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A Guide To The Visual Assessement Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions

Visual Assessement Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions A GUIDE TO VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT SURFACE
Visual Assessement Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions A GUIDE TO VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT SURFACE

A GUIDE TO VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT SURFACE CONDITIONS

 
   
 

FOREWORD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In Malaysia as well as in most other countries in the world, the road network remains the pre- dominant mode of transportation facility. To ensure its continued efficiency and accessibili- ty, the road network has to be maintained to a high standard. Research work carried out at Institut Kerja Raya Malaysia (IKRAM) has enable Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) Malaysia to understand and develop improved techniques for the maintenance of the road network.

This guide is prepared by the Pavement Research Unit (Head: Ir Mohamed Shafii Mustafa). The authors of this guideline are Ir Koid Teng Hye, Ir Mohamed Shafii Mustafa, Mohd Sabri Hasim, Abd. Mutalif K. A. Abd. Hameed and Ahmad Fauzi Abdul Malek. The document forms part of a series of guidelines on the design, construction and maintenance of flexible pavements which the Pavement Research Unit produces as part of their studies.

It

is the aspiration of JKR to be able to share

The guide was reviewed by a Committee head- ed by the Director of IKRAM, Ir Ng Chong Yuen. Other members of the Committee were

Ir. Han Joke Kwang

this knowledge with those that are involved in road building and maintenance activities. It is therefore my pleasure to introduce this first edi- tion of A Guide to Visual Assessment of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

-

IKRAM

This guide, which is the first part of a series of guidelines on road maintenance techniques has

Ir. Aik Siaw Kong

-

Road Maintenance, Roads Branch

a

two fold purpose. Firstly, it is to encourage

 

the usage of common nomenclature for the var- ious pavement conditions and secondly it hopes to promote more effective maintenance works with the indication of the possible causes of each different type of pavement distress and their probable treatments.

Ir. Tai Meu Choi

-

Road Maintenance, Roads Branch

Ir. Zainol Rashid Zainuddin

-

Road Maintenance, Roads Branch;

Ir. Lee Swee Kee

It

is my hope that this guideline will be of help

-

Road Design, Roads Branch.

to all who are involved in road maintenance activities and contribute significantly towards better maintenance techniques.

The authors thank the Director General of Public Works Malaysia for his permission to publish the guideline.

(Tan Sri Dato' Ir. Wan A. Rahman Yaacob) Director General of Public Works Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia

 
 
Director General of Public Works Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia   Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L
Director General of Public Works Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia   Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 1

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.     CONTENTS used in one form or another
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.     CONTENTS used in one form or another
 
   
 

CONTENTS

used in one form or another by most road departments and/or highway authorities as a measure of the ability of the pavement to con- tinue to provide the required service to the pub- lic. More importantly, it is used in determining deficiencies and inadequacies of pavements, the remedial measures to be taken, its fiscal needs, planning and programming of pavement maintenance and/or rehabilitation.

Page

FOREWORD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

1.0.

INTRODUCTION

2

CATALOGUE OF DISTRESSES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES

3

2.0.

PAVEMENT CRACKS

3

This guide is for the assessment of flexible road pavements only. Concrete pavements and unpaved roads are not covered by this guide.

2.1.

Crocodile

4

2.2.

Block

5

The aims of this guide are :-

2.3.

Longitudinal

6

2.4.

Transverse

7

i) To provide a uniform nomenclature for the description of visible pavement distresses.

2.5.

Edge

8

2.6.

Crescent Shaped

9

3.0.

SURFACE DEFORMATIONS

10

ii) to provide a comprehensive catalogue of the major visible distress types.

3.1.

Rutting

11

3.2.

Corrugation

12

iii) To promote the usage of distress recognition as an aid to the diagnosis of pavement deficiencies.

3.3.

Depression

13

3.4.

Shoving

14

4.0

SURFACE DEFECTS

15

Pavement distresses are categorized and quanti- fied. Illustrations of each category are provided to lend uniformity to reporting and interpreta- tion. Description of the severity of the particu- lar distress is made to conform with standard words that express the relative severity on a low, moderate or high scale.

4.1.

Bleeding

16

4.2.

Ravelling

17

4.3.

Polishing

18

4.4.

Delamination

19

5.0.

PATCH

20

6.0.

POTHOLE

21

The following data are also provided for each distress type :-

7.0.

EDGE DEFECTS

22

i) Common synonym(s).

7.1.

Edge Break

22

ii) Description of the essential features of the distress.

7.2.

Edge Drop Off

23

GLOSSARY

24

iii) Photographs of typical examples.

REFERENCES

25

iv) List of probable or most likely causes.

1.0.

INTRODUCTION

v) List of probable treatments.

Assessment of pavement surface conditions is

 
 
treatments. Assessment of pavement surface conditions is   Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page 2
treatments. Assessment of pavement surface conditions is   Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page 2

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. CATALOGUE OF DISTRESSES IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS i)
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. CATALOGUE OF DISTRESSES IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS i)
CATALOGUE OF DISTRESSES IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

CATALOGUE OF DISTRESSES IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

i) Depression.

Manifestation of Distresses in flexible pave- ments can be categorized into one of the fol- lowing types :

ii) Fatigue life of the surfacing being exceeded.

iii) Age embrittlement of the surfacing.

a)

Cracks

iv) Reflection of cracks in underlying layers.

b)

Surface deformations

 

v) Shrinkage.

c)

Surface defects

 

vi) Poor construction joints.

d)

Patches

e)

Potholes

This section includes the following types of cracks:

f)

Eedge defects

i) Crocodile cracks.

 

ii) Block cracks.

2.0.

PAVEMENT CRACKS

 

iii) Longitudinal cracks.

Cracks are fissures resulting from partial or complete fractures of the pavement surface. Cracking of road pavement surfaces can hap- pen in a wide variety of patterns, ranging from isolated single crack to an interconnected pat- tern extending over the entire pavement sur- face. The detrimental effects associated with the presence of cracks are :

iv) Transverse cracks.

v) Edge cracks.

vi) Crescent shaped cracks.

The general form of the various types of cracks is illustrated in Fiqure 1.

i) Loss of water-proofing of the pavement layers.

Fiqure 1. i) Loss of water-proofing of the pavement layers. ii) Loss of load spreading ability

ii) Loss of load spreading ability of the cracked material.

iii) Pumping and loss of fines from the base course.

iv) Loss of riding quality through loss of surfacing.

v) Loss of appearance.

FIGURE 1 : TYPES OF CRACK

The loss of load spreading ability and water- proofing will usually lead to accelerated deteri- oration of the pavement condition. The possible causes of cracks include :

will usually lead to accelerated deteri- oration of the pavement condition. The possible causes of cracks
oration of the pavement condition. The possible causes of cracks include : Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat
oration of the pavement condition. The possible causes of cracks include : Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. CROCODILE CRACKS DESCRIPTION Low severity with
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. CROCODILE CRACKS DESCRIPTION Low severity with

CROCODILE CRACKS

CROCODILE CRACKS DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION

Low severity with interconnected hairline cracks Moderate severity with lightly spalled cracks High severity with
Low severity with interconnected
hairline cracks
Moderate severity with lightly
spalled cracks
High severity with severe spalling

Crocodile cracks are interconnected or inter- laced cracks which form a network of multi- sided blocks resembling the skin of a crocodile. The block size can range from 100 mm to about 300 mm.

Crocodile cracks is a consequence of the inabil- ity of the structure to support the repeated loads due to a "softening" of the material normally associated with increase in moisture content. The cracks in the subbase or subgrade tend to

spread rapidly under rain and traffic causing blocks of surfacing to be displaced and broken up.

SEVERITY LEVELS

Low Interconnected or interlaced hairline cracks running parallel to each other; cracks not spalled.

Moderate A pattern of articulated pieces formed by cracks that may be lightly spalled. Cracks may be sealed.

High Pieces more severely spalled at edges and loos- ened; pieces rock under traffic; pumping may exist.

2.1.

CROCODILE CRACKS

SYNONYMS

MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN

Alligator, chicken wire, fish net, polygonal, fatigue cracks.

a) area affected.

b) predominant crack width

 

c) predominant cell width.

NO.

POSSIBLE CAUSES

 

PROBABLE TREATMENTS

1.

Inadequate pavement thickness

 

Strengthen the pavement or reconstruction

2.

Low modulus base

 

Strengthen the base or reconstruction

3.

Brittle base

 

Base recycling or reconstruction

4.

Poor base drainage

 

Improve the drainage and reconstruct

5.

Brittle wearing course

 

Replace or treat wearing course

 
   
 
wearing course   Replace or treat wearing course     Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L
wearing course   Replace or treat wearing course     Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. BLOCK CRACKS 2.2. BLOCK CRACKS Low severity with
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. BLOCK CRACKS 2.2. BLOCK CRACKS Low severity with

BLOCK CRACKS

BLOCK CRACKS

2.2.

BLOCK CRACKS

Low severity with cracks' width < 3 mm Moderate severity with cracks' width > 3
Low severity with cracks' width < 3 mm
Moderate severity with cracks' width > 3 mm
High severity with severely spalled cracks

SYNONYM

Ladder cracks.

DESCRIPTION

Block cracks are interconnected cracks forming a series of blocks, approximately rectangular in shape. Block sizes are usually greater than 300 mm and can exceed 3000 mm.

SEVERITY LEVELS

Low Blocks defined by unspalled cracks with a mean width of 3 mm or less; cracks with sealant in good condition.

Moderate Blocks defined by moderately spalled cracks; cracks with a mean width greater than 3 mm.

High Blocks well defined by severely spalled cracks.

MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN

a) area affected.

b) predominant crack width.

 

c) predominant cell width.

NO.

POSSIBLE CAUSES

   

PROBABLE TREAMENTS

1

Joints in underlying layer

 

Crushed aggregate overlay

2

Shrinkage and fatigue of underlying cemented material

 

Replace underlying cemented materials

3

Shrinkage cracks (due to bitumen seal hardening) in bituminous surfacing

 

Seal cracks or replace bituminous surfacing

4

Fatigue cracks in embrittled bituminous wearing course

 

Cut and patch or crushed aggregate overlay

 
   
 
course   Cut and patch or crushed aggregate overlay     Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR,
course   Cut and patch or crushed aggregate overlay     Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR,

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. LONGITUDINAL CRACKS 2.3. LONGITUDINAL CRACKS Low
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. LONGITUDINAL CRACKS 2.3. LONGITUDINAL CRACKS Low

LONGITUDINAL CRACKS

LONGITUDINAL CRACKS 2.3. LONGITUDINAL CRACKS

2.3.

LONGITUDINAL CRACKS

Low severity single crack without any spalling Moderate severity with crack's width > 3 mm
Low severity single crack
without any spalling
Moderate severity with crack's
width > 3 mm
High severity with multiple
spalled cracks

SYNONYM

Line cracks

DESCRIPTION

Longitudinal cracks are cracks which are usual- ly straight and parallel to the centre line, situat- ed at or near the middle of the lane. It can hap- pen singly or as series of almost parallel cracks or with some limited branching.

SEVERITY LEVELS

Low Cracks with low severity or no spalling; mean unsealed crack width of 3 mm or less.

Moderate Cracks with moderately severe spalling; mean unsealed crack width of greater than 3 mm; sealant material in bad condition.

High Cracks with high severity spalling.

MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN

a)

width of dominant crack.

b)

length of dominant crack. c) spacing.

 

d)

area affected.

NO

POSSIBLE CAUSES

   

PROBABLE TREATMENTS

1

reflection of shrinkage cracks

 

cut and patch

2

poorly constructed paving lane in bituminous surfacing

 

replace bituminous surfacing

3

displacement of joints at pavement widening

 

reconstruction of joints

4

differential settlement between cut and fill

 

reconstruction

5

reflection of joints in the underlying base

 

crushed aggregate overlay or reconsstruction of joints

 
   
 
crushed aggregate overlay or reconsstruction of joints     Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page
crushed aggregate overlay or reconsstruction of joints     Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. TRANSVERSE CRACKS 2.4. TRANSVERSE CRACKS Low
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. TRANSVERSE CRACKS 2.4. TRANSVERSE CRACKS Low
TRANSVERSE CRACKS

TRANSVERSE CRACKS

2.4.

TRANSVERSE CRACKS

Low severity with crack's width < 3 mm without any spalling Moderate severity with crack's
Low severity with crack's width
< 3 mm without any spalling
Moderate severity with
crack's width > 3 mm
High severity
with spalling

Transverse cracks are unconnected cracks run- ning transversely (relatively perpendicular to pavement centre line) across the pavement.

SEVERITY LEVELS

Low Cracks with low severity or no spalling; mean

unsealed crack width of 3 mm or less; sealant material in good condition.

Moderate Cracks with moderate severity spalling; mean unsealed crack width of greater than 3 mm; sealant material in bad condition.

High Cracks with high severity spalling.

MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN

a) predominant crack width.

b) spacing.

c) length.

 

d) area affected.

NO.

POSSIBLE CAUSES

   

PROBABLE TREATMENTS

1.

Reflection of shrinkage cracks

 

Cut and patch

2.

Construction joint in bituminous surfacing

 

Ccrack sealant

3.

Structural failure of portland cement concrete base

 

Rreconstruction of base

4.

Shrinkage crack in bituminous surfacing

 

Seal cracks or replace bituminous surfacing

5

Reflection of joints in the underlying base

 

Crushed aggregate overlay or reconstruction of joints

 
  .

.

  Crushed aggregate overlay or reconstruction of joints   . Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L
  Crushed aggregate overlay or reconstruction of joints   . Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. EDGE CRACKS 2.5. EDGE CRACKS DESCRIPTION Edge cracks are
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. EDGE CRACKS 2.5. EDGE CRACKS DESCRIPTION Edge cracks are
EDGE CRACKS 2.5. EDGE CRACKS DESCRIPTION Edge cracks are crescent shaped or fairly con- tinuous
EDGE CRACKS
2.5.
EDGE CRACKS
DESCRIPTION
Edge cracks are crescent shaped or fairly con-
tinuous cracks, parallel to, and usually within
300 mm to 600 mm of the pavement edge. It
usually occurs when paved shoulders do not
exist.
SEVERITY LEVELS
Low severity with
no breakup or ravelling
Low
Cracks with no breakup or ravelling.
Moderate
Cracks with some breakup or ravelling.
High
Cracks with considerable breakup or ravelling
along edge.
Moderate severity with some breakup
MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN
a) predominant crack width.
b) area affected
c) length
High severity with
considerable breakup
NO.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
Excessive traffic loading at
pavement edge
Widen the pavement or strengthen the
pavement edge
2.
Poor drainage at pavement edge
and shoulder
Improve drainage and shoulder
3.
Inadequate pavement width which
forces traffic too close to pavement edge
Widen the pavement
4.
Insufficient bearing support
Reconstruction
edge Widen the pavement 4. Insufficient bearing support Reconstruction Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page
edge Widen the pavement 4. Insufficient bearing support Reconstruction Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. CRESCENT SHAPED CRACKS 2.6. CRESCENT SHAPED CRACKS
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. CRESCENT SHAPED CRACKS 2.6. CRESCENT SHAPED CRACKS
CRESCENT SHAPED CRACKS

CRESCENT SHAPED CRACKS

2.6.

CRESCENT SHAPED CRACKS

Low severity with no breakup Moderate severity with some breakup High severity with considerable breakup
Low severity with no breakup
Moderate severity with some breakup
High severity with considerable
breakup and shoving

SYNONYMS

Parabolic, slippage, shear cracks.

DESCRIPTION

This type of cracks are half moon or crescent shaped cracks, commonly associated with shoving, often occurring in closely spaced par- allel group. It is mainly associated with bitumi- nous layer only.

SEVERITY LEVELS

Low Cracks with-no breakup or shoving.

Moderate Cracks with some breakup or shoving.

High Cracks with considerable breakup or shoving.

MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN

a) predominant crack width.

b) area affected.

NO.

POSSIBLE CAUSES

 

PROBABLE TREATMENTS

1.

Lack of bond between wearing course and the underlying layers

Cut and patch

2.

Low modulus base course

Reconstruction of base

3.

Thin wearing course

Bituminous overlay

4.

Dragging of paver during laying when bituminous mix temperatures were low

Cut and patch

5.

High stresses due to braking and acceleration movements

Bituminous overlay with stiffer mix or use high compaction mix (HCM)

 
   
 
overlay with stiffer mix or use high compaction mix (HCM)     Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat
overlay with stiffer mix or use high compaction mix (HCM)     Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. FIGURE 2 : TYPE OF SURFACE DEFORMATION 3.0. SURFACE
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. FIGURE 2 : TYPE OF SURFACE DEFORMATION 3.0. SURFACE
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. FIGURE 2 : TYPE OF SURFACE DEFORMATION 3.0. SURFACE
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. FIGURE 2 : TYPE OF SURFACE DEFORMATION 3.0. SURFACE
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. FIGURE 2 : TYPE OF SURFACE DEFORMATION 3.0. SURFACE

FIGURE 2 : TYPE

OF SURFACE DEFORMATION

3.0. SURFACE DEFORMATIONS

The general form of the various types of sur- face deformation is illustrated in Figure 2.

Deformation takes place when a road surface undergoes changes from ifs original construct- ed profile. It may occur after construction due to trafficking or environmental influences. In some cases, deformation may be built into a new pavement owing to inadequate control during construction. It influences the riding quality of a pavement and may reflect structur- al inadequacies. It may lead to cracking of the surface layer.

The major types of surface deformation cov- ered in this section are :

i)

rutting.

ii)

corrugation.

iii)

depression.

iv)

shoving.

rutting. ii) corrugation. iii) depression. iv) shoving. Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page 10
rutting. ii) corrugation. iii) depression. iv) shoving. Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page 10

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. RUTTING 3.1. RUTTING SYNONYMS Longitudinal rut.
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. RUTTING 3.1. RUTTING SYNONYMS Longitudinal rut.
RUTTING 3.1. RUTTING SYNONYMS Longitudinal rut. DESCRIPTION Low severity with rut depths < 12 mm
RUTTING
3.1.
RUTTING
SYNONYMS
Longitudinal rut.
DESCRIPTION
Low severity with rut depths < 12 mm
Rutting is longitudinal deformation or depres-
sion in the wheel paths which occur after
repeated applications of axle loading. It may
occur in one or both wheel paths of a lane. The
length to width ratio would normally be greater
than 4 to 1.
SEVERITY LEVELS
Low
Rut depths of less than 12 mm (measured
under a transverse 1.2 m straight edge)
Moderate severity with rut depths
between 12 mm to25mm
Moderate
Rut depths of between 12 mm to 25 mm (may
include slight longitudinal cracks).
High
Rut depths of greater than 25 mm (may include
multiple longitudinal or crocodile cracks).
MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN
a) maximum depth under a transverse 1.2 m
straight edge.
b) length.
High severity with rut depths > 25 mm
NO.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
Inadequate pavement thickness
Strengthening overlay or reconstruction
2.
Inadequate compaction of
structural layers
Reconstruction
3.
Unstable bituminous mixes
Replace or recycle bituminous surfacing or
use stiffer mix/HCM
4.
unstable shoulder materials which do
not provide adequate lateral support
shoulder improvement and overlay rutted
area with bituminous surfacing
5.
Overstressed subgrade which deforms
permanently
Reconstruction
6.
Unstable granular bases or sub-bases
Base or sub-base strengthening
6. Unstable granular bases or sub-bases Base or sub-base strengthening Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L
6. Unstable granular bases or sub-bases Base or sub-base strengthening Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. CORRUGATIONS 3.2. CORRUGATIONS SYNONYM Rippling
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. CORRUGATIONS 3.2. CORRUGATIONS SYNONYM Rippling
CORRUGATIONS 3.2. CORRUGATIONS SYNONYM Rippling DESCRIPTION Low severity - noticeable Corrugations are regular
CORRUGATIONS
3.2.
CORRUGATIONS
SYNONYM
Rippling
DESCRIPTION
Low severity - noticeable
Corrugations are regular transverse undula-
tions, closely spaced alternate valleys and
crests with wavelengths of less than 2 m.
Generally, it will result in a rough ride and will
become worse with time.
SEVERITY LEVELS
Low
Noticeable (based on observation of its appear-
ance and its effect on riding quality).
Moderate
Rough ride.
Moderate severity causing rough ride
High
Very rough ride. Vehicle may lose control
because of its presence.
MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN
a) maximum depth under 1.2 m straight
edge.
b) crest to crest spacing.
c) length of pavement affected.
High severity causing very rough ride
NO.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
Inadequate stability of bituminous
surface
Replace bituminous surface
2.
Compaction of base in wave form
Base reconstruction
3.
Faulty paver behaviour with some mixes
Replace the faulty mixes and correct
the faulty paver behaviour
4.
Heavy traffic on steep downgrade or
upgrade
mill off corrugated surface and replace
with stiffer mix or use HCM
5.
Stopping at intersection stop lights
or roundabout
Mill off corrugated surface and replace
with stiffer mix or use HCM
6.
Inadequate stability of base course
Base reconstruction
mix or use HCM 6. Inadequate stability of base course Base reconstruction Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat
mix or use HCM 6. Inadequate stability of base course Base reconstruction Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. DEPRESSIONS 3.3. DEPRESSIONS SYNONYM Distortions.
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. DEPRESSIONS 3.3. DEPRESSIONS SYNONYM Distortions.
DEPRESSIONS 3.3. DEPRESSIONS SYNONYM Distortions. DESCRIPTION Low severity with noticeable swaying motion
DEPRESSIONS
3.3.
DEPRESSIONS
SYNONYM
Distortions.
DESCRIPTION
Low severity with noticeable
swaying motion
Depressions are localized areas within a pave-
ment with elevations lower than the surround-
ing area. They may not be confined to wheel
paths only but may extend across several wheel
paths. Generally, it results from settlement,
slope failure, or volume changes due to mois-
ture changes.
SEVERITY LEVELS
Low
Noticeable swaying motion. Good control of
vehicle still present. (Based on the interaction
between vehicle and pavement surface depres-
sion).
Moderate severity with fair
control of vehicle
Moderate
Fair control of vehicle when driving over pave-
ment.
High
Poor control of vehicle when driving over
pavement with driver always having to antici-
pate depression ahead.
MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN
High severity with poor
control of vehicle
a) maximum depth under 1.2 m straight
edge.
b) area of depression.
NO.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
differential settlement of subgrade or base
materials
subgrade or base reconstruction
2.
settlement of services and/or widening
trenches
reconstruction of services and/or
widening trenches
3.
volume change of subgrade due to
environmental influences
improve sub-soil drainage and
reconstruct
4.
settlement due to instability of
embankment
embankment stabilization
4. settlement due to instability of embankment embankment stabilization Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page
4. settlement due to instability of embankment embankment stabilization Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. SHOVINGS 3.4, SHOVINGS DESCRIPTION Low severity with
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. SHOVINGS 3.4, SHOVINGS DESCRIPTION Low severity with
SHOVINGS 3.4, SHOVINGS DESCRIPTION Low severity with noticeable swaying motion Shoving is the bulging of
SHOVINGS
3.4,
SHOVINGS
DESCRIPTION
Low severity with
noticeable swaying motion
Shoving is the bulging of the road surface gen-
erally parallel to the direction of traffic and/or
horizontal displacement of surfacing materials,
mainly in the direction of traffic where braking
or acceleration movements occur, caused by
traffic pushing against the pavement.
Transverse shoving may arise with turning
movements.
SEVERITY LEVELS
Low
Noticeable. (Based on observation of its
appearance and its effect on riding quality).
Moderate
Rough ride.
Moderate severity
resulting in rough ride
High
Very rough ride. Vehicle may lose control
because of its presence.
MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN
a) maximum depth of bulge under 1.2 m
straight edge from high point.
b) area affected.
High severity resulting
in very rough ride
NO.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
Low stability mix
Mill off and replacehe
bituminous surfacing
Lack of bond between asphalt surface and
2.
underlying layer which may be caused by
excessive tack coat acting as lubricant
Replace bituminous surfacing
with lower binder content mix
3.
Ustable granular base reflecting through the
surface
Base reconstruction
4.
Stop and start of vehicles at intersections or
roundabout
Mill off and replace with stiffer mix or
use HCM
5.
Inadequate pavement thickness
Bituminous overlay or reconstruction
HCM 5. Inadequate pavement thickness Bituminous overlay or reconstruction Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page
HCM 5. Inadequate pavement thickness Bituminous overlay or reconstruction Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. FIGURE 3 : TYPES OF SURFACE DEFECTS 4.0. SURFACE
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. FIGURE 3 : TYPES OF SURFACE DEFECTS 4.0. SURFACE
FIGURE 3 : TYPES OF SURFACE DEFECTS
FIGURE 3 : TYPES OF SURFACE DEFECTS
Surface Conditions. FIGURE 3 : TYPES OF SURFACE DEFECTS 4.0. SURFACE DEFECTS Surface defects cover loss

4.0. SURFACE DEFECTS

Surface defects cover loss of surfacing materi- als, loss of surface micro and macro textures. While they do not usually indicate pavement structural inadequacy, they have a significant influence on the serviceability and safety of a pavement, especially with regard to skid resist- ance, maneuverability and riding quality. Some defects, if not corrected, may lead to subse- quent loss of pavement structural integrity.

The major types of surface defects are:

i)

bleeding.

ii)

ravelling.

iii)

polishing.

iv)

delamination.

The general form of the various defect types is illustrated in Figure 3.

The general form of the various defect types is illustrated in Figure 3. Cawangan Jalan, Ibu
The general form of the various defect types is illustrated in Figure 3. Cawangan Jalan, Ibu

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. BLEEDING 4.1. BLEEDING SYNONYMS Flushing, fatting,
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. BLEEDING 4.1. BLEEDING SYNONYMS Flushing, fatting,
BLEEDING 4.1. BLEEDING SYNONYMS Flushing, fatting, slick, black spot. DESCRIPTION Low severity with visible
BLEEDING
4.1.
BLEEDING
SYNONYMS
Flushing, fatting, slick, black spot.
DESCRIPTION
Low severity with visible
colouring of pavement surface
Bleeding is the presence of free bitumen binder
on the surface resulting from upward migration
of the binder, causing low texture depth and
inadequate tyre to stone contact. It is most like-
ly to occur in the wheel paths during hot
weather.
SEVERITY LEVELS
Low
Colouring of pavement surface visible.
Moderate severity with excess
bitumen already free
Moderate
Distinctive appearance with excess bitumen
already free.
High
Free bitumen which gives the pavement sur-
face a wet look. Tyre marks are evident.
MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN
a) area affected.
b) percentage by area of stone immersed.
High severity which gives the
pavement surface a wet look
NO.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
Excessive application of binder with respect to the
stone size. On hot days, the binder expands into air
voids; if volume of air voids is too low, continued
expansion results in lower stability of the mix with the
consequence that traffic will force out excess binder to
the surface.
Apply hot sand to blot up the
excess binder
Paving over flushed surfaces. The excess bitumen on
2.
the old surface maycoat be pumped up through the
new paving over a period of time
Apply hot sand or aggregate
seal coat
3.
Paving over excessively primed surfaces
Apply hot sand
seal coat 3. Paving over excessively primed surfaces Apply hot sand Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR,
seal coat 3. Paving over excessively primed surfaces Apply hot sand Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR,

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 16

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. RAVELLING 4.2. RAVELLING SYNONYM Fretting. DESCRIPTION
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. RAVELLING 4.2. RAVELLING SYNONYM Fretting. DESCRIPTION
RAVELLING 4.2. RAVELLING SYNONYM Fretting. DESCRIPTION Ravelling is the progressive disintegration of the pavement
RAVELLING
4.2.
RAVELLING
SYNONYM
Fretting.
DESCRIPTION
Ravelling is the progressive disintegration of
the pavement surface by loss of binder or
aggregates or both.
Low severity where wearing away of the
aggregate has not progressed significantly
SEVERITY LEVELS
Low
Wearing away of the aggregate or binder has
started but has not progressed significantly.
Moderate
Aggregate and/or binder has worn away and
the surface texture is becoming rough and pit-
ted. Loose particles generally exist.
Moderate severity with worn
away aggregate and binder
High
Aggregate and/or binder has worn away and
the surface texture is very rough and pitted.
MEASUREMENT TO BE TAKEN
a)
area affected.
High severity with rough
and pitted surface
NO.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
Insufficient bitumen content
Thin bituminous overlay
2.
Poor adhesion of bitumen binder to
aggregate particles due to wet aggregate
Thin bituminous overlay
3.
Inadequate compaction or construction
fduring wet weather
Thin bituminous overlay
4.
Deterioration of binder and/or aggregate
Thin bituminous overlay
4. Deterioration of binder and/or aggregate Thin bituminous overlay Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page
4. Deterioration of binder and/or aggregate Thin bituminous overlay Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 17

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. 4.3. POLISHING DESCRIPTION Smoothening and rounding of
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. 4.3. POLISHING DESCRIPTION Smoothening and rounding of
4.3. POLISHING DESCRIPTION Smoothening and rounding of the upper sur- face of the roadstone has
4.3.
POLISHING
DESCRIPTION
Smoothening and rounding of the upper sur-
face of the roadstone has started
SEVERITY LEVELS
MEASUREMENT TO BE TAKEN
a) area affected.
Coarse aggregate exposed
Smoothening and rounding of the roadstone
has progressed significantly
NO.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
Inadequate resistance to polishing of surface
aggregates, particularly in areas of heavy
traffic movements or where high stresses are
developed between surface and tyres
Thin bituminous overlay or use of
stiffer mix or use HCM
2.
Use of naturally smooth uncrushed aggregates
Thin bituminous overlay

POLISHING

Polishing is the smoothening and rounding of the upper surface of the roadstone, exposing coarse aggregate which are glossy in appear- ance and smooth to the touch. It usually occurs in the wheel paths.

Not applicable. However, the degree of polish- ing may be reflected in a reduction of skid resistance.

the degree of polish- ing may be reflected in a reduction of skid resistance. Cawangan Jalan,
the degree of polish- ing may be reflected in a reduction of skid resistance. Cawangan Jalan,

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 18

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. DELAMINATION 4.4. DELAMINATION SYNONYMS Peeling, surface
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. DELAMINATION 4.4. DELAMINATION SYNONYMS Peeling, surface
DELAMINATION 4.4. DELAMINATION SYNONYMS Peeling, surface lifting, seal break, flaking DESCRIPTION Delamination is
DELAMINATION
4.4.
DELAMINATION
SYNONYMS
Peeling, surface lifting, seal break, flaking
DESCRIPTION
Delamination is the loss of a discrete and large
(minimum 0.01 square metre) area of the wear-
ing course. Usually there is a clear delineation
of
the wearing course and the layer below.
Low severity where peeling of
the top surface has started
SEVERITY LEVELS
Low
Peeling of the top layer has started but has not
progressed significantly. Surface area peeled
off is less than 0.1 m2.
Moderate severity with surface area
peeled off between 0.1 m2 and 2.5 m2
Moderate
Surface area peeled off is between 0.1 m2 to
2.5 m2. Severe crocodile cracks in and around
the peeled off area.
High
A
group of more than two (2) moderate delam-
inations along a short stretch of road.
MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN
a) thickness of layer(s) peeled off.
b) area of individual delaminations.
c) number of delaminations.
High severity with group of delaminations
NO.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
Inadequate cleaning or inadequate t coat
obefore placement of upper layers
Tack mill off and re-lay upper layers
Seepage of water through asphalt,
2.
especially in cracks, to break bond between
surface and lower layers
Replace wearing course or thin
bituminous overlay
3.
Weak, loose layer immediately underlying
seal
Reconstruction of weak layers
4.
Adhesion of surface binder to vehicle tyres
Thin bituminous overlay
4. Adhesion of surface binder to vehicle tyres Thin bituminous overlay Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR,
4. Adhesion of surface binder to vehicle tyres Thin bituminous overlay Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR,

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. PATCH Patch with low severity distress Patch with moderate
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. PATCH Patch with low severity distress Patch with moderate

PATCH

Patch with low severity distress Patch with moderate severity distress Patch with high severity distress
Patch with low severity distress
Patch with moderate severity distress
Patch with high severity distress
severity distress Patch with high severity distress 5.0. PATCH DESCRIPTION A patch is a repaired section

5.0.

PATCH

DESCRIPTION

A patch is a repaired section of pavement where a portion of the pavement surface has been removed and replaced (see FIGURE 4). It may or may not be associates) with either a loss of serviceability (apart from a loss of appearance) or structural capacity. The `extent and frequency of patching can be useful indica- tors of the structural adequacy of the pavement. Defects can occur within a patch or the patch can be a further defect where it is raised or depressed below the level of the pavement sur- face.

SEVERITY LEVELS

Low Patch is in good condition or has low severity distress of any type. Moderate Patch has moderate severity distress of any type.

High Patch has high severity distress of any type.

MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN

a) area of patch at each severity level.

b) number of patches at each severity level.

severity level. b) number of patches at each severity level. FIGURE 4 : PATCH AND POTHOLE

FIGURE 4 : PATCH AND

POTHOLE

b) number of patches at each severity level. FIGURE 4 : PATCH AND POTHOLE Cawangan Jalan,
b) number of patches at each severity level. FIGURE 4 : PATCH AND POTHOLE Cawangan Jalan,
b) number of patches at each severity level. FIGURE 4 : PATCH AND POTHOLE Cawangan Jalan,

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. POTHOLE 6.0. POTHOLE DESCRIPTION Low severity with area
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. POTHOLE 6.0. POTHOLE DESCRIPTION Low severity with area
POTHOLE 6.0. POTHOLE DESCRIPTION Low severity with area < 0.3 m2 and depth < 25
POTHOLE
6.0.
POTHOLE
DESCRIPTION
Low severity with area < 0.3 m2
and depth < 25 mm
Pothole is bowl shaped cavity in the pavement
surface resulting from the loss of wearing
course and binder course materials (see FIG-
URE 4). They are produced when traffic
breaches small pieces of the pavement surface
allowing the entry of water. These spots disin-
tegrate because of the weakening of the base
course or poor quality surfacing. Free water
collecting in the hole and the underlying base
accelerates its development.
SEVERITY LEVELS
MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN
a)
depth of pothole.
b)
area of pothole.
c)
number of potholes at each severity level.
Moderate severity with depth
between 25 mm to 50 mm and area < 0.3 m2
.
Group of potholes with depth > 50 mm
and area > 0.1 m2
AREA (square metre)
DEPTH (mm)
< 0.1
0.1 -0.3
> 0.3
< 25
Low
Low
Moderate
25-50
Moderate
Moderate
High
> 50
Moderate
High
High
NO.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
Loss of surface course
Patching
2.
Moisture entry to base course through a
pavement surface
cracked
Cut and patch
3.
Load associated disintegration of base
Base reconstruction
and patch 3. Load associated disintegration of base Base reconstruction Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L
and patch 3. Load associated disintegration of base Base reconstruction Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions FIGURE 5 : TYPES OF EDGE DEFECTS 7.0. EDGE
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions FIGURE 5 : TYPES OF EDGE DEFECTS 7.0. EDGE
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions FIGURE 5 : TYPES OF EDGE DEFECTS 7.0. EDGE

FIGURE 5 : TYPES OF EDGE DEFECTS

7.0. EDGE DEFECTS

Edge defects occur along the interface of flexi- ble pavement and the shoulder, and are most significant where the shoulder is unsealed. The detrimental effects of edge defects include :

i) reduction of pavement width.

ii) loss of quality of ride and possible loss of control of vehicle.

iii) channelling of water at the edge of the pavement leading to erosion of shoulder.

iv) entry of water into base.

The defect types covered in this section are

i) edge break.

ii) edge drop-off.

The general form is illustrated in Figure 5.

EDGE BREAKS Edge break has just started Edge break with considerable breakup Significant length of
EDGE BREAKS
Edge break has just started
Edge break with considerable breakup
Significant length of edge break
and surfacing loss
7.1.
EDGE BREAKS
DESCRIPTION
Edge break occurs when the edge of the bitu-
minous surface are fretted, or broken.
SEVERITY LEVELS
Not applicable.
MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN
a) length over which break occurs.
b) maximum width of surfacing loss.
a) length over which break occurs. b) maximum width of surfacing loss. Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat
a) length over which break occurs. b) maximum width of surfacing loss. Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions NO POSSIBLE CAUSES PROBABLE TREATMENTS 1. Inadequate
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions NO POSSIBLE CAUSES PROBABLE TREATMENTS 1. Inadequate
NO POSSIBLE CAUSES PROBABLE TREATMENTS 1. Inadequate pavement width Widen the pavement 2. Alignment which
NO
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1.
Inadequate pavement width
Widen the pavement
2.
Alignment which encourages drivers
totravel on pavement edge
Pavement widening and realignment
3.
Inadequate edge support
Shoulder strengthening
4.
Edge drop-off
Sstrengthening and levelling of shoulder
with road surface
5.
Loss of adhesion to base
Cut and patch or bituminous overlay
EDGE DROP-OFFS
7.2.
EDGE DROP-OFFS
DESCRIPTION
Edge drop-off is the difference in elevation
between the traffic lane and outside shoulder;
typically occurs when the outside shoulder set-
tles or erodes. It is not usually considered a
defect if the drop-off is less than 25 mm.
SEVERITY LEVEL
Slight drop-off
Not applicable. However, severity levels can be
defined in relation to the height of drop.
MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN
a) height of drop.
b) length affected.
Significant drop-off
Height of drop > 100 mm.
It is a danger to traffic
No.
POSSIBLE CAUSES
PROBABLE TREATMENTS
1
Inadequate pavement width
Widen the pavement
2
Shoulder material with inadequate
resistance to erosion and abrasion
Replace shoulder material and reconstruct
3
Resurfacing of pavement without
resurfacing of shoulder
Levelling of shoulder with road surface
without resurfacing of shoulder Levelling of shoulder with road surface Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L
without resurfacing of shoulder Levelling of shoulder with road surface Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions     GLOSSARY Delamination Loss of a discrete
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions     GLOSSARY Delamination Loss of a discrete
 
   
 

GLOSSARY

Delamination Loss of a discrete and large (minimum 0.01 m2) area of the top bituminous layer

Binder Brown or black adhesive mate rial

Bituminous overlay

Depression Localized area within a pavement with eleva- tions lower than the surrounding area

A

method of treat

ment where the existing

pave ment surface is overlaid with bituminous

 

materials

 

Edge break Broken or fretted pavement edge

Bleeding Identified by a film of bitumi

nous material on

Edge crack Fracture along the pavement edge

the pavement surface that creates a shiny, glass-like, reflective surface that nay be tacky

to

the touch

Edge drop-off The difference in elevation between the traffic lane and the shoulder

Hairline crack

Block crack The occurrence of cracks that divide the bitu- minous surface into approximately rectangular pieces, typically 0.1 m2 or more in size

A

fracture that is very narrow in width

Centre line The white/yellow separating traffic travelling in opposite direction

Longitudinal Parallel to the centre line of the pavement

Construction joint The point at which work is concluded and reinitiated when building a pavement

Patch An area where the pavement has been removed and replaced with a new material

Corrugation Regular transverse undulations, closely spaced alternate valleys and crests with wavelengths of less than 2 m.

Polishing Smoothening of the upper surface of the road stone, exposing coarse aggregate, which are glossy in appearance and smooth to the touch

Pothole

Crescent shaped crack Crack which is half moon or crescent in shape, normally associated with shoving

Crocodile crack Interconnected or interlaced crack which form a network of multisided blocks; the block sizes are smaller than 300 mm.

A

bowl-shaped cavity in the pavement surface

Pumping The ejection of water and fine materials under pressure through cracks under moving loads

Ravelling The wearing away of the pavement surface

 

caused by the loss of binder or the dislodging

Cut and patch

 

of

aggregate particles or both

A

treatment where the distressed area is exca-

 

vated and patched back with bituminous mate-

Rutting The occurrence of longitudinal surface depres- sion/deformation in the wheel paths

Rutting The occurrence of longitudinal surface depres- sion/deformation in the wheel paths

rials

 
 
depres- sion/deformation in the wheel paths rials     Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page
depres- sion/deformation in the wheel paths rials     Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions

Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions   Shoving Permanent, longitudinal displacement of a
Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions   Shoving Permanent, longitudinal displacement of a
 
 

Shoving Permanent, longitudinal displacement of a localized area of the pavement surface caused by traffic pushing against the pavement

Spalling Breaking or cutting off small pieces from the pavement surface

Transverse Perpendicular to the centre line of the pave- ment

REFERENCES

1. A Guide to the Visual Assessment of Pavement Condition, National Association of Australia State Road Authorities, 1987.

2. Distress Identification Manual for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Studies, SHRPLTPP/FR-90-001, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 1990.

3. Manual for Condition Rating of Flexible Pavements - Distress

Manifestation, G.J. Chong, W.A. Phang and G.A. Wrong; Reprinted January

1982.

4. Various Research Findings at IKRAM.

 
 
January 1982. 4. Various Research Findings at IKRAM.   Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page
January 1982. 4. Various Research Findings at IKRAM.   Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L Page

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Page 25