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3.2.2.1. Seismic attribute based on CWT

While the Fourier transform decomposes a seismic signal from sinus or

cosines waves to a different frequency, the wavelet transform decomposes a

signal into dilated and translated wavelets.

narrowed when observing high frequency phenomena and is widens when

observing low-frequency environment. The integral wavelet transforms or

wavelet transforms (WT) is decomposed signal by using dilated and

translated wavelet. A family wavelet in time frequency analysis is obtained

by scaling or dilated by s and translating by u the wavelet function (t). The

x(t )

wavelet transforms of

W x (u, s )

x(t )

u ,s

(t ) dt

(1)

x (t )

with

1

C

W (u, s)

x

u,s

(t ) du

ds

s2

(2)

transform and WT is on the domain. The complex trace attributes based on

Hilbert transform is in time domain, but the complex trace attributes based

on wavelet transform is in time frequencies domain. The complex trace

based on WT or CWT with a typical mother wavelet is

where

Wx (u , s )

(3)

are:

decomposition

seismic

data

in

certainly

frequency

bandwidth,

amplitude. CWT method also could be used to extract instantaneous

amplitude in low frequency bandwidth that shows the increasing of wave

energy because of the existing of diffusive wave in poro-elastic medium that

filled by fluid or hydrocarbon (Goloshubin, 2006).

3.2.2.2. Instantaneous amplitude

Mathematically, the

instantaneous

amplitude

based

on

formulated as:

A(t ) x 2 (t ) y 2 (t )

where

(4)

CWT

is

1

C

x(t )

Wx u, s u ,s t du

du

s 2

1

C

y (t )

and

Wx u, s u ,s t du

du

s 2

A(u , s) W x (u , s )

1/ 2

W x (u , s ) W x (u , s )

(5)

(GAMP)

Time-frequency derivative of Instantaneous amplitude (GAMP) is

formulated as:

W x( ) (u , s ) W x (u, s )

(6)

with

i

j

u

s

1

Wx (u , s )

u

ss

x(t )

t u t u t u

s u s

s

dt

1

W x (u , s )

s

ss

x(t ) u

t u

dt

s

attenuation. The attenuation of seismic wave is influenced by rock porosity

(either matrix or fracture) saturated by fluid. The high value of the attribute

shows the high porosity of the rock. Porous sandstone saturated by fluid will

showed by high value of GAMP attribute. Therefore, the attribute could be

used to estimate the distribution of sandstone, especially for sand-shale of

geological environment. Figure-2.1 shows the example of correlation

between section of Time-frequency derivative of Instantaneous amplitude

(GAMP) and petrophysics data. High GAMP almost relates with porous sand.

Figure-2.2 shows the example of sand distribution from a reservoir that is

delineated using time-frequency derivatives of instantaneous amplitude.

derivative of Instantaneous amplitude (GAMP) and petrophysics

data

delineated using time-frequency derivatives of instantaneous

amplitude

3.2.2.4. Low-frequency Analysis

Low frequency anomaly of seismic reflection that comes from reflection

of porous rock saturated by fluid has been describes using poro-elastic

theory, diffusive wave and result of well test (Goloshubin, 2004). Simply,

reflection coefficient of seismic wave that pass through porous rock

saturated by fluid is formulated as:

R R0 (1 i )

R1

(7)

where

permeability and

is rock density,

rock

described as:

R R0

R1

R12 cos

R1

arctan

R R

1

0

i sin

R1

arctan

R R

1

0

(8)

R1

approximate zero or, on the other word, frequency of seismic is very low.

Figure-2.3 shows seismic reflection response from laboratory test among

dry reservoir zones and saturated by water or oil (Korneev, 2004).

reservoir and saturated by water or oil (Kornev, 2004)

Figure-2.4. A seismic line (a) and low frequency (<15 Hz) (b) from Ai Pim

Western Siberia oil (Goloshubin, 2006)

Figure-2.4 shows a seismic line and low frequency (<15Hz) from Ai

Pim Western Siberia oil field was used to image two different types of oilsaturated reservoirs. Black dots show where there is oil; white dots show

where there is no oil. The AC11 is the pore sandstone reservoir (11-15m),

and the Ju0 is fractured shale reservoir (15-20m) well data indicate that the

upper reservoir (marked AC11, Goloshubin, 2006).

3.2.3.1. EEI Theory

Whitcombe refined the definition of elastic impedance to remove the

dependence of dimensionally on the angle (normal incidence). Reconized

some of rock cannot be predicted from existing seismic gathering due to

limitation on incidence angle range (0-30) in the elastic impedance.

(Whitcombe, D.N., Connolly, P.A., Reagan, R.L., Redshaw, T.C, 2002). The

equation

sin 2

negative (and therefore unrealizable) impedance contrast (Hicks, G.J.,

Francis, A, 2006).

Therefore Whitcombe et.al (2002) introduced the extended elastic

impedance to solve the elastic impedance limitation. The extended angle

range from 0-30 degrees which is defined mathematically over a 0-90 angle

(0-0.25) range which corresponds to

tan

sin 2

by substituting

sin 2 with

(chi angle or

project angle) which varies between -90 and +90 (Figure 1 and figure 2)

Figure 1. Extended elastic impedance angles can range from -90 and +90 , at

which values

Extended elastic impedance provides a framework to work with prestack AVO but in terms of impedance instead of reflectivity. For the EEI

analysis, EEI logs are generated for each well as a function angle and

correlated with the target petro-physical logs. For each petro-physical log,

cross correlation of EEI logs at different angle is computed and a plot is then

made for the correlation coefficient as a function of angle. EEI can be

defined as:

EEI = 0 0

[( ) ( ) ( ) ]

(9)

where

p=( cos + sin )

q=8 K sin

r=( cos 4 K sin )

0 ,

0 and

the average of (/)2 in the time/depth interval. The EEI logs at different

angles correspond to different rock properties. (Whitcombe et.al, 2002)

Figure 2.

=-90).

normalized version of elastic impedance is the change variable. EEI is a

function of

(an angel in a physical experiment). (Francis, A., Hicks, G.J,2006). This can

lead to EEI much more efficient than EI method and supposed to give

different outcomes than standard EI inversion method. It is important to

notice that new variable ( ) allows calculation of impedance value beyond

physically

observable

range

of

angle

(including

imaginary

angles

happens when shear impedance corresponds to

sin 2

= -1.25. It is

from angle gathers by linear extrapolation (Hicks, G.J., Francis,A,2006).

To show that the EEI at

simple robust application for deriving lithological and fluis sensitive seismic

impedance

volumes.

According

to

his

perspective

under

certain

rock elastic parameters

The chi angle () can be selected to optimize the correlation of the EEI

curves with petrophysical reservoir parameter such as Vshale, Sw and

porosity or with an elastic parameters such as bulk module, shear module

and lame constant and so on (Whitcombe et al. 2002).

Therefore, EEI logs for specified angles from these parameters can be

produced by using EEI equation which is suited for tie well data directly to

seismic data (Figure 3). Directness of EEI method is the main advantages

which provide an EEI volume attributes that correspond to pethophysical

parameters of interest.

Two term linearization of Zoeppritz equation for reflectivity (Aki & Richards),

equation can define as:

() = + 2

(10)

sin

replaced by , so

-90 and +90

() = + 2( ) = +

(11)

Figure 3. Comparisons between elastic parameters and equivalent EEI curves for

particular well, representing the high degree of correlation. The EEI

Before we doing inversion based on Extended Elastic Impedance, we

need to doing cross plot to determine the best well data can be using to

separate lithology on target area. On pictures below we can see some cross

plot between well data on Pancing-1X. Well Pancing-1X is being used

because it is the only well which drilled through Intra Lama interval.

Figure. 4. Cross plot P-Impedance Vs density with gamma ray as color key

to separate between shale and sand. So we need to find another solution to

separate lithology on target area. As we can see on Figure 5 and Figure 6

below, Mu-Rho property and Vp/Vs property is better than P-Impedance in

case to separate lithology on target area.

On cross plot figures, yellow color is sand area, green color is shale

area, and black area is coal area. On Figure 5 cut off value for Vp/Vs ratio

for sand area is between 1.30 - 1.60. From Figure 6, cut off value for sand

area based on Mu-Rho is above 30 Gpa * g/cc but shaly sand also have

same value. Another cross plot result can be seen on Appendix A.

Figure. 5. Cross plot Vp/Vs ratio Vs P-Impedance with gamma ray as color key

Figure. 6. Cross plot Mu-Rho Vs Lambda-Rho with gamma ray as color key

chi angle ( ) for every well data. EEI log curve can be obtained by using

HRS EEI Modelling Trace Maths Script by Kevin Gerlitz (2004). That script

based on Whitcombe et al (2002) and using P-Wave log, S-Wave log, and

Density log to calculate EEI Log.

The next step is doing cross correlation between EEI log and every well

data such as P-Impedance, S-Impedance, Vp/Vs, Mu-Rho, Lamda-Rho and

etc. Cross correlation is done by using HRS Cross-Correlate Reflectivity Trace

Maths Script by Kevin Gerlitz (2004). Results of cross corelation can be seen

on figures below.

Figure. 7. Cross correlation between Vp/Vs ratio and EEI angle (chi)

From Figure 7, Vp/Vs ratio have good correlation with EEI log on 62

degree chi angle. Correlation value from Vp/Vs ratio on 62 degree chi angle

is 0.93 of 1.00. On Figure 8, Mu-Rho have best correlation value with EEI

log on -45 degree chi angle. On the other hand, P-Impedance also have

good correlation with EEI log (Figure 9), but from cross plot P-Impedance

cannot be used to separate lithology on target area.

Figure. 9. Cross correlation between P-Impedance ratio and EEI angle (chi)

After we get all best chi angle for all well parameter, we calculate the

associated elastic parameter reflectivity seismic volumes using :

A + B tan( pi/180)

Model based inversion process is being done by these reflectivity volumes.

The inversion process is being done from Intra Lama 1 interval until Intra

Lama 2 interval. Inversion results can be seen on Chapter 4.1.4.2.

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