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Innovative Battery Management


Solutions for Smartphone, Tablet,
and Ultrabook
Simon Wen, Alice Chen
Q4 2012 Analog Overview Seminar
Texas Instruments
1

Battery Management Solutions

Smartphone &
Tablet Charger

Wireless
Charging

Ultrabook

Battery Monitor
& Gauging

Smartphone &
Tablet Charger

Charging with an Active System Load


(Non-DPPM)
I
I
+
Adapter
or USB

CHG

SYS

IBAT

System

Charger

Advantages:
Narrow System DC voltage = Battery Voltage from 3 to 4.2V
Issues:
Operate system and charging simultaneously
Safety Timer
Termination

Power Path Management Battery Charge Architecture


(DPPM)
Powering System
Adapter
+

Q1
Controller

Q2
C1

System

Charging
Battery

Separate charge current path from system current path


Charge current controlled by Q2
Powering System from adapter through Q1
Simultaneously powering system and charging battery
No interaction between charge current and system current

Popular Linear Charger: PowerPath Options


800mA
Non-Power Path
Linear Charger

bq24040

bq24075
1.5A USB Friendly
Power Path
Charger

Switching Mode 1.5A Non-PowerPath Charger


USB

C1
1uF

VBUS

Q2

SW

Q1
VAUX

BOOT

PMID

10k 10k 10k

Q3

C2
4.7uF

SCL
SDA
STAT
OTG

STAT
OTG

Detect bad adapter


Input DPM
7

PGND

C5
0.1uF

CSIN
CSOUT

SDA

HOST

C4
10nF

SGND
SCL

10k

L1 1uH R1 0.068 C3 10uF

CD

bq24156A/7/8/9

VREF

C6
1uF
C7
1uF

Internal input current sensing and input current


limiting
Vin based DPM and bad adaptor detection
Charge in CC and CV mode
Automatic termination with internal safety timer
Boost mode operation for USB OTG

Current Capabilities of Adapters


Power sources have their limits
There are situations where the input power source does
not have enough power to supply what the portable
device demands
Becoming increasingly important with the
standardization of input connectors such as the MicroUSB
Input current limits and Input Voltage Dynamic Power
Management (VINDPM) provide the functions needed to
solve this problem

Input Current DPM Switch-Mode Battery Charger


IIN Q1

Q2

ISYS
Q3

IREF

A2

ISYS2

VBUS

ISYS1 DPM Mode

ICHG
Q4

Control
Loops
+

ISYS
BAT

IIN

Adapter
Limit

ICHG

Input Current
Regulation

VREF
t1

Maximize use of the input current


Current sharing between system & charger
Minimize the AC adapter size and power rating
How to avoid adapter crash if its current is NOT Known?

t2

Input Voltage DPM Switch-Mode Battery Charger


VIN

IIN Q1

VBUS

Q2

ICHG

Q3
+

A2

VINDPM

Q4

Control
Loops
+

ISYS
BAT

VREF

If VIN < VINDPM:


Reduce Duty Cycle Reduce ICHG Reduce IIN
Allows VIN to recover back to VINDPM level
Automatically Track Adapters Max Current.
Perfect for third party adapter

bq24270/1 PowerPath 1.5A Switch-mode Charger


20V max, OVP @ 6.5V

Optional
Discharge
FET

I2 C
Interface

Detect bad adapter


Input DPM

Power Path

Power up with
Depleted Battery

bq24160 Dual-Input, DPM, Switching Charger


20V Max, 10.5V OVP

ADAPTER

IN

SW
System
Load

PMIDI

20V max, 6.5V OVP

Up to 3A load in
supplement mode
or higher (~ 5A) w/
external FET

BOOT
`

USB
VBUS

SYS

D+
D-

Optional for high current


discharge capability

GND

PMIDU

BGATE
D+

I2C Interface

D-

BAT

ICHG = 2.5A MAX

SDA
SCL
HOST

bq24160

INT

PACK+

TS
PGND

Detect bad Vadapter


Power Path

VDRV
PACK-

SYS

Input DPM

TEMP

Dual Input
Power up with
Depleted Battery

bq24190 (with OTG/1.2A) 4A Tablet Charger


4x4mm^2 QFN-24Pin Package
Support DC Adaptor, USB2.0 and
USB 3.0 up to 3A

VBUS

SYS: 3.4V-4.4V

SW

Input
3.9V 17V

Q1

Q2

BOOT

PMID
D+/D- Detection

Q3

USB

D+
D-

REGN
PGND

Integration of power
path and switching
MOSFETs

REGN

SYS
I2C Interface

VREF

STAT

Q4

BAT

10mohm

SDA
SCL
INT
OTG
/CE

Host

Detect badUSB
adapter
On-The-Go
Default USB Current

Input DPM

Power Path

Up to 4A Charge Current and


6A Discharge Current

ILIM
REGN

Thermal
PAD

Input Current Setting

TS1
TS2

High current for PAD


Power up with
Depleted Battery

Dual battery Pack


Thermistor Monitoring

Boost from Battery


(OTG)

Ultrabook

Notebook/Ultrabook Charger Roadmap


SMBus
with
Integrated
MOSFETs

SMBus
with
Selector

bq24765

SMBus Interface,
Monolithic 6A FETs
Thermal Regulation
700kHz; 3.5x7 QFN-34

SMBus, 5x5 QFN-40


6A iFETs/19.5V input
Intel Turbo Mode
1-4 Cells; 750kHz

bq24725

bq24725A/728

SMBus Interface
3.5x3.5 QFN-20
750kHz,
DPM, Selector
All 5-N-MOSFETs

SMBus Interface
Pin-Pin bq24725
Air Mode: bq24728
DPM, selector
All 5 N-FETs

bq24707/726

SMBus
Without
Selector

bq24760

bq24707A

bq24735/38
Intel Turbo Mode
Air Mode (bq24738)
Pin-Pin bq24725A
DPM, selector
All 5 N-FETs

bq24737/727

SMBus Interface
SMBus Interface SMBus
Turbo Mode (bq24737)
3.5x3.5 QFN-20 One comparator
One comparator
750kHz; DPM
1ms ACOK delay Pin- Pin with bq24707A
One comparator

Production

Development

bqULTROLLER
bq24715
SMBus Interface
3.5x3.5 QFN-20
NVDC-1;
2-3cells: bq24715
3-4 Cells: bq24717
Pin-Pin bq24735/725A
Sample: May 15, 2012
bq24736
SMBus Interface
Intel Turbo Mode
Air Mode
Pin- Pin with bq24726

Definition

15

How to Support Turbo Mode?


Need to support peak system power = 2X adapter power
Solutions:
Higher power rating adapter (not feasible)
Turbo boost charger as in bq2473x for NB
NVDC-1 charger (bq24715) for Ultrabook

Intel Recommendation:
Haswell VR12.5 CRB: bq24735
Haswell VR12.6: NVDC Charger

16

Turbo Boost and NVDC Charger Power Flow


Adapter

Q1

Q2

System Load

RAC 10m

C1
0.1F

45W
Q3

Turbo Boost
Buck/Boost
Direct power path for system load
Reverse Boost for battery discharge
Adapter

Q1

Q2

Battery
Pack

RAC 10m

System Load

C1
0.1F

Buck

NVDC-1
Buck for system load
Direct power path for battery discharge

11/23/2012

Q3

Battery
Pack

NVDC-1 Charger Benefits and Challenges


Benefits
Minimum number of
output cap in Vcore

Lower system bus voltage higher fs of 1MHz; smaller Vcore size

Improved efficiency in
Vcore

Lower Rdson and Qg with 20V FETs than 30V FETs

Possible Battery mode


efficiency improvement

Lower Rdson and Qg of 20V FET, but increases loss due to charge
current Rsense

Challenges
Charger size and cost
increases

Higher inductor and FETs current rating.

Energy star

Light load efficiency; PFM; lower Iq

Input Current DPM


transient

Overloading adapter. Fast DPM transient response

Output voltage transient


response @ no battery

Need to have fast output voltage transient response between DCM


and CCM

18

bq24715: NVDC-1 Charge Controller with NMOS AC Selector


and Adapter/Discharge Current Monitoring
NVDC-1 charge controller with NMOS AC Selector with 6-24V input
System instant on with minimum system voltage for deeply discharged battery
Automatic supplement mode with BATFET
Ultra-Low Quiescent current

Support 2-3S battery pack: bq24715 (Sample in June 6th)


Support 3-4S battery pack: bq24717 (Sample in August)
Accuracy
0.5% battery accuracy with 16mV step
3% current accuracy with 64mA step (10mohm)
2% input current and battery discharge current monitoring accuracy

600kHz, 800kHz, and 1MHz operation (SMBus programmable)


PFM at light load to improve efficiency
Ultrafast DPM transient response
Programmable Adapter or Battery Discharge current outputs for CPU Throttling
SMBus up to 400kHz (I2C friendly)
Pin-Pin Compatible with the bq24725A/bq24735/737

bq24715 (bqUltroller) NVDC-1 Charger


Adapter

Q1

C1
0.1F

Opt
R3
4k

D1

RAC 10m

Q2

R7
10

R4
4k

C2
0.1 F

C3
0.1 F

C4
0.1 F
ACN
ACP

R1
866k

+3.3V

R8
10k

R9
10k

R10
10k

SMBus

HOST

SYSTEM LOAD
C7:1 F

BTST

ACDRV

HIDRV
PHASE

bq24715

Q4
C8
47nF

Q5

LODRV
SDA

C12
2x100uF

VCC REGN

CMSRC

ACDET
R2
133k

C5
1F

C6
10Fx2

Battery
Q3 Pack

L : 3.3uH
C10
10 Fx2

Rsns
10m

GND

SCL

Dig I/O

ACOK

A/D

IOUT

C11
100pF

CELL

SRP
SRN

C9
0.1 F

BATDRV R18: 4k

Float: 2cell
High (REGN): 3cell
TI Confidential NDA Restrictions

20

Battery Monitor &


Gauging

What is Fuel Gauging Technology?


Fuel Gauging = technology to predict battery capacity
under all system active and inactive conditions.

Its key benefit is dramatic extended RUN TIME !


The Gas Gauge IC autonomously calculate and report:
Remaining Battery capacity information

Percentage
time to empty/full
milliamp-hours
Watt-hours
talk time, idle time, etc.
Battery health and safety diagnostics information
State of Health,
Full Charge Capacity, temperature

63%

Run Time 6:27

Increasing expectations
bars

23

percent

Time-toEmpty

42%

1:27 hr
remaining

Gauging
How is it implementedHost System
Battery Pack

VCC
CE

LDO

REGIN

Battery
Low

System-side
Host-side

Host CPU
or
Power
Management
Controller

I2C

DATA

PACK+

Gas
Gauge

Temp
Sense

(bq27520)

Bq27520
Bq27425
bq27421

BAT_GD

SOC_INT

Host System

Protection
IC

Voltage
Sense

PACK-

FETs

CHG
DSG

Current
Sense

Battery Pack
PACK+

Vcc
REGIN

LDO

REG25

BAT

Host CPU
or
Power
Management
Controller

SE

HDQ

Gas
Gauge
(bq27541)
Protection
IC

TS

SRP

SRN
Vss

Pack-side
Bq27541
bq28z560

PACK-

24

Gauging
Useable Capacity QUSE
4.2

Open Circuit Voltage (OCV)


Battery Voltage (V)

Qmax

Quse

IRBAT

3.6

Cell voltage under load


3.0
EDV

2.4

Quse

EDV will be reached earlier for higher


discharge current.

Useable capacity Quse < Qmax

Qmax
+
+

RBAT
OCV
V = OCV - I*RBAT

25

Real-life Gauging Task


100

4200

80

4000

60

3800

40

3600

20

3400

True vs reported RSOC


0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

Voltage (mV)

RSOC (%)

True vs reported RSOC

3200
1200

Time (s)
true remaining capacity
SMB remaining capacity
Voltage

80

100

60

200

40

300

20

400

100

200

300

400

500

600
Time (s)

true remaining capacity


SMB remaining capacity
Current

26

700

800

900

1000

1100

500
1200

Current (mA)

RSOC (%)

100

1. Highly pulsating current


2. Highly variable battery
voltage
3. TIs bq27xxx fuel gauge
delivers superb
performance in this
GSM phone user case
4. Stay within 1% error
near battery empty

Gauging
Types of Gauging Algorithms
Impedance Track
Cell Voltage Measurement

Measures cell voltage


Advantage: Simple
Not accurate over load conditions

Coulomb Counting

Measures and integrates current over time


Affected by cell impedance
Affected by cell self discharge
Standby current
Cell Aging
Must have full to empty learning cycles
Must develop cell models that will vary with
cell maker
Can count the charge leaving the battery,
but wont know remaining charge without
complex models
Models will become less accurate with age

Directly measures effect of

discharge rate, temp, age and other


factors by learning cell impedance
Calculates effect on remaining

capacity and full charge capacity


No learning cycles needed
No host algorithms or calculations

27

TI Discrete Fuel Gauge vs PMU - Integrated


Coulomb Counter
PMU Integrated coulomb
counter

TI Fuel Gauge
Remaining
Capacity

Automatically Computed

Requires host side algorithm and


extensive battery modeling

Run Time to
Empty

Automatically Computed

Requires host side algorithm

Compensation
for current

Yes

Generally not known

Compensation
for temperature

Yes

Generally not known

Compensation
for age

Yes

Design with Conservative


approach, hidden unused capacity

Accuracy over
age

Stay high accuracy resistance is


being learned during usage

No, because algorithm is nonadaptive

Run Time
Increase

Extended run time high


accuracy so no need for
conservative design

No

TI Confidential - NDA Restrictions

Wireless Charging

Charge Qi Devices Wherever Your Day Takes You

30

Wireless Power Consortium (WPC)

Industry wide standard for delivering wireless


power up to 5W
Aimed to enable interoperability between
various charging pads and portable
devices
Standard continues to gain traction with
increasing list of members (105+)
Compatible devices will be marked with a Qi
logo

and more
31

Qi Devices Announced in the Market

LG Charging Pad

Sengfeis Phone & Charging Pad

Mobile Products released with TI Wireless


Power Solutions Accessories
DROID INCREDIBLE 2 by
HTC

HTC Rezound

ThunderBolt by HTC

Revolution by LG

DROID 3 by Motorola

DROID CHARGE by
Samsung

DROID BIONIC by
Motorola

DROID by Motorola

Pantech Breakout LTE

Wireless
Charging Pad
by LG

33

Inductive Power System Overview


Power

AC to
DC

Drivers

Controller

Rectification

V/I
SNS

Voltage
Conditioning

Communication
and Control

Communication / Feedback

Transmitter

Receiver

5V System
Load /
Battery

bq50k + bq51K: Qi-Compliant Solution

Qi: Intelligent Control of


Inductively Coupled Power Transfer
Power transmitted through shared
magnetic field
Transmit coil creates magnetic field
Magnetic field induces current in receiver coil
Shielding material below TX and above RX coils

Power transferred only when needed


Transmitter waits until its field has been perturbed
Transmitter sends seek energy and waits for a digital
response
If response is valid, power transfer begins

Power transferred only at level needed


Receiver constantly monitors power received and
delivered
Transmitter adjusts power sent based on receiver
feedback
If feedback is lost, power transfer stops

z<D

Factors Affecting Coupling Efficiency

Optimal operating distance


40% at 1 diameter

1% at 2.5 diameter

0.1% at 4 diameters

0.01% at 6 diameters

Communication Basics
Analog Ping / Digital Ping / Startup
Analog Pings no
object detected

Analog Ping object detected.


Followed by subsequent Digital
Ping and initiation of
communications functions
TX COIL
VOLTAGE

Vertical Scale: 20V/div


Horizontal Scale: 200
mS/div
COMM

Switching Frequency Variation

System operates near


resonance for improved
efficiency.

Power control by changing


the frequency, moving along
the resonance curve.

Modulation using the power


transfer coils establishes the
communications.

Feedback is transferred to
the primary as error.

Operating Point

80 KHz

100 KHz

120 KHz

WPC version 1.0 TX design freedom

Tactical feedback or free positioning

Guided Positioning
(Magnetic Attraction)

Alignment or selection of coils

Activation after detection

Free Positioning
Positioning (Coil
(Coil Array)
Array)
Free
A

Free Positioning
(Moving Coil)
y

x
23 November 2012

bqTesla System Efficiency Breakdown


Measured from DC input of Transmitter to DC output of Receiver
Tx Eff.

Magnetics Eff.

100%

Rx Eff.

System Efficiency

TX Eff

RX Eff
Magnetics Eff

90%

Efficiency (%)

80%

70%

System Eff

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
Output Power (W)

TI Confidential Selective Disclosure

3.5

4.5

42

bqTESLA EVMs
bqTESLA Evaluation Modules
New

bq51013EVM-725

Qi-compliant coil used w/ EVM kit

40-mm x 30-mm x 0.75-mm

WPC Compliant Receiver Coil

WPC Compliant Transmitter Coil

bq51013 form factor demo PCB (PR1041)

5 x 15 mm footprint for all RX side circuitry


Represents what an OEM would design into their actual end-product to
enable wireless power from a QI-compliant charging pad.

bqTESLA Portfolio of
Wireless Power Solutions

Easily Integrate Wireless Charging


into Portable Electronics

TI Wireless Power Devices are Qi


Compliant!

Shown here:

Media Tablet Wirelessly Charging with


Texas Instruments bqTESLA Wireless

Power Solutions

Example Applications
Phones, Tablets, E-readers
Remote controls
Digital cameras (still and video)
Medical equipment
Power tools and flashlights
MP3 players
Toothbrushes
Global positioning devices
Automotive accessories
46

Wireless Charging Options


Lowest Cost
(Single Coil)

Free Positioning
(Coil Array)

19Vin
Half Bridge Drive
Magnet
18x18 Area
WPC A1 Type

5Vin
Full Bridge Drive
Magnet
18x18 Area
WPC A5 Type

12Vin (or 5V w/ Boost)


Half Bridge Drive
No Magnet
70x20 Area
WPC A6 Type

bq500210
Released Now

bq500211
Released 2Q12

bq500410
To be released 3Q12

TI Wireless Power Forum


& Wireless Power Web Page
TI E2E Community-Wireless Power
http://e2e.ti.com/support/power_management/wireless_power/default.aspx

External Forumavailable for


entire engineering community
Ground Rules

Keep the questions technical in nature,


good question your peers can benefit
from at a later date.

One question per-post to make it


easer to search.

Place P/N in Topic with description


of question again to make it easier to search.

Do not ask pricing or deliver questions

TI Wireless Power Web Page http://www.ti.com/wirelesspower

For technical specs & tutorials:


http://www.wirelesspowerconsortium.com

Thank You!