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AP Statistics Chapter 7 Outline

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**7.1 – What Is a Sampling Distribution?
**

Parameter – a number that describes some characteristic of the population. In statistical practice, the value of a parameter is usually not known because we cannot examine the entire population Statistic – a number that describes some characteristic of a sample. The value of a statistic can be computed directly from the sample data. We often use a statistic to estimate an unknown parameter. -- Use p to represent a population proportion -- sample proportion p^ is used to estimate the unknown parameter p Sampling Variability: --the value of a statistic varies in repeated random sampling Sampling Distribution: --sampling distribution of a statistic is the distribution of values taken by the statistic in all possible samples of the same size from the same population Population Distribution: --gives the values of the variable for all the individuals in the population

**The population distribution and the distribution of sample data describe individuals. A sampling distribution describes how a statistic varies in many samples from the population.

**DESCRIBING SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS:
**

p^ is an unbiased estimator of p A statistic used to estimate a parameter is an unbiased estimator if the mean of its sampling distribution is equal to the true value of the parameter being estimated. Biased Estimator – center of the sampling distribution is not the same as the parameter.

Spread: Low variability is better! --larger random sample give us more precise estimates than smaller random samples

This spread is determined primarily by the size of the random sample. Remember that even a very large voluntary response sample or convenience samples is worthless because of bias IDEAL: no bias.3 – Sample Means THE SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF ̅ : MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION: The mean of the sampling distribution of ̅ is = The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of ̅ is: ̅ ̅ √ as long as the 10% condition is satisfied . low variability 7. check that the Normal Condition is satisfied: np ≥ 10 and n(1-p) ≥ 10 **The standard deviation of p^ gets smaller as the sample size n increases 7. the sampling of p^ becomes approximately normal. The spread of the sampling distribution does not depend on the size of the population. Larger samples give smaller spread. as long as the population is at least 10 times larger than the sample. **Taking a larger sample doesn’t fix bias.The variability of a statistic is described by the spread of its sampling distribution.2 – Sample Proportions The sampling distribution of p^: p^ = X / n SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF A SAMPLE PROPORTION: The mean of the sampling distribution of p^ is The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of p^ is: √ ( ) as long as the 10% condition is satisfied As n increases. Before you perform normal calculations.

THE CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM (CLT): --states that when n is large. behavior of ̅ in repeated samples is much like that of the sample proportion p^ SAMPLING FROM A NORMAL POPULATION: ** If the population distribution is Normal. then so is the sampling distribution of f ̅ . Then the sampling distribution of ̅ has the Normal distribution with mean and standard deviation ⁄√ . then so is the sampling distribution of ̅ . If the population distribution is NOT normal. the central limit theorem tells us that the sampling distribution of ̅ will be approximately Normal in most cases if n ≥ 30. Suppose that a population is Normally distributed with mean and standard deviation . This is true no matter what the sample size n is. the sampling distribution of ̅ is approximately normal NORMAL CONDITION FOR SAMPLE MEANS: If the population is Normal. . This is true no matter what the sample size is. provided that the 10% condition is met.The sample mean is an unbiased estimator of the population mean No matter what shape the population distribution has.

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