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Felix Nepveux Senior Member, IEEE Jacobs Engineering P.O. Box 5456 Greenville, SC 29607 USA
Abstract - The purpose of this paper is to describe several different methods of protection of tuned capacitor banks, and how the relay protection settings for each are determined. Problems with the different schemes are described, and a new protective scheme is proposed. Index Terms - Capacitor, reactor, tuned bank
the method of bank protection which requires the least additional equipment.
II. BANK PROTECTION
A. General Discussion
The protection of a capacitor bank is a combination of protection of the bank from the power system, and the protection of the power system from the bank. Both of these goals are accomplished by the detection of abnormal operation of capacitor banks. Many schemes for the detection of abnormal operation of banks are described and discussed in ANSI/IEEE C37.99 . The purpose of this paper is discuss and provide examples of several of these schemes using an industrial sized tuned capacitor bank. The purpose of protection of the bank is to avoid conditions which can result in further damage to the bank. As example of this is individual capacitor cans voltage. As cans fail, and are isolated by their individual fuses, the voltage on remaining cans in the same phase may rise to levels which can damage the remaining cans in the same phase. Protection of the power system from abnormal operation of a capacitor bank has often only included protection from faults in banks or in the cables connecting the bank to the system. Protection from inappropriate connection of a bank to a system, such as during periods of very low plant load, should also be considered. In the case of tuned banks, protection from amplification of power system harmonics as cans fail must be considered.
The bank used for examples and calculations in this paper is a tuned bank made up of four cans per phase rated at 500 KVAR at 9960 volts. The reactors in each phase are 5.956 mH. At typical line to neutral voltage in a 13.8kV system the cans produce 319.95 KVAR each. The total bank is 4022 KVAR. Note that this is more than 12 x 319.95 due to the effect of the voltage rise in the reactors in the bank. The bank is connected as an ungrounded wye. The detection of abnormal conditions inside a bank is usually accomplished using data collected outside of a bank. To do this the abnormal conditions must be identified, and then the external currents and voltages associated with each condition must be calculated. Methods are described in C37.99 involving internal sensors, but this drives up the cost and complexity of the bank. Schemes with numerous internal sensors are not typically usually used in small industrial banks.
Abnormal operation is typically detected as imbalances in current or voltage inside a bank, with higher levels on voltage or current indicating more severe abnormal conditions. In some methods special connection schemes and equipment are required to allow detection of the unbalanced conditions. A new method of detecting abnormal operation is suggested in this paper based on under-current in individual phases. The use of negative sequence current components for the evaluation of unbalanced current is mentioned several times in C37.99, but is not clearly described. The use of negative sequence components is described in this paper since this may be
One method for determining external voltages and currents for various failure conditions is to use charts in ANSI C37.99. The C37.99 methods appear to provide magnitudes of currents and voltages, but not the angles. There is also no way to help you feel confident of the magnitude values derived from counting components and using a formula for a particular connection. If you choose the wrong formula, or count the wrong components, you may get results that are wrong, and you have no way to check them. also do not know if the C37.99 methods can be used at all to determine currents and voltages when cans are lost in different phases. Rather than taking time to understand the C37.99 methods, found it to be far easier to simply solve the currents and voltages as an unbalanced three phase system problem.
In the discussions of various protection schemes that follow, normal system voltage of 13,800 volts is assumed. The effects of abnormal system voltage from 95% to 110% of normal are discussed separately after the different
schemes are described.
The first step in the solution of the unbalanced three phase circuit problem is to define the current and voltage phase vectors. The vector quantities that represent the
1-4244-1 192-0/07/$25.00 C2007 IEEE.
CT. the voltage from the neutral of the bank to ground can be monitored to determine the loss of one or more capacitor cans. is used in the link between the neutrals of the two sides of the bank. for normal system voltage. and a circuit diagram defining the circulating currents. Split-Wye Probably the most popular scheme discussed in ANSI C37. and rises to only 25. An example of this is shown in Appendix C. In this case the neutral current between the sides of the bank returns to zero. and negative sequence components can all be calculated using these phase currents. Neutral to Ground Voltage If a bank is built as a single ungrounded wye unit. Phase and neutral voltages. All three have an equal chance of failure.99 involves splitting the bank in two sections and monitoring current flow between the neutral points of each side. one on the same side as the first can that failed.1 amps if a second can fails in a different phase on the same side.. typically 14400/120V for a 13. and there is no trip because even the alarm condition is lost. Note that the circuit diagram in Figure 1 is not a "vector" diagram. Although unlikely. These phase currents are then split between the cans in each phase to determine the neutral jumper current. but in a different phase.8 amps for one failed can. The second can that fails will probably be in the same phase as the first can that failed since can voltage in this phase rises from 8345 volts to 9026 volts. But note that the two sides do not have to be equal in capacitance. The voltages and currents for system voltages ranging from 90% to 105% voltage. The can voltages in the other two phases both drop to 7981 volts. the neutral current stays approximately the same. Protection Scheme 2. The neutral current is 22. and ic.5 amps for two cans lost in the same phase on the same side of the bank. PT. Vbg a ia Vab Za b 1 4Zb ib -*-/ic - c IcVbc i2 4 The currents i1 and i2 can be determined using simultaneous equations. for normal operation and for operation with one or two cans lost are shown in Appendix B.bank. as long as each side has an equal amount of capacitance in each phase.8KV system. Then i1 and i2 can be used to determine phase currents ia. ib. are listed in Appendix A. In the example for this paper the current in the neutral jumper is 22. Each side of a split-wye bank must have the same amount of capacitance in each phase. These are not positive and negative sequence components. and 49. This is another reason that the split-wye bank should be tripped upon the loss of the first can.. Also note that ii and i2 are defined in the circuit diagram as currents circulating in the system. The phases are shown as they are to make a neat presentation of Vab and Vbc. This is part of the procedure for solving the unbalanced three phase system problem. C. It is more likely that the second can that fails will be on the other side of the bank since there are two on that side. A FIGURE 1 PHASOR AND CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS Vcg Vca Vectors rotate ia is at 90 degrees ib is at -30 degrees Counter-Clockwise Vbc ia \| of~~~~~~~ Vab Vag g The current in the CT in the neutral jumper is used to detect the loss of a capacitor can. The CT must be rated or installed in a manner that provides protection from full system voltage. There can be two cans per phase on one side and three cans per phase in the second side. Some relays have sufficient accuracy to discriminate between these two levels. and two on the other side. If the split-wye scheme is used alone the bank should be tripped on the loss of the first can. if the second can that fails is on the same side of a bank. . and the phases are not shown in a counter clockwise rotation. But then there are three cans left in the phase with the failed can.A2 r-) A3CiA4 Ph. and it is connected from the neutral of the bank to ground. For the case of the loss of one can in phase A of the typical bank all of the phase currents and voltages. The PT primary must be rated for full system voltage. is required. Wiring is required from the CT to a relay. Wiring from the PT to a relay is needed. The currents in each phase are first determined by the three phase solution for the unbalanced condition being examined. B. are as shown in Figure 1. FIGURE 2 SPLIT-WYE BANK Al_C. This is typically called a split-wye bank. A current transformer. just currents assigned to be flowing in the loops.8 amps for one can lost in any phase. Protection Scheme 1. A potential transformer. but some may not.
5 amps. while the current in the other phases drop to 153.5 amps indicates the loss of at least two cans in a single phase. A protection relay that can monitor 12 is required. It will probably not work for large banks with many series and parallel connected cans since the loss of a few cans will make little difference in total bank current output.9 amps.6 amps. The calculated negative sequence current is then used as the basis of the relay setting. The split-wye scheme will detect this situation only if the cans fail on different sides of the bank. The voltage and 12 schemes will not detect this at all. The 12 current for a single can failed is 15. In some cases individual phases would be monitored.05 times normal system voltage may not work for 0. Bank Current No matter how cans are lost bank current will be reduced. A current in one phase below 136. The System Voltage Problem The difficulty with all of these schemes is that bank currents and voltages vary with system voltage. communication. Negative Sequence Current F. These are now common and are not expensive. Trying to find just the right setting that works for a reasonable voltage range is possible.9 amps.1 amps.7 amps in those two phases. 12. and 1638 for two cans lost in the same phase. is 13.5 amps and 131. the most likely second can to fail will be in the same G. It can be seen that settings for the various schemes that work at 1. This scheme is not discussed in ANSI C37. The same initial calculation is needed for this scheme as for the split-wye bank and the VNG sensing scheme to determine all the phase currents. The 12 current scheme can not be used to detect a second can lost in a different phase. As mentioned earlier this results in significant loss of VARs and a significant rise in the tuning frequency of the bank. It involves only the unbalanced system current calculations. E.0 amps. Loss of Cans in All Three Phases One further situation to consider is the equal loss of capacitance in all three phases.95 times system voltage.05 system voltage. There is about the same difference in voltage in this scheme as there is difference in current in the split-wye neutral current sensing method for the loss of a can in a different phase. It also works for both plain capacitor banks and tuned banks. Protection based on bank current could be set up as an under-current tripping scheme.The same initial calculation is needed in this scheme as is needed for the split-wye scheme to determine all the phase currents. This is an unlikely situation.5 should indicate a lost can. So. but in different phases. such as the 51V function. Then the phase currents and impedances are used to calculate the voltage drop from each phase to neutral. 0. The 12 current for two cans lost. The voltage from neutral to ground is 752 volts for one can lost in any phase. This could possibly be done with the logic capabilities of several new relays. Appendix A shows bank currents and voltages for various conditions at 0. But then again. In other cases average current can be monitored. Even the latest versions of several digital relays now available do not appear to have trip functions that respond to variable set-points. but most of the older digital relays do not compute an average of phase currents. but then it may trip improperly under extreme voltage conditions when the bank is really needed. and alarm capabilities of the modern digital relays will also be available. D. but a positive method of detection of this situation would add to the security of the protection scheme. A setting between 752 and 831 volts should be able to detect a second can failing. The phase CTs in the breaker protecting the bank against overcurrent provide the data required for measuring 12. It is good if the calculations for all three phases yield the same answer for neutral to ground voltage. This is done using the formulas for sequence components as shown in Appendix D. Protection Scheme 4. The reduction of current scheme of bank protection may be the easiest and the most secure method of bank protection. phase. The current in a phase with an isolated can will drop from 168. with the least additional equipment and wiring requirements. The 12 current for two cans lost in the same phase is 34. in the same or a different phase. could easily accommodate system swings and transients.95. the advantages of the data collection.9. Another scheme that can be used to detect the loss of a can in a bank built as a single unit is to monitor negative sequence current. An additional step is then needed to calculate the negative sequence component of the three unbalanced phase currents.2 amps to 136. If a second can fails in a different phase the neutral to ground voltage shifts from 752 volts to 831 volts. and 1. with time delays. so an under-current trip setting between 160. The current in the other two phases will be 160. For the loss of two cans in the same phase the current drops to 99.0. Protection Scheme 3.9 and 136. for free. but it would be difficult. A means of solving this voltage problem is to have a current trip function that varies with voltage. No CTs or PTs are required in the bank. 1. current between 136. then from neutral to ground. but probably deserves consideration.7 amps in two phases indicates that two cans are lost. No additional current circuit wiring is needed when a multifunction relay is used that incorporates negative sequence and over current. A definite time current trip function that can be controlled by system voltage could become the function of choice for capacitor bank protection. For two cans lost in different phases the current drops to 131.9 amps. .99. And then. This function.
such as the loss of cans in different phases or on opposite sides of banks. It is also hoped that protective relay setup programs could include the calculations of setting levels for the different schemes based on definition of the components in a bank.166  W. with set-points that vary with system voltage. Stevenson. Phase currents may then be used to calculate voltages and negative sequence components as needed. but it will probably already be available in any system. 2004. British Columbia. A voltage relay is also needed. Elements of Power System Analysis. Examples of  Ronald M. Protection After System Shutdowns There are many horror stories of over-voltage incidents occurring when power systems are re-energized after a shutdown with capacitor banks still connected . The calculations for all of the schemes usually start with the determination of phase currents in the bank a particular failure condition. D. Victoria. and much wiring. CONCLUSIONS All of the protection schemes for capacitor banks require settings for protective devices. Inc.July 1. and easy to implement. IEEE Guide for the Protection OF Shunt Capacitor Banks. Conference Record of 2004 Annual Pulp and Paper Industrial Technical Conference. Several schemes may need to be implemented so that each can cover blind spots of other schemes.Three Case Histories".  ANSI/IEEE C37. Ill. June 27 . relays. The VAR flow from the bank to the utility causes a voltage rise on the plant side of the utility tie transformer. Current and voltage levels used in the different schemes vary with system voltage.99 that require multiple CTs. These are not usually found in small industrial banks. calculations of neutral jumper current and negative sequence current components are included in this paper.99-2000. 1962. New York. "Misapplication of Power Capacitors in Distribution Systems With Non-Linear Loads . A new scheme is suggested in this paper for the detection of abnormal operation of a bank based on undercurrent. pages 156 . A valuable. The VARs have to go somewhere. pages 272-278 . The time to trip may need to be based on utility re-closing practices. A potential transformer is needed to sense system voltage for this function. But the capacitor bank which was left connected produces the full rated VAR output. I. IV. N.Y. or re-closing practices may need to be re-evaluated. Simpson. Settings based on normal system voltage may not function properly over the full range of typical system voltages. The typical protection schemes can be blinded by abnormal "abnormal" conditions. protective function is simply a trip of all capacitor banks if system voltage drops to zero for a period of time. Other Bank Protection Schemes There are additional differential current schemes in ANSI C37. Jr.. but this function will probably also be available in any multifunction relay typically used. They are normally used in large utility banks with many series and parallel cans in each phase. REFERENCES Re-closing of the capacitor bank breaker can also be blocked by various system voltage or utility load criteria. NY: IEEE. New York. When the plant is energized there is no real or reactive load. Canada.: McGraw-Hill Book Company.H.
956 10.5 < -115.245 ohm/ph 13.00132 x/r KV.245 5.25 -47.36 0 i 66. ohms LI.49767 0.03318 HV MVA LV MVA 382 0. ia 136.43 4.1 Ph B OK 7980.9 < ic = 160.49877 Tuning Harmonic# z System Vrated 13.sec R 0.APPENDIX A CALCULATION RESULTS FOR ONE CAN LOST AT 1.00 p Capacitor Data / can 5001 KVAR at 9.37 uF / can 319.5 < Number of cans open: 1 ib = 160.1 0.479 49.91 4.44 ohms/ph (XL2 in calc) mH/phase H# of pole w/o reactors in bank H# of pole with all cans H# of zero at reduced capacitance H# of pole at reduced capacitance What are cap voltages and neutral voltage when 1 fuse opens.0 Vn with 1 fuse(s) open in Ph A 752. Henrys MVA 35 %Z XL1 0.5< 115.0 -25.96kV 4 cans per phase 13.110 uF / phase ohms/ph avg ohms 2.25 4.8 KV Actual system voltage 1.21 < 9026. then 2 in same Determine if alarming is OK for 1 fuse.0 SYSTEM VOLTAGE rrans and Systerr Data: Z.134 +j 2.651 With -1 fuse(s) open j 0 i 49.601 54.25 -63.801 kv.1 205.1 PhCOK 3. 9960V I-I max 53.89 j = = . then tripping is required for 2 fuses.601 +j 2.0 Ph A OK 7980.95 kvar/can at Vs 3839 KVAR at Vr 3651 KVAR at Vs I 2.1 < 180. Vog = Vcapa Vcapb Vcapc Z in phase with all fuses Z in phase a with # fuses lost = = MVAR - 0 1 90.9 < = phase open.
8 138.0 21.0 I .5 8379.7 Split-Y IN 0.0 205.6 158.7 168.6 13.1 198.0 -25.5 7838.5 99.5 44.1 9144.3 31.4 10319.9 8709.0 16.8 210.9 7581.0 All up 1 2 1 1 out out out out in in in in Ph A Ph A A& B A /side 0.1 11.7 168.1 -18.4 8709.1 VNG 210.7 I Can Voltages I Ph B Ph C 8762.2 160.0 VNG 0.0 14.6 138.8 210.0 85.9 12.2 7510.1 ic 159.0 205.5 8273.7 36.1 7838.2 7980.9 150.8 -25.3 104.2 143.5 9477.1 -30.2 136.5 7510.6 7182.8 -25.7 90.5 6870.0 23.1 168.4 0.2 8345.7 0.0 90.5 8015.5 7633.1 90.0 90.1 -18.5 135.1 198.0 90.1 O Ph A 8762.7 143.9 161.2 160.0 138.2 1638.1 198.2 210.1 23.0 90.0 ia 151.6 47.1 I ic 176.6 22.0 -25.4 7475.6 0.6 0.0 -25.9 131.0 85.3 13.2 118.9 7581.8 152.8 210.9 146.0 -25.1 -18.9 146.1 ib 151.0 85.8 152.0 205.5 7633.95 13110 8345.1 789.1 0.5 8845.2 0.0 20.7 -30.5 7251.9 872.7 94.9 12420 ia 159.6 Ph A Ph A A& B A /side 0.0 15.8 9336.4 144.0 All up 1 out in 2 out in 1 out in 1 out in VNG 0.0 ia 168.1 198.7 8015.0 714.8 210.2 6870.8 49.C 7510.0 90.6 8123.0 22.3 90.7 7101.0 830.8 -25.05 14490 All up 1 out in 2 out in 1 out in 1 out in Ph A Ph A A& B A /side 1 13800 ia 176.2 125.1 131.APPENDIX B PHASE CURRENTS AND VOLTAGES FOR CAN FAILURES AT VARIOUS SYSTEM VOLTAGES System Voltage 1.9 0.4 0.7 7927.1 32.0 I 2 0.5 25.9 153.9 153.0 85.1 176.2 8345.0 0.1 125.5 8379.7 ic 210.4 0.6 1556.8 -25.3 9144.0 752.5 118.6 7182.8 138.0 15.1 ib 168.9 161.0 90.0 90.2 747.2 210.5 8762.0 1474.7 7927.1 -18.9 8574.2 7980.0 26.4 144.7 8273.0 151.1 7927.5 All up 1 out in 2 out in 1 out in 1 out in * Ph A Ph A A& B A /side 90.6 0.5 ic -30.1 7849.0 6727.1 ib 159.8 89.2 9026.0 677.0 In the Split-Y bank the neutral current is calculated for cans lost on the same side of the bank In the Split-Y bank the neutral current is calculated for one can lost in Phase A on each side of the bank .5 7251.9 34.3 ib -30.8 129.4 122.8 1719.9 52. VNG 789.1 9827.0 205.0 90.
00 22. 99) Side 1 45.85 0.00 +J The current in A phase in side 2.4805 < 90 = 0.48 Total into B + C . 1 on side 1 and 2 on side2 of the bank ib and ic come from 4 cans.10 = ic2.49 90.75 90.12) 22.85 -72.24 136.8949 < -25. 2 on sidel and 2 on side 2 of the bank The sum of the currents in all three phases on each side will equal the current that has to be supplied through the neutral Side ial = ibl = icl = 1: a. out of A 136.48) -68.85 -72.99 < 90. with only 1 can is ial 0.00 = ib2= 1/2 of ib= 80.0956 = 145. and c all have 2 cans. and c all have 2 cans: 1/3 of ia = 45. a has 1 can: ia2 = 2/3 of ia = 90.45 < -25. with 2 good cans is ia2 0.45 < 205. Graphic: Another way to visualize the neutral current: Consider the case of one can lost in Ph.49 < 90.00 +J ( J +J ( +J ( 45.45 < 205. Sum the currents in each side: ia comes from 3 cans.00 72.24 68.10 = sum of phases = negative of neutral current - Side 2: b.12) -34.12 -22.24) 45.99 f 68.71 +J ( 160.85 0.00 = 1/2 of ib= 80.24) -68.49) -34.45 < -25.75 Method 2.00 +J ( 160.48 Neutral Jumper 2275 22.75 Side 2 90.99) -34.71 +J ( 0.APPENDIX C SPLIT-WYE BANK NEUTRAL CURRENT CALCULATION FOR ONE FAILED CAN Amps ia ib ic for case of one capacitor can lost: 136.1/2 of ic sum of phases = negative of neutral current = 0.12) -34.8949 < 205. b.00 72. A: The current leaving A is equal to the sum of the currents in B ia = ib + ic The sum of the B + C currents on each side are equal 0.0956 = -145.49 Ph A PhB+ C Total.00+J( 136.75 0.24) 0) Method 1.10 = 1/2 of ic = 80.00 +J ( + C -68.10 = 80.75) +J( J +J( +J ( 22.00 +J ( ibl + icl = ib2 + ic2 = The current in A phase in side 1.
1 132.5 < 90. zero sequence current 'al = 1/3 (Ia + alb +a2I1). then lb 100 /2400 and Ic 100 Z1200 Many people make the mistake of thinking that lb is at an angle of Z1200 and that Ic is at Z2400 (at least I did. add the degrees of rotation to lb and Ic 90. Ib.0 i = 3 ia2 47.0 i + 92. for example 'a = laO + 'al + Ia2 The 'a.0 1 36.9 -25.0) Convert to Cartesian. The three phase currents are again added together. and I observed currents can be used to calculate the symmetrical components. so they also add to zero. The negative sequence components end up in phase.1 -132. The negative sequence components also add up to zero. positive sequence current Ia2= 1/3 (la + a2lb +alc). and "a2" rotates a vector 2400 Zero Sequence Component This is easy to resolve. and a2 2400 "a" rotates a vector 1200.9 <( 205.5 + 92. B and C Phase Components: The b and c phase components are simply the a phase components rotated appropriately. This makes the three positive sequence component vectors line up with each other and add up to 3 times the magnitude of each positive sequence component. Each is the sum of its own sequence components.1 + + 160. When the three phase currents are simply added together the positive sequence components add up to zero.1 = ib 160. The three zero sequence components are now 120 degrees apart and sum to zero.1 + 240.0 -j 0. The three negative sequence components rotate but remain 120 degrees apart. Negative Sequence Component The negative sequence component calculation is the same as the positive sequence component calculation except that the b phase is rotated 2400 and the a phase is rotated 1200. the zero sequence components are 1200 apart and sum to zero.0 +j 136. but after the b phase is rotated 120 degrees and the c phase is rotated 240 degrees. negative sequence current Note that "a" as a subscript refers to the phase A "all as a normal character refers to the 1200 operator. lb.9 < 205.1 = ic To find ia2.7 0.0 -j 15. Positive Sequence Component This is also easy to resolve.APPENDIX D RESOLUTION OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS  The three phase currents are first described as Ia.9 < -25. and Ic.0 la 160. and the positive sequence components rotate but remain 120 degrees apart. also adding up to zero. many times) . then add and di\nde: = 3 ia2 0. FIND NEGATIVE SEQUENCE COMPONENT Phase currents: 136.5 < la2 + <( 160. and they are the quantities that can be observed.0) 120. For a: 'aO = 1/3 (Ia + lb + I'). The sum becomes 3 times 10.9 = la2 The trick: If 'a 100 /0z.
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