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Design for Variable Loading

It has been established by experiment that
components fail when loads area repeated and
reversed several million times even though the
stresses involved do not reach the elastic limit of
the material. Fatigue failure is characterised by an
absence of elongation and of reduction at the point
of failure, and is particularly dangerous for
components with discontinuities since these
always produce points of stress concentration.

Lecture Content

• Significance of the Endurance Limit.
• Endurance Limit – Modifying Factors.
• Graphical determination of fatigue strength under
fluctuating lad conditions.

Solution – Results Summary
Ultimate Tensile Strength

=

950 MPa

Endurance Limit (based on
material/loading condition)

=

257 MPa

Modified Endurance Limit
(for actual conditions)

=

127 MPa

Graphical Determination of Fatigue
Strength Under Fluctuating Load
• In practice the cyclic stress applied to an element
may be considered as a combination of an
alternating stress superimposed on a constantly
applied mean stress.
Stress

Stress
Amplitude, a
Mean Stress, m

Stress Range,  r ( 2 a )

It is considered that if a variable stress is superimposed on a steady stress.Modified Goodman Diagram The Modified Goodman Diagram can be constructed for any material when the ultimate tensile strength. . the plotted results will determine a maximum and a minimum stress line between which safe operating conditions can be maintained. yield strength and endurance limit for a completely reversed stress are known.

 m .  a Ultimate tensile strength.Modified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: Alternating Stress. Sy Modified endurance limit. Su Yield Strength. Se Su Sy Se Sy  Se Su Mean Stress.

Su Yield Strength.  a Ultimate tensile strength.Modified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: Alternating Stress. Se Su Sy Se Sy  Se Su Mean Stress. m . Sy Modified endurance limit.

Se Su Sy Se Sy  Se Su Mean Stress. m .  a Ultimate tensile strength.Modified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: Alternating Stress. Su Yield Strength. Sy Modified endurance limit.

Modified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: Alternating Stress. Se Su Sy Se Sy  Se Su Mean Stress.  a Ultimate tensile strength. Sy Modified endurance limit. Su Yield Strength. m .

 m . Su Yield Strength. Se Su Sy Se m max  Se a max a max Sy Su Mean Stress. Sy Modified endurance limit.  a Ultimate tensile strength.Modified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: Alternating Stress.

Se Su Alternating Stress. limit.  a S yt Se S yc S yt  Se S yc Su Mean Stress.Mod.Yield Strength.Complete Modified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: UTS. Su. m . End. Sy .

Mod. limit. Se Su Alternating Stress.Yield Strength. Sy . Su. m . End.Complete Modified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: UTS.  a S yt Se S yc S yt  Se S yc Su Mean Stress.

limit. Su. Se Su Alternating Stress.Mod.Complete Modified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: UTS. m .Yield Strength. End. Sy .  a S yt Se S yc S yt  Se S yc Su Mean Stress.

.The diagram can be simplified considering the symmetry about the diagonal axis and by rotating it through 45° .

End.Yield Strength. Sy . limit.Mod. m . a Sy Se S uc S yc S yt S ut Mean Stress. Se Stress Amplitude. Su.Complete Simplified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: UTS.

Sy .Mod.Yield Strength. End. Su.Complete Simplified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: UTS. Se Stress Amplitude. limit. a Sy Se S uc S yc S yt S ut Mean Stress. m .

Su. Sy . a Sy Se S uc S yc S yt S ut Mean Stress. limit. Se Stress Amplitude. End.Complete Simplified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: UTS. m .Mod.Yield Strength.

Yield Strength.Complete Modified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: UTS. limit. Se Su Alternating Stress.  a S yt Se S yc S yt  Se S yc Su Mean Stress. Su. Sy . m . End.Mod.

 a Sy Se a S uc S yc m a max S yt m max S ut Mean Stress. m . Su. limit. Sy . End. Se Stress Amplitude.Mod.Yield Strength.Complete Simplified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: UTS.

a further simplification can be made. . or the ultimate tensile strength.Should either the yield strength. be unobtainable.

Sy . limit.Mod. a Modified Goodman Line Se Soderberg Line S uc S yc S yt S ut Mean Stress.Simplified Goodman Diagram Known parameters: UTS. m . Se Stress Amplitude. End. Su or Yield Strength.

Design for Variable Loading – Worked Example .

. The bar should have an infinite life and is subject to a factor of safety of 2.Determine the diameter of a hot drawn mild steel bar (Sut=430MPa and Sy= 215 MPa) which is subject to a tensile preload of 50 kN and a fluctuating tensile load which varies between 0 and 100 kN. The design of the bar ends is such that a stress concentration factor of 2 is appropriate for a corresponding fillet radius of 5 mm.

Strength values from test specimen data: Ratio (Se/Su) Material Cycle s U.32 +/-0. (MPa) Reversed Bending Reversed Axial Loading Reversed Torsion Mild Steel 107 380 +/-0.6 +/-0.36 Medium Carbon Steel (annealed) 107 620 +/-0.T.24 +/-0.3 +/-0.45 +/-0.S.5 +/-0.Solution 1.3 Low alloy Steel 107 950 +/-0.38 +/-0.45 +/-0.2 High Strength Alloy 108 500 +/-0.27 High Strength Steel 107 1540 +/-0.4 +/-0.16 .55 +/-0.

Solution Sut = 430 MPa Un-modified endurance limit for reversed torsion: Se  0.55(430)  236MPa ' .

68 Surface factor.5 1.2 Hot Rolled Forged 0 0.Solution . ka 1.0 1. ka Ka=0.8 X Polished Ground Machined/Cold Drawn 0.6 0.4 0.5 Tensile strength. Su (GPa) .0 0.Surface Finish.

68x105 Suc Suc Assuming Suc  Sut   Se  0.566  9.566  9. kb For Axial Loading:   S 'e  0. .68x10 430 430  225MPa ' 5 This is the ‘book value’ endurance limit including size factor.Solution – Size Effect.

Stress Concentration. ke • Applicable to both ductile and brittle materials when subject to fatigue loading.Solution . err on the safe side and make equal to unity) . calculation etc. 1 ke  1  qKt  1 • Where q = notch sensitivity Kt= stress concentration factor (from charts.) (If q unknown.

2 0 Sut = 0.4GPa 1.4 q 0.0 Aluminium Alloy 2. Extrapolate to determine suitable value for q 1. r (mm) 4.0 3.4GPa Sut = 1.0 Notch Radius.0 .6 Steel: Sut = 1.0GPa Sensitivity 0.Notch Sensitivity Chart For Steel and Aluminium Alloys Notch radius = 5 mm.7GPa Sut = 0.8 Notch 0.0 X 0.

Solution .56 1  q( K t  1) 1  0.8(2  1) .Stress Concentration. ke 1 1 ke    0.

Solution – Other Factors All other modifying factors are assumed to have no effect and hence equal unity. kc  k d  k f  1 .

Se Se  Se ka kc  225x0.56 x0.68  86MPa ' Remember Se’ already includes a size factor.Solution – Modified Endurance Limit. kb .

Solution – Applied Stress Stress range Stress amplitude Mean stress Static stress .

3x103   static   amplitude  d2  amplitude  0.7 x103  amplitude   2 d2 Frange  mean 127.7 x103    2 d A d2 4 100 x103 127.3x103  range    2 d A d2 4  range 63.Solution – Applied Stress Static Stress Stress Range Mean Stress  static Fs 50 x103 63.5  mean .

.Solution Determine the limiting values of mean stress and stress amplitude by constructing a Goodman diagram based on the strength of the component material and the modified endurance limit.

Stress Amplitude. MPa Solution – Goodman Diagram S y (215) Se (86) S y (215) Sut (430) Mean Stress. MPa .

Stress Amplitude. MPa . MPa Solution – Goodman Diagram S y (215) Se (86) S y (215) Sut (430) Mean Stress.

MPa .Stress Amplitude. MPa Solution – Goodman Diagram S y (215) Se (86) ‘Safe’ S y (215) Sut (430) Mean Stress.

Stress Amplitude. MPa .5 m Se (86) S y (215) Sut (430) Mean Stress. MPa Solution – Goodman Diagram S y (215) a  0.

MPa Solution – Goodman Diagram S y (215) a critial  63MPa.Stress Amplitude. MPa . mcritical  125MPa a  0.5 m Se (86) a critial m critial S y (215) Sut (430) Mean Stress.

3x103   62. d  45.5 x10 .1mm 6 62. 3 x 10 d 2  .5MPa 2 Relating to strength calculation: m critical 127.5MPa 2 d 3 127 .Solution From the Goodman Diagram: Including Factor of Safety: m critical  mcritical  125MPa 125   62.

For a design application. . List the parameters required for each. Construct (i) a ‘Complete Modified Goodman Diagram’ and (ii) a ‘Complete Simplified Goodman Diagram. 16.Design For Variable Loading 15. What factors should be taken into account when making this adjustment. explain why the endurance limit of the material is modified form the book value.

8. If the component is subject to both an axial tensile preload of 50 kN and a fluctuating load in which the ratio of the stress amplitude to the mean stress is 0.5. A cylindrical component is to be manufactured form mild steel (Sut = 430 MPa and Sy = 215 MPa) and a modified endurance limit has been established (Se = 100 MPa).Design For Variable Loading 17. Determine the diameter of the cylinder if it is subject to a safety factor of 1. .