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# PHYSICS LAB REPORT JIDAPAS AN-ADIREKKUN (MY)

## PHYSICS LAB REPORT SIMPLE PENDULUM

EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE G
Data Collection and Processing
Data Collection
Time (s 0.2)
Length of the string (cm
0.1)
Trial1
Trial2
Trial3
20.0
5.00
5.16
5.06
30.0
6.00
6.00
6.00
40.0
6.56
6.83
6.88
50.0
7.50
7.59
7.50
60.0
8.34
8.15
8.16
Table1: The length of the string and the time taken for a pendulum to
complete 5 oscillations
The column labeled Length of the string is the length of the string in which a
constant mass of 200g was hung to. Its unit is centimeter (cm). It was measured
using a measuring tape which had the least reading of 0.1cm. Its uncertainty was
derived by dividing the least reading by two (0.1/2 = 0.05cm) and adding
uncertainty of the measuring tape (0.05 + 0.05 = 0.1cm) as the string was
measured in the middle of a measuring tape and therefore it involved subtraction
of the two readings at both ends of the string.
The column labeled Time is the time taken for the pendulum to complete 5
complete oscillations. Three trials of the experiments were performed to reduce
the effects of random errors. The time taken was measured using a digital
stopwatch which has a least reading of 0.01s. The uncertainties caused from the
reaction time were assumed to be 0.1s and because the stopwatch was started
and stopped, the reaction time must be multiplied by 2: (0.1*2 = 0.2).

Data Processing
Time Period (T) (s 0.04)
Length of the string (m
0.001)
Trial1
Trial2
Trial3
Average
0.200
1.00
1.03
1.01
1.01
0.300
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.20
0.400
1.31
1.37
1.38
1.35
0.500
1.50
1.52
1.50
1.51
0.600
1.67
1.63
1.63
1.64
Table2: The time period of the pendulum for different length of the
string
The column labeled Length of the string contain the lengths of the string which
have been converted into meter (m) by dividing by 100 (20.0/100 = 0.2000m).
Its uncertainty is the uncertainty of the measurement in centimeter divided by
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## PHYSICS LAB REPORT JIDAPAS AN-ADIREKKUN (MY)

100 (0.1cm/100 = 0.001cm). The lengths are recorded in 3 significant figures in
order to match with the uncertainty and so that they remain the same with the
significant figures recorded in table1.
The column labeled Time Period is the time taken for a pendulum to complete 1
complete oscillation and is calculated by:

Time period=

## Total time taken

number of oscillations

For Trial1:
Length = 0.200m:

Length = 0.300m:

Length = 0.300m:

Time period=

5.00
=1.000 s
5

Time period=

6.00
=1.200 s
5

Time period=

6.56
=1.312 s
5

The column labeled Average is the average time period of the pendulum. It is
calculated by

Average =

## Trial 1+Trial 2+Trial 3

3

For Trial1:
Length = 0.200m:

Length = 0.300m:

Length = 0.400m:

Average =

1.000+1.032+1.012
=1.015 s
3

Average =

1.200+1.200+1.200
=1.200 s
3

Average =

1.312+1.366+1.376
= 1.351s
3

The uncertainty of the time period is calculated by dividing the uncertainty of the
time taken for the pendulum to complete 5 oscillations by 5 (0.2/5 = 0.04s)

Length of
string
(m
0.001)

Average
time period
(Tave) (s)

Range of
Tave (s)

Absolute
Uncertainti
es of Tave (s)

Percentage
Uncertainti
es of Tave
(%)

(Average
time
period)2
(Tave)2 (s2)

Absolute
Percentage
Uncertainty
of (Tave)2 (s2)

0.200

1.01

0.02

0.04

3.94

1.03

0.08

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## PHYSICS LAB REPORT JIDAPAS AN-ADIREKKUN (MY)

0.300
1.20
0.00
0.04
3.33
1.44
0.400
1.35
0.03
0.04
2.96
1.83
0.500
1.51
0.01
0.04
2.66
2.27
0.600
1.64
0.02
0.04
2.43
2.70
Table3: The processed data of the average time period and the squared
time period and their respected uncertainties

0.07
0.07
0.07
0.06

## The column labeled Length of string is taken from Table2.

The column labeled Average time period contains average time period for each
of the lengths of the pendulum. It is also taken from Table2.
The range of the average time period is calculated by:

Range=

2

## For Trial1: Length = 0.200m:

Range=

1.031.00
=0.02(2 d . p)
2

However, since the absolute uncertainty of the average time period calculated
previously (0.04s) is larger than the uncertainty calculated from the range, the
absolute uncertainty used to further calculation is taken to be 0.04s.
The percentage uncertainty Tave is calculated by

Percentage uncertainty=

Absolute uncertainty
100 %
Value

## For Trial1: Length = 0.200m:

Percentage uncertainty=

0.04
100= 3.94%
1.01

The column labeled (Average time period)2 (Tave)2 is calculated by squaring the
average time period. Its unit is s2.
For Trial1: Length = 0.200m: (Tave)2 = 1.012 1.03 s2
The uncertainty of (Average time period)2 (Tave)2 is calculated by:

[ ( 2 percentage uncertainty of T
uncertainty=

ave

) ( T ave )

100

uncertain ty=

100

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## PHYSICS LAB REPORT JIDAPAS AN-ADIREKKUN (MY)

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Data Presentation
3.00

f(x) = 18.84x
14.58x - 2.82
1.81

## f(x) = 4.17x + 0.18

2.50

2.00
(Average time period)2 (Tave)2
Linear ((Average time period)2 (Tave)2)

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00
0.150

0.200

0.250

0.300

0.350

0.400

0.450

0.500

0.550

0.600

0.650

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In Graph1, the squared average time period (on the y-axis) is plotted against the
length of the spring (on the x-axis). The values are taken from Table3 and shown
as orange data points. The vertical error bars are the uncertainty of the (T ave)2
and taken from the column Absolute Percentage Uncertainty of (T ave)2 in Table3.
The maximum gradient line is drawn by joining the negative error bar of length
of string = 0.200m and the positive error bar of length of sting = 0.600m. The
minimum gradient line is drawn by joining the positive error bar of length of
string = 0.200m and the negative error bar of length of sting = 0.600m. The
uncertainty of the length of the string is too small to be shown clearly as
horizontal error bars on the graph, and thus is omitted.
The equations of the lines of best fit are generated automatically by Microsoft
Excel, where the coefficients of x represent the gradients of the lines.

## Calculation to find gravitational acceleration g

The formula used to calculate time period of a simple pendulum is

T =2

l
g

## where T is time period, l is the length of string, g is the gravitational acceleration,

and 2 is a constant.
2

2
T (2 )
=
l
g

2

(2 )
g

-1 2

## value, which could then be used to calculate the value of g.

g=

m=

( 2 )2
g

( 2 )2
m

For (Tave)2:
m = 4.17 m-1s2 (shown in black colour on the graph)
g=

( 2 )2
=9.47 ms2 (3s.f.)
4.17

m 4.17 m-1s2 (shown in green colour on the graph)

( 2 )2
g=
=8.38 m s2
4.71

(3s.f.)
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## m 3.66 m-1s2 (shown in purple colour on the graph)

g=

( 2 )2
=10.8 m s2 (3s.f.)
3..66

## The uncertainty of the gravitational is:

max g min g
10.8 m s28.38 m s2
g=
=
=2.21 m s2
2
2
Percentage error of the experiment
The theoretical value of g is approximately 9.81 ms-2 (reference:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity_of_Earth)

## The experimental value is

Percentage error=

9.47 2.21m s2 .

## |Theoritical valueExperimental value|

Theoritical value

|9.819.47|

## Perce ntage error =

9.81

100 =3.47

100

(3 s.f.)

The theoretical value of g does fall into the range of the experimental value after
the uncertainties of 2.21 ms-2 has been allowed for. Also, the percentage error of
this experiment is quite low. Thus, it can be concluded that experiment was
precise and accurate. The experimental values of g are lower than the theoretical
value because of the presence of friction between the strings and the stand.

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