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United Arab Emirates

Ministry of Education
RAK Educational Zone
Al Nakheel School for secondary education

CELL PHONES
The Work Of Student
: Salman Noor Mohd hussain
: Awad Mohammed Fayiz Alafuni
: Jassem Shah Ali
: Mohammed Ahmed Fahed Al Khateeb

: Moosa Abdullah Mohd Ahmed
Of The Grade :12–commerce-2

. which relays the signal to a telephone switching network. I thank my friends for helping together to collecting the information and the pictures from the places .Acknowledgment First of all I thank Allah for inspiring our team and made our strong enough to do this project then. This technology works by dividing the Earth into small regions called cells. connecting the user to the desired party. Introduction A cell phone is a portable telephone that uses wireless cellular technology to send and receive phone signals. after that…………. Within each cell the wireless telephone signal goes over its assigned bandwidth to a cell tower.

Subject :History of cell phones Cell phones may be new devices. Features were put into these radios in the 1940’s. After working for the navy he also worked for a telecommunications company. He was raised in Chicago. Cell phones were first made available to the public in 1984. The concept of the cellular phone was developed in 1947 which originated from the mobile car phone. Radios were used since 1921. Cooper worked on the first portable handheld police radio. but they originated in the 1920’s. In 1968 the FCC decided to increase the frequencies to allow research for better connections. expensive instruments. He was also the first to ever make a phone call using a cellular phone. This allowed calls to pass from tower to tower. and got a job with Motorola in 1954. The FCC worked together with AT&T and Bell Towers to establish broadcast towers. Back then. and they were used by police. The first actual cell phone was made in 1973 by Martin Cooper of Motorola and other assisting inventors who used the idea of the car phone and applied the technology necessary to make a portable cell phone possible. The Federal Communications Commission made a regulation that limited radio-spectrum frequencies. This is the reason only twenty-three simultaneous conversations were possible in the same service area. they were very large. and attended the Institute of Technology in Illinois where he obtained a degree in electrical engineering. The concept of the cellular phone was produced by Bell Laboratories. The towers were small with low power and covered a “cell” that was a few miles in radius. . but actually covered a larger area. inventors Martin Cooper pioneered Motorola’s research for cellular phones.

and John H. The incoming Call or data comes back from the backhaul and up through the switch to the antenna. every day. John F.when you make a call or turn your phone on. Dronsuth. Albert J.Some of the other people that aided in the invention of cell phones include Richard W. connected to a multi-port switch. James J. but exactly how? Here is a detailed look at how cell phone calls actually work. The call ( along with many others) gets routed to a backhaul – usually down to an underground wired t1 or t3 line . but did you ever wonder what is really going on when you make or receive a call? Of course there are towers that we see dotting the landscape and it’s obvious that they make this all possible. How the cell phone works We use our cell phones all day. Mitchell. Your phone sends a message via radio that’s picked up by the towers antennas . Roy A. but sometimes back up the mast to powerful line-of-sight wireless microwave antenna (typically only used either when there isn’t a ground connection is poor). where it then hits your phone(presuming your phone is still communicating with the same site). Next. First a cell phone radios the nearest cell tower (or site). Mikulski. Sangster. Richardson. a wire or fibrotic line carries the call down to the wireless access point. Mikulski.. If you . Charles N. Lynk Jr.

While some researchers have reported biological changes associated with RF energy. including both radio waves and microwaves. scientists have conducted hundreds of studies looking at the biological effects of the radiofrequency energy emitted by cell phones.are moving then there’s a handoff—anew but more or less identical cell site transmits the data to your phone. The energy levels associated with radiofrequency energy. Whereas high levels of RF can produce health effects (by heating tissue). The weight of scientific evidence has not linked cell phones with any health problems. The majority of studies published have failed to show an association between exposure to radiofrequency from a cell phone and health problems. Cell phones emit low levels of radiofrequency energy (RF). The low levels of RF cell phones emit while in use are in the microwave frequency range. exposure to low level RF that does not produce heating effects causes no known adverse health effects. Over the past 15 years. . Ionization is a process where electrons are stripped away from their normal locations in atoms and molecules. RF energy is a type of non-ionizing radiation. the genetic material. the eyes and the testes. The biological effects of radiofrequency energy should not be confused with the effects from other types of electromagnetic energy. these studies have failed to be replicated. are particularly vulnerable to RF heating because there is relatively little blood flow in them to carry away excess heat. Therefore. Other types of non-ionizing radiation include visible light. While RF energy doesn’t ionize particles. once your phone checks in. infrared radiation (heat) and other forms of electromagnetic radiation with relatively low frequencies. health Problem with cell phones Many people are concerned that cell phone radiation will cause cancer or other serious health hazards. Two areas of the body. Very high levels of electromagnetic energy. It can permanently damage biological tissues including DNA. They also emit RF at substantially reduced time intervals when in the stand-by mode. such as is found in X-rays and gamma rays can ionize biological tissues. are not great enough to cause the ionization of atoms and molecules. large amounts can increase body temperatures and cause tissue damage.

fda.com www.htm www.. References library. we came to know that cell phone have both positive and negative aspect.Conclusion In conclusion.gizmodo. We cannot live without its help.gov/Radiation.thinkquest. efficiently and it’s easily acceptable new trend and it plays a vital role for every individuals.org/04oct/02001/home..htm ./Cell Phones/ucm116282. We need them in each and every step so that we can perform our work smoothly .

4.Index 1 Cover Page 2 Acknowledgment 2 Introduction 3.5 Subject 6 Conclusion 6 References 7 Index .