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2009/10/30 1 Khalil
An Overview of the National agricultural
Extension Strategy in Yemen
(Summary of a paper presented to the Symposium on the “Agricultural Strategies fir the 21st
Century, Nasser College of Agricultural Sciences, Aden University)

By
Dr. Khalil M. Alsharjabi
Agricultural Research and Extension Authority (AREA), Dhamar
P. O. Box 87148 , Republic of Yemen
Email: khalil60amal@yahoo.com or
area@yemen.net.ye
____________________________________

During the 1970s and the 1980s of the past century, and to a less extent the
1990s, great efforts has been directed towards establishing and strengthening
agricultural extension in different regions of the country. Accordingly, a large
number of rural development projects included extension components as part of
their overall structures. Each of the extension services developed its own
organizational setup, working methodology, mechanism, and links with other
institutions. Each of the extension services had also its unique scope, human
and material resources, field of interest, and financial capability. This had
characterized extension system in Yemen with a much variation and lack of
coordination and national supervision. Efforts have been exerted to remedy the
situation but little has been achieved despite the good intention and sincere
efforts.

Even after the establishment of AREA in 1990, there has been much confusion
and uncertainty with respect to various issues relating to extension such as its
institutional arrangement, financing, programming and priority setting, linkage
mechanism, monitoring and evaluation and the like. In the mid-1990s, the
Government declared the “Economic , Financial and Administrative Reform
Program” after which the early talks and thoughts of “The Aden Agenda” has
triggered too. In parallel, a similar effort had also started towards the
formulation of the “National Agricultural Research Strategy”. These and other
factors; national, international and regional, have induced quite large number of
new concepts and propositions such as “privatization”, “sustainability”,
“conservation and optimal utilization of natural resources”, “cost recovery”,
“halting government subsidies to some services”, “beneficiaries’ participation”
among others.

The extension services, therefore, could not stay aloof of those persistent
changes and compelling circumstances. The need to review extension
objectives, working mechanisms, approaches and methodologies,
programming, monitoring and evaluation, and to make necessary
organizational, financial and administrative adjustment was loudly expressed
by those concerned.

2009/10/30 2 Khalil
Hence, the first step towards the formulation of “the National Agricultural
Extension Strategy (NAES)” has been undertaken. This has started with the
preparation of “local reports” at provincial level, followed by the organization
of workshop at regional level prior to the national workshop through which the
final version of the strategy was reviewed and approved.

The NAES reviewed the past and present situation of farm extension in the
country. It has determined a number of issues relevant to the agricultural
extension such as objectives, roles and responsibilities of the government and
non-government sector, institutional setup, approaches and methodologies with
much emphasis on the participation, sources of information for extension
messages, programming, implementation, and coordination linkage
mechanisms at different levels. Additionally, the NAES explained ways to
enhance beneficiaries’ participation at various stages of managing extension
programs.

Steps to translate the NAES into action has also started through a number of
activities that has taken place during the past 2 –3 years by AREA and other
concerned agencies. Examples of such efforts could be best noted in the
formulation of the Mid-Term Regional and National Plans derived from the
NAES, the Taiz Agenda on the improvement of Research-Extension-Farmers
Coordination Linkage Mechanism, the foundation of the National Extension
Committee and so on and so forth.

Nevertheless, since the first effort towards the formulation of the NAES and
thereafter, a number of remarks had been brought up about the flaws and
weaknesses that have accompanied its various stages of development and
realization. Deeper scrutiny and rational review would point out to a number of
imperfections such as the limited, or none, involvement of the private and
cooperative sectors, the inadequacy and un-clarity of prescribing future
orientation with regard to training and communication support to extension,
and the institutional relationship between extension services within each major
agri-ecological zones, i. e. the highlands, the coastal and the eastern regions.

2009/10/30 3 Khalil
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2009/10/30 17 Khalil
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B , -1 '1 $ F B Q$ B *J 8 ( G . ( M # *
.< + 6 # 1 8 = L

: ( B
. # .1997 C 3'
. # ,

2009/10/30 18 Khalil