FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

A Guide To The Visual Assessement Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions

A GUIDE TO VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT SURFACE CONDITIONS FOREWORD In Malaysia as well as in most other countries in the world, the road network remains the predominant mode of transportation facility. To ensure its continued efficiency and accessibility, the road network has to be maintained to a high standard. Research work carried out at Institut Kerja Raya Malaysia (IKRAM) has enable Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) Malaysia to understand and develop improved techniques for the maintenance of the road network. It is the aspiration of JKR to be able to share this knowledge with those that are involved in road building and maintenance activities. It is therefore my pleasure to introduce this first edition of A Guide to Visual Assessment of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. This guide, which is the first part of a series of guidelines on road maintenance techniques has a two fold purpose. Firstly, it is to encourage the usage of common nomenclature for the various pavement conditions and secondly it hopes to promote more effective maintenance works with the indication of the possible causes of each different type of pavement distress and their probable treatments. It is my hope that this guideline will be of help to all who are involved in road maintenance activities and contribute significantly towards better maintenance techniques. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This guide is prepared by the Pavement Research Unit (Head: Ir Mohamed Shafii Mustafa). The authors of this guideline are Ir Koid Teng Hye, Ir Mohamed Shafii Mustafa, Mohd Sabri Hasim, Abd. Mutalif K. A. Abd. Hameed and Ahmad Fauzi Abdul Malek. The document forms part of a series of guidelines on the design, construction and maintenance of flexible pavements which the Pavement Research Unit produces as part of their studies. The guide was reviewed by a Committee headed by the Director of IKRAM, Ir Ng Chong Yuen. Other members of the Committee were Ir. Han Joke Kwang - IKRAM Ir. Aik Siaw Kong - Road Maintenance, Roads Branch Ir. Tai Meu Choi - Road Maintenance, Roads Branch Ir. Zainol Rashid Zainuddin - Road Maintenance, Roads Branch; Ir. Lee Swee Kee - Road Design, Roads Branch. The authors thank the Director General of Public Works Malaysia for his permission to publish the guideline.

(Tan Sri Dato' Ir. Wan A. Rahman Yaacob) Director General of Public Works Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

CONTENTS Page FOREWORD ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1.0. INTRODUCTION CATALOGUE OF DISTRESSES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES 2.0. PAVEMENT CRACKS 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. Crocodile Block Longitudinal Transverse Edge Crescent Shaped 2

used in one form or another by most road departments and/or highway authorities as a measure of the ability of the pavement to continue to provide the required service to the public. More importantly, it is used in determining deficiencies and inadequacies of pavements, the remedial measures to be taken, its fiscal needs, planning and programming of pavement maintenance and/or rehabilitation. This guide is for the assessment of flexible road pavements only. Concrete pavements and unpaved roads are not covered by this guide. The aims of this guide are :i) To provide a uniform nomenclature for the description of visible pavement distresses.

3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

3.0. SURFACE DEFORMATIONS 10 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 4.0 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. Rutting Corrugation Depression Shoving SURFACE DEFECTS Bleeding Ravelling Polishing Delamination 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 25

ii) to provide a comprehensive catalogue of the major visible distress types. iii) To promote the usage of distress recognition as an aid to the diagnosis of pavement deficiencies. Pavement distresses are categorized and quantified. Illustrations of each category are provided to lend uniformity to reporting and interpretation. Description of the severity of the particular distress is made to conform with standard words that express the relative severity on a low, moderate or high scale. The following data are also provided for each distress type :i) Common synonym(s). ii) Description of the essential features of the distress. iii) Photographs of typical examples. iv) List of probable or most likely causes. v) List of probable treatments.

5.0. PATCH 6.0. POTHOLE 7.0. EDGE DEFECTS 7.1. 7.2. Edge Break Edge Drop Off

GLOSSARY REFERENCES 1.0. INTRODUCTION

Assessment of pavement surface conditions is
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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ii) Block cracks. The possible causes of cracks include : FIGURE 1 : TYPES OF CRACK Cawangan Jalan. ii) Loss of load spreading ability of the cracked material. c) Surface defects vi) Poor construction joints. Cracks are fissures resulting from partial or complete fractures of the pavement surface. v) Shrinkage. v) Loss of appearance. K. The detrimental effects associated with the presence of cracks are : i) Loss of water-proofing of the pavement layers. Cracking of road pavement surfaces can happen in a wide variety of patterns. PAVEMENT CRACKS iii) Longitudinal cracks. d) Patches e) Potholes f) Eedge defects This section includes the following types of cracks: i) Crocodile cracks.L Page 3 . vi) Crescent shaped cracks. CATALOGUE OF DISTRESSES IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS Manifestation of Distresses in flexible pavements can be categorized into one of the following types : a) Cracks b) Surface deformations i) Depression. 2. The loss of load spreading ability and waterproofing will usually lead to accelerated deterioration of the pavement condition. iii) Pumping and loss of fines from the base course. iv) Transverse cracks. ii) Fatigue life of the surfacing being exceeded. The general form of the various types of cracks is illustrated in Fiqure 1. v) Edge cracks.0.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. ranging from isolated single crack to an interconnected pattern extending over the entire pavement surface. iii) Age embrittlement of the surfacing. iv) Loss of riding quality through loss of surfacing. Ibu Pejabat JKR. iv) Reflection of cracks in underlying layers.

MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) area affected. High Pieces more severely spalled at edges and loosened. cracks not spalled. 4.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. b) predominant crack width c) predominant cell width. CROCODILE CRACKS SYNONYMS Alligator. The cracks in the subbase or subgrade tend to spread rapidly under rain and traffic causing blocks of surfacing to be displaced and broken up. pumping may exist. Crocodile cracks is a consequence of the inability of the structure to support the repeated loads due to a "softening" of the material normally associated with increase in moisture content. PROBABLE TREATMENTS Strengthen the pavement or reconstruction Strengthen the base or reconstruction Base recycling or reconstruction Improve the drainage and reconstruct Replace or treat wearing course NO. High severity with severe spalling 2. 5. chicken wire. Moderate A pattern of articulated pieces formed by cracks that may be lightly spalled. The block size can range from 100 mm to about 300 mm. K.1. POSSIBLE CAUSES Inadequate pavement thickness Low modulus base Brittle base Poor base drainage Brittle wearing course Cawangan Jalan. Cracks may be sealed. polygonal. 2. CROCODILE CRACKS DESCRIPTION Crocodile cracks are interconnected or interlaced cracks which form a network of multisided blocks resembling the skin of a crocodile.L Page 4 . fish net. 3. 1. Ibu Pejabat JKR. fatigue cracks. SEVERITY LEVELS Low severity with interconnected hairline cracks Moderate severity with lightly spalled cracks Low Interconnected or interlaced hairline cracks running parallel to each other. pieces rock under traffic.

Block sizes are usually greater than 300 mm and can exceed 3000 mm.L Page 5 . Moderate severity with cracks' width > 3 mm Low severity with cracks' width < 3 mm Moderate Blocks defined by moderately spalled cracks.2. BLOCK CRACKS 2. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Blocks defined by unspalled cracks with a mean width of 3 mm or less. BLOCK CRACKS SYNONYM Ladder cracks. 1 POSSIBLE CAUSES Joints in underlying layer Shrinkage and fatigue of underlying cemented material Shrinkage cracks (due to bitumen seal hardening) in bituminous surfacing Fatigue cracks in embrittled bituminous wearing course PROBABLE TREAMENTS Crushed aggregate overlay Replace underlying cemented materials 2 3 Seal cracks or replace bituminous surfacing Cut and patch or crushed aggregate overlay 4 Cawangan Jalan. c) predominant cell width. High Blocks well defined by severely spalled cracks. Ibu Pejabat JKR. MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) area affected. cracks with a mean width greater than 3 mm. b) predominant crack width. approximately rectangular in shape. K. High severity with severely spalled cracks NO. cracks with sealant in good condition.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. DESCRIPTION Block cracks are interconnected cracks forming a series of blocks.

Low severity single crack without any spalling Moderate severity with crack's width > 3 mm Moderate Cracks with moderately severe spalling. LONGITUDINAL CRACKS 2. It can happen singly or as series of almost parallel cracks or with some limited branching. situated at or near the middle of the lane. NO 1 2 3 4 5 POSSIBLE CAUSES reflection of shrinkage cracks poorly constructed paving lane in bituminous surfacing displacement of joints at pavement widening differential settlement between cut and fill PROBABLE TREATMENTS cut and patch replace bituminous surfacing reconstruction of joints reconstruction reflection of joints in the underlying crushed aggregate overlay or reconsstruction base of joints Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR. b) length of dominant crack. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Cracks with low severity or no spalling. d) area affected.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. mean unsealed crack width of 3 mm or less. MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN High severity with multiple spalled cracks a) width of dominant crack. sealant material in bad condition. K.3.L Page 6 . High Cracks with high severity spalling. LONGITUDINAL CRACKS SYNONYM Line cracks DESCRIPTION Longitudinal cracks are cracks which are usually straight and parallel to the centre line. c) spacing. mean unsealed crack width of greater than 3 mm.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Moderate Cracks with moderate severity spalling. area affected. sealant material in good condition. TRANSVERSE CRACKS 2. NO. TRANSVERSE CRACKS Transverse cracks are unconnected cracks running transversely (relatively perpendicular to pavement centre line) across the pavement. 2. sealant material in bad condition. High Cracks with high severity spalling. 5 POSSIBLE CAUSES Reflection of shrinkage cracks PROBABLE TREATMENTS Cut and patch Construction joint in bituminous surfacing Ccrack sealant Structural failure of portland cement concrete base Shrinkage crack in bituminous surfacing Reflection of joints in the underlying base Rreconstruction of base Seal cracks or replace bituminous surfacing Crushed aggregate overlay or reconstruction of joints . spacing. Low severity with crack's width < 3 mm without any spalling Moderate severity with crack's width > 3 mm MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) b) c) d) High severity with spalling predominant crack width. mean unsealed crack width of 3 mm or less.L Page 7 . 4. mean unsealed crack width of greater than 3 mm. Cawangan Jalan. 1. length.4. 3. K. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Cracks with low severity or no spalling.

High Cracks with considerable breakup or ravelling along edge. Ibu Pejabat JKR. b) area affected c) length High severity with considerable breakup NO.5. POSSIBLE CAUSES Excessive traffic loading at pavement edge Poor drainage at pavement edge and shoulder PROBABLE TREATMENTS Widen the pavement or strengthen the pavement edge Improve drainage and shoulder Inadequate pavement width which Widen the pavement forces traffic too close to pavement edge Insufficient bearing support Reconstruction Cawangan Jalan. 3. 1. K. EDGE CRACKS DESCRIPTION Edge cracks are crescent shaped or fairly continuous cracks.L Page 8 . and usually within 300 mm to 600 mm of the pavement edge. parallel to. It usually occurs when paved shoulders do not exist. 2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. Moderate Cracks with some breakup or ravelling. Moderate severity with some breakup MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) predominant crack width. EDGE CRACKS 2. 4. SEVERITY LEVELS Low severity with no breakup or ravelling Low Cracks with no breakup or ravelling.

L Page 9 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.6. K. CRESCENT SHAPED CRACKS 2. b) area affected. shear cracks. POSSIBLE CAUSES Lack of bond between wearing course and the underlying layers Low modulus base course Thin wearing course Dragging of paver during laying when bituminous mix temperatures were low High stresses due to braking and acceleration movements PROBABLE TREATMENTS Cut and patch Reconstruction of base Bituminous overlay Cut and patch Bituminous overlay with stiffer mix or use high compaction mix (HCM) Cawangan Jalan. High Cracks with considerable breakup or shoving. often occurring in closely spaced parallel group. Moderate Cracks with some breakup or shoving. Low severity with no breakup Moderate severity with some breakup High severity with considerable breakup and shoving NO. 2. slippage. Ibu Pejabat JKR. commonly associated with shoving. CRESCENT SHAPED CRACKS SYNONYMS Parabolic. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Cracks with-no breakup or shoving. 1. 5. 3. DESCRIPTION This type of cracks are half moon or crescent shaped cracks. It is mainly associated with bituminous layer only. MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) predominant crack width. 4.

It may occur after construction due to trafficking or environmental influences. deformation may be built into a new pavement owing to inadequate control during construction. SURFACE DEFORMATIONS Deformation takes place when a road surface undergoes changes from ifs original constructed profile. In some cases.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. The general form of the various types of surface deformation is illustrated in Figure 2. The major types of surface deformation covered in this section are : i) ii) iii) iv) rutting. It may lead to cracking of the surface layer. K. It influences the riding quality of a pavement and may reflect structural inadequacies. FIGURE 2 : TYPE OF SURFACE DEFORMATION 3. Cawangan Jalan.0. Ibu Pejabat JKR. shoving.L Page 10 . corrugation. depression.

High Rut depths of greater than 25 mm (may include multiple longitudinal or crocodile cracks). 1. 4.L .2 m straight edge. POSSIBLE CAUSES Inadequate pavement thickness Inadequate compaction of structural layers Unstable bituminous mixes unstable shoulder materials which do not provide adequate lateral support Overstressed subgrade which deforms permanently Unstable granular bases or sub-bases PROBABLE TREATMENTS Strengthening overlay or reconstruction Reconstruction Replace or recycle bituminous surfacing or use stiffer mix/HCM shoulder improvement and overlay rutted area with bituminous surfacing Reconstruction Base or sub-base strengthening Page 11 5. 3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. It may occur in one or both wheel paths of a lane. Low severity with rut depths < 12 mm Moderate severity with rut depths between 12 mm to25mm High severity with rut depths > 25 mm NO.1. Cawangan Jalan. DESCRIPTION Rutting is longitudinal deformation or depression in the wheel paths which occur after repeated applications of axle loading. MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) maximum depth under a transverse 1. The length to width ratio would normally be greater than 4 to 1. RUTTING 3. RUTTING SYNONYMS Longitudinal rut. Ibu Pejabat JKR. K. 2. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Rut depths of less than 12 mm (measured under a transverse 1. b) length. 6.2 m straight edge) Moderate Rut depths of between 12 mm to 25 mm (may include slight longitudinal cracks).

2 m straight edge. Vehicle may lose control because of its presence. surface Compaction POSSIBLE CAUSES PROBABLE TREATMENTS Replace bituminous surface Base reconstruction Replace the faulty mixes and correct the faulty paver behaviour mill off corrugated surface and replace with stiffer mix or use HCM Mill off corrugated surface and replace with stiffer mix or use HCM Base reconstruction Page 12 Inadequate stability of bituminous of base in wave form Faulty paver behaviour with some mixes Heavy traffic on steep downgrade or upgrade Stopping at intersection stop lights or roundabout Inadequate stability of base course Cawangan Jalan. CORRUGATIONS 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Moderate Rough ride. 5. CORRUGATIONS SYNONYM Rippling DESCRIPTION Corrugations are regular transverse undulations. High severity causing very rough ride NO. Generally.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. c) length of pavement affected. Low severity . 4. 6.2. it will result in a rough ride and will become worse with time. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Noticeable (based on observation of its appearance and its effect on riding quality). 2.noticeable Moderate severity causing rough ride High Very rough ride. closely spaced alternate valleys and crests with wavelengths of less than 2 m. 3. K.L . 1. b) crest to crest spacing. MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) maximum depth under 1.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.L Page 13 . Generally. or volume changes due to moisture changes. NO. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Noticeable swaying motion. b) area of depression. Good control of vehicle still present. 3. POSSIBLE CAUSES differential settlement of subgrade or base materials settlement of services and/or widening trenches volume change of subgrade due to environmental influences settlement due to instability of embankment PROBABLE TREATMENTS subgrade or base reconstruction reconstruction of services and/or widening trenches improve sub-soil drainage and reconstruct embankment stabilization Cawangan Jalan.3. slope failure. 2. Moderate Fair control of vehicle when driving over pavement. 1. Ibu Pejabat JKR. it results from settlement. DESCRIPTION Depressions are localized areas within a pavement with elevations lower than the surrounding area. Low severity with noticeable swaying motion Moderate severity with fair control of vehicle High severity with poor control of vehicle MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) maximum depth under 1. K. 4. They may not be confined to wheel paths only but may extend across several wheel paths.2 m straight edge. High Poor control of vehicle when driving over pavement with driver always having to anticipate depression ahead. DEPRESSIONS 3. DEPRESSIONS SYNONYM Distortions. (Based on the interaction between vehicle and pavement surface depression).

Moderate Rough ride. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Noticeable. (Based on observation of its appearance and its effect on riding quality). 1. POSSIBLE CAUSES Low stability mix Lack of bond between asphalt surface and underlying layer which may be caused by excessive tack coat acting as lubricant Ustable granular base reflecting through the surface Stop and start of vehicles at intersections or roundabout Inadequate pavement thickness PROBABLE TREATMENTS Mill off and replacehe bituminous surfacing Replace bituminous surfacing with lower binder content mix Base reconstruction Mill off and replace with stiffer mix or use HCM Bituminous overlay or reconstruction Cawangan Jalan. Transverse shoving may arise with turning movements.2 m straight edge from high point.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. 4. Low severity with noticeable swaying motion Moderate severity resulting in rough ride High Very rough ride. K. caused by traffic pushing against the pavement. SHOVINGS 3. 2. High severity resulting in very rough ride NO. b) area affected. 5. SHOVINGS DESCRIPTION Shoving is the bulging of the road surface generally parallel to the direction of traffic and/or horizontal displacement of surfacing materials. mainly in the direction of traffic where braking or acceleration movements occur. Vehicle may lose control because of its presence. 3.L Page 14 . MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) maximum depth of bulge under 1.4. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

While they do not usually indicate pavement structural inadequacy.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. FIGURE 3 : TYPES OF SURFACE DEFECTS 4. ravelling. Cawangan Jalan. The general form of the various defect types is illustrated in Figure 3. The major types of surface defects are: i) ii) iii) iv) bleeding. delamination. K.L Page 15 . if not corrected. loss of surface micro and macro textures. they have a significant influence on the serviceability and safety of a pavement. may lead to subsequent loss of pavement structural integrity. SURFACE DEFECTS Surface defects cover loss of surfacing materials. especially with regard to skid resistance. polishing. Ibu Pejabat JKR.0. maneuverability and riding quality. Some defects.

if volume of air voids is too low. BLEEDING SYNONYMS Flushing. the binder expands into air Apply hot sand to blot up the voids. Tyre marks are evident. causing low texture depth and inadequate tyre to stone contact.L Page 16 . On hot days. fatting. black spot. It is most likely to occur in the wheel paths during hot weather.1. Excessive application of binder with respect to the stone size. continued expansion results in lower stability of the mix with the excess binder consequence that traffic will force out excess binder to the surface. 2. slick. b) percentage by area of stone immersed. BLEEDING 4. MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) area affected. The excess bitumen on Apply hot sand or aggregate the old surface may coat be pumped up through the seal coat new paving over a period of time Paving over excessively primed surfaces Apply hot sand Cawangan Jalan. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Colouring of pavement surface visible. POSSIBLE CAUSES PROBABLE TREATMENTS 1. Moderate Distinctive appearance with excess bitumen already free. Low severity with visible colouring of pavement surface Moderate severity with excess bitumen already free High severity which gives the pavement surface a wet look NO. DESCRIPTION Bleeding is the presence of free bitumen binder on the surface resulting from upward migration of the binder. 3. K. High Free bitumen which gives the pavement surface a wet look.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Paving over flushed surfaces.

Moderate Aggregate and/or binder has worn away and the surface texture is becoming rough and pitted. 3.L Page 17 . Loose particles generally exist. High severity with rough and pitted surface NO. RAVELLING SYNONYM Fretting. Moderate severity with worn away aggregate and binder High Aggregate and/or binder has worn away and the surface texture is very rough and pitted.2. 1. K. MEASUREMENT TO BE TAKEN a) area affected.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. 2. DESCRIPTION Ravelling is the progressive disintegration of the pavement surface by loss of binder or aggregates or both. Low severity where wearing away of the aggregate has not progressed significantly SEVERITY LEVELS Low Wearing away of the aggregate or binder has started but has not progressed significantly. Ibu Pejabat JKR. POSSIBLE CAUSES Insufficient bitumen content Poor adhesion of bitumen binder to aggregate particles due to wet aggregate Inadequate compaction or construction fduring wet weather Deterioration of binder and/or aggregate PROBABLE TREATMENTS Thin bituminous overlay Thin bituminous overlay Thin bituminous overlay Thin bituminous overlay Cawangan Jalan. RAVELLING 4. 4.

However.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. It usually occurs in the wheel paths. 2.3. MEASUREMENT TO BE TAKEN a) area affected. Use of naturally smooth uncrushed aggregates Thin bituminous overlay Cawangan Jalan. Coarse aggregate exposed Smoothening and rounding of the roadstone has progressed significantly NO. POLISHING 4. POLISHING DESCRIPTION Polishing is the smoothening and rounding of the upper surface of the roadstone.L Page 18 . K. POSSIBLE CAUSES Inadequate resistance to polishing of surface aggregates. the degree of polishing may be reflected in a reduction of skid resistance. exposing coarse aggregate which are glossy in appearance and smooth to the touch. Ibu Pejabat JKR. particularly in areas of heavy traffic movements or where high stresses are developed between surface and tyres PROBABLE TREATMENTS Thin bituminous overlay or use of stiffer mix or use HCM 1. Smoothening and rounding of the upper surface of the roadstone has started SEVERITY LEVELS Not applicable.

c) number of delaminations.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. 1.1 m2 and 2. especially in cracks. flaking DESCRIPTION Delamination is the loss of a discrete and large (minimum 0.01 square metre) area of the wearing course. POSSIBLE CAUSES Inadequate cleaning or inadequate t coat obefore placement of upper layers Seepage of water through asphalt.5 m2.1 m2 to 2. High A group of more than two (2) moderate delaminations along a short stretch of road. seal break. 3. DELAMINATION SYNONYMS Peeling.5 m2 High severity with group of delaminations NO. K.L Page 19 . Surface area peeled off is less than 0.4. DELAMINATION 4. 4. surface lifting. to break bond between surface and lower layers Weak. Low severity where peeling of the top surface has started Moderate severity with surface area peeled off between 0. Usually there is a clear delineation of the wearing course and the layer below. Severe crocodile cracks in and around the peeled off area. MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) thickness of layer(s) peeled off. loose layer immediately underlying seal PROBABLE TREATMENTS Tack mill off and re-lay upper layers Replace wearing course or thin bituminous overlay Reconstruction of weak layers Adhesion of surface binder to vehicle tyres Thin bituminous overlay Cawangan Jalan. b) area of individual delaminations. Moderate Surface area peeled off is between 0. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Peeling of the top layer has started but has not progressed significantly.1 m2. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 2.

L Page 20 . MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) area of patch at each severity level. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.0. High Patch has high severity distress of any type. Moderate Patch has moderate severity distress of any type. It may or may not be associates) with either a loss of serviceability (apart from a loss of appearance) or structural capacity. PATCH DESCRIPTION A patch is a repaired section of pavement where a portion of the pavement surface has been removed and replaced (see FIGURE 4). The `extent and frequency of patching can be useful indicators of the structural adequacy of the pavement. SEVERITY LEVELS Low Patch is in good condition or has low severity distress of any type. Patch with low severity distress Patch with moderate severity distress Patch with high severity distress FIGURE 4 : PATCH AND POTHOLE Cawangan Jalan. PATCH 5. Defects can occur within a patch or the patch can be a further defect where it is raised or depressed below the level of the pavement surface. b) number of patches at each severity level.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions.

3 Moderate High High PROBABLE TREATMENTS Patching Cut and patch Base reconstruction Page 21 Cawangan Jalan. Group of potholes with depth > 50 mm and area > 0. Ibu Pejabat JKR. POTHOLE 6. They are produced when traffic breaches small pieces of the pavement surface allowing the entry of water.3 m2 . These spots disintegrate because of the weakening of the base course or poor quality surfacing. < 0. POTHOLE DESCRIPTION Pothole is bowl shaped cavity in the pavement surface resulting from the loss of wearing course and binder course materials (see FIGURE 4). 1. b) area of pothole. Low severity with area < 0.0.1 -0.1 Low Moderate Moderate POSSIBLE CAUSES Loss of surface course Moisture entry to base course through a cracked pavement surface Load associated disintegration of base 0.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions. SEVERITY LEVELS MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) depth of pothole. c) number of potholes at each severity level. Free water collecting in the hole and the underlying base accelerates its development.3 Low Moderate High > 0. 3. 2.L .3 m2 and depth < 25 mm Moderate severity with depth between 25 mm to 50 mm and area < 0. K.1 m2 AREA (square metre) DEPTH (mm) < 25 25-50 > 50 NO.

The defect types covered in this section are 7.L Significant length of edge break and surfacing loss Page 22 .0. or broken. Cawangan Jalan.1. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions EDGE BREAKS Edge break has just started FIGURE 5 : TYPES OF EDGE DEFECTS 7. iii) channelling of water at the edge of the pavement leading to erosion of shoulder. and are most significant where the shoulder is unsealed. DESCRIPTION ii) edge drop-off. The general form is illustrated in Figure 5. Edge break with considerable breakup ii) loss of quality of ride and possible loss of control of vehicle. Ibu Pejabat JKR. SEVERITY LEVELS Not applicable. b) maximum width of surfacing loss. The detrimental effects of edge defects include : i) reduction of pavement width. iv) entry of water into base. EDGE BREAKS i) edge break. EDGE DEFECTS Edge defects occur along the interface of flexible pavement and the shoulder. MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) length over which break occurs. Edge break occurs when the edge of the bituminous surface are fretted.

2. 4. K. EDGE DROP-OFFS DESCRIPTION Edge drop-off is the difference in elevation between the traffic lane and outside shoulder.L . b) length affected. Significant drop-off Height of drop > 100 mm. It is a danger to traffic No. POSSIBLE CAUSES Inadequate pavement width Alignment which encourages drivers totravel on pavement edge Inadequate edge support Edge drop-off Loss of adhesion to base EDGE DROP-OFFS Slight drop-off SEVERITY LEVEL Not applicable. 5. MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN a) height of drop. 2. severity levels can be defined in relation to the height of drop. typically occurs when the outside shoulder settles or erodes.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions PROBABLE TREATMENTS Widen the pavement Pavement widening and realignment Shoulder strengthening Sstrengthening and levelling of shoulder with road surface Cut and patch or bituminous overlay 7. It is not usually considered a defect if the drop-off is less than 25 mm. However. 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. NO 1. 1 2 3 POSSIBLE CAUSES Inadequate pavement width Shoulder material with inadequate resistance to erosion and abrasion Resurfacing of pavement without resurfacing of shoulder PROBABLE TREATMENTS Widen the pavement Replace shoulder material and reconstruct Levelling of shoulder with road surface Page 23 Cawangan Jalan.

reflective surface that nay be tacky to the touch Block crack The occurrence of cracks that divide the bituminous surface into approximately rectangular pieces.L Page 24 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions Delamination Loss of a discrete and large (minimum 0. glass-like. Ibu Pejabat JKR. the block sizes are smaller than 300 mm. normally associated with shoving Crocodile crack Interconnected or interlaced crack which form a network of multisided blocks. K. closely spaced alternate valleys and crests with wavelengths of less than 2 m. Cut and patch A treatment where the distressed area is excavated and patched back with bituminous materials Cawangan Jalan. Crescent shaped crack Crack which is half moon or crescent in shape.01 m2) area of the top bituminous layer Depression Localized area within a pavement with elevations lower than the surrounding area Edge break Broken or fretted pavement edge Edge crack Fracture along the pavement edge Edge drop-off The difference in elevation between the traffic lane and the shoulder Hairline crack A fracture that is very narrow in width Longitudinal Parallel to the centre line of the pavement Patch An area where the pavement has been removed and replaced with a new material Polishing Smoothening of the upper surface of the road stone. which are glossy in appearance and smooth to the touch Pothole A bowl-shaped cavity in the pavement surface Pumping The ejection of water and fine materials under pressure through cracks under moving loads Ravelling The wearing away of the pavement surface caused by the loss of binder or the dislodging of aggregate particles or both Rutting The occurrence of longitudinal surface depression/deformation in the wheel paths GLOSSARY Binder Brown or black adhesive mate rial Bituminous overlay A method of treat ment where the existing pave ment surface is overlaid with bituminous materials Bleeding Identified by a film of bitumi nous material on the pavement surface that creates a shiny. exposing coarse aggregate.1 m2 or more in size Centre line The white/yellow separating traffic travelling in opposite direction Construction joint The point at which work is concluded and reinitiated when building a pavement Corrugation Regular transverse undulations. typically 0.

1987. 3. 2. Strategic Highway Research Program. 4. National Research Council.J. Wrong. longitudinal displacement of a localized area of the pavement surface caused by traffic pushing against the pavement Spalling Breaking or cutting off small pieces from the pavement surface Transverse Perpendicular to the centre line of the pavement REFERENCES 1. Cawangan Jalan. G. Various Research Findings at IKRAM.L Page 25 . 1990. Manual for Condition Rating of Flexible Pavements . W.A.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY A Guide To The Visual Assessment Of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions Shoving Permanent.C.A. National Association of Australia State Road Authorities. A Guide to the Visual Assessment of Pavement Condition. Reprinted January 1982. Phang and G. D. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Chong.Distress Manifestation. Distress Identification Manual for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Studies. Washington. SHRPLTPP/FR-90-001. K.