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TRANSFORMER DIAGNOSIS

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Michael Krger 2006

OMICRON

11/6/2014

Page: 1

Tap Changer

Accessories

Vessel & Oil

Bushings

Core

Winding

Frequency in %

Sources of Faults

Source: Cigre_WG 12-05 An international survey on failures in large power


transformers in service, Electra No. 88, 1983

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Gas-in-Oil Analysis
Type of Fault
Partial Discharge
Discharge with low
Energy
Discharge with high
Energy
Thermal Fault T<300C
Thermal Fault T<700C
Thermal Fault T>700C
Source: Mllmann, A. u.a. IEC/VDE Standards fr flssige Isolierstoffe zur Diagnostik
von Transformatoren und Wandlern, ETG Fachbericht 87: Diagnostik elektrischer
Betriebsmittel, Berlin 2002
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Tests for Diagnosis


(Fault Location)
Winding resistance and OLTC test
Practical examples for winding ratio,
excitation current, leakage reactance
FRSL
Capacitance and dissipation factor
FRA

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Universal Transformer
Test System
Power Amplifier
15-400Hz
Up to 2000A, 2kV AC / 400A DC
Measurement of
Ratio
Complex Impedance
Resistances
...

C-Tan
-Prfsystem

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Testing OLTC

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On-load tap changer principle (1)


Voltage Selector

Commutating
Resistors

Diverter
Switch

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On-load tap changer principle (2)


Voltage Selector

Commutating
Resistors

Diverter
Switch

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On-load tap changer principle (3)


Voltage Selector

Commutating
Resistors

Diverter
Switch

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On-load tap changer principle (4)


Voltage Selector

Commutating
Resistors

Diverter
Switch

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On-load tap changer principle (5)


Voltage Selector

Commutating
Resistors

Diverter
Switch

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On-load tap changer principle (6)


Voltage Selector

Commutating
Resistors

Diverter
Switch

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On-load tap changer

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Measurement of the static


resistance values of:
1) all internal contacts (diverter
switch contacts + tap
selector switch + connection
clamps) +
2) the winding resistance
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New voltage selector contact

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Voltage selector switch in a good


condition
Widerstand V-Mp
285.00
280.00

KEMA

270.00
265.00

OMICRON 121
Ref. Temp.
OMICRON 211
Ref. Temp.

260.00
255.00
250.00
245.00
240.00
235.00

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Widerstand [m ]

275.00

Stufen

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Influence of the Temperature

Maschinentransformator
27kV/400kV 1100MVA

1. Measurement: 20C
Last Meas.:

OMICRON

23C

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Influence of the Temperature


0.165

235 +RTWinding
(Tap)
2
R(T2 ) = R(T1 )
Beispiel
: R(23) = R (20) *1.012
235 + T1
Delta =1.2%

0.16

A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

0.155
0.15
0.145
0.14
000

005

010

015

020

025

030

Taps

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Faulty voltage selector contact

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Defective Voltage Selector

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Defective Tap Selector

Starke Verruung durch Erwrmung und Ablagerungen


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Resistance U-Mp
R L1 (referred to 20C)

700.0

650.0

600.0
mOhm

R L1 1974
R L1 20.2.02 1...19
RL1 20.2.02 191

550.0

500.0

450.0
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Taps

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100MVA 220/110 kV V
R L2 (referred to 20)
650.0
630.0
610.0
590.0

mOhm

570.0
R L2 1974
550.0

R L2 20.2.02 119
R L2 20.2.02 191

530.0
510.0
490.0
470.0
450.0
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Taps

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100MVA 220/110 kV W
R L3 (referred to 20)
630.0
610.0
590.0

mOhm

570.0
R L3 1974

550.0

R L3 20.2.02 119
530.0

R L3K 20.2.02 191

510.0
490.0
470.0
450.0
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Taps

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04.12.200411/6/2014

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Winding Resistance U-Mp After Repair


Resistance L1
650.0
630.0
590.0
Factory Measurement
OMICRON 119
OMICRON 191

570.0
550.0
530.0
510.0
490.0
470.0
450.0

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Resistance [m]

610.0

Taps

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Delta R for U-Mp UP-DOWN


Resistance Differenz L1 Up-Down
40.0

20.0

Before repair

10.0
0.0

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

-10.0
1

Resistance [m]

30.0

-20.0
-30.0
Taps
Resistance Differenz L1 Up-Down
6.0

After repair

2.0
0.0
-2.0

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

-6.0

-4.0
1

Resistance [m]

4.0

Taps

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Cleaning effect of OLTC movement


R Winding (Tap)

0.2 Ohm
0.19 Ohm

A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

0.18 Ohm
0.17 Ohm
0.16 Ohm
0.15 Ohm
0.14 Ohm
0

10

15

20

Taps

R Winding (Tap)

0.2 Ohm
0.19 Ohm

A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

0.18 Ohm
0.17 Ohm
0.16 Ohm
0.15 Ohm
0.14 Ohm
0

10

15

20

Taps

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Increased contact resistance on a


diverter switch in phase A
R Winding (Tap)

0.18 Ohm
0.175 Ohm
0.17 Ohm
0.165 Ohm
0.16 Ohm
0.155 Ohm
0.15 Ohm
0.145 Ohm
0.14 Ohm
0.135 Ohm
0.13 Ohm

A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

10

12

Taps

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Tap Changer in Delta

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Tap Changer in Delta

DC

U=0

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Measurement of a Winding 27 kV - 17 kA
with 100A Test Current

Meas. Result
=700

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Measurement of Low Ohmic Windings

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Analysis of the Transient


Switching Behavior of the
Diverter Switch

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Transient signal of one switching


procedure in detail

Ripple

Slope

1 = Diverter switch commutates from the first tap to the first commutating resistor
2 = The second commutationg resistor is switched in parralel
3 = shorting of the second commutating resistor and commutating to the second tap
4 = Charging of the additional windings

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Diagnosis of the diverter switch

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Ripple of a diverter switch in a


good condition (1100MVA)
Ripple

2.5%
2.0%

A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

1.5%
1.0%
0.5%
0.0%
000

005

010

015

020

025

030

Taps

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Slope of a diverter switch in a


good condition (1100MVA)
Slope

0.0A/s
000
-0.1A/s

005

010

015

020

025

030
A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

-0.2A/s
-0.3A/s
-0.4A/s
-0.5A/s
-0.6A/s
Taps

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Ripple on a Diverter Switch with


bouncing Contacts in Phase C
Ripple

50.0%
45.0%
40.0%
35.0%
30.0%
25.0%
20.0%
15.0%
10.0%
5.0%
0.0%

A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

10

12

Taps

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04.12.200411/6/2014

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Slope on a Diverter Switch with


bouncing Contacts in Phase C
Slope

0.0A/s
-0.2A/s 0

10

-0.4A/s

12
A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

-0.6A/s
-0.8A/s
-1.0A/s
-1.2A/s
-1.4A/s
-1.6A/s
-1.8A/s
Taps

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Even Interruptions of 500us can


be detected

530us

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Ripple = f (Time of Interruption)


Dauer der
Unterbrechnung
[ms]
0.5
1
10
1000

Ripple mit
Unterbrechung [%]
4.12
4.64
32.96
100.00

Ripple ohne
Unterbrechung
[%]
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

Slope mit
Unterbrechung
[mA/s]
-42
-49.17
-405.6
-1192

Slope mit
Unterbrechung
[mA/s]
-2
-2
-2
-2

Ripple OS Wicklung mit 0.5A Prfstrom

120.00
100.00
Ripple [%]

80.00

Ripple mit
Unterbrechung

60.00
40.00

Ripple ohne
Unterbrechung

20.00
0.00
0.1

10

100

1000

Time of Interruption [ms]

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Slope = f (Time of Interruption)


Dauer der
Unterbrechnung
[ms]
0.5
1
10
1000

Ripple mit
Unterbrechung [%]
4.12
4.64
32.96
100.00

Ripple ohne
Unterbrechung
[%]
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

Slope mit
Unterbrechung
[mA/s]
-42
-49.17
-405.6
-1192

Slope mit
Unterbrechung
[mA/s]
-2
-2
-2
-2

Slope OS Wicklung mit 0.5A Prfstrom


0
-200

Slope mit
Unterbrechung

Slope [mA/s]

-400
-600

Slope ohne
Unterbrechung

-800
-1000
-1200
-1400
0.1

10

100

1000

Dauer der Unterbrechung [ms]

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Ripple of an aged diverter switch


Ripple

5.5%
5.0%

A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

4.5%
4.0%
3.5%
3.0%
0

10

15

20

Taps

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Slope of an aged diverter switch


Slope

-0.6A/s
-0.65A/s 0
-0.7A/s
-0.75A/s
-0.8A/s
-0.85A/s
-0.9A/s
-0.95A/s
-1.0A/s
-1.05A/s
-1.1A/s

10

15

20
A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

Taps

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Aged diverter switch

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Contact Problems (static)


Ripple
005
006
007
008
009
009
009
009
010
011
012
013

0.145044615
0.14168819
0.142732395
0.139659045
0.13919992
0.1396798
0.139666415
0.13958899
0.13754698
0.137932135
0.13525902
0.12915814

0.061%
0.046%
0.069%
0.097%
4.612%
1.028%
0.204%
0.174%
0.059%
0.055%
0.086%
0.079%

2.601%
2.253%
2.701%
2.903%
16.975%
14.25%
14.7%
15.7%
15.666%
3.402%
2.703%
3.4%

-1.75A/s
-1.65A/s
-1.75A/s
-1.69A/s
-11.37A/s
-2.6A/s
-1.75A/s
-0.56A/s
-1.91A/s
-1.75A/s
-1.69A/s
-2.62A/s

20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.01A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A

2.9008923V
2.8337638V
2.8546479V
2.7931809V
2.7853904V
2.793596V
2.7933283V
2.7917798V
2.7509396V
2.7586427V
2.7051804V
2.5831628V

Ripple

18.0%
16.0%
14.0%
12.0%
10.0%
8.0%
6.0%
4.0%
2.0%
0.0%
000

A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

005

010

015

020

025

030

Taps

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Contact Problems (static)


Slope
005
006
007
008
009
009
009
009
010
011
012
013

0.145044615
0.14168819
0.142732395
0.139659045
0.13919992
0.1396798
0.139666415
0.13958899
0.13754698
0.137932135
0.13525902
0.12915814

0.061%
0.046%
0.069%
0.097%
4.612%
1.028%
0.204%
0.174%
0.059%
0.055%
0.086%
0.079%

2.601%
2.253%
2.701%
2.903%
16.975%
14.25%
14.7%
15.7%
15.666%
3.402%
2.703%
3.4%

-1.75A/s
-1.65A/s
-1.75A/s
-1.69A/s
-11.37A/s
-2.6A/s
-1.75A/s
-0.56A/s
-1.91A/s
-1.75A/s
-1.69A/s
-2.62A/s

20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.01A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A
20.0A

2.9008923V
2.8337638V
2.8546479V
2.7931809V
2.7853904V
2.793596V
2.7933283V
2.7917798V
2.7509396V
2.7586427V
2.7051804V
2.5831628V

Slope

0.0A/s
-2.0A/s

A UP
A DOWN
B UP
B DOWN
C UP
C DOWN

-4.0A/s
-6.0A/s
-8.0A/s
-10.0A/s
-12.0A/s
000

005

010

015

020

025

030

Taps

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Measurement of the short


circuit impedance
a) Measurement of the leakage reactance

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Short circuit impedance


Forces

Leakage
Flux

10kV Winding
220kVWinding
Winding
220kV

220kV

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Short circuit impedance - deviation limits

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400kVA transformer
Template: TR Short Circuit Imp.
Version:
1.40
3 Phase Measurement
Factory Test with W-Meter
Uk [V]
1479.40

Ik [A]
8.89

P [W]
6270

f [Hz]
50

Z [OHM]
Phi []
R [OHM] X [OHM]
L [H]
288.2335 74.02338 79.33485 277.1002 0.882037449

f [Hz]
50

Z [OHM]
Phi []
R [OHM] X [OHM]
L [H]
287.8106 74.21368 78.29901 276.9553 0.881576072
-0.14671 0.257084 -1.30566 -0.05231 -0.05230818

f [Hz]
50

Z [OHM]
Phi []
R [OHM] X [OHM]
L [H]
287.9643 73.82169 80.23478 276.5607 0.880319891
-0.09342 -0.27247 1.134345 -0.19473 -0.19472629

f [Hz]
50

Z [OHM]
Phi []
R [OHM] X [OHM]
L [H]
288.7539 74.01075 79.53928 277.583 0.883574133
0.180545 -0.01706 0.257675 0.17422 0.174219805

Phase A

Difference to Factory Test [%]


Phase B

Difference to Factory Test [%]


Phase C

Difference to Factory Test [%]


Average Difference to Factory Test [%]

-0.01986

-0.01082 0.028788

-0.02427 -0.02427155
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Measurement of the short circuit


impedance
b) Measurement of the AC-short circuit resistance
(FRSL = Frequency response of stray losses)

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Parallel strands without twisting


B

HV Winding

Losses
by induced
currents

LV Winding

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Parallel strands with twisting


B

HV Winding

Induced
currents are
compensated

LV Winding

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Parallel strands with short circuit


B

HV Winding

Additional
losses
by induced
currents

LV Winding

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Equivalent circuit diagram

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R (f)

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Comparison of the 3 phases


R(f)
4.5 Ohm
4.0 Ohm
3.5 Ohm
3.0 Ohm
2.5 Ohm
2.0 Ohm
1.5 Ohm
1.0 Ohm
0.5 Ohm
0.0 Ohm

A
B
C

100

200

300

400

500

Frequency (Hz)

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Case study

40-MVA, Y
, 121 kV/12.85 kV transformer
The transformer was removed from service because it
produced gas, which, upon analysis, showed a hot spot
involving paper. In the laboratories, however, none of the
standard tests showed a fault in the windings. In fact, it was
found that:
The turns ratio was correct;
The excitation current was normal;
The DC resistance was normal;
A comparative measurement of the impedance in the
three phases showed no significant difference (less
than 3%).

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Case study

40-MVA, Y
, 121 kV/12.85 kV transformer

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Case study

40-MVA, Y
, 121 kV/12.85 kV transformer

Phase A: eight of the 13 parallel strands of this winding had been shortcircuited. In this condition, the section perpendicular to the lines of
flux was much higher and, hence, the eddy current losses
Phase B: two parallel strands were found to be in short-circuit but the fault
was not located in the winding after it had been dismantled
Phase C: No fault was detected in the windings

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Local Overheating

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Short circuit impedance - deviation limits

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Diagnosis of a damaged
transformer 220kV / 110kV / 10kV
Short

circuit of the 10kV


winding by a marten
Short circuit current Is = 52
kA
Switching off time about
100ms

Result:
Short circuit of the 10kV
winding to the core (Phase A)

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Ratio and excitation current

Ratio Error
= -21.5% !

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Lk=f(f)
Faulty
winding

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Defective 10kV winding skineffect in the core


Low Frequencies

High Frequencies

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Rk=f(f)
Rk 110kV - 10kV
30.00
25.00

Ohms

20.00
Rk [Ohm] U
Rk [Ohm] W
Rk [Ohm] V

15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00
0

100

200

300

400

f [Hz]

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FRA phases V und W

Phase: V

Phase: W

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FRA Phases U und W

Phase: U

Phase: W

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Opened Transformer

Defective
Phase

Current
limiting
coils
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View from the Top


220 kV
110 kV

10 kV

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 72

View from the Top

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 73

View from the Top

Broken wire

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 74

CAPACITANCE AND TAN DELTA


MEASUREMENTS ON
TRANSFORMERS

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 75

Definition of Tan Delta


Equivalent Parallel Circuit Diagram and Vector Diagram

Mainly conductive losses

with
and

Frequency

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 76

Equivalent Serial Circuit Diagram


Mainly polarization losses

RSS

URs

tan =
CS

UR
= RS C S
UC

UCs

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 77

Frequency Curves for Serial and Parallel Circuit Diagram


8.00E-03
7.00E-03
6.00E-03
5.00E-03

Serial

4.00E-03

Parallel

3.00E-03

Sum

2.00E-03
1.00E-03
0.00E+00
0

100

200

300

400

500

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 78

Transformer Winding Insulation


b. Model for the
behaviour of a
dielectric with
polarisation
characteristic and
conductivity

a. Plate condenser
as a model for
dielectric insulation

c. Part of the cross


section of a power
transformer main
insulation system
between HV and LV
windings

d. Simplified geometry
model for the main
components oil,
barriers and spacers

e: Dielectric model
for the insulation
system of power
transformers

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 79

Tan Delta (f) Pressboard Dependent


on the Water Content

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 80

Losses in Dielectric Material


Transport of electrons and ions
Losses through polarisation effects

Losses in dielectrics are dependent of


Ageing
Water content
Conductive losses by particles
Partial discharges
OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 81

What can C-Tan Delta tell us?


Capacity:

Bushings:
Partial breakdowns between layers
Incoming oil into cracks of solid insulation (RBP hard
paper)

Transformer windings:
Change of the geometry between windings
(deformation and displacement of windings due to
big fault currents trough the transformer)

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 82

What can C-Tan Delta tell us?


Dissipation factor:

Bushings:
Aging and decomposition of insulation
Water content
Bad contacted electrodes or capacitive layers
Cracks in the insulation
Partial discharges

Transformers:
Aging
Water content in the oil and in the paper
Contamination by particles
OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 83

Schering Bridge (1919)


First application for insulation diagnosis 1924

Has to be balanced
for each frequency

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 84

Measuring Principle of CP TD1

Im

CN

ZN

ZX CX, LX

Icn

Icx

ICX

ICN

u0(t)

UN(t)

Z1

with << 1 :
tan cos

Z2

, L in rad

UX(t)

Uo
Re

Reference path

Measurement path

Good solution for the automatic measurement at


different frequencies
OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 85

Universal Transformer Test and


Diagnosis System
Power amplifier 15-400Hz
Outputs up to 2000A, 2kV AC / 400A DC
Measurement of
Ratio
Complex Impedance
Resistance
...

C-Tan
-Test System

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 86

Features and Advantages of


the Described Test system
One test system for complete transformer testing
Excellent noise suppression (50/60 Hz)
Variable frequency of output voltage 15400Hz
enables frequency sweeps
Most accurate instrument for field use (TD: 5*E-5 C: 0.05%)
Automatic test procedures with voltage and
frequency sweeps -> saves testing time !
Automatic reporting and easy export to Excel
--> saves time for post-processing !

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 87

Block
Diagram of CP TD1
Tan - measurement with CP DF12
Monday, 01. July 2002
High voltage output
(0..12kV)

CN
select channel

EUT (Cx)

primary

Ix_in
In A

B_1

sec.

ADC

B_PE

tertiary

In B
guard
safety
voltage-booster

calib
RS232 &
supply

CPC100
mains

DSP

serial-Interface

booster-Interface

B_2

CP TD1

Relay matrix for


7 different measuring
modes without rewiring:

UST-A, UST-B, UST A+B


FUNCTIONAL EARTH

GST,
GSTgA, GSTgB,
GSTgA+B

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 88

Screenshot UST-B Mode

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 89

C-Tan-Delta
Measurement on
Power
Transformers
Low Voltage
Bushing
400kV Bushing
Measuring Tap

Core

Tapped Winding
High Voltage Winding
Low Voltage Winding
OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 90

No se puede mostrar la imagen en este momento.

Transformer Winding Test

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 91

Test Procedure for a


3-Windings Transformer
No se puede mostrar la imagen en este momento.

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 92

Tan Delta (f) with treated (dry) oil


DF (f) H, HL, L
0.45 %
0.4 %
0.35 %
0.3 %

H(f)
HL(f)
L(f)

0.25 %
0.2 %
0.15 %
0.1 %
0.05 %

OMICRON

450.0 Hz

400.0 Hz

350.0 Hz

300.0 Hz

250.0 Hz

200.0 Hz

150.0 Hz

100.0 Hz

50.0 Hz

0.0 Hz

0.0 %

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 93

Tan Delta (f) with aged oil


DF (f) H, HL, L
0.6 %

0.5 %

0.4 %

H(f)
HL(f)
L(f)

0.3 %

0.2 %

0.1 %

OMICRON

450.0 Hz

400.0 Hz

350.0 Hz

300.0 Hz

250.0 Hz

200.0 Hz

150.0 Hz

100.0 Hz

50.0 Hz

0.0 Hz

0.0 %

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 94

Tan Delta (f) of a 110kV transformer with


high water content
DF (f) H, HL
1.8 %
1.6 %
1.4 %
1.2 %

H(f)
HL(f)

1.0 %
0.8 %
0.6 %
0.4 %
0.2 %

OMICRON

450.0 Hz

400.0 Hz

350.0 Hz

300.0 Hz

250.0 Hz

200.0 Hz

150.0 Hz

100.0 Hz

50.0 Hz

0.0 Hz

0.0 %

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 95

Tan Delta 11kV-0.4kV 800KVA (1966)


DF HV-LV (f)
2.5 %
2.0 %
1.5 %
1.0 %
0.5 %
0.0 %
0.0 Hz

50.0 Hz

100.0 Hz

150.0 Hz

200.0 Hz

OMICRON

250.0 Hz

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 96

Unexpected ferquency curves


8.0 %
220kV Gieharzdurchfhrungen

7.0 %
6.0 %

0.8 %
0.75 %

5.0 %

0.7 %

4.0 %

0.65 %

3.0 %

0.6 %
0.55 %

2.0 %

0.5 %

1.0 %

Phase A
Phase B
Phase C

0.45 %
0.4 %

100.0 Hz 200.0 Hz 300.0 Hz 400.0 Hz 500.0 Hz

0.0Hz 50.0Hz 100.0H 150.0H 200.0H 250.0H 300.0H 350.0H 400.0H 450.0H
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z

DF (f)
1.0 %

0.5 %

450.0 Hz

400.0 Hz

350.0 Hz

300.0 Hz

250.0 Hz

200.0 Hz

150.0 Hz

100.0 Hz

-0.5 %

50.0 Hz

0.0 %
0.0 Hz

0.0 %
0.0 Hz
-1.0 %

17.0 Hz
30.0 Hz
80.0 Hz
130.0 Hz
230.0 Hz
400.0 Hz

-1.0 %

-1.5 %

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 97

Phases Not Connected or Bad Contacts

Currents through
the windings
cause additional
inductive losses

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 98

Phases Connected

All phases of the


windings are on
the same potential

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 99

DF (f)
0.7 %
0.5 %
0.3 %

450.0 Hz

400.0 Hz

350.0 Hz

300.0 Hz

250.0 Hz

200.0 Hz

150.0 Hz

100.0 Hz

-0.3 %

50.0 Hz

Bad contact of
short circuit

-0.1 %

0.0 Hz

0.1 %

-0.5 %
-0.7 %
-0.9 %
-1.1 %
-1.3 %
-1.5 %

DF (f)
0.8 %
0.7 %
0.6 %

0.4 %
0.3 %
0.2 %
0.1 %

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

450.0 Hz

400.0 Hz

350.0 Hz

300.0 Hz

250.0 Hz

200.0 Hz

150.0 Hz

100.0 Hz

50.0 Hz

0.0 %
0.0 Hz

Good contacts
of short circuit

0.5 %

Page: 100

No se puede mostrar la imagen en este momento.

HV Bushings

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 101

Capacitive Bushings (1)


Emax= high

Emax=
smaller
A

without
capacitive
layers

with
capacitive
layers
Earthing Cap

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 102

Capacitive Bushings (2)

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 103

Bushing Measuring Tap

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 104

C-Tan Delta Progression of a Bushing


C Tan-Delta Progression of a 220 kV RBP (Hard Paper) Bushing
Year of Manufacturimg 1961, horizontal mounted, oil filled
Tan Delta

Change of Capacitance

30

20

-3

Tan Delta x 10
Change of Capacitance %

25

15

10

0
75

77

79

81

83

85

87

89

-5

Source: RWE

Date of Measurement

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 105

Bushing Fault

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 106

Bushing after Explosion

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 107

DF 145kV RIP (MICAFIL new)

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 108

220kV RIP Bushing stored outside

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 109

220kV RIP Bushing stored outside


0.85 %
0.75 %

Minimum

Tan Delta

0.65 %

31.03.2004
15.07.2004
08.10.2004

0.55 %
0.45 %

Minimum

0.35 %

Minimum
0.25 %
0.0 Hz

100.0 Hz

200.0 Hz

300.0 Hz

400.0 Hz

OMICRON

500.0 Hz

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 110

66kV Oil Circuit Breaker (USA)

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 111

DF (f) 69 kV OIP Bushings


Circuit Breaker Bushing C-PF Test
V TEST* [V]
10032.20
10031.81
10031.55
10031.20
10028.73
10030.49

C meas. PF meas.[%]
2.836E-10
0.457
2.815E-10
0.491
2.853E-10
0.493
2.837E-10
0.486
2.855E-10
0.504
2.853E-10
0.449

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 112

DF (f) 69 kV OIP Bushings 60Hz


0.6 %
0.5 %
1
2
3
4
5
6

0.4 %
0.3 %
0.2 %
0.1 %
0.0 %
*0.0 Hz

*100.0 Hz *200.0 Hz *300.0 Hz *400.0 Hz *500.0 Hz

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 113

DF (f) 69 kV OIP Bushings 17-400Hz

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 114

OIP bushings 420kV (1994)


Tan Delta

0.5

415

0.45

410

0.4

405
400

0.35

0.25

395

390

0.2

pF

0.3

+ 10%

385

380

0.15

375

0.1

370

0.05

365

360

100

200
Hz

300

400

100

200

300

400

Hz

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 115

Defectice 110 kV RPB Bushing


C

Tan Delta
340

1.5

335

1.3

330
1.1

325

2V
2W

0.9

2N
1N

0.7

pF

2U

2U

2V
2W

320

2N

315

1N

310
0.5

305
300

0.3
0

100

200

300

Hz

Tan Delta (f)

400

100

200

300

400

Hz

C (f)

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 116

Defectice 110 kV RPB Bushing


Tan Delta (U)
0.75
0.7
0.65
0.6
2V

0.55

2N
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0

10

15

kV

Tan Delta (V)


OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 117

Suspicious 400 kV OIP Bushings (1998)


Tan Delta (U)
0.5%
0.45%
0.4%
0.35%
0.3%

Spannungsverlufe unauffllig
U TanDelta
V TanDelta

0.25%

W TanDelta

0.2%
0.15%
0.1%
0.05%
0.0%
0.0V

2000.0V

4000.0V

6000.0V

8000.0V 10000.0V 12000.0V 14000.0V

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 118

Suspicious 400 kV OIP Bushings (1998)


Reason ?
Tan Delta (V)

0.49%

0.47%

Frequenzververlufe auffllig

0.45%
U TanDelta
V TanDelta

0.43%

W TanDelta

0.41%

0.39%

0.37%
0.0 Hz

50.0 Hz

100.0 Hz

150.0 Hz

200.0 Hz

250.0 Hz

300.0 Hz

350.0 Hz

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 119

Suspicious 123 kV RIP Bushing


Reason ?
0.8%
0.7%
Tan Delta

0.6%
0.5%

73

0.4%

80

0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0 Hz

100.0 Hz 200.0 Hz 300.0 Hz 400.0 Hz 500.0 Hz

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 120

Measurement with high interference

Durchfhrung

HS Anschluss

Erdungsgarnitur

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 121

Measurement with high interference

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 122

Thank you for your Attention !

OMICRON

04.12.200411/6/2014

Page: 123