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1. Bony fish A Purpose of the system: breathing/ gas exchange/ respiration/ Circulation system: Gills (How does it work?

What does it do?)

Animals need to exchange oxygen and CO2 with their environment to live. Fish do this by passing water over their gills, the gills are equivalent of lungs. This wonderful organ, the gill, has allowed fish for millions of years to enjoy the wonder that is underwater basket weaving.

B Parts of the system + their structure

Internal anatomy of a bony fish: finned aquatic vertebrates animal with skin covered with scales. It lives in water and is usually oviparous. Brain: seat of the mental faculties of a fish. Esophagus: part of the digestive tract connecting the mouth to the stomach. Dorsal aorta: vessel in the back that carries blood from the heart to the organs. Stomach: part of the digestive tract between the esophagus and the intestine. Air bladder: pocket in which urine collects. Spinal cord: part of the nervous system that connects the brain to all other parts of a fish. Kidney: blood-purifying organ. Urinary orifice: opening for eliminating urine. Genital Orifice: opening related to the genital organs. Anus: end of the digestive tract. Gonad: hormone-secreting sexual gland of a fish. Intestine: last part of the digestive tract. Pyloric cecum: cul-de-sac related to the intestine. Gall bladder: small sac containing the bile. Liver: bile-producing digestive gland. Heart: blood-pumping organ. Gills: respiratory organ of a fish.

Tooth: hard organ of a fish used to shred food. Eye: sight organ of a fish. Olfactory bulb: bulging part of the smell organ of smell of a fish.

Figure 1http://www.todayifoundout.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/fish-gill.jpg

C Function of each part (what role does it play in the system?) 2. Locust A Purpose of the system Breathing system : trachea. These tracheae penetrate right through the insect's body. Air enters the tracheae by pores called spiracles. These spiracles are found on each side of the insect's abdomen. Each segment of the abdomen has a pair of spiracles.

B Parts of the system + their structure

C Function of each part (what role does it play in the system?)

3. Rat A Purpose of the system B Parts of the system + their structure

C Function of each part (what role does it play in the system?)


1. The first arterial branch from the abdominal aorta (below the diaphragm) is the celiac artery which branches to arteries that supply the stomach (gastric artery), liver (hepatic artery), spleen and pancreas (splenic artery) . 2. The second artery arising from the abdominal artery is thesuperior mesenteric artery, which is larger than the celiac, and delivers blood directly to the small intestine. 3. The renal arteries are short and lead directly to the kidneys. These are probably the easiest to locate. 4. Just posterior to the renal arteries are the genital arteries, which lead to the testes or the ovaries. 5. Farther along the abdominal aorta, you can find the iliolumbar arteries which lead to the dorsal muscles of the back. 6. Next, the inferior mesenteric artery leads to the intestinal mesenteries. 7. The abdominal aorta gives rise to the caudal artery, which goes on into the tail. 8. The abdominal aorta finally divides to form the iliac arteries, which deliver blood to the pelvis and hind legs. 9. The iliac arteries lead to the femoral artery in the leg.