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B
NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS
\
THE AEBODYITAMfC ANALYSIS OF TXE GYROPLANE
E7 John '53. Wheatley
Langl ey Memorial Aeranautical Laboratory
REPRODUCED BY
NATI ONAL TECl ' NI CAL
1 I NFORMATI ON SERVICE
U S OEPARI ME#I OF COMMERCE
SPRIHGFIELD, VA 22161
Fashi ngt on
Xarch 1934
N O T I C E
THI S DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRODUCED F ROM THE
BEST COPY FURNI SHED US BY THE SPONSORI NG
AGENCY. ALTHOUGH IT IS RECOGNI ZED THAT CER-
TAI N PORTI ONS A R E I LLEGI BLE, I T I S BEI NG RE-
LEASED I N THE I NTEREST OF MAKING AVAI LABLE
AS MUCH I NFORMATI ON A S POSSI BLE.
NATIONAL ADVI SORY COMMITTEE ?OR AERONAUTICS
-I-- -_-_
TECHXICAL NOTE NO. 492
- -.------
THE AERODYWBIJIC ABALYSI S 03' THE GYROPLAXE
ROTAT IIJG-WING SY S TEN
By John B. Wheatley
SUKMARY
An aerodynami c a n a l y s i s of t h e gyr opl ane r ot a t i ng-
wing syst em i s pr e s e nt e d he r e i n. Thi s syst em c o n s i s t s of
a f r e e l y r o t a t i n g r o t o r i n which oppos i t e bl ades a r e r i g-
i d l y connect ed and alloxred t o r o t a t e o r f e a t h e r f r e e l y
about t h e i r span a x i s , Equat i ons have been der i ved f o r
t h e l i f t , t h e l i f t - d r a g r a t i o , t he a ngl e of a t t a c k , t h e
f e a t h e r i n g a n g l e s , and t h e r o l l i n g and p i t c h i n g moments
o f a gyr opl ane r o t o r i n t erms of i t s ba s i c par amet er s.
Curves o f l i f t - d r a g r a t i o a ga i ns t l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t have
been c a l c u l a t e d f o r a t y p i c a l c a s e , showing t h e e f f e c t o f
vayyi ng t h e p i t c h a ngl e , t h e s o l i d i t y , and t h e aver age
bl ade- s ect i on dr ag c o e f f i c i e n t , The a n a l y s i s expr es s es
s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t h e q u a l i t a k i v e r e l a t i o n s between t h e k o t o r
3
, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e r o t o r par amet er s . A s di s c l os e d by
2 t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e aerodynami c p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e gy-
r opl a ne ar e sound, and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on t h i s wing sys-
tem i s j u s t i f i e d .
I XTRODUCT IO?$
From c ons i de r a t i ons o f s a f e f l i g h t , i t i s d e s i r a b l e
t h a t an a i r p l a n e shoul d be a b l e t o f l y sl ewl y under good
c o n t r o l wi t hout t endi ng t o s t a l l o r s p i n , and shoul d be
capabl e o f descendi ng s t e e p l y and l a ndi ng i n a r e s t r i c t e d
a r e a i n t h e event of an engi ne f a i l u r e . The N. A. C. A. , i n
pur s uance o f i t s reseF-rch on s a f e t y i n f l i g h t , has i nt en-
s i v e l y s t u d i e d r ot at i ng- wi ng syst ems and f ound t h a t t hey
p o s s e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which conform c l o s e l y t o t he s e
s a f e t y r equi r ement s.
A pr e l i mi na r y anal gs i s of $Le gyr opl ane r ot a t i ng-
wing syst em di s c l os e d s u f f i c i e n t prornise t o j u s t i f y fur-
t h e r wsrk. I t w a s deci ded, t he r of or e , t o devel op t h e de-
t a i l e d aerodynami c anaLys i s of t h e gyr opl ane r o t o r as a
2 1S. A. C. A. Te
gui de f o r f u r t h e r i nve s t i g a t i on s . The a n a l y s i s i s based
on t h e a ut ogi r o- r ot or t he or y gi ven i n r e f e r e nc e s 1 and 2
and experimen ly v e r i f i e d by t h e dat a r e f e r e nc e
3. The a e r od m i c s i mi l a r i t y between t
a ut ogi r o i s ver y c l o s e , t h e on
o f bl ade mot i on used t o e l i mi n r o l l i n g moments i n
t h e t wo syst ems.
DESCRIPTIOH
The gyr opl ane r o t o r c o n s i s t s o f f o u r %l a d e s , t h e op-
pos i ng bl ades bei ng r i g i d l y connect ed, which r ot a t e f r e e l y
de r t h e i nf l ue nc e of a i r f o r c e s about an appr oxi mat el y
v e r t i c a l a x i s , Each bl ade pair is he l d i n bear i ngs at t h e
hub which per mi t t h e bl ades t o o s c i l l a t e o r f e a t h e r f r e e l y
a b o u t t he a x i s of t h e bear i ng; i , e . , t h e f e a t h e r i n g a x i s .
The bl ade is u s u a l l y o f f s e t , swept back. o r bot h, t o p l a c e
t h e bl ade c e nt e r o f p r e s s u r e behi nd t h e f e a t h e r i n g a x i s
a nd t hus s t a b i l i z e t h e f e a t h e r i n g motion. Fi gur e 1 shows
t h e ' r o t o r anal yzed i n t h i s paper ; t h e bl ades a r e r ect angu-
l a r , and a r e o f f s e t and swept back f r o m t h e f e a t h e r i n g
a x i s .
AlTALYS IS
B
The aerodynami c a n a l y s i s o f t h e gyr opl ane i s e s s e n t i a l -
l y s i mi 1a . r t o t hat o f t h e a ut ogi r o. F o r t h i s r eas on, ' %de
a ut ogi r o t heor y o f Gl auer t and L o c k ( r e f e r e nc e s 1 and 2)
ha s been us ed as a gui de i n t h i s development. The exper i -
ment al v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a ut ogi r o a n a l y s i s ( r e f e r e n c e 3)
. i s cons i der ed i n d i c a t i v e of t he v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t r eat ment
of t he gyr opl ane.
I n t h e gene 1 c a s e , t h e gyr opl ahe r o t o r t r a v e l s at a
v e l o c i t y V, and t h e pl a ne pe r pe ndi c ul a r t o t h e r o t o r a x i s
i s i n c l i n e d a t t h e a ngl e a t t h e di r e c t i on of f l a
undi s t ur be d ai r . The aer o na ni c a n a l y s i s of t h e r o t o r
1 be made i n t wo d i s t i n c t p a r t s : F i r s t , e qua t i o
devel oped f o r t h e r egi on between zer o l i f t and t
i mu m l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t , and second, a method f o r elva
t h e r o t o r f o r c e s i n t h e v e r t i c a l - d e s c e n t c ondi t i on
p r e s eat e d .
a t e nei ghborhood o f t h e r o t o r , i
e r a t e d b~ t h e a i r f oqcos a c t i n g f
N. A. C. A. Tech Not 3
. r o t o r . The r e s u l t a n t f or c e a ng on t h e r o t Or w
i n c l i n e d but s l i g h t l y t o t h e o r a x i s , s o i t w i l l be as-
qed t h a t t h e i nduced v e l o c i t y i s gener a d by t he compo-
mle5t of t h e r e s u l t a n t f o r c e al ong t h e axi I n t h e low-
azgl e- of - at t ack c ondi t i on i t m i l l be assumed t h a t in-
duced v e l o c i t y i s c ons t a nt i n magni t ude over t he
di s k. Then, from a i r f o i l t heor y,
T .
21-r R2 p V 1
v = ----------
. .. - . . I I
Gber e v i s t h e i nduced v e l o c i t y
. .
T i s t h e r o t o r t h r u s t
R i s t h e r o t o r r a d i u s
p is t h e gir de ns i t y
VI i s t h e r e s u l t a n t v e l o c i t y a t a t h e r o t o r
. .
The a x i a l component uz of t h e r esu1t a; i t v e l o c i t y i s
- I .
uz = V s i n a - v
and t h e compo:ient ux o f t he r e s u l t a n t ve l oc i t y. i n t he
p l a n e of t h e di s k i s
%.
. .
ux = v cos a ( 3 )
Let uz = h R R '
( 4)
where s2 i s t h e r o t o r a ngul a r v e l o c i t y and .
u x = p , n R
Then
( 5 )
The t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t CT w i l l be def i ned by t h e eQUa-
t i o n
rn
*
i;
4 N.A. C' .S; ke c hni c a T~Xot e No, '492
. .
( 9)
The f e a t he r i ng" of t h e bl a de p a i r i s a p e r i o d i c func-
t i o n o f t h e a. ngul ar p o s i t i o n o f t he bl ade. The a ngl e of
f e a t h e r i n g can t hen be expr es s ed as a. Four i e r s e r i e s i n q ,
t h e ai l gl e o f t h e bl ade from i t s downwind pos i t i on. The
?-, lade p o s i t i o n w i l l be de f i ne d as t he a ngul a r p o s i t i o n of
t h e bl ade t i p pr oj e c t e d ont o t he pl a ne pe r pe ndi c ul a r t o
t h e r o t o r a x i s , and measured t o t h e t i p quar t er - chor d poi n t .
Si nc e opposi ng bl ades have an equal and oppos i t e f e a t he r -
i ng a ngl e , t he c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e even mul t i pl e s o f * i n
t h e Four i e r s e r i e s w i l l be z e r o . Then i f 8 i s t h e i ns t an-
t aneous p i t c h angl e of t h e bl a de , , ,
0 = a. - ax cos I$ - bl - s i n $ - as cos 3$ - I Y ~ s i n a\lr
(IO)
. .
where a b i s t h e ' p i k c h s e t t i n g o f t h e bl ade.
a . From f i g u r e 1 i t i s s een t h a t t h e di s t a nc e f r om' t h- e
' f e a t h e r i n g a x i s of a bl ade elemexit d r at T i s ! R 3.
(> r, when t h e bl ade i s o f f s e t a d i s t a n c e E R f r o m t h e
f e a t h e r i n g a x i s and has a sweepback [ R at t h e bl ade
t i p . I f UT i s t h e bl a de v e l o c i t y component p a r a l l e l t o
t h e r o t o r di s k a a d' pe r pe ndi c ul a r t o t h e p r o j e c t i o n i n t @e
c o t o r di s k o f a r a di us drawn t o t he bl a de t i p ,
UT = SZ r + p R R s i n $ (11)
The bl ade v e l o c i t y component Up i s t h e component per -
p e n di c ul a r t o t h e r o t o r di s k; t hen
(12)
' U p = A , b . S 2 R f . ( ~ r + c R ) at de. .
, If U i s t h e r e s u l t a n t bl a de v e l o c i t y i n a pl a ne perpen-
' d i c u l a r t o t h e p r o j e c t i o n of t bs bl ade r adi us i n t he r o t o r
di s k, and cp t h e a ngl e between U and. t h e r o t o r d i s k ,
t
i
1
- >
c
I
W.A.C.A. Techn%cal . Not e 2?0, 492 I . . I _ 5
. .. k
The t er m h fl. R i s t h e ' p r i n c i p a l , p d
i s found t o be l e s s t ha n 3 pe r c e nt o f t h r
any r eas onabl e s e t o f va l ue s of %he r o t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
I t follows t h t i n a-ng p a r t o f t he r o t o r d i s k i n whi ch
t h e r e s u l t a n t v e l o c i t y i s l a r g e Up is' small i n coq ari-
son w i t h UT. It w i l l cons equent l y e assumed t hat A sincp =
cp and cos cp = I, Then
'pp
I n t h e eval uat i os i o f t h e elerrientary ai r f o r c e s on
t h e bl a de , i t i s assuned that t h e r e s u l t a n t f o r c e on a
bl a de el ement l i e s i n a pl a ne pe r p e s d i c ul a r t o t h e pr oj ec-
t i o n o f t h e bl ade r a d i u s i n t h e r o t o r d i s k , and depends
onl y upon t h e r e s u l t a n t v e l o c i t y i n that pl a n e . ,
~ . .
The t h r u s t on a bl a de element ar at a r a d i u s r i s
where dT i s t h e el ement o f t h r u s t on one bl ade'
i s t h e bl ade chord (assumed c o n s t a nt ) c
' CL i s t h e l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t 0% t h e bl ade elemenf,
Tl ?e t o t a l t hrust on t he r o t o r i s obt a i ne a by i n t e g r a t -
i ng t hr t hr ust al ong t he radi us and t a ki ng . t he aver age val -
ue ar ound t h e disk. I t i s cons i der ed a dvi s c bl o t o a l l o w
f o r t i p losses. by assumi ng t hat t h e o u t e r t i p of t h e bl ade
devel ops no t h r u s t ; t hi s ou t e r p a r t i s assumed t o have a
span of one hal f t h e t i p cbor d, and t he radius t o t hi s p a r t
i s de s i gna t e d BR. A f u r t h e r c o r r e c t i o n i s r e q ui r e d t o ex-
p r e s s i n t h e thrust equat i on t l i e f a c t t hat t h e v e l o c i t y UT
i s ne ga t i ve i n t h e r e gi on boundel! by !r = - p R s i n $ and
i n t hat r e gi on t h e angle o f a t t a c k of t l i e bl ade el ement s
r e q u i r e s an expr es s i on di f f or i i - zg f r o m !hat used over t h e
r e s t 0% t b e di sk. Ai1 aGdi t i ona1 t erm i n t he t hr ust i n
graL i s us ed t o c or r e c t tlzc Gxpzessi os f o r , t h e angl o of at-
t ack. If i s aBsuzned, pr obabl y wi t h small e r r o r , t hat when
t %. dhr cl oci t y i s d i r e c t e d f r o m t he t r a i l i n g edge t o wa r d t he
l e a d i ng edge o f t h e a i r f o i l , t he l i f t cur ve has t h e same
s&~$e as f o r normal f l o w and e l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t may be
expr essed i n a n equi val ent manner. The t o t a l t hr ust T
on .'the ro-tor ~lla' g-be :expreis'ed
. Tr '. BE
' 0 . . 0 '
1 ti$ j + p C - U ~ GL d r
L . *
. >::
On t he s t r a i g h t - l i n e p o r t i o n o f t h e 1if.t cur ve
where . a i s t he l i f t - c u r v e ql,op,e '5.q r a di a n ' measure
a, i s t h e a ngl e t 30f a t t a c k of..t,he 'a1ad.e element f o r
normal f l o w , measured f r o m zero l i f t
> *
art i s t;he a ngl e o f a t t a c k 03 , t he blade element f o r
r ovcr s ed f l o w , measured f r o m z e r o l i f t
~ Also ur = 0 f cp
art = LI 0 .- c$ ( 1 9 )
and ' a r e dct cr mi nod b y ' t g c convcn- - ..
i v e anzl e of n t t n c k gj.vo.s a pos,j,tivo ele-
$d. as Qr ~j,r' is a c ut o angle be
tween t he blade chbr d aizd t h e r c s u l t a
P
n
B
i
-
3
t
. . - ,. I
..I
-p,3 s i n
4- -- 7 d 9 . l ( 2 0 )
2JT , 0
f r o r h (Is),
I ,
Cb l l e c t i ng and r e a r r a ngi ng; and s ubs t . i t >t i ng f o r U and
I . r
. .
. I
I3
. - 3
2I-r
2
T = -- f d# 1 $ p ~ ~ ( O U T + U y U p ) dr
0
2v
a-r -&ii s i n $
- 5 J . a $ J k p c a (0 UT^ 3. UT Up ) d r ( 21)
. _ .
. . .
R. ? T 0
f o r
S u b s t i t u t e f o r UT and up from (11) and (121, and/
d8/ dt from (lo), r i ot i ng t h a t . dq/ dt = a. During i nt egr a-
t i o n i t will be assuEed t h a t t er r r s o f hi ghe r or de r i n p,
tl;ar, t h e f o u r t h a r e n e g l i g i b l e , a;id i t mill be shown h t e r
by i ns pe c t i on t h a t an and b, a r e of tZle or d. e r pn.
The i n t e g r a t i o n and s i mp l i f i c a t i o n o f ( 21 ) r e s u l t s i n
T = 2. pcnb C f R 3 {i h ( B 2 + .$ b2) +ao (l B 3 f - I. p, 2 3--- 4 p3)
2 3 2 9lT
and
where G = bc andfrcpredoxit' gh: $QF, r e c t a n g u l a r bl ados , t h e
TrR
r at i o between t o t a l bl a de area and swept - di sk
a r e a . I ,.
. .
. .
.i -, .
.I .
The aerodynami c t or que on t h e el emei t dr may bo
w r i t t ea.
dQl =' * p Ua c r d r G L ~ - h p U2 c r dr 6 f 24)
where 6 i s t h e aver age pr of i l e - d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e
bl a de ... s e c t i o n .
I n numer i cal work, 6 should be a s s i gne d a va l ue t hat av-
es t h e high: drag c o e f f i c i e n t s . l a r g e angl es - o f at -
and t h e s mal l er c o e f f i c i e n t s *l ow angl es . A value
g r e a t e r by 50 per cent t han t h e m i n i m u m i s cxrggcsted,' i nas-
much as t h e l a r g e a ngl e s of a t t a c k occur or-l y at l o w vc-
l o c i t i e s . . .
I n t h e e va l u a t i on or" equat i on ( 24) t t p losses n i l 1 be
account ed f o r , as i n t h e t h r u s t eq:iat.ion, by i n t e g r a t i n g
. t o t h e radius B R , igstead. o f t o 11. , The dr a g t er m m i l l ,
honevcr, be - i nt e gr a t a d t o t h o t i p , s i n c e t h e is more
l i k e l y t o be augmented t ha n di mi ni shed where t he t hrust
d i s app qar s .
1 -
rSumming t h e e n t i r e t or que apd takiiig t he as qr age val -
uc , equat i on ( 24) becomes . " ,
I - .
*
..
1 .
8
. As 8 Techni cal Mote' 49 2 9
. R . ; . . _
j $ " p c ~ ~ g ' ~ r PC8 d r
0
. .. ,
2l-l - yB si aq ~.
( 25)
- . , .
+ -b-J a $ J . $ . p c ~ T ~ T ~ P ' dr 4 - _ L
0
2n IT
..steady s t a t e Q o t a t i o n , t h e t o r q u e , be zer o.
angi ng and equ ng t o zer o, I . ..
2n BX
b
, Q = - f d Vf & p. c a i 0 < UT Up f Up" ).r dr
2rr 0 0
. . . . .:
I n t e g r a t i n g a a d c o l l e c t i n g , a,nd ne gl e c t i ng t er ms o f hi ghe r
o r d e r t han p4, as i n 'th-e t h r u s t expre' ssi61i;
N.A.C,.A. Techni cal Xo t e No. 492
. - * I I . 10 . a
unknowns i n ( 2<7) ' *ar e p, h , and t he b l a
e n t s a l r b,, a'3, .ana: b,, The s o l u t i o n f
a f unc t i on o f i ~ , may be obt ai ned by expr es s i ng t
mot i on c o e f f i c i e n t s as f unc t i ons o f p and h. The f o l -
l awi ng c ons i de r a t i on o f t he bl ade mot-ion w i l l be u t i l i z e d
t' o' expr es s t h e blade-motion c o e f f i c i e n t s i n t h e de s i r e d
f o r m.
, . I . . ..
. I -
:-. I ,. .
The dynamic equat i for t h e o s c i l l a t i o n o f a
p a i r about t h e f e a t h e r i a x i s may be wr i t t e n
where (zs-4 aT1)
i s t h e t hr us t ' . on a bl a de ' e l e ne nt dr , when
t h e bl ade p o s i t i o n i s $
("L) $+IT t h e bl a de p o s i t i o n i s $ 4- V'
i s t h e t hr ust on a bl ade el ement d r . when
. .
i s t he moment o f i n e r t i a o f t h e bl a de p a i r
about t he f e a t h e r i n g axis
. .
I P
% .
From equat i ons (10) ani! (zL),
=
pca +!(ao, - a, cos $ - b,, sin $ - a3 cos ' 3q
'
c
P
(hSz~. + C C Q R +[Or] [a, s i n @ - b, cos $ 3a3 s i n 3+
('2 9) - 33, c os 3$)))
i s i ' dent i cal w i t h w i t h t h e 9ign'-
d r
and
o f each t r i gonome t r i c fu.iiction r e ve r s e do
The r e v e r s a l Bf . f l o w 0ve.r 'a. ' pqr t ion' o f t h e . r e t r e a t i n g
bl ade i s ne gl e c t e d in. t h e eqi i at i on f o r t k e f e a t h e r i n g ,
s i n c e nor mal l y b o t h t'ne f o r c e s aiid iaoibent a r m s i n that por-
t i o n w i l l be ver y s.1.a-11.
4
' 1
0 "
N. A. C. A. cal, Wotts, EJ 2
From equat i on ( I O) ,
2
(30)
--- "e = R ( a l c os $f b, s i n $f 9 a , c os 3il, + 9b, s i n 3'$)
d t"
S u b s t i t u t e ( 29) and ( 30) i n ( 28) ; i n t e g r a t e and col l ect ,
Then
E B3 4- I, [ B4) - p2 al ( E B + 5 B2) .
J - 2 a l 1 (5 4 2 2
- 2 b L ( i E 2 2 B f $ ! [ B3 f 4 I: 2 4 . B )+ - 1 2 p a a ( EBf J- [B") 1 cds Y
2 2 J
2 Ip
- - -I-- * (al cos * + bL s i n '# +9a, c o s @+9b3 s i n 3$)
pea E
G
_..
S u S s t i t u t e t h e above iil (31) and equat e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s
o f cor r espondi ng t r i gonome t r i c t er ms; t hen
The c o e f f i c i e n t s q and 5 mill normally be o f t h e o r -
der of 0. 1 o r smaller. The t er m IC4 i s t hea of t h e sec-
ond o r d e r wi t h r e s pe c t t o E, , 'IC2, and E,. A f i r s t approx-
i mat i on t o t h e s o l u t i o n of (31) may be obt ai ned by negl ect -
i ng IC&. Then
4P, FJ. "0 + 2K3 p h
' 3 .2 ------..- ___--- -------
y -I- 2IC1 4 2 p
4 ( 9 y 4 2ir.1 + FJ.2 x3)
(33)
----- -----.- - ------ - ---- -- ---- .------..- ------
FJ.4 E32
. 1 .
h i =. - I
. .
IC3 -
N.A.C.B. Techni cal g a t e 492 13
Equat i ons (33) t o ( 36 ) , i n c l us i v e , show t h a t a, , b,,
as, and b, a r e l i n e a r f u nc t i o n s o f 1. Su b s t i t u t i o n of
t h e s e equat i ons i n t h e t or que equat i on r e s u l t s i n a quad-
r a t i c i n h, the onl y unknown, making t h e s o l u t i o n f o r
h si mpl e. Tne l a r g e r , o r p o s i t i v e , va l ue o f 1 obt ai ned
i n t he s o l u t i o n cor r esponds t o a p o s i t i v e a ngl e o f at t ack;
t h e smaller, o r ne ga t i ve , va l ue corres-9ond.s t o a ne ga t i ve
a ngl e o f at t ack.
The aerodynami c p i t c h i n g momeilt i s e a s i l y det er mi ned
from 8 c ons i de r a t i on o f t h e t h r u s t v a r i a t i o n wi t h $. If
M i s tfie p i t c h i n g moment about an a x i s pa s s i ng t hr ough
t h o r o t o r a x i s
Su b s t i t u t i n g f r o m (16), (18), and (19), i n t e g r a t i n g and
co 11 ec t i ng
The r e ve r s e d f l o w i s a g a i n i gnor ed h e r e as bei ng o f negl i -
gible i mpor t ance.
Si mi l a r l y , t h e r o l l i n g moment Lr may be wr i t t e n
and
2 4
L'= - - I bcpa R R {i v h ~ ~ + , . mQ~3t ax($ c: B ~ + B&)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
. 2
t ? ,
. .
. . . .
. .
. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. i : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./..:
. . . . . . . . . .... : . .
% ' ' (40)
.* .
.&. '''8" . 2~.
..2
1
8 "', 2 - .
- - bx(13: f T,,;L:. p;7:$ .,. 6.;.;;:I,..
The ener gy lasses i q t he r o t o r a r i s e o nl y f r o m t h e
ei i er at i on o f thrust a%d -%'he p r o f i l e dr ag- of t h e bl ades .
- . . . . . - _ . ~
I
. \. 1 . .
.: . *
n
. R 1 :
V D = V T + ~ ; b 1 f + P C S U ' ~ ~
.*
~ t ' 8
L = T cos a
. .
. . ,
. . ; : / : : . .
r . . I , : . . . . .
s i mpl i f yi ng,
c 6
: , .:: 'j
u3dr
.. .I
(43)
: ._.
. -
. .
. .
. . . .
. . \ * :. . ?:. ':
....
- .
The lift coef t h e r o t o r C
p r e s s e d i n t er ms of, .CT from
- c.
- "T
'TT R2 p R2 R2 C O S a
X. A. . C. A. Techni cal Wot e ' No. 492
S u b s t i t u t i n g f o r CT i n ( 44)
15
(47)
t
i s t h e r o t o r dr ag c o e f f i c i e n t . A t small a ngl e s
' Dr
where
o f i nci dence, h i s n e g l i g i b l e wi t h r e s pe c t t o p, and
cos a i s ne a r l y uni t y. Then
i l l u s t r a t i n g t h a t at small a ngl e s of a t t a c k t h e dr ag coef-
f i c i e n t can be expr es s ed as t h e sum of a p r o f i l e and an
i nduced-drag coef f i ci ei i t .
The pr ecedi ng e qua t i ons ( s p e c i f i c a l l y ( 9 ) , ( 23) , ( 2 7 ) ,
( 3 3 ) , ( 3 4 ) , ( 3 5 ) , ( 3 6 ) , (38), ( 4 0 ) , and ( 44) ) det ermi i i e
compl et el y t i l e l ow- angl e- of - at t ack oper at i on of a gyr opl ane
r o t o r when i t s pl i ys i cal di mensi ons and cons t ai i t s a r e known.
The f i r s t s, tep i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e equat i ons i s t o
ket er mi ne a l , bl , a3, b3 as f unc t i ons of h f o r an assumed
s e r i e s o f va l ue s o f p, r angi ng from 0.0'7 t o 0.6. The
next s t e p i s ' t o s ol ve t h e t or que equ. ation f o r h , a f t e r
which t h e a ngl e of a t t a c k , l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t , and dr ag co-
e f f i c i e n t may be det er mi ned f r o m t h e equat i ons gi ven.
T k e r o t o r l oa di ng det er mi nes V f o r a gi ven l i f t c oe f f i -
c i e n t , and t h e t i p speed can t'n'en be found from p, a, and
v.
t h e equat i ons pr e vi ou s l y devel oped gi ve er r oneous r esul t s.
I t i s s ugges t ed t hat t h e dr ag c o e f f i c i e n t a t a n a
a t t a c k of 90* be c a l c u l a t e d by Clze f ol l owi ng meth
o n an e mpi r i c a l relationship obt ai ned i u wi nd- t unnel ex-
pcr i r nent s ( r e f e r e n c e 4) .
I n t h e hi gh- angl e- of - at t ack r ange, s ay from 50' t o goo,
Fi gur e 2 shons a cur ve obt a i s e d from r e f e r e nc e 4 t h a t
dcf i i i os t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p kct vcen t h e t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e n t
o f a p r o p e l l e r based o n speed of t r a a s l n t i o n azd t h e t h r u s t
c o e f f i c i e n t based on t h e v e l o c i t y o f t h e a i r i n t h e nei gh-
. .
:I. d NrA..C.AA, Technt c' al niote Bo". ...%I92
bor . hood of t h e p r o ~ e l ' l e r , The e xpr e s s i ons ar-e
< % .
and
[ q;" 'j . . . . . . . .
. . .
. . . . . .
, ( 49)
nhe r e uz i s t h e a x i a l f l o w a t t h e p r o p e l l e r and f and
_ ' p. . -, are t h r u s t coef f i c. Tent s. 8iinos -
( f r o m equat i on (12)), equat i on ( 50) .becomes
. .
. .
0
i s t h e r o t o r dr ag c o e f f i c i e n t a t 90, a ngl e
' Dr
and i f
o f a t t a c k ,
( 5 3 )
EquFt i Qn ( 5 2 ) i s e va l ua t e d f r om equ n s ( 23) and ( 2 7 ) ;
t h e p r o p e r ' v a l u e of l/$ i s t han o ned f r o m f i g u r e 2 ,
f - r oi n the' b'ranch of' t h e ' curve l a b e l 6 indmj.11 de c e l e r a t -
... i ng s t a t e , " and
' t e s t ( r e f e r e n c e 5) t h a t i n t h e . hi gh- angl e- of - at t ack r ar go
t h e r e s u l t a n t f o r c e c o e f f i c i e n t CR 'is' cons t ant and eqyal
CD,' ., f o l l o w, s at o
. . .
* Sorne i n d i c a t i o n ,has been obt a i ne d f r on an i s o l a t e d
t he n ,Dec.ome 0 CR cos a
* ' CR s i n a, - r e ly, where a may %be c a l c u l a t e d
r o l a t i onshi ; ? is i l ot recommend-
more ge ne r a l v e r i f i c a t i o n .
t
LI ST OF SYfJIBOLS . .
,. i
Ve l oc i t i.es: . .
IT, v e l o c i t y o f ' t r a n s l a t i o n o f r o t - o r ..
. .
OR, t i p speed o f r o t o r ~: ).
v, i nduced a x i a l v e l o c i t y a t r o t o r : , -
V', r e s u l t a n t f e - l oc i t y a t r o t o r . I
comlponent o f VI 4n pl a ne o f , d i s k .
uz, a x i a l component o f V I
U, r e s u l t a n t v e l o c i t y a t bl ade el ement per pendi cu-
l a r t o al ade span a x i s
I .
UT, componept o f >U' p a r a l a e l t o di s k
Up, component of U pe r pe ndi c ul a r t o - d i s k
Tor ces: . .
T,. r o t o r t h r u s t
L,, r o t o r l i f t
. . I . ' -
D r ' , r o t o r dr ag at 90' angle o f a t t a c k ,
Moments:
. , * . ' . , . 3
, . . . -
e , r o t o r t or qus about a x i s o f r o t a t i o n
M, r o t o r p i t c h i n g moment
'.
L * , r o t o r r o l l i n g moment
Angl es:
$, 9 . , azi mut h a ngl e o f Bl ade I I .
a, a ngl e o f a t t a c k o f r o t o r
a,, angle 02 a t t a c k o f bl ade elernent
. I
Angl es ( c ont . ) :
Q , a c u t e angle bet ween U and pl a ne o f d%&X*
8 , i ns t ant an&o*us . bi dd
an'
**.
'. \. i
p i t c h s e t t i n g o f bl ade .'
: ; * I ,
- 8
R o t o r cons t ant s :
a , l i f t cur ve sl o: ? bl ade p r o f i l e '
moment of i n e r t i a o f bi ade p a i r about . f d a t he r i ng
a x i s 6 . .
'. *
. ., 5
IP ,
e,. bl ade chor d
R , r o t o r radi us
y ,
E X ,
PR,
, .
. -
I . ~
c p a R "
aass cons t ant if- bxa dk' pa i r =. -------
o f f s e t of blade' f r
smeepback o f k l a d e t i p f r on f e a t h e r i n g a x i s
.'f a t 11e r i ng i x i S
0 ,
s o l i d i t y o r ratio between t o t a l bl ade area and
d i s k a r e a
I ,
. .
6, aver age p r o f i l e drag c o e f f i c i e n t s of, bla, de , ). pr o-
B ,
f i l e
f a c t o r ei pr cs i i xi g ' ai l bwance t o be matie i n i nt e g r a t -
i ng a l on g r adi us t o account f o r t i p l os s e s
. r
C o cr'f i c i en t s : ., . . . - 1
. .
m
CT, t h r u s t c o c f f i c i e n t = ----------- .. . ..
7T 6 2 : cy Ha ,,.
:" .
..
Z r
CL,, r o t o r l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t = ---------- 2
& p V n R a
h'
f, p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t c o e f f i c i e u t 'based- on ' uiiYiisturbed
rn
,"
- 7
N, A. C. A, Techni cal Mote No; 492 19
Co e f f i c i e n t s (cont.):
F, p r o p e l l e r t hr ust c o e f f i c i e n t based on l o c a l vel oc-
rn
A '
i t y a t p r o p e l l e r = ----------- 2 2
2 n R p u z
c Dr 1 9 , r o t o r dr ag c o e f f i c i e n t a t 90' a. ngl e o f a t t a c k =
Mi scel l aneous:
p,, r a t i o between component o f speed of t r a n s l a t i o n
't i n pl a ne o f di sk and t i p speed
a
h , r a t i o between a xi a l component o f r e s u l t a n t t r a ns l a -
t i onal . v e l o c i t y and t i p speed
-
EXAIviPLES
I n or de r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i nf l ue nc e of t h e r o t o r pa-
r amet er s on t h e ove r - a l l per f or mance of t he r o t o r , cur ves
have been c a l c u l a t e d f o r a of L/D as f unc t i ons o f
t y p i c a l r o t o r havi ng t h e f ol l owi ng c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :
' Lr
g --- 0.10
0 = 0.10
a. =
6 = 0.0120
0.0698 r ad. = 4'
a = 5.00
y = 0. 004
B = '3.950
Fi gur e s 3 t o 5, i ncLus i ve, S ~ O W t3.e e f f e c t o f var yi ng
20 3T.A,C.A. Techni cal Mote Uo. 492
. .
0, and 6. The c a l c u l a t e d l o n g i t u d i n a l and l at er al posi -
t i o z l s of t he r o t o r c e n t e r of p r e s s u r e i n t er ms o f pe r c e nt
o f t he r a di us a r e shown i n f i g u r e - 6 f o r t h e t y p i c a l r o t o r ,
D I S CUSS ION
The development of an aerodynamic t h e y of t he gyro-
p l a n e i n a mat hemat i cal f or m n e c e s s a r i l y i nvol ves si mpl s-
f i c a t i o n s and assumpt i ons, The ma j o r s our ces o f e r r o r i n
t h i s t heor y a r e t he assumpt i ons made concer ni ng t h e uni -
f opni i t g of .-the i nf l ow and t h e e q u a l i t y of t a n Cp w i t h 9 .
The i nf l ow pr obabl y v a r i e s ma t e r i a l l y over t h e r o t o r a r e a
c ons i de r i ng t he form and r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of t h e bl a de
t i p . vor t i c e s . The in:flueoce of t he uniforrn ,i?llflow i s a
r ough aver age o f t he i n!l ue nc e of t h e nonuii
however, and s houl d i nt r oduc e no s e r i o u s e r
p r e s s i o n s f o r t he :ret f o r c e s , The a ngl e y i s l a r g e onl y
when t he r e s n l t a n t v e l o c i t y i s small, s o t h a t a g a i n t he
e r r o r s i n t h e net f o r c e s a r e smal l ,
E r r o r s o f l e s s e r i mport ance. a r e i nt r oduced by t he as-
sumpt i ons t h a t t he aer oagnami c f or c e o n t h e bl ade element
i s i ndependent of v e l o c i t i e s al ong t h e bl ade radius, and
t h a t t he t i p l o s s e s are c a l c u l a b l e by t h e method gi ven,
Some ener gy w i l l be d i s s i p a t e d i i z t he s ki n f r i c t i o n be-
tween t he bl a de a;ld t he r a d i a l a i r flow, but s i nc e any
comput at i on o f t h i s esergJr l o s s woul d be an appr oxi mat i on
i t mas t hought be s t t o ne gl e c t i t . It seems r eas onabl e
t o expect t1ij.s f a c t o r t o be s mal l , T i D l os s e s have been
t a ke n i n t o account appr oxi mat el y, al t hough t he accur acy
o f t he assumpt i on made concer ni ng t h e e f f e c t i v c r a d i u s
(BR) i s unc e r t a i n .
l
The t r eat ment gi ven i n t h i s paper c ons i de r s t h e s i m -
p l e s t form o f a bl ade - one v i t h cons t ant chor d s a d p i t c h
ai i gl e; a s i mi l a r t r e a t me a t , however, can be a p p l i e d t o aziy
bl a de i n which t he chor d o r p i t c h a ng l e i s n gi ven func-
t i o n of t h e r adi us . I t i s onl y ne c e s s a r y t o s u b s t i t u t e
t h e gi ven f u n c t i o n f o r c and .ao bef or e i n t e g r a t i n g
f r o m 0 t o R al ong t h e r a di us , ant! t h e r e s u l t obt ai ned
w i l l expr es s t h e d e s i r e d r el at . i on, I t should be remem-
be r e d, however, t h a t t h i s aerodynaraic ai zal ys i s i n . i t s s i m-
p l i f i e d f or m i s of doubt f ul va1w.e q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , al t hough
i t s q u a l i t a t i v e accur acy s houl d be s a t i s f a c t o r y .
b
. *. . .,
*. ; .,, : r
.. . .. i
~ , (0. ,*
*
N . A. C . A. Tech:-iical Note No. 492 21
The i l l u s t r a t i v e e x a q l e s p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 3 t o 5
show t h e t ype of v a r i a t i o n i n l i f t - d r a g r a t i o t o be ex-
p e c t e d mi.trh: chahges intbee:*:ro.tor c ons t a nt s . : . It
e s t i n g t o no t e t h a t a . s m a l l s o l i d i t y i s advant ag
a t ver y Low l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t s . The i nc r e a s e i n
r a t i o w i t % p i t c h . a n g l e i s somewhat mi sl eadi ng, ~ i n c e . wi t h
normal a i r f o i l s t he p i t k h aiiglg can. be i i l cr eased but.
s l i g h t l y beyond 4 wi t hout adver s e e f f e c t s upon t h e aut o-
r ot at i o n; F5gure 6 st i ows t h e v a r i a t i o n . i n<pi . t c hi ng axa .
r o l l i n g * cent er s o f ppe s s ur s wi t h. 23. Pt c o e f f i c i e n t ; t h e
rolling moment a r i s e s from t he f act t h a t t h e c e nt e r of
t h r u s t i s at a g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e f r om, t he, l i ub o n t h e r e-
t r e a t i n g bl a d e , s o t hat f o r swept-back bl ades t h e t h r u s t
t wi s t i r i g .moment on t L i s bl ade bal ances t h e t wi s t i n g momeqt
o f a sr nal l er t 2i r ust on t h e oppos i t e blade.
The a p p l i c a t i Qn o f t h e aerodynami c p r i n c i p l e s pr es ent -
ed he r e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s t r u c t u r a l pr obl kni . . The bl ade
p a i r i s s t r e s s e d i n bendi ng and t e n s i o n , and ye t must be
h e l d i a thel-rub i n be a r i ngs t h a t p s r n i t f r e e r o t a f i o n . .
Tor s i on i n t h e bl ades must be cons i der ed i n . r e l a t i c n t o
p o s s i b l e v i b r a t i o n s . 30 i ns uper abl e d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e an-
t i c i p a t e d , however, s i n c e t h e o b s t a c l e s t o be overcome
a r e f o r t h e mos t p a r t si mi l ar t o t 3o s e s u c c e s s f u l l y d e a l t
wi t h i n t h e a u t o gi r o.
C ON C LU S I OB S
The Gyropl ane i s a e r odyua ni c a l l y sound, and i t s p r o m
i s e j u s t i f i e s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h.
The aerodynami c t heor y. of t h e gyr opl ane h e r e devel oped
expr es s es s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t b e q u a l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s bet weei
t L e r o t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e des i gn pa r a n e t e r s of t h e
r o t o r .
Langl ey Memorial Aer onaut i cal Labor at or y,
Nat i onal Advi sor y Conni t t ee f o r Aer onaut i cs ,
Langl ey Fi e l d , V a . , J anuar y 6 , 1934,
f22 I?.A.C,A. Tg-Ghafcal Bot e No. .492
4
REFEREX CES
/* - 1; ,
. ,.
. .
t , H . : A Gener al Theory o f t h e Autogyro. R.& M.
. L ~l k13, Brijt i sh A. R. C. , 1926, i .
2 2 v : L3 7 - . . i
. I
2. LO$k-, c. Ti:. : 3nrther Development o f Autogyro The-
b&y: R. M. So. 1127, Br i t i s h A. R. C. , 1927.
,. . 1 ., : I. . .
2 . : : * . .
3, Q$h.ea.tley:, Jbkb 3,: T h e Aerodynamic Anal ys i s o f the;
I Auto:gfro Ro t o r : w i t h a Comparison between Ca3.cul.ated
imknkal Results. T. R. ( t o , %
. A. C. S . , 1934.
4. Jlock,

A. R; C, , 1926.
C . N. B., Eateman, H. , and Townend; H:Ci H.: An
Ext ens i on o f t h e Vor t ex Theory o f -4irscreirrs w i t h
Appl i cat i %hs t o Ai r scr ews o f S m a l l P i t c h I nci adi ng
Exper i ment al Re s ul t s , R. & M, Ho, 1014; Br i t i s h
I -
. .
. . .
5. Ti heat l ey, J s hn B. : L i f t and Dpag Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s and
. Gl i di ng Per f or nance of a n Aut ogi r o as Det ermi ned i n
Fl i g h t . T, R. No. 434, N.A.C,A,, 1932;
- .
, .
. . . . . . . .
. .
. ,
.. :;.,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. ~. . . .
. . I
I
. . . . . . , q : , . . . .
. .
. .
. . . . . . . ,. .
. . . .
. , ...
. . . . I .
. .
. . . . . . . .
. .
. . .
, . . . .
r: ;
~ . .
.
, .I -
. . . . . .
. .
1T.A.C . A. Techi cal Bote Bo. 492
Figure I .-Gyroplane r o t o r
Fig. 1
X. A. C. A. Technical Xote ?To. 492
Fig. 2
0 .4 .G .8 1.0
1/2
Figure 2.-Propeller Ki r i i st coefficients -based on resiltaiit ve-
locity a:id velocity of translatior.
N. A. C. A. Techiiical >Tote No. 492 Fig. 3
0 ,2 .4 .S .8 1.0 1.2
, lift coefficient.
'Lr
Figure Z.-Variation of gyroplane r o t o r lift-drag ratio vitli pitch angle.
25
4
W.A.C.B. Techrdcal Xote Nor 492
Fig. 4
0 . 2 .4 .6 . s 1. 0 1. 2
CL,, l i f t coef f i ci ent .
Figure 4.-Variation of gyroplane r o t o r l i f t-draf; r a t i o with s ol i di t y.
N.A.C.A. Technical Note Bo. 492
0
L6
14 4
-
---
I --
12
.2
Q
.4 .5 . u
, lift coefficient
'Lr
Fig, 5
-+
.-_- +--
1.0 1.2
I
Figure 5.-Variation of gyroplane r o t o r lift-drag ratio w i t h blade-section
average profile drag coefficient.
21
B. A. S. A. Technical i Jot e >To. 492
7
6
f f i 5
*
F:
a,
0
k
0
F4
n
.," 4
w
cd
E
0
k
(H
1
0
----f-----
C.
_---
t
-----I----
I
Ti g. 6
.o
Figure 6 .-Gyrop1.m.e r o t o r center-of--~ressil.re travel as a fuxtion of
r o t o r l.ilt coefficient.