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DC motor modeling, simulation and control

Select a dc servo-motor, if necessary with a gearbox to drive a nominal load specifying the following fixed parameters: motor constant K (Nm/A) armature circuit resistance R (W) combined motor and gearbox moment of inertia J (Kgm2) input circuit inductance L (H) friction coefficient f (Nms)

(a) Derive a block diagram, transfer function and state model of the open-loop motor (b) A tachometer is used to provide speed feedback together with an amplifier, which is used to provide gain adjustment. How will the latter affect the speed of response, the damping and steady-state error when regulating gearbox speed? (c) A shaft encoder for position feedback is now also introduced. How is the transient and steady-state position of the inertia affected when the positional gain is adjusted? Hence or otherwise obtain a classical controller to provide zero positional error and 20% overshoot. (d) Design a state feedback controller to the same criteria and compare the disturbance rejection properties of the two control strategies (e) Present your findings for (a) (d) in a brief report.

Comments

(a) DC motor mathematic model (Laplace domain) A DC motor can be represented by a set of math equations (i.e. armature voltage, emf, mechanical moment, swing equation, etc.). Google them!!! Btw, its worth noticing the moment and field constants (i.e. they are equal in case of rad/s rotor

speed, but different for rev/sec rotor speed). In this prob, K (Nm/A) is the product of the constant multiplied by the field . In other words, K is the gain of the speed feedback within the motor model diagram. The mechanical output block is 1/(Js + B), where B is the friction-damping ratio, which is sometimes ignored. In this problem B is f (Nms). For the state space model, search materials on the Internet. Try this link: http://ctms.engin.umich.edu/CTMS/index.php?example=MotorPosition&section =ControlStateSpace (b) A tachometer is a device to convert the motor speed signal to the voltage signal, which is then used for control purposes. Basically, a tachometer operates just like a DC generator, where the output voltage is proportional to the rotational speed input. This input output relationship is represented by a constant Ktacho. The gain adjustment mentioned in the problem title = Ktacho x amplifier Impact of this gains manipulation upon the output speed response can be briefly described as The larger gain renders quicker response and smaller, but greater overshooting. Notice that overshooting is an undesired attribute of the output response. The steady-state error is then decreased accordingly. To obtain a deep understanding on this subject, try to produce the steady-state error formula in the Laplace domain, with K being the changing gain (i.e. s comes to zero when time reaches infinity). (c) A shaft encoder is a device to produce comprehensive signals showing the position of the rotor shaft. Inertia is a wheel that is hooked up with rotor shaft at the end to store kinetic energy. Then its position is also rotors position. The second and outer feedback control loop is employed for adjusting rotors position. As the primary aim of position control is removing steady-state error, then the PI controller should be deployed (i.e. since the integral element of the controller eliminates the steady-state error). Some of classical controllers can be exemplified as modulus optimum method and symmetrical optimum method. They can be investigated and explained by pole-zero map, and Bode diagrams, etc. Look for materials of control theory for more understanding. (d) Search for classical textbooks on control theory for details. The implementation can be carried out using Matlab codes alone.