You are on page 1of 4

he frontal lobe is located at the front of the brain and is associated with reasoning, motor skills, higher level

cognition, and
expressive language. At the back of the frontal lobe, near the central sulcus, lies the motor cortex. This area of the brain
receives information from various lobes of the brain and utilizes this information to carry out body movements. Damage to
the frontal lobe can lead to changes in sexual habits, socialization, and attention as well as increased risk-taking.

The parietal lobe is located in the middle section of the brain and is associated with processing tactile sensory information
such as pressure, touch, and pain. A portion of the brain known as the somatosensory cortex is located in this lobe and is
essential to the processing of the body's senses. Damage to the parietal lobe can result in problems with verbal memory, an
impaired ability to control eye gaze and problems with language.

The temporal lobe is located on the bottom section of the brain. This lobe is also the location of the primary auditory cortex,
which is important for interpreting sounds and the language we hear. The hippocampus is also located in the temporal lobe,
which is why this portion of the brain is also heavily associated with the formation of memories. Damage to the temporal lobe
can lead to problems with memory, speech perception, and language skills.

The occipital lobe is located at the back portion of the brain and is associated with interpreting visual stimuli and
information. The primary visual cortex, which receives and interprets information from the retinas of the eyes, is located in
the occipital lobe. Damage to this lobe can cause visual problems such as difficulty recognizing objects, an inability to
identify colors, and trouble recognizing words.

The frontal lobe of the brain
The frontal lobe is concerned with executing behavior. This ranges from the control of individual muscles in the
primary motor cortex to high level abstract planning about what to do. The frontal lobes are divided into different
The prefrontal cortex: In humans, the prefrontal cortex takes up the majority of the frontal lobe. The prefrontal
cortex is crucial for the performance of almost all skills requiring intelligence. The prefrontal cortex tends to be
larger in primates than other mammals, and its larger in humans than in other primates. This is correlated with
the amount of high level planning done by members of different species.
Most mammals operate mostly on instinct and dont live in complexly differentiated social groups. Primates, on
the other hand, have complex male and female hierarchies and may hatch plots against each other that span
years of planning. Humans build tools, modify their environments for their own purposes, and have specific
relationships with up to hundreds of other individuals (and this was even before Facebook).
The orbitofrontal cortex: This area is the anterior and medial part of the prefrontal cortex. The orbitofrontal
cortex is essential for risk and reward assessment and for what might be called moral judgment. Patients with
damage to this area may have normal or superior intelligence as assessed by IQ tests but lack even a
rudimentary concept of manners or appropriate actions in social contexts; they also lose almost all risk aversion
despite clear knowledge of bad consequences.
Primary motor cortex: The primary motor cortex is the strip of brain area just anterior to the central sulcus, the
most posterior portion of the frontal lobe. The brain can take direct control of the muscles from the spinal cord. It
does this through projections from the primary motor cortex. Neurons in the primary motor cortex travel down
the spinal cord and synapse on the same motor neurons that mediate reflexes. In theory, this direct control
allows far more flexibility and adaptability.
Premotor cortex: The job of the premotor cortex is to consciously monitor movement sequences, using
sensory feedback. After the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex select the goal, the premotor cortex coordinates
the steps to reach that goal. Activity in the premotor cortex helps you learn what to pay attention to while you
perform a complicated motor sequence and what to do when you get stuck at some particular point.
Think of the frontal cortex as polarized from anterior (front) to posterior (back). Farthest back, at the central sulcus,
are neural wires going almost directly to muscles. In front of that are areas that organize and sequence movements.
In front of that are abstract planning levels. At these abstract levels, for example, you select from a variety of different
strategies that may involve completely different muscles, muscles sequences, or, as in the tennis shot, the decision to
not move at all.
The brain's parietal lobe
The parietal lobe contains neurons that receive sensory information from the skin and tongue, and processes sensory
information from the ears and eyes that are received in other lobes. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch,
temperature, and pain receptors) relay through the thalamus to parietal lobe.
The occipital lobe
The occipital lobe processes visual input that is sent to the brain from the retinas. The retinas project onto the
posterior pole of the occipital lobe, called V1 (for visual area one), so that activity in different areas of V1 is related to
whatever is in the image around your current point of gaze.
Subareas beyond V1 specialize in visual tasks such as color detection, depth perception, and motion detection. The
sense of vision is further processed by projections from these higher occipital lobe areas to other areas in the parietal
and temporal lobes, but this processing is dependent on early processing by the occipital lobe. (Researchers know
this because damage to V1 causes blindness in that part of the visual field that projects there.)
The fact that the visual system gets an entire lobe for processing emphasizes the importance of high visual acuity
and processing among our senses.
The temporal lobe
The brain's temporal lobe combines auditory and visual information. The superior (upper) and medial (central) aspect
of the temporal lobe receives auditory input from the part of the thalamus that relays information from the ears. The
inferior (lower) part of the temporal lobe does visual processing for object and pattern recognition. The medial and
anterior parts of the temporal lobe are involved in very high-order visual recognition (being able to recognize faces,
for example), as well as recognition depending on memory

Frontal Lobe
motor strip location, impulsivity, short term memory, emotion, voluntary movement,
social functioning, creativity, expressive language.

Parietal Lobe
sensory strip location, perception, touch(pain & temperature), ability to draw, reading
and writing, calculations.

Temporal Lobe
hearing, long term memory, verbal and written recognition memory, receptive
memory, music, initiation of verbal.

Occipital Lobe
perception, vision

coordination, balance, ability to judge distance, muscle tone including the muscles
required for speech.

Brain Stem
Connects with the spinal cord, reticular activating system, thalmus, hypothalmus,
heart rate and blood pressure, smell and taste, eye movement, appetite, vision, balance

Temporal lobe (left side)
understanding speech analysis of speech, monitoring speech, reading & writing, verbal
memory, letter recognition.

Temporal Lobe (right side)
Decoding nonverbal patterns, visual decoding, Interpreting and remembering visual

Parietal Lobe (left side)
smooth speech, writing skills, understanding math, reading skills, naming of objects,
verbal memory.

Parietal Lobe (right side)
drawing skills

Occipital Lobe (left side)
object recognition, visual recognition, reading numbers and letters, memory for
written information.

Occipital Lobe (right side)
attending to left visual field.

Frontal Lobe (left side)
speech control, expressive speech, memory for verbal information.