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Test Report of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Concrete and Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Polyacrylonitrile fiber reinforced concrete

1. Foreword Concrete is widely used in structural engineering with its high compressive strength, low cost and abundant raw material. But common concrete has some shortcomings, for example, shrinkage and cracking, low tensile and flexural strength, poor toughness, high brittleness, low shock resistance and so on, that restrict its applications. To overcome these deficiencies, additional materials are added to improve the performance of concrete. Fiber reinforced concrete is a cement-based composite material that has been developed in recent years. It has been successfully used in construction with its excellent flexural-tensile strength, resistance to splitting, impact resistance and excellent permeability, and frost resistance. It is an effective way to increase toughness, shock resistance, and resistance to plastic shrinkage cracking of the mortar. Fiber reinforced concrete composite properties, such as crack resistance, reinforcement and increase in toughness are dependent on the mechanical properties of the fiber, bonding properties of the fiber and matrix, as well as the quantity and distribution within the matrix of the fibers. In relation to the elastic modulus, fibers are divided into two types, those where the elastic modulus of fibers is less than the elastic modulus of the matrix: ie. cellulose fiber, polypropylene fiber, polyacrylonitrile fiber, etc.; and those where the elastic modulus of fibers is greater than the elastic modulus of the matrix: ie. asbestos fibers, glass fiber, steel fiber, carbon fiber, aramid fiber, etc. Basalt fiber is a new material that has been increasingly used in recent years. Basalt fiber (BCF) is an inorganic fiber material. It is an all-natural material and originates from volcanic rock. Basalt rock is melted at high-temperature (1450 ° C) and rapidly drawn into a continuous fiber. It then can be chopped into various lengths. Its color can vary between brown, gold, or gray. The basic characteristics of Basalt materials are high-temperature resistance, high corrosion resistance, resistance to acids and alkalis, high strength and thermal stability. Basalt materials can be used as a reinforcing composite material for the construction industry, specifically as a less expensive alternative to carbon fiber.

plant facilities. (1) The naturalness of raw material. anti-radiation. thermal and sound insulation. good stability. anti-compression strength and high shear strength. as well as other excellent characteristics. It is found in nature as an inorganic non-metal material. and is a new basic material and high-tech fiber that can satisfy the demand for the development of basic infrastructures. Since the raw material of BCF is naturally found in the form of volcanic extrusive rock. (4) Natural compatibility. the coastal protection works. The technical specifications of basalt fiber are laid out in table 1 and table 2. bridges. excellent thermal resistance. electrically and sound insulated. shear strength. Basalt has a 3-dimentional molecule and when compared with single infiltrating linear polymeric fibers.These tests examine the performance of Basalt Chopped Strands (BCS). ports. filtration. it is thermally. adaptability in any harsh environment. it is a competitive alternative product of polypropylene fiber and polyacrylonitrile fiber. anti-seepage. Basalt fiber is a “multi-performance” fiber. high availability. its elongation is better than smalltow carbon fiber. crack resistance and impact resistance. The tests will also compare and analyze the reinforcement performance with polypropylene and polyacrylonitrile fibers. high specific modulus. it is resistant to alkalis and acids. basalt fiber reinforced concrete serves the functions of reinforcement. Fresh basalt fiber reinforced concrete has good characteristics. its tensile strength can be greater than large-tow carbon fiber. (3) Cost effectivness. BCF also has excellent temperature resistance (-260~700 ). runways. Therefore. For example. it has natural chemical and thermal stability and does not possess any known health risks. Basalt fiber is a typical ceramic fiber. it has higher anti-compressive strength. anti-aging. and good cost performance. 2. urban elevated roads. and can extend the life of construction in the fields of housing. highways. Brief introduction of Basalt Fiber (BCF) In addition to high specific strength. crack resistance. subway tunnels. Basalt fiber for cement and concrete is not expensive. BCF is natural material and will bring revolutionary changes in construction and transportation. it’s easy to disperse when mixed with cement concrete and mortar. . such as volume stability. anti-oxidation. reinforced concrete. (2) Comprehensiveness of performance. railways. good workability.

5 15-18 11-20 3.2 2 3 Table 2: comparison of properties among basalt fiber and other fibers fibers Glass fiber A-glass C-glass E-glass S2-glass silicon fiber quartz fiber carbon fiber large-tow middle-tow small-tow Aromatic polyamide fiber Kevlar 29 Kevlar 149 polypropylene fiber polyacrylonitrile fiber basalt fiber 3. % 2N HCl 2.18 2.47 0.20 1.76 5.46 2.15 —— —— 1.3 .Table 1: main technical indicators of BCF 1 No performance Number Thermo-physical properties     working temperature.0 H2O 0.59 2.60 2.49 2.65 69 69 76 97 —— —— 228 241 297 41.46 2.03 ¡ 0.44 1. -269 ¡ 700     bond temperature.Experimental Study ¤ density g/cm 3 ¥ Mechanical strength (MPa) 3310 3310 3450 4830 206~412 3438 3620 5100 6210 3620 3480 270-650 500-910 4150~4800 Elastic modulus elongation ¤ GPa ¥ ¤ % ¥ 2.11 2.20 3.°K 0.6 1.80 1.038 physical properties filament diameter(µm) 7 ¡ 15 3 density (kg/m ) 2650 elastic modulus(kg/mm2) 10000 ¡ 11000 Tensile strength ¢ MPa £ 4150 ¡ 4800 Tensile strength under heat treatment.80 1.4 38 75 100~110 4.16 2.91 1.8 4.74 1. w/m. %   100 20   95 200   82 400 Chemical stability (weightlessness in 3-hour boiling) .8 4. 1050 Thermal Conductivity.2 2N NaOH 6.

. modulus of elasticity.Effect of basalt fiber on early anti-shrinkage cracks of concrete.Combining the results of previous tests.2 Raw material ¦ § .Effect of basalt fiber on impact resistance of concrete. frost-resistant properties. and static compression of concrete. splitting tensile strength. .Effect on working concrete (slump) when (BCF) is added.3. comparing the properties of basalt fiber strength.Effect of basalt fiber on impermeability. . 3. shrinkage of concrete.Effect of basalt fiber on the cubic compressive strength. .Cement: ¨ © .1 Content ¦ § ¨ © These tests examined the effect of different quantities of fibers mixed in the concrete: . reinforced concrete with polypropylene fiber and polyacrylonitrile fiber reinforced concrete. flexural .

3 . length: 6mm.fine aggregate: sand size modulus: 2.15µm.91kg/m3 .Coarse aggregate: granite stone size: 5~25mm . 2# mixing basalt fiber: diameter . length: 19mm.  . density: 0.17µm.6 .Polyacrylonitrile fiber. diameter: 31µm. 3# mixing basalt fiber: diameter .water: common water .Additive: superplasticizer .65 Proportion (relative density) Length of fiber elongation(%)  5µm 3.18kg/m3 Table 3: Main parameters of BCF Properties Moisture(%) BCF 0.1 2.Chopped basalt strand: . trefoil shaped. length – 12mm. quantity: 3kg/m3. quantity: 1kg/m3. length – 18mm.9dtex.fly ash: grade A ash . . diameter: 1. density: 1.Polypropylene fiber.

004 Bank (US Dollars): ABN AMRO 41. record the crack times.75. the impact loading transmits to the specimen across the steel ball.45kg. splitting tensile strength and elastic modulus of static pressure of concrete were tested. frost resistance (slow-freezing method). test result is the average of 3 data. Impermeability. Fiber reinforced concrete performance was tested.3 Tests (1) Fresh concrete slump test.5 Test mix is in table 4 and table 5 Table 4: test mix (kg/m3) Fibres Unlimited B. The ordinary concrete’s long-term performance and durability were tested.BO1 Chamber of Commerce: 08148636 . 3.4 System of mixing Concrete: fine aggregate + cement + fiber + water + additive + coarse aggregate.5mm of the specimen.3 3. Test result: after cracking by dropping hammer. Cement mortar anti-shrinkage and crack performance were tested. descent height: 1000mm. Concrete was vibration formed by using a shaking table.99. Crack resistance index and crack effectiveness were tested.144.8MPa  no combustion Better  66. The size of the specimen is 150mm×64mm (cut from a cube specimen with 200mm length.V. the shrinkage. flexural strength. and result of concrete were tested. 3 specimens in a group.40.26. Hammer quality: 4. Oude Apeldoornseweg 69 8171 LV Vaassen The Netherlands Telephone: +31 (0)578 569950 Fax: +31 (0)578 569955 Bank (Euros): ABN AMRO 48. The compressive strength. 3.925 BIC: ABNANL2A VAT: NL8169.01. the hammer dropped on the steel ball with 63. when the cleft width of the specimen is more than 3mm. Concrete anti-impact performance test and result were assessed according to the American Concrete Institute’s ACI  544. Cement mortar crack resistance was tested.Heat reflect and burning situation acid and alkali resistance Tensile Strength (cN/tex)  1cN/tex=11. mix for 3 minutes. after removal of surface shape 50mm). Technical Specification of fiber reinforced concrete structure was tested.

5 4. different mixing quantities and without fibers on compression strength ratio. .Basalt fiber concrete 4.Test result 4.Polyacrylonitrile fiber slump ¢£ 190 180 175 180 185 165 4.0 0.Polypropylene fiber oncrete 5.1 Test result of concrete slump containing different fibers. shock resistance and shrinkage/cracking properties of cement mortar is found in table 7. 1.Basalt fiber concrete 3. flexural strength ratio. impermeability.2 7.5 fiber / 1.Blank concrete 2.2 Test result on the influence of the concrete slump with different fibers.0 4.No. Table 6: influence of mixing fiber on fresh concrete slump No. shrinkage.2 7. 1 2 3 4 Blank concrete Basalt fiber concrete Basalt fiber concrete Polypropylene fiber oncrete cement 420 420 420 420 Fly ash 60 60 60 60 sand 656 656 656 656 stone 1069 1069 1069 1069 water 175 175 175 175 JC-2 7.0 3. different mixing quantities and no fiber is in table 6.2 fiber / 1. 5 6 Blank concrete Polyacrylonitrile fiber cement 450 450 sand 666 666 stone 1184 1184 water 150 150 Additive 4.Blank concrete 6.2 7.9 Table 5: test mix (kg/m3) No. splitting tensile strength ratio. frost resistance. antifreeze performance.

0 93. Flexural strength ratio .0 98. splitting tensile strength.8 101.3 101.2 102.2 100. flexural strength. Splitting tensile strength ratio .9 100. antifreeze performance. shock resistance and shrinkage cracking properties of cement mortar antifreeze performan compr ession strengt h ratio flexural strength ratio splittin g tensile strengt h ratio Improve d coefficie nt of imperm eability Shrinka ge ratio ce Strength loss rate ratio antishock resistanc e shrinkage cracking properties of cement mortar Crack lower coeffic ient Limite d effecti veness of split grades 3rd class 2nd class 2nd class 1st class No 2 3 4 6 92.9 100.percentage of splitting tensile of concrete with basalt and concrete without fiber.percentage of flexural strength of concrete with basalt and concrete without fiber. shrinkage.Table 7: the influence of mixed fibers on compression strength.4 99. Improved coefficient of impermeability caculated by type (1): λ=  Dm 0 − Dm1 × 100 ………………………………… 1  Dm 0 .8 99.8 99.6 35 50 40 56 97 100 97 86 90 54 48 11 133 210 193 162 47 61 58 73 Remarks  Compression strength ratio – percentage of compression strength of concrete with basalt and concrete without fiber of the same class. impermeability.

0kg/m2).4 Putting fibers into concrete improves the shock resistance. addition of the 3 fibers caused nearly no change of flexural strength. reducing degree of the 3 fibers is basically same. the flexural strength and splitting tensile is lower. reducing degree of compression strength is greater. Basalt fiber and polypropylene fiber are basically the same. splitting tensile. as the fibers evenly distribute in concrete. 5. Crack lower coefficient was tested. %  N1 × 100 ………………………………… 2  N0 N1 ——devastating impact times of tested concrete. mm. % Dm1 ——seepage height of tested concrete. Dm0 ——seepage height of benchmark concrete. In this respect. In the case of lower volumes (1. the fibers can mitigate the concentration of stress within inner crack tip and effectively impede the . the quantity of fibers in unit volume is big.0kg/m2).——Improved coefficient of impermeability. In the case of lower volumes (1. Limited effectiveness of split grades was tested. they compose the 3D chaos distribution construction. 5. 5. time N0 ——devastating impact times of benchmark concrete. they effectively prevent the disintegration of concrete and greatly improve the cohesive properties and impermeability. After adding fibers into concrete. the fiber is thin and the specific surface area is large. Strength loss rate ratio in antifreeze performance . slightly lower the slump of concrete. This well mixed chaos network system helps to improve absorbed the kinetics of impact. but reducing degree is poor. the addition of fibers slightly lowers the compression strength of concrete.3 In the case of similar volumes. 5.1 After putting fibers into concrete. When concrete receives an impact load. Analysis of test results 5. while polyacrylonitrile fiber has a greater rate of decline. time Shrinkage ratio – shrinkage of concrete with basalt and concrete without fiber.2 In the case of similar volumes.strength loss rate ratio of concrete with basalt and concrete without fiber. Anti-shock resistance caulculated by type (2) Cj = Cj ——anti-shock resistance of concrete. mm. Adding fibers can make up for the concrete brittleness.

and reduces the water separating out. and reduces the possibility of break caused by plastic shrinkage of cement mortar.5 After 25 freeze-thaw cycles. Basalt fiber has small diameter and length. water loss area is reduced. therefore capillary tension. the compressive strength loss of concrete with basalt fiber and polypropylene fiber is the same. Fiber reduces the initial original cracks in concrete. makes water hard to move. basalt fiber has a better impermeability capacity than polypropylene fiber. When fiber is mixed. which are well mixed and distributed throughout the concrete. the freeze performance of polyacrylonitrile fiber is best. Putting fibers into concrete can ease the effect of inner stress caused by the change of temperature. whereas basalt fiber and polypropylene fiber is equal. avoid temperature break to expend. In the case of similar volumes. In the case of similar volumes of mixed fibers and after 25 freeze-thaw cycles. It reduces the shrinkage stress of concrete. 5. as fiber exists in surface material. 5. This greatly reduces the microporosity content. as well as the aggregate segregation. Bonding and mechanical meshing strength between the fiber and cement can increase anti-shrinkage and cracking. and control of the production and development of micro-fractures within the concrete. In the case of similar volumes. By increasing the volume of fiber. as well as reduce shrinkage and deformation. At the same time air is put in during the process of mix. Mixed fiber in concrete is distributed in a state of chaos. Within the 3 fibers. increases its cohesive property.6 Impermeability of fiber reinforced concrete is improved.7 The 28-day shrinkage of fiber reinforced concrete has no obvious change as compared with benchmark concrete.rapid development of breaks. low elastic modulus. Fibers. With . The drying shrinkage of concrete is caused by water loss. effectively avoids its segregation. In the case of similar volumes. 5. produced by the traction of the capillary’s water loss. The result is high tensile strength. shrinkage and deformation resistance of polyacrylonitrile fiber is best. moisture difficultly moves. the compressive strength loss of concrete with fiber is less than concrete without fiber. After mixing fiber with chaos distribution. improving the impact performance of basalt fiber reinforced concrete is higher. it increases the air content increasing and improves the anti-freeze performance. can have a “support” effect. and the energy of shrinkage is separated to the fibers. increased toughness. the plastic shrinkage of concrete is effectively restrained. cement mortar is improved.8 The shrinkage cracking properties of fiber mixed. thereby improving the impact performance. The obvious crack resistance effect improves the impermeability capacity of fiber reinforced concrete. plastic break of the mortar is reduced. absorb kinetics of impact. 5.

 3 The application field of high performance concrete is growing. are better than both polypropylene fiber and polyacrylonitrile fiber. Therefore. Currently. 5.  2 With its excellent properties. Therefore.equal quality. impermeability and freeze resistance.9 From the test result. its plastic crack performance resistance increases. but due to the fact that the size of the polyacrylonitrile fiber is small and the length is short. therefore. and polyacrylonitrile fiber is same. In the case of similar volumes. It can also improve the cohesion and stability of concrete. but the brittle and crack performance of common concrete is more serious. when considering the improved properties of concrete with fiber. such as impact resistance. impact resistance. then the quantity of fiber in unit volume will be high. polypropylene fiber. The performance of concrete does not noticeably change when the volume does not reach a certain quantity. the properties test result of basalt fiber. environmental protection and conservation of resources are more critical. . Certain properties of basalt fiber. the shrinkage cracking properties of basalt fiber and polypropylene fiber is equal. As the fiber receives more plastic crack stress. the early shrinkage cracking property is improved. Although using fiber will increase the cost of one cubic meter of concrete. such as crack resistance.  4 Basalt fiber has no adverse effects when mixing. the extended working life. then its total cost is reduced. basalt fiber is helpful for improving durability and increasing the working life of concrete. basalt fiber reinforced concrete will have a growing presence in the construction field. pouring and shaping. As the cohesive surface between the fiber and cement increases. it has broad application prospects. and effectively improve properties of High Strength Concrete. the cohesive force improves with it. basalt fiber can totally replace polypropylene fiber and polyacrylonitrile fiber. 6 Conclusion From the test data:  1 From the test situation. more quantity of fiber results in an increased surface area.0kg/m3. Fiber can hinder early plastic cracking and shrinkage cracking. The preferred volume of basalt fiber is 3.

. are preliminary. 5 Fiber increases the impact resistance of concrete. such as splitting resistance. and the fact that size will directly influence the test results. As compared with organic polypropylene fiber and polyacrylonitrile fiber. then the effects of different fiber sizes should be compared. it can be used in the field of port deepwater pier. bridge and cold regions. Therefore.  6 Basalt fiber can improve impermeability. inorganic basalt fiber has better anti-aging properties. so it can be used in road and bridge surface engineering in order to improve the mechanical property of concrete. As a result of its improved durability and long-term performance. Additional testing should be performed. (2) Because of the various sizes of the different fibers. freeze-thaw cycles and anti contractility of concrete. basalt reinforced concrete is a kind of representative High Performance Concrete. lowers its brittleness. the advantages of fiber. 7 Description (1) Since the sample sizes in this test were small .