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Describe la va pentosas fosfato

The most important function of the pentose phosphate pathway is to reduce two
molecules of NADP+ to NADPH for each glucose6-phosphate (glucose-6P) that is
oxidatively decarboxylated to ribulose-5-phosphate (ribulose-5P). The pentose
phosphate pathway is also responsible for producing ribose-5-phosphate (ribose5P)
from glucose-6P. NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is
structurally identical to NADH with the exception of a phosphate group on the C-2
carbon of the sugar moeity of the adenine nucleotide NAD+ functions as the
primary oxidant in the cell (accepts electrons), whereas, NADPH is the primary
reductant in the cell (donates electrons)
The pentose phosphate pathway can be divided into two phases, the oxidative
phase which generates NADPH, and the nonoxidative phase, which interconverts
C3, C4, C5, C6 and C7 sugar phosphates

Enzimas alostricas
Glucose-6P dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme catalyzing the first reaction in the
pathway which converts glucose-6P to 6-phosphogluconolactone. This reaction is
the commitment step in the pathway and is feedback-inhibited by NADPH. Defects
in glucose-6P dehydrogenase cause a dietary condition called favism.
Transketolase and Transaldolase - together these two enzyme catalyze the
reversible "carbon shuffle" reactions of the nonoxidative phase of the pathway.
Transketolase catalyzes the transfer of C2 units between sugars and transaldolase

catalyzes the transfer of C3 units. These are the same enzymes used in the Calvin
cycle to regenerate ribulose-5P from glyceraldehyde-3P

Sus mecanismos de regulacin

Oxidative phase
The oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway includes three enzymatic
reactions, the first of which is catalyzed by the enzyme glucose-6P dehydrogenase
(G6PD). The oxidation of glucose-6P by glucose-6P dehydrogenase is coupled to the
reduction of NADP+ resulting in the formation of one molecule of NADPH. 6phosphogluconolactone is hydrolyzed by lactonase to produce the open chain
monosaccharide 6-phosphogluconate. 6-phosphogluconate is oxidized and
decarboxylated in a reaction catalyzed by 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase to
generate ribulose-5P, CO2 and the second molecule of NADPH.
Nonoxidative phase
The ribulose-5P produced in the oxidative phase needs to be converted back into
glucose-6P to maintain flux through the glucose-6P dehydrogenase reaction.
Since enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway are localized to the cytosol, as
are the enzymes for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, fructose-6P is readily
converted to glucose-6P by the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase. Similarly,
glyceraldehyde-3P is converted to fructose-6P by a series of three reactions
involving the enzymes triosephosphate isomerase, aldolase and fructose-1,6bisphosphatase.

Reactivos limitantes
6 Glucose-6P + 12 NADP+ + 12 H2O --> 5 Glucose-6P + 12 NADPH + 12 H+ + 6
Retroalimentacin energtica
Biosynthetic pathways require ATP, and when ATP levels drop (low energy charge in
the cell), the demand for NADPH will also diminish causing glucose6P to be shunted
away from the pentose phosphate pathway and toward glycolysis.
Su relacin con otras vas
Since glucose-6P is a substrate for both the glycolytic pathway and the pentose
phosphate pathway, when the rates of NADPH-dependent biosynthetic reactions are
high in the cytosol, then the [NADP+]/[NADPH] ratio increases, leading to allosteric
activation of glucose-6P dehydrogenase activity by NADP+. This in turn, increases
flux through the pentose phosphate pathway to produce more NADPH by
stimulating oxidative decarboxylation of glucose-6P by enzymes in the oxidative
phase of the pathway. When the level of NADPH rises in the cell, it competes with
NADP+ for binding to glucose-6P dehydrogenase, thereby reducing the activity of

the enzyme. This results in decreased flux through the pentose phosphate pathway
and the available glucose-6P is then metabolized by the glycolytic pathway as a
source of energy for the production of ATP