Date: RE: August 8, 2013 Utilization of Water Bleeders

Light & Power Department

Water Department Methods for Freeze Protection and Quality Assurance The use of flushing or “bleeders” is a common maintenance tool that has been used by the Water Department for many years. It can be utilized to protect lines from freezing and to maintain the water quality within the distribution system. Water Quality Water quality deteriorates as it ages within the distribution system which increases the potential of exceeding regulated maximum contaminant levels (MCL's). The use of water quality “bleeders” reduces the concentration levels of regulated contaminates thereby improving water quality. We have nine bleeders on our system which ensure water quality. (See Attachment 1 for additional information and a geographical example.) Differing Capital Replacements Constraints on funding, time and our citizen’s capacity to endure construction requires the Water Department to prioritize capital projects. While a number of needs exist, some can be deferred. Repairs and costly service restoration due to frozen water mains are avoided by implementing water bleeders in the winter. Use of these bleeders also eliminates the urgency associated with replacing water mains in shallow trenches or having very little to no consumption in the winter. We utilize 36 bleeders to avoid frozen water mains from January to April. Fourteen additional sites can be used in extreme cold winters. For example, during the winter of 1984-1985 when the frost level was extremely deep and multiple main lines froze, most of the Carriage Hills Subdivision was frozen and they (Crystal Water Company) resorted to placing and utilizing above-ground lines to distribute water to the customers. An image of Carriage Hills is shown in Attachment 2. This area has the highest density of bleeders on our system. The potential elimination of eleven bleeders would require the replacement of over 22,000 feet of older cast iron water mains. For this Carriage Hills example:

2 . The total annual cost of freeze protection bleeders including sewer discharge fees is $2. the payback period would be over 1. The capital cost to replace these water mains would be approximately: $2. For bleeders alone.713.a. c.300 years. b.071.000.

there is a greater potential for disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. increasing the water age. Water age will also increase due to non-use (seasonal residents). the distribution system must be sized for firefighting. EPA. There are various root causes that contribute to quality problems. These aspects increase the retention time of drinking water. Long water main extensions called “dead ends” can also have minimal usage. 2002: As water ages. known as water age. There are nine areas requiring additional flow to avoid water age quality problems.Attachment 1 Water Quality Bleeders Capital planning necessitates installation of water mains large enough to meet demands for 40 to 80 years from the time of installation. . Additionally. August 15. The image below displays an area far from the treatment plant. References: “Effects of Water Age on Distribution System Water Quality”. The drinking water is transported through a large portion of Galvanized Steel Pipe (GST) which accelerates water quality deterioration by increasing the water’s chlorine demand.

000 gallons) .77/1.440 (at $120/foot) 11 bleeders – treatment costs: $1.612 feet of water main – replacement cost: $2.Freeze Protection Bleeders Attachment 2 Example of freeze protection bleeders in Carriage Hills Subdivision: 22.000 gallons for 1.1169 (at $0.713.518.