Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia

© 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
ISSN 1806-9290
www.sbz.org.br

R. Bras. Zootec., v.39, n.2, p.335-343, 2010

Performance of eventing horses fed high fat diet1
Fernanda Nascimento de Godoi2, Fernando Queiroz de Almeida3, Eduardo Xavier Ferreira
Migon4, Hélio Fernando Moura de Almeida4, Ana Beatriz Fonseca Monteiro5, Tiago Marques
dos Santos6
1

Pesquisa financiada pelo CNPq/FAPERJ/EsEqEx.
Programa de Pós-graduação em Zootecnia - UFRRJ. Bolsista da CAPES.
3 Instituto de Veterinária - UFRRJ. Bolsista Pesquisador CNPq.
4 Escola de Equitação do Exército – EsEqEx. Especialista em Equitação.
5 Departamento de Estatística, UFF. Bolsista Pesquisador CNPq.
6 Instituto de Veterinária - UFRRJ. Bolsista da CAPES.
2

ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to the evaluate physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters
of eventing horses fed diets containing soybean oil and submitted to physical effort tests. Twelve horses were used in a
completely randomized design with two diets and six replications. The diets used were: diet without soybean oil inclusion
(control) and diet with inclusion of 10% soybean oil. The experiment lasted 82 days, with three exercise tests: at the beginning,
60 th and 82 th day of the experiment. There were five data collections for each test: before the test with the horses at rest,
immediately after the test, and at 10, 20 and 120 minutes after each test. Body temperature and rate heart were taken and
blood samples were collected to evaluate hematological and biochemical variables. The mean values of the physiological,
metalogical and biochemical parameters were submitted to non-parametric analysis. The inclusion of soybean oil only altered
the γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and creatinine concentration in function time of intake of the diet. There was effect of
trainings time on the horses conditioning that improved with reduction in the lactate concentration while the glucose
concentration increased at the last exercise test.
Key Words: horses, nutrition, riding, training

Desempenho de equinos de concurso completo de equitação alimentados
com dieta contendo óleo de soja
RESUMO - Objetivou-se avaliar os parâmetros fisiológicos, hematológicos e bioquímicos de equinos de concurso completo
de equitação consumindo dieta contendo óleo de soja e submetidos a testes de esforço físico. Foram utilizados 12 equinos em
delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com duas dietas e seis repetições. As dietas utilizadas foram: dieta sem
inclusão de óleo de soja (controle); dieta com inclusão de 10% de óleo de soja. O ensaio teve duração de 82 dias e incluiu três
testes de esforço físico: ao início, no 60o e no 82o dia. Em cada teste, foram realizadas cinco coletas de dados: antes do teste
com os animais em repouso; imediatamente após o teste; e 10, 20 e 120 minutos após os testes. Foram avaliadas a temperatura
corporal e a frequência cardíaca e realizadas coletas de amostras de sangue para análises hematológicas e bioquímicas. Os valores
médios dos parâmetros fisiológicos, hematológicos e bioquímicos foram submetidos à análise não-paramétrica. Somente ao
longo do tempo de consumo das dietas, a inclusão do óleo de soja somente alterou a concentração de γ-glutamil transferase
(GGT) e creatinina. O tempo de treinamento físico tem efeito no condicionamento dos equinos, que melhora com a redução
da concentração de lactato, e na concentração de glicose, que aumentou no teste de esforço físico.
Palavras-chave: cavalos, equitação, nutrição, treinamento

Introduction
Eventing is an Olympic equestrian sport with three
tests: dressage, cross country and show jumping that takes
place over three days, with the same rider-horse (FEI, 2007).
The horses need a high energy concentrate in the diets
(Andrews et al., 1995) and these requirements depend on
Received October 23, 2008 and accepted May 18, 2009.
Corresponding author: falmeida@ufrrj.br

the intensity and length of the exercise. Many factors
influence the exercise intensity, including the speed and
the type of track, whether grass or sand. There are other
related factors that influence the energy requirements of
eventing horses, which include the quantity and height of
the obstacles, gait and the rider and equipment weight
(Evans, 2000).

in g/kg bodyweight. at the beginning. varying according to individual diet intake. were similar between the two diets. exercise and the animal´s weight (NRC.4 89. covering physical and technical conditioning to participate in events Table 1 .8 10. on dry matter basis Ingredient Soybean oil inclusion (%) 0 10 Concentrate (%) Soybean meal (%) Soybean oil (%) Coast-cross hay (%) Salt (%) Mineral mix 1 (%) Total 65. diet with the inclusion of 10% soybean oil consisting of commercial concentrate. soybean oil.7 1.5 to 5. soybean meal.8 11. with the three exercise tests.5 20.7 0.1 9. soybean meal. A (UI) – 40 mg. the 60th and the 82th day. Fe – 4.6 0.8 33. mineral mix.Ingredients and nutritional compositions of the diets.60 478. Soybean meal was added to the diets to balance the protein contents (Table 1).335-343. I – 180 mg.3 47.8 and 15. S – 12 g. E (UI) – 400 mg. lisina – 10 g. salt and coast-cross hay.2 100 44. mineral mix.5 16.06 2.0 0. v. Material and Methods The experiment was carried out at the Escola de Equitação do Exército with 12 half-breed horses.000 mg. with 5.98 1.89 1. so that at the second exercise test all the horses were adapted to the hyperlipidemic diet. adding oils to diets increases horse performance in function of: 1) better energy/weight relation. and 31.0 and 18.7 13. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological. 4) better performance in short distance races.24 2.6 100 Nutritional composition Dry matter (%) Organic matter (%) Crude protein (%) Ether extract (%) Neutral detergent fiber (%) Acid detergent fiber (%) Cellulose (%) 88.8 1 Ca – 180 g. 1983). F – 700 mg /kg.98 6. that reduces dry matter intake and gastrointestinal tract weight. keep the 67:33 concentrate:roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Zn – 3.39. associated to digestion and exercise.64 3. and 5) reduced [H+] levels during high intensity exercise. the maximum and minimal temperatures were 26.2.6 11. 50.0 (Henneke et al.000 mg.6 13.2 oC. body temperature and blood lactate concentration.34 kg in horses fed the diet with soybean oil compared to the control diet. 2) lower metabolic heat produced.4 years old. Zootec. due to energy increase from glycolysis. and according to the NRC (2007). The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments (diets) and 6 replications (horses). The diets were formulated according mature horses’ nutritional requirements. haematological and biochemical variables of eventing horses fed diets with soybean oil and submitted to exercise tests. the horses were trained for eventing.3 ± 1.0 9. Haematological variables are used in clinical-pathological evaluation of horses at training and racing.7 55. with increasing percentages of 30.5 oC respectively. The soybean oil was included in the diet gradually for the horses’ digestive tract to adapt. The latter correlates best with horse performance. The concentrate was gradually reduced in the diet as soybean oil was included according to diet energy increase. Four steps were used to include the soybean oil in the diet. Na – 115 g.8 4.9 and 13.43 0. 24.73 45. vit. Mg – 10 g. Pers) (control).0 0. Including oils and fat in athletic horses diets tends to meet the high requirements. an average of 1100 mL.0 oC. that are practical and cheap (Hodgson & Rose.5 hour of intense activity. Cu – 2.75 45. The soybean oil inclusion increased ether extract to 1. 2010 . Dry matter intake was reduced 1. Each step took seven days. p.8 0. Ma – 1. Daily training was 1.Horse weights and daily nutrient intake in the experimental diets Item Soybean oil inclusion (%) Body weight (kg) Dry matter (kg) Dry matter (% LW1 ) Crude protein (kg) Crude protein (g/kg LW) Gross energy (Mcal) Ether extract (kg) Ether extract (g/kg LW) Neutral detergent fiber (kg) Acid detergent fiber (kg) Hemicellulose (kg) 1 0 10 445.500 mg.56 2. The experimental diets were: diet without soybean oil. and consisting of commercial concentrate (RH Rodeio Socil). 70 and 100% from the estimated total daily oil intake.6 0.0 33. 1994). Bras. During the study.26 2.35 2.336 Godoi et al.21 2.4 0. vit.8 14. 1989).1 87. n. and the energy and protein intakes. Se – 12 mg.59 g/kg body weight (Table 2). Table 2 . 3) higher exercise endurance due to lower muscular glycogen use. Co – 40 mg.. according to the Brazilian Institute of Meteorology. during 28 days.57 5. P – 70 g.000 mg. R.. At these times.6 23. 456 ± 34 kg and body condition score varying from 4. The experiment lasted 82 days. Lindner (2000) stated that the most used variables to evaluate a horse’s conditioning are: heart rate.2 89.23 2.64 Live weight.42 1. salt and coast-cross hay (Cynodon dactilon L.

the horses were fed concentrate five hours prior to the beginning of tests (Almeida et al. three groups were set up with four rider-horse sets.21a 6. 1984). and consequently.1 (UFV.32a 2. This showed the higher digestible energy availability of soybean oil.80 1. Exercise training aimed to increase cardio respiratory performance by interval training which is made up of steps with different types of walk and rest intervals (Evans. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were obtained by relating the variables described (Smith. cholesterol and urea nitrogen serum concentrations were evaluated from the horses at rest.8 kg/day.05) by Fisher test. γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT).70b 3.23b 1. n.335-343. 337 hematologic and biochemical were submitted to non parametric analysis and compared by the Mann-Whitney. maintaining body condition score adjusted to the equestrian competition.5% soybean oil. Hematologic variables.Daily intake of digestible nutrients of horses fed experimental diets Nutrient Digestible Digestible Digestible Digestible Digestible Digestible Digestible Digestible Digestible Soybean oil inclusion (%) dry matter (kg) protein (kg) protein (g/kg LW) energy (Mcal) energy (kcal/LW) ether extract (kg) ether extract (g/kg PV) neutral detergent fiber (kg) hemicellulose (kg) 0 10 CV (%) P 7. Digestible nutrient intake values were submitted to analysis of variance and compared by the Fisher test (P<0. creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were collected in tubes without anticoagulant. 1993). with horses fed diets with the addition of 20% corn oil. To verify training intensity and the horses’ exercise capacity. the horses fed a hyperlipidemic diet were healthy and there were no cases of diarrhea or colic. On test day. Blood samples for hematologic analysis were collected in tubes with EDTA and maintained at 4 ºC. version 12. and the remaining time at show jumping. p.18a 33.000 0.26a 2. an exercise test was structured and carried out on a 925 m oval. Bras.Performance of eventing horses fed high fat diet at the national level.00a 0. urea. immediately after the test. During the test.84b 31. and Zeyner et al. cholesterol. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate the effect of including soybean oil and the Friedman test was used to evaluate exercise tests and the time of blood collection in each test.87 1. 11 minutes at the canter.000 NS NS 0. (2009a) did not observe gastrointestinal disorders or alterations in the feces in horses fed diets with the addition of 19. similar to that reported by Duren et al.57 8.06a 1. Digestible nutrients were calculated according to nutrient digestibility coefficients of a similar diet estimated by Godoi (2009b). Total solid concentration and fibrinogen was estimated by refratrometry. non-structural Table 3 .16a 2. Also Godoi et al. data were taken at five moments: before the test with the horses at rest. followed by 3 minutes at the gallop at 450 m/min (7. Blood samples for glucose and lactate analysis were collected in tubes with sodium fluoride. Blood samples for analysis of triglycerides.000 0.2. 3 minutes at the gallop with 90 seconds at 450 m/min (7. 30 minutes at the trot.5% soybean oil.39. 2000). Packed cell volume was determined by the microhematocrit method. On average. (1987). When the result was significant by the Friedman test. 2010 . 2003). R. Results and Discussion Horses presented an average body gain of 0.004 0. and at 10.000 0. (2002) did not observe any bad effects in horses fed diet with the addition of 11.31b 3.78 8.004) with a reduction of 0. During the 82 days of experiment.06a 0.2 kg/day during the experiment.12 6. Zootec.52 0.31b 0. the samples were centrifuged for 7000 g for 10 minutes and 1mL aliquots were taken and stored at -20 ºC in polypropylene tubes until analysis. v. The values of the physiological. and triglycerides. Friendman and Wilcoxon tests for differences between ordered pairs (P<0.000 0. Values in a line. and white blood cells by blood smears stained with Panotic in an optical microscope (Coles.3a 0.60 0.5 m/s).88 4.0. creatinine.000 CV – coefficient of variation.12a 2. at the young horses stage . Biochemical analyses were carried out by the colorimetric enzymatic method using the Laborlab ® commercial kit. Hematimetry and total leukocytes were evaluated in a Neubauer chamber. At each test. 3 minutes at walk. regardless of the diet. Horses fed the 10% soybean oil diet presented lower digestible dry matter intake (P=0. 20 and 120 minutes after each test. before the exercise tests. the training consisted of 17 minutes at the walk. so that the dry matter intake could be reduced. Whip and spurs should not be used. followed different letters are different (P<0. according to the protocol: 17 minutes warming up at walk and trot. After collecting.05) using the Statistics and Genetics Analysis – SAEG software version 9.. 2000). and hemoglobin by spectofotrometry. grass clod track.85b 1.3a 0.05) in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences – SPSS. the Wilcoxon test for differences between ordered pairs was used to compare results from the same horse. compared to the control diet (Table 3).73 3.. in a total of 12 sets.5 m/s) and 90 seconds at maximum speed.21b 1.

During the experimental period.05). Godoi et al.06 kcal/LW. showing that the diets were balanced for similar digestible energy content. 60th and 82 th days of the experiment Analyte Experimental period Beginning 60 th day P (Diet) 82 th Reference values day Hematocrit (%) Erytrocytes (10 6 /μL) Hemoglobin (g/dL) Mean corpuscular volume (fL) Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (%) White blood cells (109/L) Neutrophils (10 9 /L) Lymphocytes (10 9 /L) Monocytes (10 9 /L) Eosinophils (10 9 /L) 32.2Bb 0. There was effect on the soybean oil inclusion. Other parameters were as cited by Smith (1993).1 and 0.9 kg/day. Lacerda et al. 1 Hodgson & Rose (1994). on the 82º day of the experiment.39.335-343. R.2Ba 33. and only mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCV) differed (P<0. Zootec.05).5 0.3 8.0 1 Triglycerides (mg/dL) Cholesterol (mg/dL) Urea nitrogen (mg/dL) Total solids (g/dL) Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 37. of 94. with 8. p.0Bab 6. without any gastrointestinal disorders. increasingly significant digestible ether extract intake. by Friedman test. presented higher than reference values. 2004).5 102. on average of 31.2% cited by NRC (2007).9 g/dL and 32%.4 4.6Cab 0. there was a meaningful reduction in the fiber intake in horses fed the hyperlipidemic diet.7 12. 2004).05) between the two diets.018 NS NS NS NS NS 38 – 421 7 – 11 1 11 – 17 1 42 – 47 1 31 – 392 6 – 11 1 2.2 9.2 30.5Aa 8.3 Blood biochemistry 34.3 6.7 3. in function of the assay period within the control diet. at the beginning.6% ether extract and 95% digestibility (Kronfeld et al.007 NS NS NS 40 – 444 75 – 150 2 24 – 481 5.9Cb 32. because there was less hay available to maintain the concentrate:roughage ratio constant.2Cb 333. but it occurred at the beginning of the assay. 3 Robinson (1997).8 Mcal/day and 0.0 fL.2. indicating that native horses in Brazil present Table 4 . (1998). substituted energy in the concentrate. before the diets were available (Table 4). because soybean oil contains 99.53 g/kg BW. by Friedman test (P<0. The inclusion of soybean meal to adjust the diet increased the digestible protein content. cited by Almeida et al.8 5.8 1 0 – 1. (2008) evaluated Pantaneiro geldings in exercise activity and observed erythrocyte and packed cell volume values of 11.8%. The digestible protein intake by horses fed with soybean oil in the diet was higher (P=0. because soybean meal protein presents high digestibility.5 NS 0.12 kg.. respectively. respectively.5 1 0. with an average daily value of 1.5 – 7. v.8%.9 kg/day. and a lower value in horses fed the control diet.2 Hematology 34. 2010 . in function of the assay period within the diet.6 3. because it reduces the digestive tract weight and risks of diarrhea and colic and thus can improve their performance.2Ba 34.05) between horse groups.6Bab 58.84% erythrocytes (10 6/μL) and11.0ABb 8. erythrocyte and hemoglobin lower and mean corpuscular volume higher than reference values. (2009b) observed intake reduction in digestible neutral detergent fiber and digestible hemicelluloses of 1. n.0 – 5.3 – 8.3 g/dL hemoglobin and stated that breed and equestrian activity should be considered in a horse hematological evaluation. carbohydrates could be replaced by lipids that are beneficial to athlete horses.2 – 0.b 59. and average corpuscular volume of 53. Digestible neutral detergent fiber and digestible hemicellulose intake reduced 1.004). Hodgson & Rose (1994) and Robinson (1997).03 and 0.5Aa 36.338 Godoi et al. The values cited are similar to those observed in the present study. of 32. followed by different uppercase letters are different (P<0. of 33. respectively.5Bab 336.0 5.5Aa 74. (2006) evaluated Brazilian saddle horses and observed 33. Bras.4 2. in horses fed diet with 19.2Aa 27.0 5.4 34.5% globular volume.Hematological and biochemical variables in horses at rest and fed diet with soybean oil.5 10. The digestible energy (DE) intake did not differ (P>0.5% soybean oil included. of 1. 4 Kaneko (1997).98 Mcal DE/kg DM (Frape.4 0.3 6. On the other hand. or 92.5 1 < 400 1 Values in a line.7 4.6 3 2. followed different lowercase letters are different..3 NS NS NS NS 0.0Aa 395.4%.4 94.7 0. There was no effect on the hematological parameters of rested horses fed diet with soybean oil.6Ca 47. because added soybean oil. Values in line.5 81.8Aa 0.9C. 7.3 4. with a higher value in horses fed hyperlipidemic diet. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration differed within the diets. the horses presented a hematological and biochemical profile with average values of packed cell volume. 2 Smith (1993). Total solid concentration and lymphocyte number. Ribeiro et al.

6d 83. Zeyner et al.2b 114. Monocytes differed (P=0.05) immediately after the test (Table 5).7a 112.3c 39.014). there was an increase in total solids and cholesterol concentration.049 NS 0. (2006) evaluated horses in exercise activity.0a 1.2 U/L and lower value in horses fed the hyperlipidemic diet. of 18.5d 37. in horses fed diet with soybean oil included and without it.4a 59.3c 88.000 0.1a 1.7a 84. at the beginning and at the 60th and 82th day.7b 2. Unlike that observed in the present study.8b 6.9a 193.8a 0.0d 37.5b 14.2a 1.9b 14. The cholesterol concentration differed (P=0.Heart rate.0a 1. There was effect of time of the experiment (P>0.1a 15.2a 4. v.9a 127.1a 29.0ab 57.000 NS 0.3a 94. with average values of 35. Zootec.1 and 6.9e 22.1a 2. trotting for 2 hours.0b 38.0b 26.05) on hemoglobin concentration.000 NS 0. respectively.9a 243.3b 355. respectively.5a 196.2a 0. with an average value of 24.3c 38.020).4a 1. average corpuscular volume.000 NS 0. 3.9 and 7.3a 1. with a higher value on the 60th day of the experiment. (2002) observed that in horses fed diet with 11.2ab 36.014 NS Values in a line followed different letters differ (P<0. Meyers et al.3a 136.7b 93.2.006 Heart rate (bpm) Body temperature (ºC) Glucose (mg/dL) Lactate (mmol/L) γ-glutamyltransferase (U/L) Creatine kinase (U/L) Creatinine (mg/dL) 40.000 NS 0.9d 12.6a 0. of 110. and a meaningful reduction in the urea nitrogen blood concentration in horses fed diet with soybean oil included. and 120 minutes after the test (P=0.1a 169. average corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.39.5a 38.9c 88.4e 10.7a 207.000 0.3a 4.4c 89.7 x 109/L.Performance of eventing horses fed high fat diet 339 a hematological profile with lower values for packed cell volume and hemoglobin and higher values for average corpuscular volume reported in the literature.6c 27.2d 22.1a 109.9a 343.1a 2. (1989) and Marqueze et al.3b 95. On the 82th day.5ab 0.3a 180.7 U/L.6a 151. R.6b 96.4a 54.0d 37.1ab 0.9ab 75.2a 96.. with Table 5 .5a 38. 2010 .6a 0. Agreeing with results obtained in this assay.6a 2.7a 0.1a 1.3b 39. total solids and lymphocytes in blood samples collected from horses at rest .4a 1.1 g/dL and 90. p. The triglycerides.7a 1. However.2a 14. with higher value in horses fed the control diet. heart rate.000 0.8% soybean oil included and verified that horses fed diet with more soybean oil included presented lower heart rate immediately after and 15 minutes after the exercise test.335-343.3a 102.5a 3.4b 86.4a 42.7a 84. with average values of 6.05) in function of the collection time by Friedman test.4 mg/dL.0a 374.6a 147.8a 145.1a 209.8 and 32. Only the triglyceride values were below those reported by Kaneko (1997).5a 101.7b 84.9a 2.2a 82 th day 75.5a 88.0bc 60 th day 67.5 and 106.5a 0. There was effect of soybean oil inclusion on the γ-glutamyl transferase concentration on the 60 th day. n.043 0.000 0.5% soybean oil included for 390 days.2a 1. in horses fed the control diet.1a 1.0c 132.007) with a higher value at the beginning of the experiment.018) only in horses fed the hyperlipidemic diet.05).000 0.3a 2.6c 14.001 NS NS 0. (2001) did not observe effect on heart rate before and 20 minutes after exercise in horses fed diet with or without soybean oil.3a 4.6d 11. body temperature and lactate concentrations were influenced by exercise. Bras.3 mg/dL.3a At the beginning 75.4d 37.8b 38.1a 40.1b 130.2a 2.001 Heart rate (bpm) Body temperature (ºC) Glucose (mg/dL) Lactate (mmol/L) γ-glutamyltransferase (U/L) Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L) Creatine kinase (U/L) Creatinine (mg/dL) 40.1d 37.5d 13.1b 343. cholesterol and urea nitrogen concentrations were not altered by soybean oil inclusion in the diet (P>0. of 0.1d 37. the γ-glutamyltransferase blood concentration in horses at rest was influenced by the diets (P = 0.0 mg/dL.9b 0.1 mg/dL.6b 90.2a 399.7c 13. The three tests. body temperature and blood biochemical parameters of horses fed diet with soybean oil included and submitted to exercise tests at the beginning and on the 60th and 82th day Item Exercise test P At rest Immediately after 10 min after 20 min after 120 min after Heart rate (bpm) Body temperature (ºC) Glucose (mg/dL) Lactate (mmol/L) γ-glutamyltransferase (U/L) Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L) Creatine kinase (U/L) Creatinine (mg/dL) 33. of 27.7a 39.6a 232.8b 127.5a 6.6a 212.0c 38. without alteration in the triglyceride concentrations. and fed diets for 30 days with 0. Mattos et al. with a higher value (P<0.

6ab 27.4b 9. Zootec. varying from 38.9b 75.1a 37.6a 11. with higher values immediately after the test. (2006) observed that in horses fed diets with 0.2b 82 th day 60th day Beginning 59.2a 4.0c 33.2a 0. Body temperature in horses was also influenced by weather variation. AST = aspartate aminotransferase.1ab 1.5b 37.001 0.7a 0.004 0.3a 2.1a 169.3a 88.0a 38.3a 1.1b 15.001 0. n.42.1a 2.002 NS NS 0.5b 6. in function of the exercise test. body temperature and biochemical serum at collection times according to exercise tests 340 R. by Friedman test.9b 193.3b Beginning 60th day 82 th day 130.4a 37.5a 196.045 0.003 0.5a 3.3b 136.5a 0.3a 4. Similar to this assay.6a 127.6a 2.1a 109.001 0.000 Beginning 60th day 82 th day 75.9a 2.8a 38.001 Godoi et al.3b 355.1a 37.3a 39.1a 3.8a 145.9a 22.2a 40.3 oC (Table 6).1b Values.. Mattos et al.6a 147.6b 14.1a 1.7b 84.3a 14.9a 127.0b 1.3a 38. p.7b 84.007 0. of 2.0c 1.009 0.2a 22.0c 40.6a 0.033 NS NS 0.0 mg/dL. promoting higher metabolic distress in horses at the third exercise test. GGT = γ-glutamil transferase. 67.8a 0. Exercise influenced lactate levels. the lactate concentrations differed (P<0. This difference might be because of the type and duration of the exercise effort.3b Heart rate (bpm) Body temperature (ºC) Glucose (mg/dL) Lactate (mmol/L) GGT (U/L) AST (U/L) CK (U/L) Creatinine (mg/dL) Beginning 60th day 82 th day 0.1b 36.39.7b 1.1a 29.5b 13.7a 39.9a 12.004 0.0b 374. 2010 . blood lactate is a variable that best correlates with exercise effort.040). However.6a 90.1a 209. of 10.001 Beginning 60th day 82 th day PET Exercise test 120 min after PET Exercise test 20 min after PET Exercise test 10 min after PET Exercise test Imediately after PET 1 Exercise test At rest Item higher value in horses fed the diet with soybean oil. (2006) evaluated lactate blood concentrations in eventing horses and observed that determining lactate concentration at the end of exercise and the horses capacity to reduce it allows to inference on exercise effort and training level.2a 2.002 0. CK = creatine quinase.9b 343. There was effect of exercise on body temperature in all the physical effort tests. The return to basal values is an indicative of improvement in the horse performance according to training period.2.7a 2.4a NS 0.6b 96. values at rest returned.4b 132.9b 57. Gomide et al.6a 151.1 and 6. There was effect of physical effort and training on lactate concentration.7a 13. and a higher value was observed in horses fed with 10% soybean oil inclusion.2a 96.045 0. of 2. resulting in higher body temperature after exercise. with values of 39.335-343. before and after exercise..3b 95.7b 112.009 0.5a 101.8% soybean oil inclusion. Bras.8b 127. while in other tests body temperature began to decrease 20 minutes after the tests.8b 6.6 mg/dL and lower values in horses fed the control diet.5b 38.9a 243. v.0a 26. Mattos et al.7b 84.4 U/L. (2001) did not observe meaningful difference in lactate concentration between horses fed diets with (4.9a 88.3a 4. reducing heat loss from the horses.2 oC. The body temperature of horses only decreased 120 minutes after the test had finished.000 NS 0.001 0.001 54.05).1b 343. According to Lindner (2000).6ab 0. on a line.9 oC. Other evaluated parameters were not influenced by the diets.003 0. observed on the 82th day of the experiment.0c 75.0a 38.3b 180.016 0.003 NS 0. of 39.001 102.020 0. So it can be considered NS 0.5a 14.2b 399.6a 83. and as time passed.2b 1.4b 86.5b 88.4a NS 0.4c 89.6b 232.2a 1.2b 105.3a 39.001 0. This was proved because there was an effect of training time with lower lactate concentrations at all the collection moments. with higher values in horses fed diet with high soybean oil inclusion.0a 37.7b 93. 1 ET – exercise test.022 0. of 17.5a 38. followed different letters differ (P<0.1a 40.0a 37.045 0.7 to 39. with a higher value immediately after exercise. (2006) verified that including soybean oil in the diet reduced body temperature at the end of 2 hours in horses at trot.Horse heart rate.6ab 1.3a 94.7%) or without soybean oil included.2a 14.5a 0. and thus enables the evaluation of the horse conditioning.4ab 1. There was effect of soybean oil inclusion on the creatinine concentration only on the 82th day of the experiment and at 120 minutes after the test (P=0. Marqueze et al.004 NS 0.7b 207. Table 6 .05) at the end of exercise effort.0 U/L and lower value in horses fed the control diet.002 0. 3.1b 1.

for 90 seconds. respectively. (2002) observed meaningful increase in glucose concentration in equines fed with soybean oil included in diet. with average values of 95.1 and 6. but observed meaningfully difference at the end of physical effort.2.5 m/s). However. p.8 mg/dL. 1994).009) between blood collection time.7% soybean oil for 21 days. of 127. below normality (Hodgson & Rose. where the speed was 450 n/min (7. (2006) in horses at the resistance phase. v. differing (P=0. and regarding the physical training individuality. Agreeing with the present study. According to values of aspartate aminotranferase and creatine kinase blood concentrations. Lactate is variable for each tested animal conditioning level. so glucose levels were higher after 10 minutes after the test was made. of 243. so that it can be inferred that the horses in this study did not present alterations in the hepatobiliary system. respectively.8% soybean oil included. and an increase of 10 to 900 times and 5 to 100 times over normal values for these enzymes. Marqueze et al. however as normal values (Hodgson & Rose. (2008) observed that in horses submitted to a 80 km long duration physical effort test on a treadmill. Brandi et al. in the international scenario and in Brazil. at rest. after steeplechasing. before and after exercising. the horses did not present muscle injuries until 120 minutes after the tests. with higher values in equines consuming hyperlipidemic diets. and duration of the competition to which the horses were submitted.3 and 93. At the second test.7 U/L. with a lower value at rest. on the 60th day of the experiment. with normal values of 10 to 40 U/L (Hodgson & Rose. (2001) did not observe meaningful difference in glucose concentration among equines fed diet without or with 4. the increase in blood concentrations of creatine kinase after exercise is related to increased muscular cell membrane permeability caused by hypoxia. According to Boffi (2006). which can be a result of improper training or excess physical effort. creatin kinase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations presented maximum level around 12 and 24 hours after muscle injury. Aspartate aminotransferase concentrations presented effect of physical effort after 60 days of diet intake. 3. after 390 days of diet intake.335-343. blood glucose levels did not alter until 20 minutes after exercise. 1994). the maximum concentration level of both enzymes could not be measured. In other tests.1 and 88. certifying absence of muscle injury. Zootec.7 U/L.. Values of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase below normality were probably because the horses were adapting to the exercise type and intensity. relating to the physical effort test of this experiment. of 6.39. with higher value at 120 minutes after the physical effort test. and consuming diets with 6 to 24% soybean oil included. n. of 136. respectively.001). Concentrations of creatine kinase affected the physical effort test after 82 days of diet intake. when compared to animals fed diet without oil. presented decrease in aspartate aminotransferase and R. The glucose plasmatic concentration can be affected by several factors and it is the result of the balance between glucose offer and demand in the blood circulation that constitutes an important source of energy for muscular activity. 1995). each animal adopted a determined speed. (2006) observed that glucose concentrations did not differ meaningfully before exercise among equines 341 consuming diets with 0.7 U/L. Mattos et al. This fact can be explained by higher use of the lactate produced during exercise effort. There are controversies in the literature regarding blood glucose concentration in horses fed diets with oils and fats. (1989) observed the glucose concentration decrease in horses fed diets with 10% of animal fat for 21 days and submitted to sub maximum exercise on a treadmill. kept values in normality. Bras. However. respectively. on the 82th day of the experiment. as a precursor for glycogenesis after exercise. respectively. Concentrations of γ-glutamyl transferase were influenced by the blood collection time only in the physical effort test at the beginning of the experiment (P = 0. of 84. 1994). Based in quoted data it can be deduced that the training that the horses were submitted in this experiment was appropriate. on the 82th day. Meyers et al. Determinations of blood glucose and lactate levels are routinely used to evaluate energetic metabolism (Andrews.7 and 145. The higher lactate concentration observed by these authors was probably because of the higher speed of 690 m/min (11. would be necessary to characterize muscle injury. because according to Frape (2004).95 mmol/L. Only at the third test. for 3 days.1 U/L.5 m/s). were the blood glucose levels in the horses influenced by exercise. 2010 . The γ-glutamyl transferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes that are considered indicative of hepatic metabolism. Plasmatic lactate concentrations were lower immediately after the test than values observed by Gomide et al. in an advanced eventing competition.Performance of eventing horses fed high fat diet that the horses presented better conditioning at the third physical effort. In this test the value of this enzyme at rest was also verified and immediately after exercising. It is important to highlight that the steeplechase test was abandoned in eventing competitions. creatine kinase values were observed below normality for animals at rest and immediately after exercising. Zeyner et al.

566p. n.ed. C. E q u i n e Ve t e r i n a r y Journal. an increase of 430 μmol/L. BOFFI. Perfil hematológico e características das fezes de equinos consumindo dietas hiperlipidêmicas. 2009a.G.530-537.I. where blood creatinine concentrations presented higher values at 10 and 20 minutes after the physical effort tests had finished. v. p. 3 . F. After exercises of maximum intensity. 1. 2010 . after the steeplechase phase. ALMEIDA. 1994). Consumo. In the third test. D . creatinine concentration stays high for 60 minutes (Hodgson & Rose. ANDREWS. D.20..39.ed. GODOI. F. F. and fatty acids have little importance in these situations (Hodgson & Rose. of 0. G. L. in addition to the small number of horses used for treatment and difference in the physical conditioning of these animals. et al.. MARTINS. n. SALIBA.N. .307-315. Acta Scientiarum Animal Science. Concentrações sanguíneas de lactato em equinos durante a prova de fundo do Concurso Completo de Equitação. MARTINS. P O T T E R . 70p. Creatinine increases during exercise. 2006. Efeito de dietas com adição de óleo e do treinamento sobre a atividade muscular de equinos submetidos à prova de resistência. D .ed.9 mg/dL below normality. n. Inclusion of soybean oil in the diet of eventing horses affected the plasmatic concentrations of γ-glutamyl transferase and creatinine through diet intake. showing direction to energetic metabolism to ß-oxidation. (2006) and Brandi et al. In the second test.htm> Acesso: 15/9/2007. experiment duration. F R A P E . 1994). v. LEÃO.3. Mattos et al. the contrary was observed in this assay.B. (2008). SUSAN L. These authors reported an increase in free fatty acids in horse plasma at rest. the creatinine concentration at rest. all the creatinine concentrations were over normality (Hodgson & Rose.Q. et al..110-120. Training and fitness in athletic horses.15. v. E.9. et al. BRANDI. immediately after and 10 minutes after exercising were below normality. These results differed from those reported in this experiment. Bras. many factors might be related to the contradictory results observed in literature. WHITE. VALADARES FILHO. 1994). Buenos Aires: Inter-Médica. 1983. pós-ileal e total da proteína do milho e do farelo de soja em equinos. Disponível em: <http://www. n. Equine Veterinary Journal.A. In: WORLD EQUINE VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS. J . Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. creatine kinase activity. 2004.R. avoiding gastrointestinal disturbances.A. Creatinine concentrations were influenced by exercise at the first and second physical effort tests. FURTADO. Haematological and biochemical changes in horses competing in a 3 star horse trial and 3-day-event. Proceedings… Buenos Aires: WEVA.10. F...30. D . According to the NRC (2007). of 1. Sidney: RIRDC. Suppl.Q. K R E I D E R . R. Soybean oil inclusion in diets enables the supply of the energetic demand with decrease in dry matter intake. there was difference at 120 minutes after exercising (P=0.335-343. OROZCO. ALMEIDA. 1. v. C.Q. F. n. F. v. creatinine increase in the plasma or serum. e d . Conclusions Training improves conditioning of horses by reducing plasmatic lactate and increasing plasmatic glucose at the last exercise test.. FÉDÉRATION EQUESTRE INTERNATIONALE – FEI.38. Plasma lactate evaluation in three days events horses. Fisiología del ejercicio en equinos. While for eventing horses.T. São Paulo: Manole. with lower value. Boffi (2006). D. e t a l ..50-513.N. as a result of increased fosfocreatine turnover and consequently.O. 1984. MIGON. EVANS.X. Buenos Aires. physical measurements a n d b o d y f a t p e r c e n t a g e i n m a r e s . E.Q. n. p. of 47 to 1254 μmol/L. which is an increase of 1.342 Godoi et al.. such as type and amount of the oils and fats used in equine diets. intensity variation and physical effort duration. 2009b. However. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. E. 2007. GUARIENTI. v. et al. In the first test. p. while the other physiological. carbohydrates are used as the main energy source.M. Ciência Rural. 3. E q u i n e n u t r i t i o n a n d f e e d i n g . Relationship between condition score. hematological and biochemical parameters evaluated were not altered. . p. 8. GOMIDE.N. 2006. which does not necessarily indicate decrease in glomerular filtration. p.36.. Zootec. In high intensity exercise. et al. F. C. p.2. 650p.. E. 1995.M.. 1998.3. the presented increase was from 156 to 568 μmol/L. et al. indicating that the mobilization of fatty acids as energy source occurs more intensely in long duration exercises. COLES.L.H.39.org/c/about/about. R . GODOI.W. Vi c t o r i a : Blackwell Publ. PATITUCCI..F. p. Digestibilidade aparente pré-cecal. n. These are beneficial factors that justify using oil sources in horse diets in any equestrian activity. R.1 to 1. References ALMEIDA.. According to Hodgson & Rose (1994). M. L. 2003.C.1928-1937. Patologia clínica veterinária.4. probably because the intensity difference and duration of the exercises during physical effort. S.207 μmol/L after the 80 km resistance test. GEISER. 2003. G. the beneficial effect of diet intake with soybean oil on horse performance is more evident when they are submitted to low intensity and long duration exercise. Soybean oil can be used in horse diets to supply energetic requirements and reduce dry matter intake that are desirable in equestrian activity. Ciência Rural. 2000.8 mg/dL. L .horsesport. n.E. H E N N E K E . F.57-63.A.2.27. 306p.001).. cinética digestiva e digestibilidade de nutrientes em equinos atletas alimentados com dietas contendo óleo de soja.S. 2008... p.897-903. v.. et al. ALMEIDA.

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