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Turbofan engine – TFE 731-20 engines (3500# thrust @ sea level)\ Hydraulics – 2 engine driven systems / redundant and situational – if in doubt take the breaks over reversers or flaps – operates spoilers, spoilerons and flaps – everything else is mechanical Brake by wire and Steer by wire systems – Brakes are pretty beefy Electrical – Generators (no inverters) - components handle conversion of power themselves, Alternators only used for windshield heat Glass Cockpit – utilizes 4 MFD’s (info interchangeable) / EICAS normally on MFD #2 – can also be shifted to RMU in case of failures Not certified for ditching. Doesn’t float well. Unpressurized areas – nose, fuel and tail Wings – group leading edges – fixed to keep laminar flow and ailerons effective at higher AOA / vortilons (vertical edges on wings) prevent lateral flow at high AOA / stall strips (sharp triangles) delay separation at high AOA and allows for better handling at low speeds Tail – Delta Fins – enhances stability and decreases Dutch roll / also provides static discharge Doors – 2 piece clam shell – open top first (6 pins) then lower door (4 pins) / CAS messages for Entry Door Pin –on ground only, Entry Door – Inflight Top Door is also Emergency exit / Emergency hatch on other side (drop straight to ground 5-6’ – watch triangles or get cut) Fuel – gravity fill and single point on fuselage only (no fuel caps on wings) Aft Baggage can be heated – light is also Hot Bus Item (don’t forget to turn it off) Anything Magenta means pilot selected – White data refers to FMS – Green data refers to RMU Static Wicks – 4 may be missing Most inboard on winglet, inboard on delta fin, inboard on elevator, aft on vertical stabilizer
Flight Instruments The Primus 1000 Avionics System (Honeywell) – the IC600 flight guidance computer Dual IC600’s, dual air data computers (ADC), the Primus Weather Radar system, and the Honeywell Primus II integrated radio system (RMU). The Primus 1000 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) – 4 Display Units (DU’s) driven by two Signal Generators (SG’s) which reside within the IC’s. IC#1 – runs DU1 and DU2 IC#2 – runs DU3 and DU4 Data Acquisition Units IC’s receive data from the DAU’s, ADC’s, AHRS’s, Navigation systems, FMS’s, autopilot and other systems to generate the information displayed on the EFIS system. Airspeed Display has several bugs and trend indicators. These make it easy once you figure them out. Lead them slightly. Speed Trend – pink bar on right side – shows where airspeed will be in 10 seconds Overspeed Indicator – red bar left side at top Low Airspeed Awareness – red bar left side bottom Mach Indicator – shown at bottom of airspeed tape Set bugs by using speed knob Abnormal Conditions – digits amber when overspeed imminent / digits red during overspeed Comparison Alert – IAS in amber – when speeds ±5 kts, (.1 Mach) – indicates ADC problem - red X indicates ADC failure Altitude Display – Right tape on PFD Alt. Select Digital Readout – set through ASEL knob (top center panel) FD/AP won’t level off if GS is green (captured) Double Chevron – for 1000’s / single chevron – for 500’s RA – detects low altitude awareness (brown box at bottom of tape) Trend Bug – magenta left side of tape – where you will be in 6 seconds Alt Bug – won’t show if off scale Comparison Alert – ALT in amber – when ADC’s are outside of 200’ Red X – ADC failure Baro Indication – toggles between inches and millibars / set with BARO SET knob (bottom right PFD) Set BARO/RA button to set bug for DH (bottom left PFD)
Automatic Flight Control System (not just an AutoPilot) 1 Auto Pilot and 2 Flight Directors managed through a common control panel (top center) Auto Pilot – Modes = A/P and FD Automatically brings up YD with AP Is engaged when “AP” on top of PFD Turned off several ways: Manually : will give amber AP flash and calvary charge using “SEC Trim” on pedestal Push AP button on top panel (normal) Push YD button on top panel Push “Go Around” button Select AHRS to other than normal (won’t run without both) Activating Electric Trim on yoke (just push arm button) Depress either CWMS (red buttons on yoke) Automatically: will give red AP flash and clavary charge until silenced AP monitor detects fault AP pitch trim detects fault Loss of power source to AP Loss of servo power IC / SG failure Loss of either AHRS system Aircraft exceeds 35° Bank, 25°Pitch Up or 15° Pitch Down Either Stick Shaker activates Limitations: Must be off for takeoff and landing, do not physically over power Minimums use Climb, enroute, descent 500’ AGL Approach 200’ AGL VNAV 400’ AGL or MDA (highest) Flight Directors Two independently generated but managed by one control panel AP will only couple to the “Master” FD as shown on the control panel (shown by green → on top of PFD) CUE – changes selected view of FD Defaults to “ROL ← PIT” modes then you can change it Turn it off by pushing FD (top center) – can’t when AP is on Can turn off FD if AP is engaged to slave side FR button switches sides and will revert to default settings White is armed / green is active
Electrical System Cold Airplane – no power External Power – shows only when power is coming through GPU (you can’t tell if it is plugged in once GPU is turned off – can’t see it from cockpit) Can’t tell if access panel is closed correctly either – need to review with ground personnel before Maximum GPU limit is 1500 amps – don’t use unregulated power supplies Split Electrical System – 2 separate because bus tie is normally “OPEN” (Emergency Battery Bus runs off Right Main Bus) Fuel System 3 Tanks – Fuselage tank (2708#), L wing (1678#), R wing (1676#) – Total 6062 lbs Fuel panel on pedestal – fuselage tank feeds the wing tanks via gravity or pumps Fuel filler points only on fuselage. Single Point (15 minutes) electric read out monitors total fuel on board / can’t pre-select stopping point / loaded below right engine pylon / rated at 40 or 55 psi max flow Gravity Fill (45 minutes) conventional / top of fuselage tank – hard to get to Pre Check Valve – should shut off within 20 seconds / if not be very cautious – you’ll have to shut off truck at 6100 lbs. Defueling – limited to –10 psi / pulls fuel from wing tanks through same single point nozzle (35 minutes to defuel) Collector bays – inboard part of wing tanks designed to use “Motive flow principle pumps” to boost pressure on fuel lines at a variety of locations Main jet pump is the primary fuel feel to the engines / backed up by DC standby pump Each side has a High pressure pump to make fuel nozzles work to atomize fuel and a Low pressure pump to prevent cavitations (release of gas through liquid) and a dedicated Motive Flow Pump for each engine. Vent lines from fuselage to wing tanks to prevent over pressurization of fuselage tank is vented through the surge tanks which separates air from fuel. Fuel Imbalance Limits – Within 500 lbs with Flaps up / within 200 lbs with Flaps down Transfer 50 lbs/minute – XFLOW w/ pump – keep finger on button or you’ll go to far
Engines Allied Signal TFE 731-20R-1B or –20AR-1B (can be mixed on aircraft) DEEC (Digital Electrical Engine Control) controls surge valve to control engine speeds - electrical leads embedded in epoxy bonds mounted directly on the engine - electronic brain – auto start, surge free acceleration and deceleration, auto ignition, engine synch, rotor speed limits, temp limiting, automatic trend monitoring - controls fuel flow to achieve target N1 based on environmental conditions (it does the tweaking) Manual Mode – (no DEEC) control everything with power levers Consequences: no fuel flow management, retain N1/N2 limits, surge valve stays at 1/3 open, inefficient engine operation Thrust = 60% Fan & 40% Exhaust (reversed at altitude) Surge valve – pneumatic allows Low pressure air to go to bypass duct Compressor stall – High pressure compressor is eliminated by venting excess air through the surge valve (makes a compressor stall almost impossible) Power Levers – 3 clicks as you advance forward 1 – max cruise power 2 – max continuous power 3 – take off power APR – Auxiliary Power Reserve (up to add 150 lbs of thrust) dependant on ITT and N2 Engine Synchronizer – controlled by engine synch switch / should be off during takeoff and landings Oil system – scavenge system – by heating fuel we cool oil Chip detector also Thrust reversers Clamshell (buckets) – redirect exhaust gas forward to provide deceleration Hydraulically activated – electrically controlled Wait for click before increasing reverse thrust Uncommanded unlatch detection will activate autostow and will automatically retard thrust lever to idle Inflight / takeoff – deployment demands fast reaction Stow after using on landing by 40 KIAS.
Pneumatics High pressure supplements Low pressure to give enough Bleed air to run the PACK at low power settings (Idle) Bleed air has to be on for anything else to work. 4 tail cone heat sensors – inside skin of fuselage monitors ducts for leaks of bleed air 4 pylon heat sensors – outside skin of fuselage monitors Low and High pressure lines for leaks Bleed Air Duct Overheat detection consists of 2 bleed air overtemp switches and normally detects HPSOV failure as power increases Bleed Leek Detect Loop – senses leaks throughout the environmental ducts where L/R meet/mix within a loop of sensors to detect leaks
APU Controlled by the ECU and burns 150 lbs / hour out of right wing tank that will not show on fuel burn in FMS Located in the upper right corner of baggage compartment Single stage gas turbine engine installed in fire proof case Provides bleed air for ECS during ground ops
Air Conditioning Bleed air through the PACK valve to the Environmental Control Unit (ECU) A portion of our pneumatic air from the PACK valve bypasses the ECU and goes to the Air Cycle Machine (PACK)
Pressurization Automatic Mode – only requires landing altitude to be entered. Ground Phase – remains active until power above cruise OR airspeed exceeds 90 KIAS OR aircraft becomes airborne (WOW) Takeoff function – pressurizes cabin to takeoff cabin altitude and holds this until the left T?R retarded below MCR OR airspeed exceeds 150 KIAS Limits (max 9.7 to min –0.5) Cabin Alt limit – 13,700’ (EMER DEPRESS – dumps cabin but outflow valve over rides this at 13,700’) 6
Ice Protection Electrically heated – turn ice protection on at least 2 minutes before takeoff Ice Detection – in addition to visual detection -electrical backup on lower left fuselage under nose vibrates at high frequency and changes with addition of ice -heats itself to shed ice so it can detect more ice (don’t touch during preflight – it’ll burn) -won’t detect freezing rain -black spot on wing should be viewable from cockpit -ice light hold to illuminate light to see wing TAT – only heated airborne (activates off right squat switch) Pitot/Static/Stall Vanes – all probes heated by L/R Probe switch Problems with static ports or pitot can be corrected by Reversion of ADC to the unaffected ADC. Windshield Anti Ice / Defogger – controller monitors heat through a probe to maintain target temperature. If it overheats or alternator fails you get NO indication except windshield heat doesn’t work. Bleed valve controls every valve EXCEPT NAC – degraded mode of operation leads to CAS message – amber fail light when temp gets too low, amber OVHT light when temp gets too hot. NAC valve fails to the open position.
Engine and Nacelle – uses bleed air to nacelle inlet Green NAC when normal Amber NAC when selected off but fails to closed Amber LNAC HT means bleed air pressure is too low or electrically heated Pt2 Tt2 heater has failed. Wing / Stabilizer Anti Ice System – opens valves to allow high pressure bleed air to heat wing and tail - maintains a constant temperature - adjusts N2 for idle to higher level for flight idle - turn on earlier so you use reduced bleed air during takeoff and flight - valves fail closed o WING/STAB will continue to operate with FAULT message o OVHT and CWP – switch can be off and still get message if the valve is out of control o WING/STAB LEAK – red light and has same sensing system as pneumatics o Tested through FIRE DET system – should get WING/STAB HT OK
Engine Fire Detection System Any element in the system will trigger alert. FIRE indications on ITT and RMU (remains until resolved) Extinguishers – 2 bottles in tail cone which can fire to either side (pressure guage 400800 psi on each bottle) Side of tail cone to see condition – yellow light blows with manual discharge / red light blows with thermal discharge of bottle out the red vent line FIRE PUSH – arms bottles to fire to selected side Also closes fuel, hydraulic, bleed air, T/R disables ignitors, T/R control, generator, alternator, etc. Button will show CLOSED – means (FWSOV) closed when armed Armed – push to discharge - fires into nacelles not into engine If FIRE light continues – use 2 bottle Hydraulics Gear and Gear doors, Brakes, Spoilerons, Flaps and Thrust Reversers Reservoir – pressurized by bleed air and temp controlled - separated into Main and Aux system that have a dedicated reserve once you go below a certain level - pressurized to prevent cavitations (bubble) - either side L/R can provide all pressure needed to maintain manifold pressure for filters Main or Aux will provide hydraulic pressure to Brakes (whichever is higher) Aux Pump – DC operated runs conditionally to supply emergency braking - automatically runs when you select gear down - controlled by brake handle - charges the brake accumulator (Aux is only pump that charges B ACCUM) CrossFlow Valve – opens with Aux Hyd Pump is on inflight - enables Aux system to supply the gear and flaps - inhibited on the ground or in case of low level - if used inflight, not more than 20° Flaps (due to aux pump capability) Preflight – panel is below Right engine (need battery on) shows reservoir levels before flight L HYD Pump Low – illuminates when pressure drops below 1900 psi MAIN HYD PRESS – if pressure < 1500 OR >3800psi AUX HYD PUMP LO – pressure < 1900 psi
Landing Gear Dual wheels on main gear – hydraulic/electric Doors close hydraulic Brakes activated electrically by wire with hydraulic actuators Single wheel on nose gear with steering electrically by wire Main gear actuator uses Down lock that is internal to actuator Trailing link system with WOW/Squat switches in the scissor Inboard door is closed with gear down NO Uplocks – gear lays on gear inboard doors which have mechanical up locks Gear is anti iced on retraction by wing/stab exhaust for bleed air into wheel wells. Nose gear has self centering cams after lift off before retraction Nose gear doors are mechanically closed with a traditional up lock switch Down lock is built in internally to actuator Retraction – 5 Sec with main pump / 15 Sec with Aux pump Extension – choose gear down which raises main gear off doors first then doors open and gear moves down followed by inboard door closing o If doors don’t close then you get a cross hatched position on main gear indicator o Cross hatching on Nose gear means in transition (not door problem) o 10 Sec with Main pump / 30 Sec with Aux pump Free Fall – recommended in lieu of Aux pump - use free fall lever which changes switches and drops gear mechanically - main doors will stay open and you should get a cross hatched pos on main gear - nose gear should not show cross hatched - have to put free fall handle into forward position Aux Extension – use Aux Hyd Pump and Crossflow Valve to extend using hydraulics Nose Wheel Steering – controlled by steering servo actuator - steer by wire activated by rudder pedals and travel distance - you have up to 60° turn angle at 0 airspeed which degrades to 0° at 90 KIAS - nose squat inhibits steering after retraction - MSW will turn nose steering off - NWS FAIL – can still maneuver with differential braking but nose gear will turn in “caster mode” up to 90° (Past 80° you can’t stop turn) Brake by Wire – very efficient – no mechanical influence - top of pedals are brakes - whoever presses hardest has the brakes between captain and co-pilot - Brake control unit monitors pressure to react and send info to actuators - Brake wear is monitored by pins with parking brake applied, if you can’t see it you won’t have full capability - Aux Hydraulic Pump has safety reserve to supply pressure to Emergency Brake Accumulator (handle) OR it can supply hydraulic pressure for brakes (not both) - Emergency Brake – smoothly apply pressure and hold it / don’t pump 9
Anti-skid – normally ON (means dark on panel) - limits brake action to prevent locking up and maintaining brake integrity - hold brake pressure – DON’T PUMP Brake Control Unit (BCU) – Brain for Brakes - provides touchdown protection by preventing brake pressure from being applied inflight - you can’t touch down with brakes on - won’t allow brakes to be accuated until wheel speed ? 50 kts - brakes are paired up inboards and outboards on main gear - brake pairs work together (or fail together) - inhibit mode automatically engaged at 10 KIAS to maintain brake integrity - turn off anti-skid if brakes seem to fail while taxiing AND/OR use emergency brake handle CAS Messages: EMER/PARK BRK shows brake valve not fully open with thrust application BRAKE FAULT minor system degradation (increase T.O./Ldg distances 300’)
L INBD BRK FAIL inboard normal system brake has failed (not going to prevent differential braking) NORM BRK FAIL BCU failure, no normal brake action (wire problem) – Emergency Brake is all that is left – no other help available
Ailerons - conventional cable and pulley system - Auto Pilot uses Roll servo - Jammed ailerons – ROLL DISC lever (red lever pilot yoke) disconnects ailerons from pilot’s control column (fly using spoileron control – really mushy – easy to over control) - Trim tab located on left aileron only (electric) / balance tabs on both Elevator - Separated control cables for safety with up/down spring - Auto Pilot uses Pitch servo - ELEV DISC (red lever on pilot side center pedestal) mechanically disconnects or disengages control clutch which allows elevators to be operated individually by respective control yoke (left yoke works left elevator – right yoke works right elevator) Very strange. Rudder - Conventional split cable system - Auto Pilot uses Rudder servo - Rudder Boost works through pedal pressure sensor to increase rudder torque beyond 30 lbs of pressure to 90 lbs of pressure - Over rides Yaw Damp only if Service Bulletin has been complied with - Rudder Boost and Yaw Damp should not both be on at the same time Trim - Trim status is always shown on EICAS - If outside of limits for Takeoff it will be boxed - Barrel on yoke with an arm button in center (pain in the butt) / both have to be pressed at same time to work - Redundant but doesn’t operate at same speed (SEC Trim much slower) - Auto Pilot won’t work if in the OFF position Mach Trim is a function of Pitch Trim (IC 1) to avoid Mack Tuck Mack Tuck – nose wants to lower as lift moves aft - Becomes active at 0.725 Mach and is required to operate above 0.78 Mach Pitch Trim changes horizontal stabilizer position controlled through 2 systems independent motors operated by the IC computers. IC 1 is primary, IC 2 is secondary - Elevator over ride (pitch trim bias) is back up for pitch trim system if horizontal stabilizer jams in the up position - Desensitized pitch control (spring absorbs oscillations) - Augments pitch stability at cruise speeds - Maintains pitch nose up at slow speeds - If it breaks then you can over ride the Bias with pedestal switch to facilitate aircraft control at slower speeds (move it till CAS warning goes out) Configuration Trim – automatically adjusts trim for changes of flaps, spoilers and gear.
PIT TRIM MSCP disagreement between IC’s on location of Stabilizer Trim (white CAS on ground / red CAS if thrust levers are advanced) MACH TRIM FAIL white in flight when Mach is <0.76 Amber in flight and Mach > Mmo (limited to 0.78 Mach) PRI TRIM FAULT bypass operation slower than normal based on flap an gear position
SEC TRIM FAULT stabilizer actuator fault detected by self test at power up PRI TRIM FAIL SEC TRIM FAIL problem detected by IC 1 – takes pitch trim off same as above
Flaps operated by the flap control unit (FCU) Fowler single slot type Detents only work Electrical monitoring to detect split flap and stops command Hydraulic motor actuates screw jacks to extend or retract flaps Limitations o Vfe 8° - 250 KIAS o 20° - 200 KIAS o 40° - 150 KIAS o restricted to 20° with HYD XFLOW in use o restricted to below 18,000’ due to the effect of flaps which lower critical mach speed by increasing camber of wing
Spoiler Panel - spoileron computer controls hydraulic system for extension and retraction during normal operations when needed - spoiler position always shown on EICAS (not spoilerons) - one hydraulically actuated panel on each wing - armed / automatic position used for takeoff and landing - select intermediate positions for deceleration and/or drag increase slowly - watch out for spoilers extended after descent Spoiler Modes - Pure Air Spoiler – Speed Brake Only – limited by airspeed - Pure Spoileron – Roll augmentation – aids in banking aircraft beyond 5° bank during normal operations o Always active and over rides spoilers operation o With “ROLL DISC” – control bank with spoilers beyond 1° bank - Mixed Spoiler / Spoileron Ops – computer will use differential spoiler extension to aid in turns with spoilers extended - Ground Auto Spoiler – mode activates automatically in the arm position with WOW detected - Spoiler Jam – mode activates when spoiler not detected to move – automatically retracts – spoiler function will continue as much as possible
Stall Warning System - AOA sensors and indicators are active all the time - Uses voice alert - Stick shakers activate at 0.8 AOA (80% lift capability of wing) - Computer resets above 18,000’ to lower AOA - Uses low speed awareness Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) - Records last 30 minutes of cockpit voices, radio communications and aural annunciations - ERASE – only works on the ground with the parking brake set - Has its’ own power supply with locating beacon that works under water ELT -
Standard installation with cockpit remote
Smoke goggles are mounted in bag (supplement to oxygen mask) – great idea but doesn’t work well Fire Extinguishers - Preflight check item, pin, tag and pressure gauge - Toxic fumes if used (Halon) cabin and cockpit should be vented afterward - Located under each crew seat and opposite the potty Life Vests are stowed behind crew seats and under each seat. Oxygen System - Provides supplemental oxygen to crew and passengers - Automatically deploys when cabin pressure > 14,500’ - Manually deployed using button - Intended to be used during emergency descent - Capacity varies with temperature (volume shown on EICAS) - Pressure relief valve will blow green indicator disc on front right side of nose (check on preflight) - OXYGEN OFF – CAS message when pressure is low or turned off - OXYGEN QTY – message when < 554 liters - Always available to the crew - PAX OXY FAIL – just what it says - MIC/MASK button on audio panel for each side - INPH – intercom between pilots and over cabin ??
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