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You are on page 1of 5

qxd

11/20/06

2:25 PM

Page 71

3.6

71

Example 3.7

A Bullet Fired Horizontally

A bullet is fired horizontally from the top of a cliff that is

20.0 m above a long lake. If the muzzle speed of the bullet

is 500.0 m/s, how far from the bottom of the cliff does the

bullet strike the surface of the lake? Ignore air resistance.

we can find the horizontal displacement. The bullet is

starting from the high point of the parabolic path because

viy = 0. As usual in projectile problems, we choose the yaxis to be the positive vertical direction.

Known: y = 20.0 m; viy = 0; vix = 500.0 m/s. To find: x.

the bullet falls is 20.0 m. The relationship between y

and t is

1

y = 2(vfy + viy) t

Substituting viy = 0 and vfy = viy + ay t = ay t yields

1

y = ay(t)2 t =

2

2 y

a

y

2 y

a

2 (20.0 m)

= 500.0 m/s

= 1.01 km

9.80

m/s

x = vix t = vix

Discussion How did we know to start with the ycomponent equation when the question asks about the

horizontal displacement? The question gives vix and asks

for x. The missing information needed is the time during which the bullet is in the air; the time can be found

from analysis of the vertical motion.

We neglected air resistance in this problem, which is

not very realistic. The actual distance would be less than

1.01 km.

Find the horizontal and vertical components of the bullets velocity just before it hits the surface of the lake. At

what angle does it strike the surface?

At the beginning of the chapter, we asked why the clam does not fall straight down

when the gull lets go. The gull is flying horizontally with the clam, so the clam has the

same horizontal velocity as the gull. When the gull lets go, the net force on the clam is

downward due to gravity. The clam falls toward Earth, but since ax = 0 the clam retains

the same horizontal component of velocity as the gull. Therefore, the clam is a projectile starting at the top of its parabolic trajectory.

3.6

The idea of relativity arose in physics centuries before Einsteins theory. Nicole Oresme

(13231382) wrote that motion of one object can only be perceived relative to some

other object. Until now, we have tacitly assumed in most situations that displacements,

velocities, and accelerations should be measured in a reference frame attached to

Earths surfacethat is, by choosing an origin fixed in position relative to Earths surface and a set of axes whose directions are fixed relative to Earths surface. After learning about relative velocities, we will take another look at this assumption.

Relative Velocity

Suppose Wanda is walking down the aisle of a train moving along the track at a constant

velocity (Fig. 3.23). Imagine asking, How fast is Wanda walking? This question is not

well defined. Do we mean her speed as measured by Tim, a passenger on the train, or

her speed as measured by Greg, who is standing on the ground and looking into the train

as it passes by? The answer to the question How fast? depends on the observer.

Figure 3.24 shows Wanda walking from one end of the car to the other during a time

interval t. The displacement of Wanda as measured by Timher displacement relative

to the trainis rWT = vWT t. During the same time interval, the trains displacement

relative to the ground is rTG = vTG t. As measured by Greg, Wandas displacement is

gia04470_ch03.qxd

11/20/06

2:26 PM

Page 72

Chapter 3

72

Motion in a Plane

Wanda

Greg

of a train. Wandas velocity with

respect to Tim (or with respect to

the train) is vWT; Tims velocity

with respect to Greg (or with

respect to the ground) is vTG.

displacement relative to the

ground is the sum of her

displacement relative to the train

and the displacement of the train

relative to the ground.

vWT

Tim

rTG = vTG t

vTG

rWT = vWT t

rWG = vWG t

partly due to her motion relative to the train and partly due to the motion of the train relative to the ground. Figure 3.24 shows that rWT + rTG = rWG. Dividing by the time

interval t gives the relationship between the three velocities:

vWT + vTG = vWG

relative velocities for pilots

and sailors

(3-15)

To be sure that you are adding the velocity vectors correctly, think of the subscripts as if

they were fractions that get multiplied when the velocity vectors are added. In Eq. (3-15),

W T W

= so the equation is correct.

T G G

Relative velocities are of enormous practical interest to pilots of aircraft, sailors,

and captains of ocean freighters. The pilot of an airplane is ultimately concerned with

the motion of the plane with respect to the groundthe takeoff and landing points are

fixed points on the ground. However, the controls of the plane (engines, rudder,

ailerons, and spoilers) affect the motion of the plane with respect to the air. A sailor has

to consider three different velocities of the boat: with respect to shore (for launching

and landing), with respect to the air (for the behavior of the sails), and with respect to

the water (for the behavior of the rudder).

Example 3.8

Flight from Denver to Chicago

An airplane flies from Denver to Chicago (1770 km)

in 4.4 h when no wind blows. On a day with a tailwind, the plane makes the trip in 4.0 h. (a) What is the wind

speed? (b) If a headwind blows with the same speed, how

long does the trip take?

airspeedthe same speed relative to the airin both

cases. Once the plane is up in the air, the behavior of the

wings, control surfaces, etc., depends on how fast the air

is rushing by; the ground speed is irrelevant. But it is not

irrelevant for the passengers, who are interested in a displacement relative to the ground.

plane relative to the ground and the velocity of the plane

relative to the air, respectively. The wind velocitythe

velocity of the air relative to the groundcan be written

vAG. Then vPA + vAG = vPG. The equation is correct since

P A P

= . With no wind,

A G G

1770 km

vPA = vPG = = 400 km/h

4.4 h

gia04470_ch03.qxd

11/20/06

2:26 PM

Page 73

3.6

73

x

x

vPA (400 km/h)

Figure 3.26

in the case of a headwind.

Lengths of vectors are not to

scale.

Figure 3.25

Addition of velocity vectors in the case of a tailwind. Lengths

of vectors are not to scale.

1770 km

vPG = = 440 km/h

4.0 h

We expect vPA to be the same regardless of whether there

is a wind or not. Since we are dealing with a tailwind, vPA

and vAG are in the same direction, which we label as the

+x-direction in Fig. 3.25. Then,

vPAx + vAGx = vPGx

vAGx = vPGx vPAx = 440 km/h 400 km/h = 40 km/h

vAGy = 0, so the wind speed is vAG = 40 km/h.

(b) With a 40 km/h headwind, vPA and vAG are in opposite

directions (Fig. 3.26). The velocity of the plane with

respect to the ground is

vPGx = vPAx + vAGx = 400 km/h + (40 km/h) = 360 km/h

The ground speed of the plane is 360 km/h and the trip

takes

1770 km

= 4.9 h

360 km/h

headwind (4.9 h) than with no wind (4.4 h), as we expect.

Jamil, practicing to get on the crew team at school, rows a

one-person racing shell to the north shore of the bay for a

distance of 3.6 km to his friends dock. On a day when

the water is still (no current flowing), it takes him 20 min

(1200 s) to reach his friend. On another day when a current flows southward, it takes him 30 min (1800 s) to row

the same course. Ignore air resistance. (a) What is the

speed of the current in m/s? (b) How long does it take

Jamil to return home with that same current flowing?

Equation (3-15) applies to situations where the velocities are not all along the same

line, as illustrated in Example 3.9.

Example 3.9

Rowing Across a River

Jack wants to row directly across a river from the east

shore to a point on the west shore. The width of the river

is 250 m and the current flows from north to south at

0.61 m/s. The trip takes Jack 4.2 min. In what direction

did he head his rowboat to follow a course due west

across the river? At what speed with respect to still water

is Jack able to row?

(Fig. 3.27). To keep the various velocities straight, we

choose subscripts as follows: R = rowboat; W = water; S

= shore. The velocity of the current given is the velocity

of the water relative to the shore: vWS = 0.61 m/s, south.

The velocity of the rowboat relative to shore (v

RS) is due

west. The magnitude of vRS can be found from the displacement relative to shore and the time interval, both of

which are given. The question asks for the magnitude and

Water current

Shore

Path of rowboat

relative to shore

250 m

Shore

N

W

Not to scale

E

S

Figure 3.27

Rowing across

a river.

gia04470_ch03.qxd

11/20/06

2:26 PM

Page 74

Chapter 3

74

Motion in a Plane

water (v

RW). The three velocities are related by

vRW + vWS = vRS

To compensate for the current carrying the rowboat

south with respect to shore, Jack heads (points) the rowboat upstream (against the current) at some angle to the

north of west.

the velocity of the rowboat with respect to the water is at

an angle q north of west. With respect to shore, Jack travels 250 m in 4.2 min, so his speed with respect to shore is

250 m

vRS = = 0.992 m/s

4.2 min 60 s/min

We can find the angle at which the rowboat should

be headed by finding the tangent of the angle between

vRW and vRS:

vWS

0.61 m/s

tan q =

=

vRS

0.992 m/s

q = 32 N of W

vWS

vRW

to still water is the magnitude of vRW. Since vRS and vWS

are perpendicular, the Pythagorean theorem yields

2

v

v2WS + v

(0.61 m

/s)2 + (

0.992 m

/s)2

RW =

RS =

= 1.16 m/s

Jack rows at a speed of 1.16 m/s with respect to the water.

Discussion If vRS and vWS had not been perpendicular, we could not have used the Pythagorean

theorem in this way. Rather, we would use the

component method to add the two vectors.

If Jack had headed the rowboat directly west, the

current would have carried him south, so he would have

traveled in a southwest direction relative to shore. He has

to compensate by heading upstream at just such an angle

that his velocity relative to shore is directed west.

Across

If Jack were to head straight across the river, in what

direction with respect to shore would he travel? How

long would it take him to cross? How far downstream

would he be carried? Assume that he rows at the same

speed with respect to the water as in Example 3.9.

q

vRS

Figure 3.28

At the beginning of this chapter, we asked what the path followed by the falling

clam looks like as seen by the gull flying through the air. With respect to a beachcomber

on the ground, the clam has a constant horizontal velocity component given to it by the

gull and a changing vertical component of velocity due to the gravitational force

(Fig. 3.29a); the clam moves in a parabolic path. If the gull continues to fly at the same

horizontal velocity after dropping the clam, it is directly overhead when the clam hits

the rock because they both have the same constant horizontal component of velocity

with respect to Earth.

vGR

view: The gull flies along a horizontal line while the clam

follows a parabolic path.

(b) Birds eye view: The gull

sees the rocks moving while the

clam drops straight down,

landing upon the rocks just as

the rocks move under the clam.

vGG = 0

vCR

vCG

vRR = 0

(a)

vRG

G = gull

C = clam

R = rocks

(b)

gia04470_ch03.qxd

11/20/06

2:26 PM

Page 75

Conceptual Questions

75

In its own reference framethat is, using its own position as the origin of the coordinate axesthe gull sees the clam drop straight down toward the ground while rocks

and other objects on the beach are moving horizontally (Fig. 3.29b). The bird sees a collision between the horizontally moving rocks and the vertically falling clam. At any

instant, if the velocity of the clam with respect to the gull is vCG, the velocity of the gull

with respect to the rocks is vGR, and the velocity of the clam with respect to the rocks is

vCR, then vCG + vGR = vCR.

Vectors are added graphically by drawing each vector so that its tail is placed at the tip of the previous

vector. The sum is drawn as a vector arrow from the

tail of the first vector to the tip of the last. Addition

+ B

= B

+ A.

of vectors is commutative: A

Vectors are subtracted by adding the opposite of the

B

= A

+ (B).

second vector: A

Addition and subtraction of vectors algebraically

using components is generally easier and more accurate than the graphical method. The graphical

method is still a useful first step to get an approximate answer.

To find the components of a vector, first draw a right

triangle with the vector as the hypotenuse and the

other two sides parallel to the x- and y-axes. Then

use the trigonometric functions to find the magnitudes of the components. The correct algebraic sign

must be determined for each component. The same

triangle can be used to find the magnitude and direction of a vector if its components are known. To add

vectors algebraically, add their components to find

the components of the sum:

+ B

= C,

then Ax + Bx = Cx and Ay + By = Cy

if A

The x- and y-axes are chosen to make the problem

easiest to solve. Any choice is valid as long as the

two are perpendicular. If the direction of the acceleration is known, choose x- and y-axes so that the

acceleration vector is parallel to one of the axes.

Conceptual Questions

1. Why is the muzzle of a rifle not aimed directly at the

center of the target?

2. Does the monkey, coconut, and hunter demonstration

still work if the arrow is pointed downward at the monkey and coconut? Explain.

3. Can a body in free fall be in equilibrium? Explain.

4. Is it possible for two identical projectiles with identical

initial speeds, but with two different angles of elevation,

path of motion.

The instantaneous acceleration vector does not have

to be tangent to the path of motion, since velocities

can change both in direction and in magnitude.

For a projectile or any object moving with constant

acceleration in the y-direction, the motion in the xand y-directions can be treated separately. Since ax =

0, vx is constant. Thus, the motion is a superposition

of constant velocity motion in the x-direction and

constant acceleration motion in the y-direction.

The kinematic equations for an object moving in two

dimensions with constant acceleration along the yaxis are

x-axis: ax = 0

y-axis: constant ay

vx = 0 (vx is constant) vy = ay t

x = vx t

(3-10)

y = 2(vfy + viy) t

(3-11)

2

vfy

viy2 = 2ay y

(3-13)

To relate the velocities of objects measured in different reference frames, use the equation

vAC = vAB + vBC

(3-15)

and so forth.

and sketch the trajectories.

5. If the trajectory is parabolic in one reference frame, is

it always, never, or sometimes parabolic in another reference frame that moves at constant velocity with

respect to the first reference frame? If the trajectory can

be other than parabolic, what else can it be?

6. You are standing on a balcony overlooking the beach.

You throw a ball straight up into the air with speed vi

and throw an identical ball straight down with speed vi.

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