# Lecture 5: Digital Modulation

Techniques

Modulation
• Modulation is the process of encoding information from a
message source in a manner suitable for transmission.
• „The ultimate goal of a modulation technique is to transport the
message signal through a radio channel with the best possible
quality while occupying the least amount of radio spectrum.

Modulation
• Modulation may be done by varying the amplitude, phase, or
frequency of a high frequency carrier in accordance with the
amplitude of the message signal.

• As such, there are 3 main types of digital modulation schemes
– Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
– Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
Other modulation schemes can be derived from the 3 main schemes

IQ signal representation • In digital communications. 2 2 S= I+Q I j = tan Q -1 . On a polar diagram. modulation is often expressed in terms of I and Q. the I axis lies on the zero degree phase reference. and the Q axis is rotated by 90 degrees. • The signal vector’s projection Magnitude of Signal: onto the I axis is its “I” component and the projection Phase of Signal: onto the Q axis is its “Q” component. • This is a rectangular representation of the polar diagram.

 This simplifies the design of digital radios . • The main advantage of I/Q modulation is the symmetric ease of combining independent signal components into a single composite signal and later splitting such a composite signal into its independent component parts.I and Q components in a digital transmitter • The Q component is passed through a phase shifter to make the signal components orthogonal/in-quadrature to each other hence avoid interference.

I and Q components in a digital transmitter • At the receiver. and a quadrature. • These two signal components are independent and orthogonal. The composite input signal (in terms of magnitude and phase) is broken into an in-phase. component. . I. Q.

• Pulse shaping can be employed to remove spectral spreading . as it is heavily affected by noise and interference. OOK. Baseband information sequence 0010110010 ASK(t) = s(t) sin(2p f t) • ASK demonstrates poor performance. we change the amplitude keeping frequency constant. On-Off Keying. Bit 1 is transmitted by a signal of one particular amplitude and to transmit bit 0.Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Amplitude is changed in response to information. which is a special form of ASK). (ex.

• FSK can be expanded to a M-ary scheme.Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) In FSK we change the frequency in response to information. A frequency spacing of 0.5 times the symbol period is typically used. . One particular f1 for a bit 1 and another f0 for a bit 0. employing multiple frequencies as different states • The bandwidth occupancy in FSK is dependent on the spacing of the two symbols.

employing multiple phases and amplitudes as different states. To transmit 0. we change the phase of the sinusoidal carrier. we shift the phase of the sinusoidal by 180 degrees. PSK(t) = { sin (2p f t) for bit 1 sin (2p f t+p) for bit 0  Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) demonstrates better performance than ASK and FSK. .  Filtering can be employed to avoid spectral spreading. PSK can be expanded to a M-ary scheme.Phase Shift Keying (PSK) In PSK.

Q • • Symbol S1 S2 I On the I Q diagram.the I state has two different values. There are two possible locations in the state diagram. so a binary 0 or 1 can be sent.Transmitted energy per bit which is given by Es=1/2 * Ac^2*T. Ac is the signal amplitude .Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) The phase of a constant amplitude carrier signal moves between 0 and 180 degrees. (symbol rate = 1bit/symbol) Bit 0 1 Expression (2Es/T ) cosωt (2Es/T)cos(ωt+π Carrier I 1 -1 Q 0 0 ) Es.

The Q channel for BPSK is 0 so ignore it.BPSK Modulator Assume the random bit stream 0110110. The modulator assigns a certain symbol to the I channel depending on the bit to be sent. Next are shown the first few symbols from this bit stream. 11 Bit Symbol I Q 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 S1 S2 S2 S1 S2 S2 S1 -1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .

In order to create the correct modulated signal the carrier is multiplied with the I channel amplitude values. The frequency ω of the cosine wave is called carrier frequency. This results in a packet of analog signals called the symbol. 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 -1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 x cos(ωt) = s1 s2 s2 s1 s2 s2 s1 The first column contains the bits. These are then multiplied by a cosine wave which is held for symbol time T. 12 . These are mapped to amplitudes of the I channels by the BPSK mapping rules.BPSK Modulator Cont’d Now a carrier of frequency fc is used to create the packet of signal.

Iridium and DVB-S (digital video broadcasting-satellite)  Quadrature means that the signal shifts between phase states which are separated by 90 degrees.  Quadrature Phase Shift Keying is effectively two independent BPSK systems (I and Q).Quadrature PSK (QPSK)  Quadrature PSK (QPSK) is used extensively in applications including CDMA cellular networks. and therefore exhibits the same performance but twice the bandwidth efficiency .

Mapping rules for QPSK Symbol Bits S1 00 2Es cos(ωt+π/4) Τ 01 2Es sin(ωt+3π/4) Τ 11 2Es cos(ωt+3π/4) Τ S2 S3 S4 14 10 Expression 2Es sin(ωt+π/4) Τ Phase (deg.) Carrier signal I Q 45 1 2 1 2 135 1 2 1 2 225 1 2 1 2 315 1 2 1 2 .

• QPSK can encode two bits per symbol hence may be used either to „double the data rate compared to a BPSK system while maintaining the bandwidth of the signal or to maintain the data-rate of BPSK but halve the bandwidth needed.Constellation diagram of QPSK • In the constellation diagram. . each adjacent symbol only differs by one bit.

even though there are still just two I/Q values. This creates a different constellation. • In QPSK. the I and Q bit streams are offset in their relative alignment by one bit period (one half of a symbol period) as shown in the diagram. • However. in OQPSK. at any given time only one of the two bit streams can change values. the I and Q bit streams are switched at the same time. • Since the transitions of I and Q are offset.Offset QPSK (OQPSK) • This is used in the cellular CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) system for the reverse (mobile to base) link. or the I and Q digital signal clocks. are synchronized. This has power efficiency advantages. The symbol clocks. .

versus 30 to 40 dB for QPSK) allow a more power-efficient.Offset QPSK (OQPSK) The spectral efficiency is the same with two I states and two Q states. The reduced amplitude variations (perhaps 3 dB for OQPSK. . less linear RF power amplifier to be used.

which may be a design issue in devices targeted for low power applications. using OQPSK increases the temporal efficiency of normal QPSK. This is due to the reason that the in phase and quadrature phase components of the OQPSK cannot be simultaneously zero.Disadvantages of Offset QPSK (OQPSK) • OQPSK introduces a delay of half a symbol into the demodulation process. Hence. In other words. the range of the fluctuations in the signal is smaller. • An additional disadvantage is that the quiescient power is nonzero. .

which may potentially create signals that have sidebands extending out of the carrier bandwidth.Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) • Minimum shift keying (MSK) is a special type of continuous phasefrequency shift keying (CPFSK) with a modulation index. h=0.5. . • This may create problems for many radio communications systems.e. • Binary data may consist of sharp transitions between “1" and “0" states and vice-versa. which corresponds to the minimum frequency spacing that allows two FSK signals to be coherently orthogonal. bandwidth) that allows orthogonal detection. minimum shift keying implies the minimum frequency separation (i. • As such. as any sidebands extending outwards from the main carrier bandwidth cause interference to the adjacent channels.

This can be expressed in terms of the modulation index.5.Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) • MSK modulation ensures that the modulating data signal changes the frequency of the signal with no phase discontinuities. • This arises as a result of the unique factor of MSK that the frequency difference between the logical one and logical zero states is always equal to half (0. and it is always equal to 0.5) the data rate. .

and if we choose frequencies such that in each time interval TB. . • Assuming that f0>f1>0.Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) • In a traditional FSK modulation system with frequency f0 and f1 and used to transmit message m=0 and m=1 over period Tb second. then. The respective message symbols are given by. there is an integer number of periods Tb. Where k0 and k1 are integers.

Tb to ensure signal continuity.Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) • In MSK. Discontinuous signal Fig 2. Fig 1. Continuous phase signal . Discontinuous phase signal Fig 3. f0 and f1 are chosen such that there is an integer number of periods.

The underlined portion of the mathematical expression for MSK is the half-sinusoid pulse shape. change the pulse shape to a half-cycle sinusoid. 23 .Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) MSK can be derived from OQPSK by making one further change – OQPSK I and Q channels use square root-raised cosine pulses. For MSK. MSK pulse and carrier for a 1 bit MSK pulse and carrier for a 0 bit The carrier signal expression for MSK is: Red curve = Carrier signal Blue curve = MSK pulse shape Black curve = multiplication of the pulse shape and the carrier giving the modulated carrier.

Therefore. The filter limits the instantaneous frequency variations of the MSK signal resulting to a signal with much narrower bandwidth. A pre-modulation filter is used to reduce the bandwidth of a baseband pulse train prior to modulation.Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) • GMSK is a modification of MSK scheme. in GMSK applications. • However. pre-filtering may cause intersymbol interference (ISI) of the signal pulses due to smearing effect. there is always a trade-off between power efficiency and bandwidth efficiency. .

However. . This method is very simple to implement.Generation of GMSK modulation Method 1 Involves the use of a Gaussian low-pass filter to filter the modulating signal before being passed through a frequency modulator with modulation index set at 0.5.5. it is very difficult to accurately maintain modulation index of the FM at 0.

This makes this method more preferred .5 without the need for adjustments. The modulation index can be accurately maintained at 0.Generation of GMSK modulation Method 2 Involves the use of a quadrature modulator that use a 90 degrees phase-shifter to ensure that the I-Q signal components are orthogonal.

• GSM • Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT) • Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) • Digital Communications System (DCS1800) in Europe • GSM-based Personal Communications System (PCS1900) in the US .Advantages of GMSK modulation • Higher spectral efficiency • Allows the use of non-linear amplifiers without causing any form of signal distortion – No amplitude variations on the signal • A GMSK signal is immune to noise interference as a result of amplitude variations Applications of GMSK Mobile communication systems such as.

Tb • The objective is to improve system data rate without increasing bandwidth by increasing the number of bits per symbol. . However. As such. The signal constellation diagram is as follows. the number of possible modulating symbols is M=2m and the symbol period (duration) is T= m.Multi-level (M-ary) modulation schemes • A M-ary symbol can be realized by grouping ‘m’ consecutive binary bits together. they are more prone to noise effects 8-PSK For 8PSK. m=3 and there are 8 possible phase shifts (at intervals of45 degrees) which allow 3 bits to be transmitted per each symbol.

8-PSK .

16-PSK • 16 PSK transmits 4 bits per symbol .

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) • In order to increase the distance between points in the signal constellation. . and high-speed fixed broadband wireless. another option is to modulate both the amplitude and the phase. 8 QAM • QAM signals can be extended to much higher bit rates . This is called Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). • 64-QAM and 256-QAM are common in cable modems. satellites.

paging. cable (return path). telemetry pilots for monitoring broadband video systems 16 QAM Microwave digital radio. NADC. π/4 DQPSK Satellite. CDPD BPSK Deep space telemetry.Applications of digital modulation schemes Modulation scheme Application MSK. LMDS. PDC. GMSK GSM. AMPS. MMDS 32 QAM Terrestrial microwave. DVB-C Europe . DVB-T 64 QAM DVB-C. TETRA. land mobile. RAM mobile data. aircraft. TFTS 0QPSK CDMA. GFSK DECT. satellite FSK. PHS. cable modems. DVB-S. modems 256 QAM Modems. cable modems QPSK. public safety 8PSK Satellite. CDMA. ERMES.

Spectral Efficiency • Refers to a measure of how fast data can be transmitted over a given bandwidth. • It is measured in bits per second per hertz (bps/Hz). Typical Spectral Efficiency values .

• The larger the amount noise present (lower S/N ratio). QPSK) have a higher immunity to noise that the more complex constellations. . • Generally. the basic modulation schemes (BPSK.Bit Error Rate (BER) • Refers to the ratio of the number of bit errors to the number of bits transmitted • The channel signal-to-noise (S/N) also affects the spectral efficiency of the system. the greater the number of bit errors.

fb/W = log2(1 + Ebfb/ƞW) ………………Shannon-Hartley Capacity Theorem where fb = Capacity (bits per second) W = bandwidth of the modulating baseband signal (Hz) Eb = energy per bit ƞ = noise power density (watts/Hz) thus Ebfb = total signal power ƞW = total noise power fb /W = bandwidth efficiency (bits per second per Hz) .Shannon Hartley Capacity Theorem For error free communication. the capacity of a system which uses an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel can be expressed as follows.