Afrlcan Amerlcans (8lack clnema), lndlgenous people (naLlve
Amerlcans), LaLlnos, Chlcanos, Aslan-Amerlcans (of LasLern lndlan and Aslan orlgln), LasLern
Luropeans, eLc.
- lL also speaks of race/raclsm, clnema's own raclsm and blologlcal deLermlnlsm (uanlel 8ernardl)
- Clyde 1aylor explalns LhaL lL ls lmposslble Lo Lalk abouL black clnema wlLhouL referrlng Lo raclsm
and Lo classlcal Pollywood hegemony.

Wayne Wang - lndlan fllmmaker
Mlra nalr - lndlan fllmmaker seLLled ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes
Splke Lee
Allen and AlberL Pughes (lllm Meooce ll 5oclety)
!ohn SlngleLon

=5)6)/1 0:* 62+,5)161B
uanlel 8ernardl:
- lllmloq ulffeteoce. Actots, ultectots, ltoJocets ooJ wtltets oo CeoJet, koce ooJ 5exoollty lo
- closslc nollywooJ/closslc wblteoess.
- 1be 8lttb of wblteoess. koce ooJ tbe metqeoce of u.5. cloemo.
Clyde 1aylor: 1be Mosk of Att. 8teokloq tbe Aestbetlc coottoct--lllm ooJ lltetotote
uerrlck 8ell, Marl MaLsuda, 8lchard uelgado, klmberly Crenshaw, and Wllllam 1aLe.

I),:++51 ): 62+ 3)+-*B
- W.L.8. uu8ols: Amerlcan soclologlsL, hlsLorlan, clvll rlghLs acLlvlsL, auLhor and edlLor. uu 8ols was
one of Lhe co-founders of Lhe naLlonal AssoclaLlon for Lhe AdvancemenL of Colored eople
(nAAC) ln 1909.
- 1exL: 1be 5ools of 8lock lolk
- Max Weber: Arguably Lhe foremosL soclal LheorlsL of Lhe LwenLleLh cenLury, Max Weber ls also
known as a prlnclpal archlLecL of modern soclal sclence along wlLh karl Marx and Lmll uurkhelm.
Weber's wlde-ranglng conLrlbuLlons gave crlLlcal lmpeLus Lo Lhe blrLh of new academlc dlsclpllnes
such as soclology and publlc admlnlsLraLlon as well as Lo Lhe slgnlflcanL reorlenLaLlon ln law,
economlcs, pollLlcal sclence, and rellglous sLudles.

J. =-011 E6F*)+1
- 1he analysls of soclal and economlc arrangemenLs ln a movle Lo lllusLraLe how soclal power ls
dlsLrlbuLed ln cerLaln fllms.
- uebaLe around class ln fllm Lheory has been mosLly lnflecLed by karl Mark's deflnlLlons of class
and by subsequenL reLhlnklngs of Lhose deflnlLlons by AnLonlo Cramscl, Louls AlLhusser and
PerberL Marcuse.
- Class sLudles looks aL Lhe relaLlon beLween Lhe workers and Lhe owners of means of producLlon.
(Worklng class vs. Lhe caplLallsL class)
8eLween Lhese Lwo dlsLlncL classes are oLhers: 1he mlddle and lower mlddle classes (small
buslnessmen and owners).
- Class looks aL Lhe relaLlonshlp and confllcL beLween bourgeolsle and proleLarlaL.
- naLurallzaLlon of caplLal and power.
- Class sLruggle, allenaLlon.
- Class ls assoclaLed wlLh maln sLream clnema: 8egardlng Pollywood, fllmmakers aLLempLlng
lnnovaLlve ldeas qulckly flnd Lhemselves marglnallzed by Pollywood sLudlos (Crson Welles, lrancls
lord Coppola, and MarLln Scorsese).

=-011 62+,5)161B
AnLonlo Cramscl, Loulse AlLhusser, am Cook, eLer SLead.

K9 I,16/,-,:)0- E6F*)+1B
lnLellecLual dlscourse LhaL conslsLs of reacLlons Lo, and analysls of, Lhe culLural legacy of
colonlallsm and lmperlallsm. osLcolonlallsm ls deflned ln anLhropology as Lhe relaLlons beLween
naLlons and areas Lhey colonlzed and once ruled. Lxamlnes movles wlLhln a global perspecLlve,
almlng Lo reveal Lhe represslon and Lhe +4+5.+:/+ of marglnallzed sub[ecLs or colonlzed culLures
(lndlgenous people, blacks, lndla, some LaLln Amerlcan counLrles, lran, eLc).

!4L,560:6 /,:/+L6B $5)+:60-)14 (Ldward Sald)
Sald Look Lhe Lerm CrlenLallsm, whlch was used ln Lhe WesL neuLrally Lo descrlbe Lhe sLudy and
arLlsLlc deplcLlon of Lhe CrlenL, and subverLed lL Lo become a consLrucLed blnary dlvlslon of Lhe
world lnLo Lhe CrlenL and Lhe CccldenL. noLably, Lhe concepL of Lhe 'LasL' (l.e. Lhe CrlenL), was
creaLed by Lhe 'WesL', suppresslng Lhe ablllLy of Lhe 'CrlenL' Lo express Lhemselves. WesLern
deplcLlons of Lhe 'CrlenL' consLrucL an lnferlor world, a place of backwardness, lrraLlonallLy, and
wlldness. 1hls allowed Lhe 'WesL' Lo ldenLlfy Lhemselves as Lhe opposlLe of Lhese characLerlsLlcs, as
a superlor world LhaL was progresslve, raLlonal, and clvll.

I,16/,-,:)0- 62+,5)161B
Pomml 8habha, lranz lanon, 8anahlL Cuha, Lduard Sald, 8oberL SLam, CayaLrl Splvak, Clorla

M9 NF++5 E6F*)+1 ,5 %&OP E6F*)+1 (Lesblan, gay, blsexual and Lransgender sLudles)
lnvesLlgaLes how normaLlve relaLlons can be challenged or dlspuLed Lhrough fllms, especlally
Lhrough confronLaLlons wlLh heLerosexual values. 1hls approach Lo llLerary and culLural sLudy
re[ecLs LradlLlonal caLegorles of gender and sexuallLy

NF++5 =):+40 62+,5)161B
Sara Ahmed, !udlLh 8uLler, Clorla Anzaldua, Adam Creen, Lauren 8erlanL, Annamarle !agose, uavld
8oss lryer, vera Whlsman.

Q9 G+4):)16 E6F*)+1B
lnvesLlgaLes how women have been boLh negaLlvely and poslLlvely represenLed Lhrough Lhe
movles. Whlle generally provldlng a crlLlque of soclal relaLlons, much of femlnlsL Lheory also
focuses on analyzlng gender lnequallLy and Lhe promoLlon of women's rlghLs, lnLeresLs, and lssues.
lemlnlsL researchers embrace Lwo key LeneLs: Lhelr research should focus on Lhe condlLlon of
women ln socleLy, and Lhelr research musL be grounded ln Lhe assumpLlon LhaL women generally
experlence subordlnaLlon.

G+4):)16 62+,5)161B
Laura Mulvey (vlsool lleosote ooJ Nottotlve cloemo), 1eresa ue LaurenLls, Ann kaplan, am Cook,
aLrlcla Mellencamp, ConsLance enley, 8arbara Creed

$: O-0/H 3+4):)14 see MarLlna ALLllle, Lvelyn 8lackwood, Cherrle Moraga, and Clorla Anzaldua.
Cender: 1eresa ue LaurenLls and !udlLh 8uLler.