Asian Academy of Film and Television

Thesis project on
Loudspeaker and Audio Monitors

Guided by –

Submitted by -

Mr. Rajinder Gandhi

Name – Vaisakh S. Kurup

Mr. Avneet Grewal

Roll no. – DPP/ I-1

Batch – Diploma in Post ProductionINDEX


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Types of Enclosure

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Loudspeaker System Design


Studio Monitors (Audio Monitors)




Monitor v/s hi-fi speakers




I also place on record my sense of gratitude to one and all who directly. my sincere gratitude to Mr. I place on record. for providing me with all the necessary material and timely encouragement. Avneet Grewal for providing all necessary practical knowledge regarding the thesis work. Rajinder Gandhi (senior faculty for sound recording and radio production). . or indirectly have lent their helping hand in this venture.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. required for the completion of my thesis.

. The loudspeaker serves four primary purposes of Communication. Sound Reinforcement.LOUDSPEAKER A loudspeaker is an electro-acoustic transducer. Sound Production and Sound Reproduction. a device which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound. Dynamic Loudspeaker Principle A current-carrying wire in a magnetic field experiences a magnetic force perpendicular to the wire.

An audio signal source such as a microphone or recording produces an electrical image of the sound. The voice coil is attached to and drives the cone of the loudspeaker. The job of the amplifier is to take that electrical image and make it larger large enough in power to drive the coils of a loudspeaker. Types of Enclosure . Having a "high fidelity" amplifier means that you make it larger without changing any of its properties. it produces an electrical signal that has the same frequency and harmonic content. and a size that reflects the relative intensity of the sound as it changes. That is. Any changes would be perceived as distortions of the sound since the human ear is amazingly sensitive to such changes. making them vibrate with a pattern that follows the variations of the original signal. which in turn drives the air. This action on the air produces sound that more-or-less reproduces the sound pressure variations of the original signal. it applies it to the voice coils of the loudspeaker. Once the amplifier has made the electrical image large enough.

The production of a good high-fidelity loudspeaker requires that the speakers be enclosed because of a number of basic properties of loudspeakers. Other techniques such as those used in bass reflex enclosures may be used to extend the useful bass range of the loudspeakers. . Just putting a single dynamic loudspeaker in a closed box will improve its sound quality dramatically. Modern loudspeaker enclosures typically involve multiple loudspeakers with across over network to provide a more nearly uniform frequency response across the audio frequency range.

Multiple loudspeakers may be mounted in the same enclosure. each reproducing a part of the audible frequency range.Speakers are typically housed in an enclosure which is often a rectangular or square box made of wood or sometimes plastic where high quality reproduction of sound is required. In this case the individual speakers are referred to as "drivers" and the entire unit is called a loudspeaker. Miniature loudspeakers are found in .

in theatres and concerts. particularly for higher sound pressure level or maximum accuracy. below 100 Hz for professional live sound. and many forms of music players. mid-range speakers (middle frequencies). To accurately reproduce very low bass notes without unwanted resonances. live shows. and below 80 Hz in THXapproved systems. The drivers are named subwoofers (for frequencies). To adequately reproduce a wide range of frequencies with even coverage. tweeters (high frequencies). and in public address systems. subwoofer systems must be solidly constructed and properly braced. woofers (low very low frequencies).devices such as radio and TV receivers. The term "loudspeaker" may refer to individual transducers (known as "drivers") or to complete speaker systems consisting of an enclosure including one or more drivers. Many subwoofer systems include power amplifiers . Larger loudspeaker systems are used for music. and sometimes super-tweeters. good speakers are typically quite heavy. most loudspeaker systems employ more than one driver. optimized for the highest audible frequencies Subwoofer A subwoofer is a woofer driver used only for the lowest part of the audio spectrum: typically below 200 Hz for consumer systems. Individual drivers are used to reproduce different frequency ranges.

and electronic sub-filters. with additional controls relevant to lowfrequency reproduction. .

sometimes well enough that a subwoofer is not needed. Since high frequency sound tends to leave the speaker in narrow beams. Tweeter A tweeter is a high-frequency driver that reproduces the highest frequencies in a speaker system. eliminating the mid-range driver. combined with a woofer that responds high enough. This can be accomplished with the selection of a tweeter that can work low enough that. Additionally. Some loudspeaker systems use a woofer for the lowest frequencies. some loudspeakers use the woofer to handle middle frequencies. Loudspeaker System Design .Woofer A woofer is a driver that reproduces low frequencies. the two drivers add coherently in the middle frequencies. The driver combines with the enclosure design to produce suitable low frequencies. Soft-dome tweeters are widely found in home stereo systems.

Crossovers can be passive or active. reducing distortion in the drivers and interference between them. thus requiring at least one power amplifier for each band-pass. depending on the minimum number of amplifier channels. These parts are formed into carefully designed networks and are most often placed between the full frequency-range power amplifier and the loudspeaker drivers to divide the amplifier's signal into the necessary frequency bands before being delivered to the individual drivers. the crossover is a subsystem that separates the input signal into different frequency ranges suited to each driver. quad-amping. A passive crossover is an electronic circuit that uses a combination of one or more resistors. Passive filtering may also be used in this way before power amplification. but it is an uncommon solution. tri-amping. Some loudspeaker designs use a combination of passive and active crossover filtering.and high-frequency drivers and an active . or non-polar capacitors. Passive crossovers are commonly installed inside speaker boxes and are by far the most usual type of crossover for home and low-power use. being less flexible than active filtering. In car audio systems. Passive crossover circuits need no external power beyond the audio signal itself. and so on. An active crossover is an electronic filter circuit that divides the signal into individual frequency bands before power amplification. necessary to accommodate the size of the components used. inductors. passive crossovers may be in a separate box.Used in multi-driver speaker systems. such as a passive crossover between the mid. The drivers receive power only in their usable frequency range thereby. Any technique that uses crossover filtering followed by amplification is commonly known as bi-amping.

The role of the enclosure is to prevent sound waves emanating from the back of a driver from interfering destructively with those from the front. or synthetic fiber batting. These speakers often are synchronized so they produce a surround sound effect and are often referred to as surround speakers. Enclosures Most loudspeaker systems consist of drivers mounted in an enclosure. lossy wall material. wool. This is especially useful when watching movies. where the audio is often meant to be played on a surround sound system. The internal shape of the enclosure can also be designed to reduce this by reflecting sounds away from the loudspeaker diaphragm. a rigid enclosure reflects sound internally. A sealed enclosure prevents transmission of the sound emitted from the rear of the loudspeaker by confining the sound in a rigid and airtight box. within the enclosure. Such as glass wool. One of the most common uses of loudspeakers in the home environment is as home theater speakers. without an enclosure they typically cause cancellations which significantly degrade the level and quality of sound at low frequencies. where they may then be absorbed.and high frequencies.crossover between the low-frequency driver and the combined mid. Techniques used to reduce transmission of sound through the walls of the cabinet include thicker cabinet walls. which can then be transmitted back through the loudspeaker diaphragm—again resulting in degradation of sound quality. Hence. internal bracing. However. This can be reduced by internal absorption using absorptive materials. or cabinet. . curved cabinet walls.

The quality of the loudspeaker greatly depends on the weight. The weight of the magnet should be listed on the specifications of any good loudspeakers. . the more powerful the speaker will be. The larger the magnet. However. of the magnet inside the speaker. it should be noted that some weigh the entire magnet system and not just the magnet itself. and therefore the size. This could affect the power and quality of the speaker and deceive some into buying something other than what they thought they were purchasing.

so that most of the sound that the listener hears is coming directly from the speaker. Also. Beyond stereo sound-stage requirements. This is a speaker small enough to sit on a stand or desk in proximity to the listener. Among audio engineers.STUDIO MONITORS (AUDIO MONITORS) Studio monitors are loudspeakers specifically designed for audio production applications such as recording studios. whereas home hi-fi loudspeakers often only have to reproduce compressed commercial recordings. Whereas reference monitors refer to loudspeakers generally used to gage what a recording will sound like on consumer-grade speakers. television studios and radio studios where accurate audio reproduction is crucial. the term monitor usually implies that the speaker is designed to produce relatively flat (linear) phase and frequency responses. a linear phase response helps impulse response remain true to source without encountering "smearing". whereas home hi-fi loudspeakers often only have to reproduce compressed commercial recordings. . studio monitors have to cope with the high volumes and sudden sound bursts that may happen in the studio when playing back unmastered mixes. rather than reflecting off of walls and ceilings. studio monitors have to cope with the high volumes and sudden sound bursts that may happen in the studio when playing back unmastered mixes. An unqualified reference to a monitor often refers to a near-field (compact or close-field) design. studio monitors are made in a more physically robust manner than home hi-fi loudspeakers. Studio monitors are made in a more physically robust manner than home hi-fi loudspeakers. filmmaking.

a position it maintained in its various incarnations over the next . one of the most influential studio monitors of all time. Musicians were recorded live and the producer judged the performance on this basis. relying on simple tried-and-true microphone techniques to ensure that it had been adequately captured.The Yamaha NS-10. History In the early years of the recording industry in the 1920s and 1930s. studio monitors were used primarily to check for noise interference and obvious technical problems rather than for making artistic evaluations of the performance and recording. The first high-quality loudspeaker developed expressly as a studio monitor was the Altec Lansing Duplex 604 in 1944. playback through monitors was used simply to check that no obvious technical flaws had spoiled the original recording. The 604 was a relatively compact coaxial design and within a few years it became the industry standard in the United States.

to make inroads into the pro monitor market. In the late 1960s JBL introduced two monitors which helped secure them pre-eminence in the industry. In a BBC white paper published in January 1963. With the advent of punk. a reaction to high-tech recording and large corporate-style studios set in and do-it-yourself recording methods became the vogue. It was common in US studios throughout the 1950s and 60s and remained in continuous production until 1998. became the monitor of choice for many studios in the . a backlash against the behemoth monitor was soon to take place. it was the more compact 4310 that revolutionized monitoring by introducing the idea of close or "near-field" monitoring. less expensive. Altec made the mistake of replacing the 604 with the 605A Duplex. Lansing). in 1959. the authors explored 2-channel stereophony.25 years. JBL (a company originally started by 604 designer James B. and lo-fi. The 4320 was a direct competitor to the Altec 604 but was a more accurate and powerful speaker and it quickly made inroads against the industry standard. However. However. a design widely regarded as inferior to its predecessor. Smaller. noting that the "face-to-face listening arrangement" was not able to give an acceptable presentation for a centrallylocated observer in a domestic setting. a design introduced in 1978 ironically for the home audio market. recording studios needed smaller. indie. and remarked that it was at a disadvantage compared with multichannel stereophony that was already available in cinemas in that "the full intended effects is apparent only to observers located within in a restricted area in front of the loudspeakers". at the height of its industry dominance. However. less expensive monitors and the Yamaha NS-10. The authors expressed reservations about dispersion and directionality in 2-channel systems. new wave. There was a backlash from some record companies and studios and this allowed Altec’s competitor.

while hi-fi speakers usually require external amplification. Monitor v/s hi-fi speakers No speaker. and the Yamaha NS-10 also served both domestically and professionally during the 1980s. . Monitor speakers are assumed to be as free as possible from coloration. regardless of the design principle. the BBC licensed production of the LS3/5A monitor. The general consensus seems to be that it is uneven through the mid-range and too bright at the top (hence the commonly employed trick of hanging tissue paper over the tweeters to calm it down). the L-100. even by those who monitor through it. is well known to have (put politely) a characterful tonal balance. While its sound-quality has often been derided. though nothing precludes them from being used in a home-sized environment. While no rigid distinction exists between consumer speakers and studio monitors. Despite not being a "commercial product" at the outset. all speakers color the sound to some degree. has a completely flat frequency response. studio monitors are physically robust. was used in a large number of homes. It was commercially successful in its twenty-something-year life. manufacturers more and more accent the difference in their marketing material. Whereas in the 1970s the JBL 4311’s domestic equivalent. Generally. although not exclusively so. and are used for listening at shorter distance than hifi speakers. the NS-10 continues in use to this day and many more successful recordings have been produced with its aid over the past twenty five years than with any other monitor.1980s. Yamaha's NS10M. The archetypal studio near-field monitor. to cope with the high volumes and physical knocks that may happen in the studio. monitor or hi-fi. which it used internally. Studio monitors are increasingly self-amplified (active).

if a near-field monitor is to be used in a small room. where strong reflections from the side walls will reach the ear within a few milliseconds. because in balance terms. The same is probably true of a hi-fi speaker.In two words. and. from hi-fi systems costing many thousands to AM radio (or its low-bit-rate MP3 equivalent). the hi-fi speaker is nothing but a monitor that's used a few stages down the line (ie. the hi-fi speaker. Wild variations between on . a hi-fi speaker that's positioned perhaps four meters away from the listener and is mounted a little away from the wall on a floor stand should have a subtly different response shape compared to a near-field monitor that's maybe one to two meters away and mounted on a wall. should probably be closer to flat. unless it has been specifically balanced for use against a wall. But we can work backwards. we should be looking for the 'neutral average' neither too bright nor too dull. a flat axial frequency response doesn't mean that a loudspeaker will necessarily sound that way. is not the same thing as a flat axial frequency response. A neutral tonal balance. however. as speakers are directional devices (especially at high frequencies). Secondly. and predict generally how the axial response might look for different types of loudspeakers if they are to sound neutral. Where the near-field should demonstrate a slightly up-shelved response at a few hundred Hertz combined with a slow roll-off at either frequency extreme. should be as close to the 'population average' as possible. The perceived tonal balance of a speaker is the combination of the direct sound from the drivers and reflected sound from nearby surfaces. by the consumer of the music you're mixing). the shape of the horizontal off-axis response is vital too. If the aspirations we have for our work are that it should sound tonally acceptable on the widest range of systems out there. which will be used up close and probably with its back to the wall. Firstly. then the perceived tonal balance of our near-field monitor.

This is one very good reason why landscape-mounted near-field monitors tend to be a bad idea the horizontal off-axis response from laterally adjacent drivers will almost certainly display major discontinuities through the region where the drivers' outputs overlap. The M-Audio Studiophile monitor series are loved and trusted by musicians and recording professionals all over the world. Yamaha HS80m The Yamaha HS80m studio monitor is the successor to the NS10. M-Audio Studiophile BS5 D2 M-Audio are famous for their music production equipment. and tries to replicate the philosophy behind the NS line. There is a reason that the Studiophile series is one of the best selling monitor studios in the . Featuring the same iconic white woofer cones as the NS10. the Yamaha HS80m produces an accurate and pleasant sound. but they also make some great speakers. Consistent and smooth audio make the Yamaha HS80m a no-brainer when it comes to deciding which studio monitors to buy. its off-axis response should be as close to a gently down-tilted version of the axial response as possible.and off-axis responses are well-known to result in perceived tonal imbalances. so if the monitor is not to sound unnaturally colored.

world. The JBL LSR series is a great range to look at when considering studio monitors. LSR stands for Linear Spatial Reference. M-Audio is a trusted brand and you won’t regret purchasing a set of Studiophile speakers. this technology takes your room shape and size into account to produce the most accurate sound possible. JBL LSR 2325P JBL has been in the loudspeaker industry for a long time and they know how to create great audio equipment while still being affordable. KRK Rokit 8 .

Perfect for electronic dance music and acoustic productions. CONCLUSION Studio monitors are designed to reproduce audio signals that are as flat as possible across the audible frequency spectrum. A good monitor will give you accurate. consistent response no matter the volume level. the KRK Rokit is the new-age standard for studio monitors. . Unlike consumer stereo speakers that may be tweaked to produce a strong bass response and sound punchy. This allows you to listen critically to how certain elements of the mix sound at different volumes. Instantly recognizable with its yellow woofer. They also capture fleeting musical transients that add subtlety and nuance to the sounds they reproduce. you can’t go wrong with the Rokit series.The KRK Rokit 8 is latest version of the very popular Rokit series. good studio monitors don’t emphasize particular frequencies over others.