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Presented by

K L Rohitas
Dy. General Manager

In India every year steel worth of
Rs.1200 to Rs.1300 crores is being lost
due to deteriorating effect of corrosion.
additional expenditure is involved on
account of
maintenance, shut down,
infrastructures. In light of this it becomes
very important to save the steel from the
menace of corrosion.

Factors responsible for corrosion

Corrosion is basically an electro-chemical process

occurring because of difference in electrical potential
which exist between dis-similar metals in contact or
between small size within metal surface in presence of
an electrolyte. Difference in the potential of metal are
caused by
i) Variation in composition
ii) Presence of impurity
iii) Uneven internal strains and
iv) Non-uniform environment

The environment like damp atmosphere,
surface moisture or liquid in which the metal is
immersed are actually responsible for the
corrosion process. All serve as electrolytes,
allowing formation of scale at the metal
surface which is corrosion.
Steel generally corrodes at between
0.05mm to 0.125mm per year when freely
exposed to the air. The corrosion rate vary in
atmospheric conditions prevailing.

Economical method for protection against corrosion

There are many methods to prevent the corrosion of steel. An

economic decision is to be taken in selecting the methods. The
factors which will affect low cost protection needing regular
periodical maintenance or slightly expensive initial protection with
no maintenance.
When an economic decision is taken it is
found that the more effective, practical and economic protection
is achieved by metallic zinc coating by hot dip galvanizing process.
Zinc is relatively highly resistant to the corrosive action of normal
environment compared to Iron and thereby provides a long term

There are five methods of applying zinc
coating to steel surface to prevent

Hot Dip Galvanizing

Zinc Spraying
Zinc Plating
Zinc Dust Paints


Hot Dip Galvanizing

Plain steel (mild steel) duly cleaned & free from surface contamination is
immersed in molten zinc kept at a tempreture of440-460 at which reaction
takes place to form a chemically bonded metal zinc alloy along with a super
layer of zinc on the surface.
Zinc Spraying
Molten Zinc is sprayed from a special gun fed by zinc powder.

Zinc Plating
Zinc Salt solutions are used in electrolytical depositing a layer of zinc on clean
steel surface.
Suitably prepared small steel parts are tumbled in zinc dust heated to just
below melting point of zinc.
Zinc Dust Paints
Steel Surfaces are coated using paints which contains sufficient amount of
zinc powder.


Since in Hot Dip Galvanizing process, the reaction between iron and
zinc takes place to form an alloy it becomes more effective than any
of the methods stated above. We can now define the galvanizing as
process of forming zinc and iron alloy at certain temperature. Zinc
prevents corrosion by
Providing a tough, durable barrier coating of metallic zinc
which completely seals the steel from corrosive environments.
The Hot Dip Galvanizing process is creating a protective
coating composed of several layers of iron zinc alloy varying from
100% iron of metal base to 100% zinc on outer surface of coating.
Therefore adhesion of coating is much stronger than surface
protection by other process like painting, zinc spraying etc.

Advantage of Hot-dip Galvanising Process

The protective coating done by ordinary methods are not

long lasting. Once it breaks, corrosion take place and it will
penetrate deeply inside the iron base and can damage metal
also underneath unbroken portion of protective layer thus
completely destroying the iron.
On the other hand, the Hot-dip galvanized coating
exposed to corrosive atmosphere, itself, reacts with and form
a film of stable compound which does not allow any further
penetration of corrosion. Besides this if zinc coating is
damaged the metal-zinc alloy layer will still protect the iron
even on those points where iron is exposed to the corrosive


The whole galvanizing process is

divided into three stages:

Post treatment


Pre-treatment contains following sub-processes:Degreasing:

The process of degreasing removes oil,
grease etc. from the metal surface to be galvanised.
This is done by Caustic Soda solution heated to a
temperature of 60oC to 70oC.
Rinsing is being done to remove the Caustic
soda which will be sticking to the metal surface. It
is done by circulating water at a temperature of
60oC to 70oC.

Pre-treatment contains of following sub-processes:
The purpose of pickling is to remove rust
from the surface to be galvanized. Pickling is
done either by Sulphuric Acid or Hydro Chloric
Acid (HCL).
The use of Hydro Chloric Acid (HCL) has
been found to be more suitable than the
Sulphuric Acid. Moreover it is more safe and less
injurious compared to Sulphuric Acid.
Depending upon the concentration of the
pickling solution ,pickling operation take 15-30
minutes. Initialy the concentration of pickling
soln. is 15% which is gradually reduced.


Rinsing:After material has been properly pickled

i.e. free from rust, it is washed in the water. The
washing is done in a double chambered tank in
which water enters from tank overflows to the
second tank and it is discharged creating the
counter-current force thus more effective
After rinsing pre-fluxing is done in the
solution of Zncl2 and Ammonium Chloride heated
to the temperature of 70oC to avoid any further
oxidation before final process of Galvanization.



The pre-flux material is dried in the Drier at a temperature of

120 to 125oC. Above this temperature, the flux burns off. A hot air
generator produces hot air circulated in the Drier.

The Galvanising kettle containing molten zinc is continuously heated by Oil
Fired Furnace where LDO is used as fuel in burners.This keeps the zinc
always in molten state at required temperature.
After material have been fully dried it is taken to the Molten Zinc
Bath where it is dipped in Molten Zinc kept at a temperature of 440 to
460oC. When the material is dipped in the molten zinc, the chemical
reaction between zinc and iron takes place and alloy is formed with an
additional coating of zinc on the surface. Galvanising process take about a
minute and galvanised material is then removed from the galvanised bath.


The material after galvanization is
taken out and cooled down in the
Quenching Tank containing water.
After galvanizing & quenching, the
material is taken to the Passivation Tank
where Sodium Dichromate solution at a
temperature of 70oC to 80oC is kept.
Material is dipped into this Tank and
chromate layer is formed above the
galvanizing layer.

Advantages of Galvanizing:

Galvanized coating has a unique structure which gives it excellent
resistance to transit and erection damages.
Long Life:
The standard 610 gm. Per M Sq. coating has a typical maintenance
free life of more than 30 years in Urban and Coastal environment.
Clean appearance
Low Cost: Galvanized coating is competitive as the same is long
lasting as compared to other coatings having much shorter life.
Reliability: Because the coating is formed by chemical reaction, it
is very reliable.
Ease of inspection
Time saving

Factors affecting Galvanizing:

Thickness of the material

Surface condition of material
Pre-treatment of the material
Temperature of the Kettle
Dipping Rate
Dipping time
Rate of withdrawal
Angle of withdrawal
Wiping efficiency
Time lag between completion of galvanization and
Composition of Steel
Composition of Zinc Bath

As Galvanizing is the chemical reaction
between iron and zinc the reaction time like any
other reaction would vary according to the
thickness and size of the material. If material on
different thickness are being galvanized in one
bath then thinner material will get galvanized
early but they will have to be unnecessary in the
Galvanizing Bath till the time thicker material gets
galvanized thus over coating on surface will take
place in thinner material.

(b)Surface condition
Surface condition of material also effect final
galvanization. If the surface of material is pitted then thick
coating will be obtained as zinc will be trapped into the
rough areas (pitted due to pickling).
In case rusty and relatively fresh material is being
feed for pickling together in one batch then the fresh
material will get pickled early as compared to the rusty
material. The rusty material will take larger time than fresh
material, thereby, the fresh material will get over pickled
i.e. rough surface/pitting will occur resulting into over
coating and rough galvanized surface.

(c) Pre-treatment of the Material:

In case the material is having oil and grease it should be
degreased properly otherwise oil and grease will remains sticking to the
material and finally will get burnt off in the molten zinc kettle thereby
resulting black spot.
In case material has been over pickled the excess zinc
consumption i.e. thick coating will occur. It is is under pickled in black
spit will occur as during galvanization rust will get galvanized and leave the
surface excess dross will also be formed.
The pre-fluxing solution should not be acidic and should not
have iron content in it. In case iron content are present in the pre-fluxing
solution it will stick to the material thereby resulting into formation of
black spots.
Dross Formation
The iron particles are free to move when dipped in the Galv. Bath these
particles gets galvanized and will move out of the surface resulting into the
black spot in that area and excess dross formation.

(d) Temperature of the Kettle

The control of galvanising-bath temperature is very

essential if quality of the product is to be kept constant and
zinc is to be used efficiently .At higher temperature metal-zinc
alloy layer grows faster thereby increasing the zinc
consumption. Most of the material can be satisfactorily
galvanized within the temperature range of 440 to 460oC.
Hence it should be seen that the temperature of Kettle is
maintained within the limits of 440 to 460oC. This is important
from following angles also:i) Safe guarding of Galv. Kettle itself.
ii) To reduce Zinc-Dross formation.
iii) To reduce Zinc Ash formation.
iv) Conserving the precious fuel.



Dipping Rate:
The material should be dipped in the Kettle
as rapidly as possible. Dipping rate also influences
uniformity of coating particularly with long
articles/bath where the difference in dipping time
between first and last part/items to enter the bath
may be considerable. As the material entering first
will come out last it will be having maximum
coating. Here principle is full material should be
dipped at one time.
(f) Dipping Time:
The dipping time is directly proportional to
the zinc coating.


(g) Angle of Withdrawal:

The angle at which material is withdrawn decides the
amount of flow of free molten zinc on the material back into
the bath. The maximum angle of withdrawal in the material
better that flow of the zinc and coating.

Rate of Withdrawal:
Rate of withdrawal determines the thickness of free
zinc layer on the work. The optimum withdrawal rate for most
articles is about 1.5M per minute. Here principle is that
material is not withdrawn faster than the rate at which zinc
drains out freely from the surface. Hence based on this
principle material should be withdrawn slowly to allow free
molten zinc to flow back into the Kettle.


(i) Quenching:
Formation of iron zinc alloy layer continues even
outside the Zinc Kettle after removing the material till the
temperature of 250oC is reached. During this stage iron zinc
alloy layer grown at the cost of pure zinc layer leaving grey
coating which is undesirable. To avoid this material should be
quenched in the cold as faster as possible.
(j) Wiping efficiency:
When the material is being taken out from the Bath,
it should be wiped with the help of rods and bamboos as fast
as possible to avoid solidification of excess zinc.
(k) Time-lag between completion of Galvanization and
More the time lag between completion of
galvanization (boiling off) and withdrawal more is the zinc
coating/zinc consumption. It should be minimum.

(l) Composition of Steel:
The single and most important factor influencing the
galvanized coating weight is the steel chemistry. The silicon
content of the steel is paramount to the weight of coating
form and resulting thickness and growth of coating. Presence
more silicon, phospherous and carbon produces grey coating.

Composition of Zinc Bath:

The zinc bath does not have only the zinc but is
composed of zinc, lead, and aluminum.
In case the
percentage of aluminum increases more than 0.007% of the
total zinc content the alloy layer will be non-sticking. In will
be peeling off. In case Lead is more in bath then dross level
will rise up and dross may start coming out with the material.

Tips for good Galvanization:

Try to get material of similar surface condition and

Ensure proper pickling
Ensure proper rinsing and proper fluxing
Ensure the material is dried and pre-heated up to a
temperature of 120oC
Bath temperature should be within the limits of 440 to
The Bath should be cleaned before and after dipping of the
Boiling of point must be monitored to avoid any excess
Quenching must takes place as early as possible in cold

Capacity of Galv. Plants
The capacity of Galv. Plants is
determined by throughout per hour
i.e. quantity which can be galvanized
per hour. Hourly through output of
Galv. Plants is one-tenth of total zinc
content in bath. But in India onetwentieth of total zinc content in
bath can be achieved on hourly basis.

Safety precautions to be taken in Galvanizing Plant

The employees working in Galvanizing Plant must wear protective

clothing and use protective appliances like Hand Gloves, Gas mask,
Spectacles, safety helmet etc.
While dipping the materials, the Galvanizer must stand away
from Galvanizing Bath preferably in a booth having glass window
for protection against zinc splash ups.
Acidic fumes coming out of the Pickling tanks are injurious to
health, hence employee working in Pickling area must wear
suitable mask so as to avoid inhaling of acidic fumes.

Periodical health check ups of employees is necessary to know the

status of health and precautions to be taken accordingly.

Measures to be taken for Plant Safety:

Galvanizing Plant must have arrangements for

suction and treatment to acidic fumes to reduce
effect on humans as well as trusses/assets of the

Since acidic fumes adversely affect the life of

trusses/cranes etc., it must be regularly painted
by acid resistant paints for protection against ill
effects of fumes.

Galvanizing Plant must have effluent treatment

Plant for proper treatment of waste acid to
protect environment from pollution.

Thanking you
for Sparing
Your Valuable Time