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3.2.2.

Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT)


3.2.2.1. Seismic attribute based on CWT
While the Fourier transform decomposes a seismic signal from sinus or
cosines waves to a different frequency, the wavelet transform decomposes a
signal into dilated and translated wavelets.

The wavelet transforms is a

method to provide a flexible time-frequency window that automatically is


narrowed when observing high frequency phenomena and is widens when
observing low-frequency environment. The integral wavelet transforms or
wavelet transforms (WT) is decomposed signal by using dilated and
translated wavelet. A family wavelet in time frequency analysis is obtained
by scaling or dilated by s and translating by u the wavelet function (t). The
x(t )

wavelet transforms of

W x (u, s )

at time u and scale s is:

x(t )

u ,s

(t ) dt

(1)

and the inverse wavelet transforms is:

x (t )

with

1
C

W (u, s)
x

u,s

(t ) du

ds
s2

is called admissibility conditions (Nurcahya, et.al, 2003).

(2)

One of difference between complex trace attributes based on Hilbert


transform and WT is on the domain. The complex trace attributes based on
Hilbert transform is in time domain, but the complex trace attributes based
on wavelet transform is in time frequencies domain. The complex trace
based on WT or CWT with a typical mother wavelet is

Wx (u, s ) ReWx (u, s ) i ImWx (u , s )

where

Wx (u , s )

(3)

is the wavelet transform of a seismic signal. Variations of

seismic attributes based on CWT which can be generated by equation (3)


are:

decomposition

seismic

data

in

certainly

frequency

bandwidth,

instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous time-frequency derivative of


amplitude. CWT method also could be used to extract instantaneous
amplitude in low frequency bandwidth that shows the increasing of wave
energy because of the existing of diffusive wave in poro-elastic medium that
filled by fluid or hydrocarbon (Goloshubin, 2006).
3.2.2.2. Instantaneous amplitude
Mathematically, the

instantaneous

amplitude

based

on

formulated as:

A(t ) x 2 (t ) y 2 (t )

where

(4)

CWT

is

1
C

x(t )

Wx u, s u ,s t du

du

s 2

1
C

y (t )
and

Wx u, s u ,s t du

du

s 2

so the magnitude of the instantaneous amplitude is :

A(u , s) W x (u , s )

1/ 2

W x (u , s ) W x (u , s )

(5)

3.2.2.3. Time- frequency derivative of Instantaneous amplitude


(GAMP)
Time-frequency derivative of Instantaneous amplitude (GAMP) is
formulated as:

W x( ) (u , s ) W x (u, s )

(6)

with

i
j
u
s


1
Wx (u , s )
u
ss

x(t )

t u t u t u

s u s
s

dt


1
W x (u , s )
s
ss

x(t ) u

t u

dt
s

The attribute is primarily used to figure the value of seismic wave


attenuation. The attenuation of seismic wave is influenced by rock porosity
(either matrix or fracture) saturated by fluid. The high value of the attribute
shows the high porosity of the rock. Porous sandstone saturated by fluid will
showed by high value of GAMP attribute. Therefore, the attribute could be
used to estimate the distribution of sandstone, especially for sand-shale of
geological environment. Figure-2.1 shows the example of correlation
between section of Time-frequency derivative of Instantaneous amplitude
(GAMP) and petrophysics data. High GAMP almost relates with porous sand.
Figure-2.2 shows the example of sand distribution from a reservoir that is
delineated using time-frequency derivatives of instantaneous amplitude.

Figure-2.1.The example of correlation between section of time-frequency


derivative of Instantaneous amplitude (GAMP) and petrophysics
data

Figure-2.2. The example of sand distribution from a reservoir that is


delineated using time-frequency derivatives of instantaneous
amplitude
3.2.2.4. Low-frequency Analysis
Low frequency anomaly of seismic reflection that comes from reflection
of porous rock saturated by fluid has been describes using poro-elastic
theory, diffusive wave and result of well test (Goloshubin, 2004). Simply,
reflection coefficient of seismic wave that pass through porous rock
saturated by fluid is formulated as:

R R0 (1 i )

R1

(7)

where

is frequency of seismic wave,

permeability and

is rock density,

rock

is fluid viscosity. The reflectivity equation also could be

described as:

R R0
R1

R12 cos

R1

arctan

R R
1
0

i sin

R1

arctan

R R
1
0

The reflectivity value will be maximum if the value of

(8)

R1

approximate zero or, on the other word, frequency of seismic is very low.
Figure-2.3 shows seismic reflection response from laboratory test among
dry reservoir zones and saturated by water or oil (Korneev, 2004).

Figure-2.3. Seismic reflection response from laboratory test among dry


reservoir and saturated by water or oil (Kornev, 2004)

Figure-2.4. A seismic line (a) and low frequency (<15 Hz) (b) from Ai Pim
Western Siberia oil (Goloshubin, 2006)
Figure-2.4 shows a seismic line and low frequency (<15Hz) from Ai
Pim Western Siberia oil field was used to image two different types of oilsaturated reservoirs. Black dots show where there is oil; white dots show
where there is no oil. The AC11 is the pore sandstone reservoir (11-15m),
and the Ju0 is fractured shale reservoir (15-20m) well data indicate that the
upper reservoir (marked AC11, Goloshubin, 2006).

3.2.3. Extended Elastic Impedance (EEI)


3.2.3.1. EEI Theory
Whitcombe refined the definition of elastic impedance to remove the
dependence of dimensionally on the angle (normal incidence). Reconized
some of rock cannot be predicted from existing seismic gathering due to
limitation on incidence angle range (0-30) in the elastic impedance.
(Whitcombe, D.N., Connolly, P.A., Reagan, R.L., Redshaw, T.C, 2002). The
equation

sin 2

needs to exceed unity to estimate some petrophysical

;however,it is impossible that the reflectivity values exceed unity without


negative (and therefore unrealizable) impedance contrast (Hicks, G.J.,
Francis, A, 2006).
Therefore Whitcombe et.al (2002) introduced the extended elastic
impedance to solve the elastic impedance limitation. The extended angle
range from 0-30 degrees which is defined mathematically over a 0-90 angle
(0-0.25) range which corresponds to
tan

sin 2

by substituting

. The variable is now a new function called

sin 2 with

(chi angle or

project angle) which varies between -90 and +90 (Figure 1 and figure 2)

Figure 1. Extended elastic impedance angles can range from -90 and +90 , at
which values

sin is physically impossible (adopted from Humpson-

Russell help system)

Extended elastic impedance provides a framework to work with prestack AVO but in terms of impedance instead of reflectivity. For the EEI
analysis, EEI logs are generated for each well as a function angle and
correlated with the target petro-physical logs. For each petro-physical log,
cross correlation of EEI logs at different angle is computed and a plot is then
made for the correlation coefficient as a function of angle. EEI can be
defined as:
EEI = 0 0

[( ) ( ) ( ) ]

(9)

where
p=( cos + sin )
q=8 K sin
r=( cos 4 K sin )

0 ,

0 and

are the average for the respective property used as

normalization factors for P-velocity, S-velocity and density respectively. K is


the average of (/)2 in the time/depth interval. The EEI logs at different
angles correspond to different rock properties. (Whitcombe et.al, 2002)

Figure 2.

The EEI functions for various

values for particular well. Note the

inverse correlation between EEI (

=+90 ) and EEI (

=-90).

(Whitcombe et.al 2002)

The distinct difference between the extended elastic impedance and


normalized version of elastic impedance is the change variable. EEI is a
function of

(an angle in abstract construction) and EI is a function of

(an angel in a physical experiment). (Francis, A., Hicks, G.J,2006). This can
lead to EEI much more efficient than EI method and supposed to give
different outcomes than standard EI inversion method. It is important to
notice that new variable ( ) allows calculation of impedance value beyond

physically

observable

range

of

angle

(including

imaginary

angles

necessarily recorded in the gathers). A clear example of this situation


happens when shear impedance corresponds to

sin 2

= -1.25. It is

obvious, negative angle is not physically recordable but can be projected


from angle gathers by linear extrapolation (Hicks, G.J., Francis,A,2006).
To show that the EEI at

= 0 is similar to EI log at =0, which is

simply the acoustic impedance (AI). Whitcombe et al. (2002) provides a


simple robust application for deriving lithological and fluis sensitive seismic
impedance

volumes.

According

to

his

perspective

under

certain

approximation, the EEI log at various chi angles proportional to different


rock elastic parameters
The chi angle () can be selected to optimize the correlation of the EEI
curves with petrophysical reservoir parameter such as Vshale, Sw and
porosity or with an elastic parameters such as bulk module, shear module
and lame constant and so on (Whitcombe et al. 2002).
Therefore, EEI logs for specified angles from these parameters can be
produced by using EEI equation which is suited for tie well data directly to
seismic data (Figure 3). Directness of EEI method is the main advantages
which provide an EEI volume attributes that correspond to pethophysical
parameters of interest.
Two term linearization of Zoeppritz equation for reflectivity (Aki & Richards),
equation can define as:
() = + 2

(10)

Regarding to Whitcombe method when

sin

replaced by , so

equation 10 represented as equation 11 which allows angle to vary from


-90 and +90
() = + 2( ) = +

(11)

(A= intercept, B= Gradient)

Figure 3. Comparisons between elastic parameters and equivalent EEI curves for
particular well, representing the high degree of correlation. The EEI

function is defined as a function of the angle

, not the reflection

angle (Whitcombe et al.2002)

3.2.3.2. EEI Works


Before we doing inversion based on Extended Elastic Impedance, we
need to doing cross plot to determine the best well data can be using to
separate lithology on target area. On pictures below we can see some cross
plot between well data on Pancing-1X. Well Pancing-1X is being used
because it is the only well which drilled through Intra Lama interval.

Figure. 4. Cross plot P-Impedance Vs density with gamma ray as color key

From Figure. 4 above we can see that P-Impedance cannot be using


to separate between shale and sand. So we need to find another solution to
separate lithology on target area. As we can see on Figure 5 and Figure 6
below, Mu-Rho property and Vp/Vs property is better than P-Impedance in
case to separate lithology on target area.

On cross plot figures, yellow color is sand area, green color is shale
area, and black area is coal area. On Figure 5 cut off value for Vp/Vs ratio
for sand area is between 1.30 - 1.60. From Figure 6, cut off value for sand
area based on Mu-Rho is above 30 Gpa * g/cc but shaly sand also have
same value. Another cross plot result can be seen on Appendix A.

Figure. 5. Cross plot Vp/Vs ratio Vs P-Impedance with gamma ray as color key

Figure. 6. Cross plot Mu-Rho Vs Lambda-Rho with gamma ray as color key

The implementation of Extended Elastic Impedance is to find the best


chi angle ( ) for every well data. EEI log curve can be obtained by using
HRS EEI Modelling Trace Maths Script by Kevin Gerlitz (2004). That script
based on Whitcombe et al (2002) and using P-Wave log, S-Wave log, and
Density log to calculate EEI Log.
The next step is doing cross correlation between EEI log and every well
data such as P-Impedance, S-Impedance, Vp/Vs, Mu-Rho, Lamda-Rho and
etc. Cross correlation is done by using HRS Cross-Correlate Reflectivity Trace
Maths Script by Kevin Gerlitz (2004). Results of cross corelation can be seen
on figures below.

Figure. 7. Cross correlation between Vp/Vs ratio and EEI angle (chi)

From Figure 7, Vp/Vs ratio have good correlation with EEI log on 62
degree chi angle. Correlation value from Vp/Vs ratio on 62 degree chi angle
is 0.93 of 1.00. On Figure 8, Mu-Rho have best correlation value with EEI
log on -45 degree chi angle. On the other hand, P-Impedance also have

good correlation with EEI log (Figure 9), but from cross plot P-Impedance
cannot be used to separate lithology on target area.

Figure. 8. Cross correlation between Mu-Rho and EEI angle (chi)

Figure. 9. Cross correlation between P-Impedance ratio and EEI angle (chi)

After we get all best chi angle for all well parameter, we calculate the
associated elastic parameter reflectivity seismic volumes using :
A + B tan( pi/180)

With A and B is intercept and gradient volumes based on AVO volumes.


Model based inversion process is being done by these reflectivity volumes.
The inversion process is being done from Intra Lama 1 interval until Intra
Lama 2 interval. Inversion results can be seen on Chapter 4.1.4.2.