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EASTWOODS Professional College

Computer is a data-processing machine or, in other words, a machine for the manipulation of symbols or
data.
Typically parts of a Computer
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Hardware or System Unit


Monitor
Keyboard
Mouse
AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) or UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply)
Sound Blaster

POST Power On Self Test. Checks some computer hardware or devices like (disk drives, hard drives,
keyboard etc.) if properly connected to the system unit after booting the computer.
Desktop - The on-screen work area on which windows, icons, menus, and dialog boxes appear.

I
C
O
N
S
Wallpaper

Start Menu

Taskbar

System Tray

Parts of Desktop
1. Taskbar - The bar that contains the Start button and appears by default at the bottom of the desktop.
You can click the taskbar buttons to switch between programs.
2. Start Menu - displays a menu that lets you easily access the most useful items on your computer.
3. System Tray is located at the left portioned of taskbar, displays the system time, icon of programs
that are currently run.
4. Icons are graphical representation of files, folders, drives, and programs.
5. Wallpaper colored or graphical background of the desktop.
Software are computer instruction or data.
Software is divided into two categories.
1. Systems Software includes the operating system and all the utilities that enable the computer to
function.
2. Application Software includes programs that to real work for users. For example, Word
processors, Spreadsheets, and database management systems all under the category of application
software.
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Operating Systems are the most important programs that run on a computer. Manages and coordinates the
functions performed by the computer hardware, including cpu (Central Processing Unit), input/output
devices, and secondary storage devices and communication and network equipment.
Most Commonly used Operating Systems.
1. Microsoft Windows (Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows NT,
Windows Vista)
2. Linux, Unix
3. Mac OS
4. OS/2
5. DOS
6. Xenix
Hardware a System unit peripherals. These are devices attached inside the system unit. Examples, Video
card, Soundcard, Memory card, CD-Rom/DVD-Rom, Disk Drives, Hard Drives etc.
Input Devices
Input device is any machine that feeds data into a computer.
Example of Input devices
1. Keyboard is an input device consisting of a set of typewriter-like keys that enable you to
enter data into a computer. Similar to electric-typewriter keyboards but contain addition keys.
The keys on computer keyboards are often classified as follows:

Alphanumeric keys letter and numbers


Punctuation keys comma, period, semicolon, and so on.
Special keys function keys control keys, arrow keys, Caps Lock, and so on.

2. Mouse is a device that controls the movement of the cursor of pointer on a display screen, is a
small object you ca roll along a hard flat surface.

Types of Mouse

Mechanical has a rubber or metal ball on its


underside that can roll in all direction.
Optomechanical same as a mechanical mouse,
but uses optical sensors to detect motion of the
ball.
Optical uses a laser to detect the mouses movement.

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3. Trackball is another pointing device. Essentially, a trackball is a mouse lying on its back

4. Joystick a lever that moves in all directions and controls the movement of a pointer or some
other display symbols.

5. Digitizing Tablet enables you to enter drawings and sketches into a computer. Consists of an
electronic tablet and a cursor or pen.

6. Scanners input device that can read text or illustration printed on paper and translate the
information into a form that the computer can use

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7. Touch Screen monitor is a type of display screen


that has a touch sensitive transparent panel covering
the screen.

8. Light Pen an input device that utilizes a light


sensitive detector to select objects on a display screen.

Output devices
Output device is any machine capable of representing information from a computer
Examples of Output devices
1. Monitor is another term for the display
screen. The term monitor, however, usually
refers tot the entire box, whereas display screen
can mean just the screen.

Classification of Monitors Based on Color

Monochrome monitors actually display two colors, one for the background and one
for the foreground. The color can be black and white, green and black or amber and
black.
Gray-Scale monitors is a special type of monochrome monitor capable of displaying
different shades of gray.
Color Monitors can display anywhere from 16 to over 1 million different colors

2. Printer a device that prints text or illustrations on paper and in many cases on transparencies
and other media.

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3. Plotter a device that draws pictures on paper based on commands from a computer. Plotters
differ from printers in that they draw lines using a pen.

4. Speaker a device that output sounds.

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