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mfhsdtkb vfhskvflblt,kt,bc uf,thyt,f jcvfktsib hjujhw fqbybiyf^ mfhsdtksf tsybrehb ufycf[kt,bc fhtfkb tdahfnfvlt fqotdlf^ \|++ cfereytib tphevib mfhsdtkb tgbcrjgjcb b]lf^ [jkj \|+++ cfereytib ubevbi[fytkt,c f[cjdlfs^ hjv vfs vbof-o.fkc fhwse lblb [ybc oby cfmfhsdtkj tojlt,jlf lf cfmfhsdtkjc yfobkc itflutylf& jcvfkt,vf sfylfsfy^ cfereytsf vfybkpt itcktc edhwtktcb mfhsekb nthbnjhbt,bc lfrfdt,f^ bct^ hjv cf,jkjjl fhphevbc yfwdkfl cfpqdfhb jcvfktscf lf cfmfhsdtkjc ijhbc ,jh]jvsfy lf mj,ektssfy uflbjlf& mfhsdtkt,b lbl obyffqvltuj,fc eotdlyty sehmt,c& xfyc^ \|+ cfereytib sehmt,c fhphevtkb lf tdahfntkb mfhsdtkj,f evfhsfdlf gfhnbpfyek jvt,c lf cfrvfj pfhfkcfw f.tyt,lf vnthc& fvfc bc fvnrbwt,c^ hjv 1514 okbc jcvfkts-cgfhctsbc jvbc lhjc mfhsdtkt,bw xf,vekfy fv jvib jcvfktsbc obyffqvltu& jvbc lfcfo.bcib jcvfkt,b cgfhcsf obyffqvltu itntdfpt uflfdblyty& itvltu rb erfy lfb[btc& rfnthbyj tyj othc^ hjv erfylf[tekb sehmt,bc vsfdfhcfhlfkb #&&& uftvfhsf tdahfnbcfrty& upfib [dlt,jlf lf,hrjkt,fc mfhsdtkt,bc v[hbd^ hjvkt,bw vce,emb hfpvt,bs fhwdfdlyty fhvbbc fqfkc lf yfreo-yfreo fmwtdlyty .dtkfc^ dbyw ittwlt,jlf hbut,bc vbnjdt,fc vwbht vfybkbsfw rb& vfsb sfdlfc[vt,b bvltyfl [ibhb b.j^ hjv frby]t,b^ hjvkt,bw itxdtekyb b.dyty 40-50 vbkbc ufdkfc^ dth ,tlfdlyty ufmwtdfc^ kfimhbcfufy vwbhtjlty vjijht,fc^ hflufy ufvdbydfht,ekb vnthb ~mfhsdtkt,b` evjo.fkjl [jwfdlf vfs& vfs v[jkjl [vfkb rb fh [jwfdlf^ fhfvtl ibvibkbw^ hflufy fhf[tkcf.htkb gbhj,t,bc ufvj kfimhbc vjvfhfut,fc ghjlemnt,bs dth f[th[t,lyty& sfyf[vf b.dyty^ thsb cfibytkb cbrdlbkbc yfwdkfl vtjht eahj cfibytkb cbrdlbkbs lf[jwbkb.dyty@ ~v& ht[dbfidbkb^ bvthtsbc cfvtaj^ 1989^ ud& 28`& fv wyj,fc vhfdfkb ltnfkbc lfvfnt,bs c[df fdnjht,bw flfcneht,ty@&&& vfuhfv dby fhbfy tc mfhsdtkt,b^ hjvtkb cfvtaj-cfvsfdhjc ofhvjvflutytkyb^ fvbc itcf[t, ew[jehb lf mfhsdtkb o.fhjt,b fhfathc fv,j,lyty@ ~bmdt^ ud& 29`& tctyb mfhsk-rf[tkt,b fh .jabkfy ~#mfhskbcf lf rf[tsbc cfvtajc ]fhc fh ittkj fv lhjc jcvfktsbc fhvbbc obyffqvltu ,hjkf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 30`& v& ht[dbfidbkb dfhfelj,c^ 1514 okbc jgthfwbfib sehmsf obyffqvltu b,hjlf bvthtsbc ]fhb^ vfuhfv cfmfhsdtkjc hjvtkb res[bc ]fhbw fh eylf .jabkb.j^ vfcib tdahfntk-thphevtkb mfhsdtkt,bc vjyfobktj,f cfdfhfeljf^ vbsevtntc^ hjv vnthc gfhnbpfyekb vtsjlt,bs t,hjlyty^ fk.fib fmwtdlyty^ ghjlemnt,bs lf ghfdbpbbs vjvfhfut,bc cfiefkt,fc fh fktdlyty vbvlt,fht cjakt,blfy& 11

fvbnjvfw bc #mfhsdtkt,b@^ hjvtksf itcf[t,fw vbesbst,ty ew[jtkb fdnjht,b^ vrdblhb vjcf[ktj,ff^ c[df v[fhbc mfhsek kfimfhsfy thsfl sehmsf obyffqvltu fqvlufhb& tdahfnpt fhf se fv lhjc^ thsb cfereybc itvltufw mfhsekb cjakt,b fhct,j,lyty^ sfdbfysb mfhsdtkb fhphevtkb tgbcrjgjcbs^ hjujhw tc fqybiyekb b.j& fctdt \+\ c-ib shbfktscf lf mdtvj mfhskib uflvjcf[kt,fvlt fhphevsfy w[jdhj,lyty vfhskvflblt,kt,b^ hjvtksfw fv lhjbcfsdbc erdt vij,kbehb tyf lfdbo.t,jlfs lf sehmektyjdfy vjcf[ktj,fl mwtekb.dyty& vtc[tsbcf lf kfptsbc lfg.hj,bc itvltu fhct,ekb rfyjybc sfyf[vfl^ flubkj,hbdb vfhskvflblt,kt,b esejl eylf lfvjhxbkt,jlyty rjycnfynbytgjkbc gfnhbfhmc^ hjvtkbw sfdbc v[hbd f[kflitvjthst,ek vhtdkc ,thty vqdlkt,c eupfdyblf& vqdltkc rb jcvfktsbc cf[tkvobajc vbth vbqt,ekb otcbs ufyecfpqdhtkb eakt,t,b uffxybf sfdbc cfvo.cjib itvfdfk flfvbfyt,pt& vqdltkb vfssdbc vfhnj cfcekbthj [tkvqdfytkb rb fh b.j^ fhfvtl cfthjw^ rthjl^ bc b.j vjcfvfhsktw^ vcf]ekbw lf eahj vtnbw^ vfc lfvyfifdbc rfnjhqfib vtwybtht,bcsdbcfw _ ufupfdyfw rb #&&&jcvfktsbc ittkj& tc afmnb wyj,bkbf tdhjgtkb bvgthbfib ,thyek-vfhskvflblt,kehvf

cfvqdltkjt,fv vbbqj thsvjhoveytt,pt ltcgjnehb ~f,cjkenehb` fkfeakt,f&&& vhtdkib vqdltkb thslhjekflff vcf]ekb^ vfvfcf[kbcb^ vfcofdkt,tkb^ uflfcf[flt,bc fvrhtab^ .dtkf cfmvbc vjsfdt& bub cftrktcbj vcf[ehb rb fh fhbc^ fhfvtl jcnfnbf^ hjvtkcfw .dtkfathb t[t,f&&& fv .jdkbc vjvwdtkvf ltcgjnehvf vtehdtj,fv^ trktcbbc fv rjynhjkvf lf xfhtdfv cfpjufljt,hbdb w[jdht,bc .dtkf cathjib itfqobf@& vfhskvflblt,kj,bc fhf,thtyb vbvltdht,b fh ehbult,jlyty fcts vlujvfhtj,fc lf .dtkufy^ cflfw rb flubkb /mjylf ofhvfnt,ek cf[fk[j vjhfj,fc^ hjujhw vfufkbsfl^ cth,bfcf lf dfkf[tsib ^ [fk[b ftdlt,lf ,thyekb ofhvjij,bc cftrktcbj vcf[eht,c lf vfs flubkpt bybiyt,jlyty vcf[ehyb flubkj,hbdb vjcf[ktj,blfy@& fctdt b.j dbsfht,f gjynjc ghjdbywbt,ibw&&& #dth lfdafhfd bv fvfphpty lf ecbfvjdyj itnfrt,t,bc itcf[t,^ hjvtkcfw flubkb /mjylf eybtib ,thyek cfvqdltkjt,fcf lf vbc vhtdkc ijhbc &&& ufycfresht,ekb obyffqvltuj,f ufeobtc mfkt,vf^ hjvkt,bw xfbrtnyty trktcbfib^ vfs ufyltdytc vqdltkt,b&&& vsfdfhb gfnhbfhmbc lf;byt,bsb vjs[jdybs gjhnfv ~jcvfktsbc vsfdhj,fv _ o&,&` uffupfdyf ,hfyt,f lf afif sfdfl uftvfhsf fv,j[t,eksf lfcfc]tkfl&&&@ lf tc wfkrtekb itvs[dtdf fh b.j& flubkj,hbdb vfhskvflblt,tkb fhf,thtyb vjcf[ktj,f ,thyekb cfgfnhbfhmjcufy sfdbc lfcfwfdfl vfcj,hbdfl bqt,lf vf/vflbfyj,fc se c[df htkbubfc@ ~ofst ,fofib^ lfcf[& yfih&^ ud& 43`& dabmhj,s^ afmnb^ hjv fhphevbc cfyf[t,ib fhct,ek mfhsek cjakt,c \|++ cfereytibw /.fdlfs mfhsdtkb tgbcrjgjcb^ ,thtyb cfvqdltkjt,bc vbvfhs vfsb obyffqvltuj,bs fb[cyt,f& vfuhfv^ xfyc^ itvlujv vfs vbvfhsfw ufyf[jhwbtktc fhct,ekb rfyjyb lf bcbyb ,thty cfvqdltkjt,fc lfemdtvlt,fhtc& #,thyek trktcbfc lfmdtvlt,fht,ekb flubkj,hbdb vw[jdht,yb sfylfsfyj,bs ,thylt,jlyty& vfufkbsfl^ kfpb-mhbcnbfyb fewbkt,kfl ,thyek cf[tkcf lf udfhc fnfht,lf^ dfklt,ekb b.j obhdf kjwdf ,thyek tyfpt vjtcvbyf^ #ovbylf othbkb@ ,thyekfl trbs[f^ crjkfib ,thyek tyfpt tcofdkf& 12

mfhsekb tyf^ vbcb kfpehb lbfktmnt,b j]f[t,blfyfw rb bltdyt,jlf^ hjujhw eh]ekjsf tyf& vij,kbehb tybc ityfhxeyt,f v[jkjl bv kfpt,vf itcktc^ hjvkt,bw jltcqfw mfhsek trktcbfc tmdtvlt,fht,jlyty lf itvltu vecekvfyj,f vbbqtc& vij,kbehb tybc ityfhxeyt,fc w[flbf^ cfmfhsdtkjcsfy nthbnjhbekvf cbf[kjdtv ufw[jdtkt,ekvf trjyjvbehvf ehsbthsj,fv iteo.j [tkb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 43`& lf

fqybiyeksfy lfrfdibht,bs itbkt,f lfbcdfc rbs[df _ fhphevbc cfyf[t,ib vw[jdht,vf ehevt,vf jltcvt se bwjlyty ,thyekb tyf( eylf dbabmhjs^ hjv vfs ,thyekb tyf fhfcjltc fh bwjlyty& ]th rbltd \|++ lf \|+++ cfereytt,ib yfobkj,hbd vfbyw^ vfsb ltlftyf b.j mfhsekb lf vbcb lbfktmnt,b& jcvfkjc cf[tkvobajib itcdkfv vfsib erdt \|\|+ cfereytt,blfydt lffvrdblhf sehmekb tyf^ hjvtkvfw mfhsekb ufftdf& bc^ hjv vfs \|++ cfereytib ]th rbltd mfhsdtkb ~fhphevtkb` tgbcrjgjcb /.fdlfs^ bvfpt vbesbst,c^ hjv vfs trktcbfib ]th rbltd fh b.j lfrfyjyt,ekb ,thyek-tyjdfyb obhdf-kjwdf& \+\ cfereytib rb bcbyb shbfktsib uflvjfcf[ktc& fct hjv^ vfs e,hfkjl dth vjfcohtc itsdbct,f ,thyekb tybcf^ hjvtkbw fhfcjltc bwjlf vfsvf vfvf-gfgfv& sevwf^ w[flbf^ bmyt,jlf ufvjyfrkbcbw& fqcfybiyfdbf^ hjv ,thyekb tybc vbvfhs flubkj,hbd mfhsdtkj,fc sfdbct,ehb lfvjrblt,ekt,f /mjylf& cfmvt bcff^ hjv ,thyt,bw lfvg.hj,kt,b b.dyty lf ,bpfynbbc bvgthbf vnfwt,kehb cf[tkvobaj b.j vwbht fpbtkb mfhsdtkt,bcfsdbc& sevwf rb lfvg.hj,kt,c vje[th[t,bfs mfhsdtkt,bc thsb yfobkbc tkbybpt,f ~buekbc[vt,f sehmctk]ersf itvjcdkfvlt`^ ,bpfynbbc lfvfhw[t,bcf lf sehmt,bc cf[tkvobajc itmvybc itvltu #tkbybpt,ekb fdnjmsjyt,bc yfobkvf cb[fhekbs ufwdfkf #cfpbpqfhb@ lfvg.hj,tkb ,thyt,bc tyf lf htkbubf sehmek tyfcf lf vecekvfyj,fpt^ yfobkvf rb rbltd eahj ufyfvnrbwf sfdbcb #,thyekb@ sdbsituyt,f@ ~bmdt^ ud& 24`& ofst ,fofic ufvjrdktekb fmdc kfpt,bc uf,thyt,bc cehfsb nhfgbpjybc bvgthbfib ~t&b& sehmt,bc ufvjxtyfvlt lblb [ybs flht`& #elfdjf bc afmnb^ hjv fv nthbnjhbfpt edtktcb lhjblfy w[jdhj,lyty mfhsdtkehb njvt,b& vjcekb tktvtynb ~,thyt,b^ cjv[t,b lf c[d&` fm fh ofhvjflutylf vjcf[ktj,bc vybidytkjdfy yfobkc% #,thyekb vjcf[ktj,f brfhut,jlf c[df ofhvjij,bc njvt,bc vfcfib lf fh itcotdlf fkf lftmdtvlt,fht,byf bcbyb sfdbcb tybcf lf flfst,bcflvb^ t&b& vjt[lbyf vfsb tkbybpfwbf@ _ othc ecgtycrb lf fmdt fcrdybc% #bvbc smvfw rb fh itbkt,f^ hjv bvgthbbc nthbnjhbfpt ,tdhb ,thtyb b.j@^ fvbnjv flubkj,hbdb vjcf[ktj,fw lf vfsb vtatt,bw^ hjvkt,cfw ,bpfynbfib wyj,lyty v[jkjl kfpt,fl lf kfpsf vtatt,fl^ #vstkb sfdbcb cbvgfnbt,bs etzdtkfl cfmfhsdtkjcfrty bcohfajlyty@ ~bmdt^ ud& 4`& vbe[tlfdfl fvbcf^ ,bpfynbbc bvgthbfib vjmwtekvf fv v[fhtv ufybwflf ,thyek-,bpfynbehb reknehbc ufdktyf^ vfuhfv vij,kbehb kfpeh-zfyehb tyf fh lferfhufds& sehmsf itvjcdkbc itvltu kfpt,bc thsvf yfobkvf vf/vflbfyj,f vbbqj^ vtjht yfobkb rb vfhskvflblt,tkb lfhxf& rjycnfynbytgjkpt lfmdtvlt,fht,ek kfp vfhskvflblt,kt,c vfkt ,thyekb sdbsituyt,f xfvje.fkb,lfs lf vfs lfrfhutc vij,kbehb kfpehb tyf^ itbsdbctc ,thyekb^ cfvfubthjl kfpehb tyf itbyfhxeytc ufvf/vflbfyt,ekvf kfpt,vf& vfkt vfsfw ew[j tyf _ sehmekb itbsdbctc& vfhskvflblt,tkb uf,thyt,ekb kfpt,b vtn.dtkt,lyty 13

,thyekb tybc gjynehb lbfktmnbs^ hjvtkbw #byfhxeyt,c b,thbek rfdrfcbehb tyt,bcfsdbc lfvf[fcbfst,tk .dtkf fahbrfnc&&& vbc ktmcbrfib cfrvfjl ,tdhbf mfhsdtkehb bhbc cbn.dt,b@ ~bmdt^ ud& 8`& vbe[tlfdfl bvbcf^ hjv vfhskvflblt,tkb kfpt,b fv;fvfl ,thyt,fl fqbhbw[t,bfy^ sehmvf bcnjhbrjct,vf bwbfy^ hjv #\+ cfereybc lfcfo.bcib sehmvfyt,bc ~ctk]ert,bc^ o&,&` vjcdkfvlt xhlbkj-fqvjcfdkts sehmtsib zfh,j,lyty mfhsdtkt,b lf kfpt,b^ vfs tyfpt kfgfhfrj,lf vjcf[ktj,bc evhfdktcj,f^ kfpehb f[kjf mfhseksfy lf ofhvjflutyc vtuhekb tybc rbkjc@ ~bmdt^ ud& 14`& fvbnjvfw #eylf fqbybiyjc^ hjv fmfehb t&o& ,thyt,b cbyfvldbktib c[df fhfdbyff^ se fhf kfpt,b^ hjvkt,vfw ,bpfynbbc gthbjlib vbbqtc mhbcnbfyj,f lf vfc itvltu sfdbct,ehfl byfhxeyt,lyty vfc@ _ othlf thsb vrdktdfhb vwbht fpbbcf \+\ c-ib ~bmdt^ ud& 25`& vwbht fpbtk mfhsdtkj,fc ew[j fhfthjdyek cf[tkvobajib vj[dtlhbs lf,ytekt,c t&o& #sehmt,bcf@ lf #,thyt,bc@ ufhlf rbltd eidbfs c[df [fk[t,bw^ vfs ijhbc t&o& rhjvkt,b^ bcbyb afhekfl mhbcnbfylt,jlyty^ jabwbfkehfl rb vecekvfyeh otcxdtekt,t,c fqfchekt,lyty ~bmdt^ ud& 25`& vfs fuhtsdt rhbgnjmhbcnbfyt,cfw eojlt,lyty& uflfudfht,ekb mfhsdtkt,b fhbfy^ fuhtsdt^ sfdbfysb ofhvjij,bs [tvibyt,bw& #/tvibyb vjcf[ktj,bc yf[tdfhpt vtnb kfpt,bcfufy itlut,f^ [jkj lfyfhxtyb yfobkb ofhvjflutyc yfhtd [fk[c^ vfs tsyjutytpib vsfdfhb hjkb bsfvfif cjv[eh-uhbujhbfyekvf trktcbfv^ hjvtkcfw^ hjujhw xfyc^ vbtrtlkf kfpsf ufhrdtekb yfobkb^ hjujhw tc [lt,f xhlbkjfqvjcfdkts fyfnjkbbc c[df yfobkt,ibw@& #&&&vfsb tyf cjv[ehbc^ kfp-mfhsekbcf lf sehmekb tyt,bc yfhtdbf&&& bpvbhib vfs #cjvt[tdt@-c eojlt,ty&&& ,fdidt,c jabwbfkeh sehmek-vecekvfyeh cf[tkt,sfy thsfl fktdty #ibyfeh@ vjatht,bs cf[tkt,c^ tc cf[tkt,b firfhfl kfpehbf^ hjujhw ;qthflj,bs^ bct ibyffhcbsfw& vfu&% sesf-vsdfht^ ,eh,f-qfvehf^ vesbrf-ltkabyb^ seyb-lfsdb^ vew[b-dfhcrdkfdb lf f&i& y& vfhb kfptsib vjupfehj,bc fyufhbiib fcf[tkt,c /tvibyeh udfht,c^ hjvkt,bw ibyffhcbc vb[tldbs fctdt kfpehbf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 60`& mfhsdtksf fhvtybpt,f jcvfktsib fhff ufcfrdbhb^ hflufyfw fv mdt.ybc vsfdhj,fv vcufcdfl ,thyekbcf^ epfhvfpfhb ghbdbktubt,b vbfybzf rjycnfynbytgjkbc cjv[eh cfgfnhbfhmjc& vcufdcfl ,thtyb vqdlkt,bcf^ cjvt[ vqdlkt,cfw vbybzt,ekb /mjylfs .jdtkudfhb eakt,t,b _ - ~i& kjvcft^ #f[fkwb[ehb mhjybrt,b@^ ud& 24`& mhbcnbfyj,bc itcfyfhxeyt,kfl mfhsdtkb vrdblhb vjcf[ktj,f c[dflfc[df pjvt,c vbvfhsfdlf _ #cfcekbthj gbhsf lf vjmfkfmtsf yfobkb [ibhfl mhbnbfyj,bc itcfyfhxeyt,kfl bqt,lf uhbujhbfyj,fc^ rfsjkbrj,fc^ eahj [ibhfl tmdtvlt,fht,jlf rjycnfynbytgjkbc gfnhbfhmc lf vfsbdt vecekvfy sfyfnjvtksf sdfkib [lt,jlf itcf,fvbcfl% cjv[fl^ ahfyufl lf ,thyfl& mfhsdtkt,b rb #cojhtl fvbc ufvj vecekvfy mfhsdtkc eojlt,lyty sfsfhc fy sehmc ~bvbc vb[tldbs lf se bckfvbc hjvtk vbvlbyfhtj,fc fqbfht,lf _ ibbpvc se ceybpvc`& mfhsdtkc^ hjvtkcfw uhbujhbfyj,f 14

/mjylf vbqt,ekb _ cjvt[c^ mfhsdtk rfsjkbrtc _ ahfyuc^ belfbpvpt uflfcekc rb _ t,hftkc@ ~bmdt^ ud& 23`& nhfgbpjyib^ ubevbi[fytcf^ gkfnfyfcf lf c[df flubkt,ib vw[jdht,b mhbcnbfyb kfpt,b uf,thylyty _ ,thyekb trktcbbcflvb vfsb lfmdtvlt,fht,bc ufvj ~bmdt^ ud& 8`& vfsb yfobkb ofkrfib^ ,jkybcib^ ,jh]jvib^ ljytwrcf lf rhfcyjlfhib lfcf[kt,ekf ~bmdt^ ud& 8`&

,thty-ehevt,bc uflvjcf[kt,f sfyfvtlhjdt cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbfpt fvbthrfdrfcbfib itvjcdkbc itvlujv sfdbcb gjpbwbt,bc ufyvnrbwt,bc vbpybs hectsbc vsfdhj,fv byt,f cfcfpqdhj v[fhtt,ib lftcf[kt,byf mhbcnbfyb vjcf[ktj,f& fvbcfsdbc vbqt,ekb bmyf uflfo.dtnbkt,f jcvfktsblfy mhbcnbfyb vfhskvflblt,kt,bcf lf uhbujhbfyt,bc uflvjcf[kt,bcf& 1810 . . 1813 . 120 - -. - 1828-1829 . (. , lfcf[& yfih&^ ud& 139`& uflvjcf[kt,eksfsdbc ufycfpqdhekb b.j vfsb 6 okbs ufsfdbceakt,f cf[fpbyj uflfcf[flbcfufy lf c[df vybidytkjdfyb itqfdfst,b ~bmdt^ ud& 140`& ehevsf xfvjcf[kt,f lqtdfyltkb cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbfpt uhtklt,jlf sbsmvbc vstkb \+\ cfereybc vfybkpt^ byntycbehb b.j fv cfereybc 50-bfy okt,ib& 1853-1856 okt,bc .bhbvbcf lf 1877-78 okt,bc hects-sehmtsbc jvt,bc gthbjlib vbuhfwbf ufuhtklf& vfsb vjcdkf sfyfvtlhjdt cfmfhsdtkjib fhf se \+\ cfereytib^ \\ c& 30-bfy okt,fvlt ufuhtklf& #sfyfvtlhjdt cf,thytsbc bcnjhbf bo.t,f jcvfktsbc vbth rjycnfynbytgjkbc fqt,bc ~1453 o&` lhjblfy& jcvfkvf lfvg.hj,kt,vf itfath[tc mdt.ybc cjwbfk-trjyjvbrehb lf gjkbnbrehb ufydbsfht,f& \|+++ c& lfvltuc hectscf lf jcvfktsc ijhbc jvt,vf itfh.btc jcvfktsbc bvgthbbc kbtht,f& fv gthbjlblfy hectsbc vtabc vsfdhj,fv vbbqj pjvt,b^ hfsf jcvfysf bvgthbblfy rfdrfcbfib jhufybpt,ekfl uflvjtcf[kt,byf ,thyt,b lf cjv[t,b^ xftcf[kt,byf bcbyb sehmtsbc vjcfpqdht hfbjyt,ib lf fm /.jkjlf^ hjujhw ethsuektcb obyfvfdfkb hfpvt,b& rfdrfcbfib ~vfs ijhbc cfmfhsdtkjib` ,thtysf uflvjcf[kt,bc cfmvtc [tkvqdfytkj,lf 1810 otkc cgtwbfkehfl itmvybkb #rfdrfcbfib sehmtsblfy mhbcnbfysf uflvjcf[kt,bc rjvbntnb@^ hjvtkbw vwbht fpbfib cfcehdtkb cfmvbfyj,bc vbcfqt,fl bhbsflfl cfcekbthj gbht,c b.tyt,lf&&& ,thyt,b hectsbc ]fhib vcf[ehj,lyty lf cfufyut,j yfobkbw rb fhct,j,lf #,thyekb hfpvtekbc@ cf[tkojlt,bs& hjltcfw cfpfdj [tkitrhekt,bc fkbs^ hectsbc ]fhvf lfcwfkf fhphev-,fb,ehs-ubevbi[fyb^ ,thyt,c eakt,f vbtwfs lf,heyt,ekb.dyty erfy _ sfdbfys cfvij,kjib^ cf,thytsib^ vfs cfyfwdkjl sehmtsb vjbs[jdlf 15

cf,thytsib v.jab sehmt,bc ufysfdbceakt,fc lf vij,kbeh flubkt,ib uflvjcf[kt,fc& thsb cbn.dbs^ itsfy[vt,bc cfaedtkpt jhv[hbdb ufwdkf eylf vjv[lfhb.j& sehmtsib vw[jdht,vf ,thyt,vf cfvij,kjib ofcdkfc rfdrfcbfib ofvjcdkf fv]j,bytc@ ~b& f[efidbkb^ ,thyekb f[fkityt,b mdtvj mfhskib^ #vyfsj,b@^ 1989^ =12^ ud& 158`& afmnb bvbcf^ hjv ehevt,b cf,thytsib fh ofdblyty^ sevwf vfs tkjlyty lf cfmfhsdtkjc iblf v[fhtt,bcrty ufvjcobtc^ evybidytkj fh fhbc lf fhw itvs[dtdbsb& fh itbkt,f fv afmnbc f[cyf hecekb [tkbceakt,bc lfgbht,t,bs& hjujhw fqybiyekb b.j^ ubevbi[fytib \|++ cfereytib f[cjdlfs^ hjv vfsb v[fht ths lhjc cfmfhsdtkjc yfobkc itflutylf^ fhw fhphevtksfsdbc b.j ew[j mfhsdtkj,f lf cfmfhsdtkj fv lhjbcfsdbc^ fvbnjvfw \+\ c& lfcfo.bcib^ hjujhw vfs vbth f[fkb cfvij,kjc fhxtdblfy xfyc^ ]th rbltd #cfmfhsdtkjc idbkt,fl@ vbfxylfs sfdb& cf,thytsb vfssdbc ew[j v[fht b.j^ cfmfhsdtkj _ vij,kbehb& 1829 okbc ctmntv,thib ubevbi[fytlfy lf vtlbfyfc hfbjyt,blfy ,thty rjkjybcnsf 100 j]f[b lfbhf shbfktsbcfrty& bcbyb eylf xfvjcekb.dyty obyo.fhjib ~hjujhw fv v[fhbc itcfrht,^ ufvfyfobkt,tk geymnib` lf bmblfy ofkrbc bfdfhmvybkb yfj[fhb cjakt,bc nthbnjhbfpt uflfcekb.dyty& 1829 okbc 15 jmnjv,thc ,thyt,b erdt xfcekfy obyo.fhjib&&& 1830 okbc 22 st,thdkbc vjyfwtvt,bs ,thyt,b erdt obyo.fhjib fhbfy& tc bhrdtdf cfv[tlhj ue,thyfnjh pfdtktbcrbcflvb ,thtysf sfdbc ~bep,fibc` stjljht pfvtyfgekjc vbothbkj,blfy& #cfzbhjf vbtwtc vfs vbof^ cf[yfd-cfstcb^ cfsb,b^ cfjdfhb^ ,byt,bc fcfityt,kfl [t-n.t lf aekflb lf[vfht,f&&&@ ,thtysf ufhrdtek ]ueac cfvjcf[kjl fehxtdbf mfhsekb cjatkb ,timtyfityb ~lqtd& ,tisfityb^ ofkrbc hfbjyb` lf bm lfcf[kt,ekf 1830 okbc ufpfa[ekpt& fvfc vj/.df ,thty rjkjybpfnjhsf itvltub nfkqt,b&&& hectsbc wfhbpvbc vj[tktsf [tkufikbkj,fv fv]thfl ofkrbcfrty lfchf fhf se 125^ fhfvtl ,thtysf 1025 j]f[b& bcbyb bhbsflfl vbofsvjmvtlyb lf vtcfmjyktyb b.dyty& tvbuhbht,ekyb ofkrfib vjlbfy ufrdfkekb vfhihenbs _ fhphevb-.fhcb-uev,hb-nabkbc-rjlf-trfnthbytatklb ~kemctv,ehub`ibylkfhf-ofkrf& ,thtysf fv lblvf ueylvf shbfktsbc vbof-o.fkb itfdcj lf cekb isf,thf 18 cjatkc& vfs evhfdktcj,fc eojltc bv dtkb sehmekb cjakt,bc cf[tkt,b^ cfblfyfw bcbyb uflvjcf[klyty&&& ofkrbc cfv[htsbs vtfst rbkjvtnhpt^ cja& ujvfhtssfy f[kjc ~lqtd& lvfybcbc hfbjyb` lfffhctc cfvb cjatkb&&& 1855 lf vjvltdyj okt,ib uflvjcf[kt,ekvf ,thyt,vf hfvltybvt cjatkb lfffhctc fzfhfib ~,fsevbc f[kjc`^ fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib stshbo.fhjc hfbjyib&&& 1855 otkc^ 1865 otkc&&& 1877 otkc&&& ofkrbc hfbjyib^ wb[bc]dfhib ,jh]jvbc hfbjyib lf c[d& 1914-1918 okt,bc gbhdtkvf vcjakbj jvvf rfdrfcbfib ,thtysf f[fkb uflfcf[kt,f ofhvjidf^ [jkj kjpfybc rjyathtywbfv ~1922-1923` ufvjbnfyf cgtwbfkehb lflutybkt,f sehmtsib vw[jdht,b ,thyt,bc cf,thytsib vw[jdht,b sehmt,pt ufwdkbc sfj,fpt& fv]thflfw ,thyt,bc lblvf yfobkvf lf,heyt,f fhxbf fhf sfdbc cfvij,kjib^ fhfvtl cch rfdibhib^ rthjl rfdrfcbfib@ ~bmdt^ ud& 159`& fm eylf vbdfmwbjs .ehflqt,f fqybiyekb vtwybthbc ufvjyfsmdfvc _ eyt,kbtc^ vfuhfv cojhc _ #fv]thflfw ,thyt,bc lblvf yfobkvf lf,heyt,f fhxbf fhf sfdbc cfvij,kjib^ 16

fhfvtl&&& rfdrfcbfib@& #lf,heyt,f@ itbkt,f bm^ cfblfyfw uftvupfdhyty& ehevt,b #lf,heylyty@ sfdbfys yfvldbk cfvij,kjib^ cojhtl rfdrfcbf _ cfmfhsdtkj vbfxylfs vfs sfdbfys cfvij,kjl lf fhf cf,thytsb& fv v[hbd fqcfybiyfdbf wyj,bkb sehmjkjubc^ jsfh ububytbidbkbc lfrdbhdt,f bvbc itcf[t,^ hjv cf,thytsib uflfcf[kt,ek ~rthjl^ stcfkjybrbc cfyf[t,ib vw[jdht,` ehevt,c sehvt bmfeht,b mfhsdtkt,c ~ueh]t,c^ utjhubfyt,c` eojlt,lyty lf hfvltybvt fctsb #mfhsekb@ cjatkbw fhct,ekf bm^ itmvybkb ehevt,bc vbth& ehevt,c uekb cfmfhsdtkjcfrty hjv vbeotdlfs^ bmblfyfw xfyc^ hjv hectsib 1917 okbc jmnjv,hbc uflfnhbfkt,bc itvltu vstkb hectsbc bvgthbfib lf cf,zjsf rfdibhib ecfcnbrtcb fstbcnehb ht;bvb lfv.fhlf^ hjvtkbw t,hjlf trktcbfc& tc bwjlf vstkvf vcjakbjv lf w[flbf^ bwjlyty ehevt,vfw^ kjpfybc ~1922-23 okt,bc` rjyathtywbbc itvlujv ehevt,b fye ,thyt,b itsfy[vt,bc sfyf[vfl cf,thytsib eylf uflfcekb.dyty cfw[jdht,kfl^ bcbyb fh tsfy[vt,bfy fv rjyathtywbbc uflfo.dtnbkt,fc lf qhvfl vjhoveyt _ vfhskvflblt,tkb [fk[b vblbc fstbcneh cf[tkvobajib& v[jkjl vbobc .bdbkcf lf ztivfhbnb cfvij,kjc cb.dfhekbc lfafhek uhyj,fc ittkj ftekt,byf bcbyb cf,thytsbc yfwdkfl cfmfhsdtkjib xfvjcekb.dyty _ #lf,heyt,ekb.dyty@& #dfhfelj,ty^ hjv shbfktsb ehevsf^ ufycfresht,bs dtk mfhsekb ghjdbywbt,blfy vjcekb ubevbi[fytkt,bcf lf gfctyt,bc tsyjutytpib ufhrdtekb hjkb itfchektc kfpt,vf& vfsc .jafib itvjyf[ekbf dtkb mfhsekb nhflbwbt,bw@ ~bmdt^ ud& 160`&

mfhsdtkt,bc uf,thyt,f sfyfvtlhjdt cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbfpt sehmtsblfy uflvjcf[kt,ekb ehevt,b hectsbc vsfdhj,fv lffcf[kf vtvfvektsf vbot,pt _ ufhbccf lf shbfktsib& lfcf[kt,ekb cjakt,bc vbot,b tresdyjlfs vtvfvektt,c% ,fhfsfidbkt,c^ .fakfybidbkt,c^ jh,tkbfyt,c^ f,ekafsfidbkt,c^ fa[fpbidbkt,c^ sf.fbidbkt,c^ sevfybidbkt,c^ dfhfpfidbkt,c^ sekfidbkt,c^ ubkfmbidbkt,c^ vfqfkfidbkt,c^ tkbjpfidbkt,c^ vthf,bidbkt,c^ pfpeyfidbkt,c^ cfubyfidbkt,c^ f,fibidbkt,c^ bjsfvbidbkt,c^ sfh[ybidbkt,c^ cfxbyjcidbkt,c^

cjkjqfidbkt,c^ pehf,bidbkt,c^ fckfybidbkt,c^ ehea,tufidbkt,c^ .jhqfyfidbkt,c^ ifkbrfidbkt,c^ wbwbidbkt,c^ ifhfibtt,c^ ]fdf[bidbkt,c^ hfcfw flfcneht,c #uflvjcf[kt,eksf rjvbntnbc@ vbth itlutybkb lf hectsbc bvgthfnjhbcflvb ofhlutybkb eo.t,f^ fctdt #vfcfkt,b cfmfhsdtkjc cnfnbcnbrehb fqothbkj,bcf vtsdhfvtnt cfereytib&&&@ ~b& f[efidbkb^ tsybrehb ghjwtct,b ufhbcbc vbofpt^ #vyfsj,b@^ 1988^ =6^ ud& 144`& ehevt,b lfvrdblhlyty cfmfhsdtkjc vhfdfk cjatkib& bcbyb erfwhbtk vbot,pt fh lfcf[kt,ekfy& lfffhctc f[fkb cjakt,bw dtkmfhsek cjakt,cf se yfcjakfht,pt^ hjvkt,ibw hfvltybvt rjvkb mfhsekb j]f[b rdkfd vrdblhj,lf& vfufkbsfl^ c& vfrfkfsbfc vfcfkbs #1861 o& vtabc vsfdhj,fc wb[bc]dfhib lfecf[kt,bf nhfgbpjybc

17

dbkfbtsblfy uflvjcekb ,thyt,bc 25 rjvkb^ vfyfvlt fm hfvltybvt rjvkb mfhsdtkbw .jabkf% rfcbnfidbkb^ ,kbft lf vbmtkft@ ~c& vfrfkfsbf^ #,jh]jvbc [tj,f@^ ud& 35`& mfhsekb vjcf[ktj,f lf[dtlhbf cjatk obyo.fhjib lfcf[kt,ek ,thyt,cfw^ fctdt c[df cjakt,ibw .jabkf mfhsekb vjcf[ktj,f& cfthsjl^ ,thyt,bc uflvjcf[kt,bcfc shbfktsb lf mdtvj mfhskb f[fkb lfwkbkb b.j& ibibfyj,bcf lf ktrbfyj,bc ufvj [fk[b mfhsk-rf[tsib b.j uflfcekb& hjwf fctsvf j]f[t,vf itbn.tc^ hjv shbfktsb lfcf[klf lf vsfdhj,f .ehflqt,fc fmwtdc lfvrdblht,ek vjcf[ktj,fc^ vrdblhb mfhsekb vjcf[ktj,bc yfobkb erfydt fvj,heylf shbfktscf se mdtvj mfhskib& fvfs ufhlf sdbs sehmtsblfy uflvjcf[kt,ek ehevt,ibw cfrvfjl b.dyty mfhsekb sdbsitvtwyt,bc vmjyt j]f[t,bw% #sehmtsblfy uflvjceksf ijhbc vwbht yfobkb mfhsdtkt,bw thbdyty^ hjvkt,cfw ,thtysf vcufdcfl itwdkbkb /mjylfs udfht,b&&&@ ~b& f[efidbkb^ ,thyekb f[fkityt,b mdtvj mfhskib^ #vyfsj,b@^ 1989^ =12^ ud& 162`& sbsmvbc .dtkf vrdblhb mfhsdtkb ehevsf cbzfh,tib vjmwtdbc itvlujv uf,thylf^ hfw ufvjb[fnf vfs vbth udfht,bc itwdkbs ~sevwf lfhxyty bctsb mfhsdtkt,bw^ hjvtksfw udfht,b fh itewdkbfs^ rdkfd dtkt,ehb mfhsekb udfht,b lfhxfs^ vfuhfv ,thyekb sdbsitvtwyt,f ufexylfs& vfs udfht,c mdtvjs vjdb[ctyt,s`& mfhsdtkt,bc uf,thyt,fc s,bkbcbc ue,thybfib bodtdlf fuhtsdt itmvybkb gjkbnbreh-cjwbfkehb se trjyjvbrehb vbptpt,b^ vfufkbsfl^ vbofc hecekb [tkbceakt,f fktdlf uflvjcf[kt,ekt,c ~fstekj,bs /tmnfhc`^ vfuhfv fh fktdlf vrdblhc^ fctdt uflvjcf[kt,ekyb vsfdhj,bcfufy bqt,lyty aekfl lf[vfht,fc _ sfdbceaklt,jlyty uflfcf[flbcfufy okt,bc vfybkpt^ sdfkcfxbyj lf [tkitcf[t,b egbhfntcj,fybw tktjlfs uflvjcf[kt,ekt,c^ vfufkbsfl^ cehcfsbs lf[vfht,f& dbcfw cehcfsbcf lf c[df ghbdbktubt,bc vbqt,f cehlf^ ,thyfl botht,jlf& #&&&hjwf vtabc [tkbceakt,fv vjo.fkt,bc rfksf uflffafhf cfmfhsdtkjib

xfvjcf[kt,ek ,thyt,c^ obyo.fhjib jlbsufydt vw[jdht,b^ se frkt,f-fj[ht,bc itvltu erfy vj,heyt,ekb^ trjyjvbehfl cecnb lf chekbfl lfrybyt,ekb vrdblhb mfhsdtkb bvltyfl fhfmfsufvjwkbkb b.j^ hjv vbuhfynsf ufdktyfib vjtmwf lf ,thtyb uf[lf&&& 1822 otkc d[dlt,bs udfht,c% fpfhfidbkb^ bjfybt^ ,tcfkfidbkb^ kfpfhfidbkb^ f,hfvfidbkb^ tktasthbidbkb^ bjct,fidbkb^ fvbhfyfidbkb^ ybrjkfidbkb^ dfcbkbcidbkb^ gtnhbfidbkb^ vb[tbkbcidbkb ~stdljhtcidbkb`^ tcnfntidbkb^ sjvcfidbkb^ gfdkbfidbkb ~gfdktcidbkb`^ cdbvjybidbkb^ ubjhubidbkb^ vfhsdtkbidbkb^ cntafybcidbkb& 1822-1855 okt,ib xylt,bfy udfht,b _ rfkft^ fhbidbkb^ ,jcfyfidbkb^ ,fhfsjdb^ yfybfidbkb^ athbfidbkb^ ujujkfidbkb^ ctabfidbkb^ fckfybidbkb^ fckfvfpbidbkb lf c[df& 1873 otkc mfhsekb udfht,b bwdkt,f^ [jkj vfsb vakj,tkt,b ~uhfabs #njvb^ xfvjvfdkj,f@` ,thyt,b [lt,bfy% stdljhfidbkb uf[lf ~stdljhjqkb` 1886 okblfy lqtvlt atljhjdb&&& mfhsdtkbidbkb _ ueh]btdb&&& c[dfsf ijhbc^ itvjyf[ekb cffhmbdj vfcfkf itcfkt,kj,fc udfktdc^ sdfkb ufdfltdyjs^ se sdfkcf lf [tkc ief mfhsdtkb rfwb cfresfhcfdt vbofpt hjujh rfhufdlf udfhcf lf cfkfgfhfrj tyfc& 18

1873 okbc fqothbc ]fvib mfhsdtkfl vjb[ctybt,f 4 j]f[b^ 1886 okbc fqothfv bcbyb ,thyt,fl #uffajhvf@& uhfafib njvb rdfkbc lfrfhudbc vbpybs^ fqybiyekbf ukt[ehb xfvjvfdkj,f& ovbylf mfhsekb udfht,bs lqtc obyo.fhjib w[jdhj,ty lf ,thyj,fc fqbfht,ty% ,fhfsfidbkt,b ~,fhfsjdt,b`^ cfrfkbtt,b^ rtrtkfidbkt,b^ sjaehbtt,b ~b& f[efidbkb^ tsybrehb ghjwtct,b&&& ud& 149`& #thsb o.t,f mfhsdtkt,b uflvjcf[kt,ekt,c cfresfh vbofpt lf[dlf^ vfs^ vwbht ufvjyfrkbcbc ufhlf^ udfht,b ittwdfkfs lf ,thyt,fl xfothtc& bhbsflvf yfobkvf uflvjwtvbs bwbc^ hjv vfsb obyfght,b mfhsdtkt,b b.dyty& bkbf ubjhubc t lfvjtdvf ~gtlfujub^ 64 okbc` udbfv,j% xdty mfhsdtkt,b dfhs^ gbhdfyltkb udfhb gtnhbfidbkbf^ hjwf udfht,bc itwdkf lfeo.bfs&&& lfvjtdfl uflfertst,bfs& obyo.fhjtkvf vfst dkfcbc t ueh]btdvf ~75 okbc^ 1986` smdf% xdtyb udfhbcfyb lqtc w[jdhj,ty cja& obyo.fhjc^ fuhtsdt ofkrbc hfbjybc cjakt,ib&&& .dtkf bcbyb thsb ,elbc mfhsdtkt,b fhbfy& vt vf[cjdc obyfght,b^ gfgt,b lf ,t,bt,b^ hjvkt,bw mfhsdtkj,lyty&&& fhbfy mfhsdtkt,bw% vfbcehftt,b^ ]fvtkfidbkt,b lf aehwtkftt,b^ aehwtkftsf thsb yfobkb mfhsdtkfl totht,f^ [jkj yfobkb uf,thylf lf thubitdb uf[lf& ths lhjc dtkbcgbhc threiffys cjatkb itfhmdtc lf fmtlfy ufxylf udfhbw _ threitdb^ thueitdb^ aehwtkftt,bc ths j]f[ib bctsb itvs[dtdfwff^ hjwf thsb vf mfhsdtkbf^ [jkj vtjht _ #,thtyb@& rbs[dfpt^ hjujh f[cybc xdtyb vjcfe,ht fv ufhtvjt,fc^ fv,j,c% #obyfgfhsf uflvjwtvbs 1820-bfy okt,ib vtabc vsfdhj,f trjyjvbehfl t[vfht,jlf cfmfhsdtkjib uflvjcf[kt,ek ,thyt,c& vfs ifmfhc^ amdbkc^ cfgjyc^ fcfysc^ vfhbkc lf c[df cf[bc gbhdtkb vjs[jdybkt,bc cfuyt,c fktdlf& aehwtkftt,cf lf c[dt,cfw hjv it[dtlhjlfs lf[vfht,f^ uflfbrtstc ~pjuc fk,fs^ uflfertstc` hjujhw udfhb _ bct thjdyt,f&&& ,thefidbkt,b mfhsdtkt,b fhbfy^ dtkbcgbhib rb ,thjdt,b^ thjdyt,bs ,thyt,b^ fv udfhbc ofhvjvflutykt,sfy cfe,fhib ufbhrdf^ hjv vfs udfhb lf thjdyt,f \\ cfereybc lfcfo.bcib ittwdfkfs&&& stshftt,b uflvjdblyty cja& ujvfhtsblfy^ ehev ,thyt,c ijhbc hjv vj[dlyty^ vfs #ueh]t,c@ tf[lyty ~sehm& #ueh]b@ _ mfhsdtkb` lf fmtlfy ofdblf udfhb ueh]btdb& vtjht o.t,f ueh]btdt,bcf vjlbfy mfhsdtkbidbkt,blfy&&& ueh]btdsf ths-thsb inj yfofhvjt,bf ,thtybidbkbc udfhblfy&&& hjujh vj[lf^ hjv cfresfh vbof-o.fkpt mfhsdtkb uf,thylf lf udfhcf[tkbfyfl c[df tsyjcc vbtresdyf(&&& uflvjcf[kt,ekc hectsvf ufycfresht,ekb gbhj,t,b itemvyf&&& vbof vbcwf lf .jdtkb cf[bc uflfcf[flbcfufy uffsfdbceakf&&& atlbf rbkbyufhjdbc ~bubdt ]fkbfidbkbc` uflvjwtvbs^ vbc gfgfc _ ybrj ]fkbfidbkc rfwb itvj/rdljvbf&&& jahtstkvf ztlbkfidbkt,vf udfhb fh itbwdfktc^ vfuhfv ,thyt,fl botht,bfy&&& ht[fib pfpfidbksf 4 rjvkbf^ hjvkt,bw pfpftdt,fl lf thjdyt,bs ,thyt,fl botht,bfy^ vfs ityfhxeyt,ekb fmds vij,kbehb mfhsekb tyf &&&ht[tk rfkftt,c ~rfkbfxjdt,c ` /mjylfs vtjht udfhbw _ qfhb,ft& rfkbfxtdt,bw&&& ,thyt,fl fhbfy xfothbkb& kfpfhbidbkt,blfy yfobkb kfpfhjdbf _ ,thtyb^ [jkj yfobkb _ mfhsdtkb^ fhbfy bctst,bw^ hjvkt,cfw udfhb ittwdfkfs kfpfhjdfl^ [jkj thjdyt,f lfhxf mfhsdtkb&&& ,thtysf ijhbc vw[jdht,b mfhsdtkt,bc uf,thyt,bc thsthsb bhbsflb vbptpb cojhtl bc b.j^ hjv dbyw ,thyj,fc vbbqt,lf lf udfhc itbwdkblf^ cehcfs-cfyjdfut vfcfw it[dlt,jlf&&& 19

ht[tkt,bc trktcbfib ~fqflubytc 1877 o&` vqdlkt,fl lbl[fyc mfhsdtkt,b b.dyty& \\ cfereybc lfcfo.bcib mfhsdtkb vqdltkb lfhxbf itcwdfkf ,thtyvf vqdltkvf lf lfbo.j cfresfhb vhtdkbc vjvhfdkt,f& dbyw uflfdbljlf ,thyek udfhpt lf ,thyfl xftotht,jlf^ bub vfs cfvjs[eh w[jdht,fc cf,thytsblfy ufvjupfdybk ,hby]c^ cfgjyc^ cehcfscf lf c[df cbrtstc /gbhlt,jlf lf echekt,lf rbltwf ~b& f[efidbkb^ ,thyekb f[fkityt,b&&& ud& 164`& mfhsdtkt,b hectsbc vtabc vsfdhj,fc gjkbnbrehfl fhfcfbvtlj [fk[fl /.fdlf vbxytekb^ cfmfhsdtkjc cfcfpqdhj v[fhtt,ib wlbkj,lf #thsuekb vjv[htt,bc@ _ cjv[t,bcf lf ,thyt,bc lfaeyt,fc& tc b.j ths-thsb vbptpbw \+\ c-ib mfhsdtksf ufuhbujhbfyt,bcf lf uf,thyt,bcf^ vfuhfv vfbyw mfhsdtksf ltyfwbjyfkbpfwbf cfresfh vbof-o.fkpt egbhdtktcfl ufvjodtekb b.j thjdyekb sdbsitvtwyt,bcf lf sdbsituyt,bc lf,fkb ljybs&

uf,thyt,eksf udfht,b mfhsdtkt,b^ hjujhw fqybiyekb b.j^ bhbsflfl uf,thylyty jcvfktsbc bvgthbfib^ rthjl bc vfhskvflblt,kt,b^ hjvtkybw^ jcvfktsbc cf[tkvobajt,hbdb rfyjyt,bc sfyf[vfl^ lfemdtvlt,fhtc rjycnfynbytgjkbc ,thyek cfgfnhbfhmjc& rjycnfynbytgjkc vhfdfkhbw[jdfyb mfhsekb vhtdkb ufexylf^ hfvtse jcvfksf vbth lfg.hj,bkb vtc[tsb ~mdtvj uehbfcsfy thsfl` lblb mdt.fyf b.j^ ufhlf fvbcf^ mfhsdtksf ufycf[kt,bc tsybrehb cfpqdht,b fqotdlf tdahfnfvlt^ se fhfc dbn.dbs kfpbcnfybc dhwtk mdt.fyfpt^ hjvtkbw bhbsflfl fctdt mfhsdtkehb njvt,bs b.j lfcf[kt,ekb& jcvfktsib uf,thyt,ekb mfhsdtkt,bc udfht,b sbsmvbc ewyj,bf^ cfvfubthjl itlfht,bs ertsff wyj,bkb bv mfhsdtksf udfht,b^ hjvkt,bw \+\ cfereytcf lf \\ c& lfcfo.bcib uf,thylyty s,bkbcbc ue,thybbc nthbnjhbfpt& fvfsufy yfobkj,hbd itcofdkbkbf hfvltybvt cjakbc uf,thyt,ek vjcf[ktsf udfht,b^ rthjl obyo.fhjcf^ ht[fcf lf c[dfufy& afmnbehfl tc vfcfkf ]th]thj,bs lfeveifdt,tk-itecofdktkbf& ufvjyfrkbcbf v[jkjl bfrj, f[efidbkbc ihjvt,b% #tsybrehb ghjwtct,b ufhbcbc vbofpt@^ #vyfsj,b@^ 1988^ =6* #mdtvj mfhskbc tsyjcb bcnjhbek fcgtmnib@^ #vyfsj,b@^ 1988^ =10* #,thyekb f[fkityt,b mdtvj mfhskib@^ #vyfsj,b@^ 1989^ =12& fv ihjvt,bs dbcfhut,kts xdty lf fy,fybc vb[tldbs fvjdothts cfmfhsdtkjib uf,thyt,eksf udfht,b ~]th vbsbst,ekbf dtkb udfhb^ itvltu rb _ f[kflvbqt,ekb`& fhblfidbkb _ fhblfidbkb _ fhlfjqkb _ fheljdb fckfybidbkb _ fckfyjdb fckfvfpbidbkb _ fckfvfpjdb fbdfpfidbkb _ fbdfpjdb fytcbidbkb _ fvjcjdb fvfyfsfidbkb _ fvfyfsjdb _ nhfgeynjdb ,fhfsfidbkb _ lfyfxbtdb _ ,fhfsjdb 20

,fkf,fybidbkb _ ,fkf,fyjdb ,thtybidbkb _ ueh]btdb ~1` ,jcnfyfidbkb _ ,jcnfyxjqkb _ ,jcnfy]btdb ,thefidbkb _ ,thjdb ,bzbfidbkb _ ,bl;jtdb uf,fidbkb _ uf,fjqkb ubjhufidbkb _ ubjhubjqkb ubujkfidbkb _ ubujkjdb df[nfyubidbkb ~udfhb fh itewdkbf^ thjdyt,fib ,thtyb eothbf` pfpfidbkb _ pfpjdb stdljhfidbkb _ stdljhjqkb _ atljhjdb _ fyjpjdb sjaehbt ~udfhb fh itewdkbf^ thjdyt,bs #,thtybf@` sjvfidbkb _ njvfpjdb stshft _ ueh]btdb ~++` sfsfhfidbkb _ sfsfhjqkb _ sfsfhjdb bjhlfyfidbkb _ xekaftdb bcfyfvbidbkb _ cbvjyjdb bcfrft _ af[jhjdb rfkft _ rfkfbxjqkb _ rfkfbxtdb rjcnfyfidbkb _ rjcnfyjdb rtrtkbidbkb ~udfhb fh itewdkbf^ thjdyt,bs #,thtybf@` kfpfhbidbkb _ kfpfhjqkb _ kfpfhblb vfpvfybidbkb _ vfpvbyjqkb _ vfpveljdb vehvfybidbkb _ vehvfyjdb vehflfidbkb _ vehfljqkb _ vehfljdb vbhpfidbkb _ vbhpfjqkb _ vbhpjtdb vthf,bidbkb _ vfhf,jqkb _ vfhf,jdb ybrjkfcidbkb _ ybrjkfjqkb ybrjkft _ ybrjlvjdb gtnhbfidbkb _ gtnhtjqkb _ lbvjtdb cfrfkbt _ ~udfhb fh itewdkbf^ thjdyt,bs #,thtybf@` ctabfidbkb _ ctabfyjdb cf,ft _ ~udfhb fh itewdkbf` eakbcfidbkb _ eakfjqkb _ gkbpjqkb afhf]fyfidbkb _ afhf]fjqkb _ afhf]fyjdb athbfidbkb _ athbjqkb _ rfhfmktdb aehwtkft _ thubitdb afkfdfylbidbkb _ afkfdfyljqkb _ gfaktyjdb mfhsdtkbidbkb _ ueh]btdb ~+++` qdbybfidbkb _ [hbcnjajhjdb 21

.fhf]fidbkb _ .fhf]fjqkb _ .fhf]btdb ztlbkfidbkb _ ~udfhb fh itewdkbf` [txbyfidbkb _ [txbyjdb [fvf]fufidbkb _ [fvf]fujdb _ xbkabtdb ]fkbfidbkb _ rbkbyrfhjdb ]fdfhfidbkb _ ]fdfhfjqkb cbf fhfchekbf& hjujhw ptvjs fqbybiyf^ fhphevcf se ubevbi[fytib vw[jdht,vf lf cfmfhsdtkjib uflvjcf[kt,ekvf ehevt,vf^ hjvtksf ijhbcfw vhfdfkb kfpbf^ fhfcjltc fh bwjlyty ,thyekb tyf^ hfvtse bcbyb tsybrehfl ,thyt,b fh .jabkfy^ vfsb ltlf tyf jlbsufydt b.j mfhsekb lf mfhsdtkehb tyt,b^ tc tyt,b vfs jcvfkt,bc ,fnjyj,bc lhjc lfbdbo.tc lf itbsdbctc sehmekb& fv;fvfl^ \\ c& 80-bfy okt,ib s,bkbcbc eybdthcbntnbc bybwbfnbdbs vfs eybiyfdty ,thyekb tybc ufrdtsbkt,c lf wlbkj,ty^ itfcofdkjy ,thyekb tyf& rbltd eylf bsmdfc jhbjlt cbn.df bvbc itcf[t,^ se mfhsdtk vfhskvflblt,kt,c hfnjv eojlt,ty vf/vflbfyt,b lf pju]th tdhjgtkt,bw #,thyt,c@& vf/vflbfyt,b [ibhfl [fk[t,c /.jalyty fhf tsybrehb resdybkt,bc^ fhfvtl cfhoveyjt,bc vb[tldbs& .dtkf mhbcnbfyb^ vbs evtntc vfhskvflblt,kehb fye #,thyekb@ cfhoveyjt,bc vmjyt [fk[b^ vfssdbc ,thtyb b.j& fvbnjvfw b.j^ vfufkbsfl^ hjv ]th rbltd jcvfktsbc bvgthbbc itmvyfvlt^ tudbgnbc ceksfyt,b cfmfhsdtkjc vtatt,c jabwbfkeh vbvfhsdt,ib #,thtysf isfvjvfdfks@ eojlt,lyty _ tc mfhsdtkb vtabc nbnekbf _ ~\+|-\| cc& fhf,b bcnjhbrjct,b cfmfhsdtkjc itcf[t,^ 1988^ ud& 55` _ itbkt,f fctw bsfhuvyjc tc nbnekb _ #,thyt,bc idbkb lf ,thyt,bc fvjqt,ekb ~vf[dbkb`@ ~bmdt^ ud& 65^ itybidyf 46`& tdhjgtkt,bw^ bvbc ufvj^ hjv vcjakbj cftrktcbj ufy[tsmbkt,bc lhjc mfhsdtkt,vf ,thyek trktcbfc lfezbhtc v[fhb lf lblb cbvnrbwbs bwfdlyty ,thyekvfhskvflblt,kehb trktcbbc nhflbwbt,c^ pju]th mfhsdtkt,c #,thyt,c@^ t&b& ,thyekb trktcbbc otdht,c eojlt,lyty& vbs evtntc^ fct b.j jcvfksf bvgthbfib^ cflfw^ hjujhw fqbybiyf^ .dtkf vfhskvflblt,tkc^ mfhsdtkt,cfw lf fhfmfhsdtkt,cfw ,thyt,c eojlt,lyty& 1990^ ,jh]jvb

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