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Paper Glossary & Dictionary

A
A0
[Eng] An ISO 'A' series paper size - 841x1189 mm or 33.11x46.81
inches or 2384x3370 points (widthxheight)

A1
[Eng] An ISO 'A' series paper size - 594x841 mm or 23.39x33.11
inches or 1684x2384 points (widthxheight)

A2
[Eng] An ISO 'A' series paper size - 420x594 mm or 16.54x23.39
inches or 1190x1684 points (widthxheight)

A3
[Eng] An ISO 'A' series paper size - 297x420 mm or 11.69x16.54
inches or 842x1190 points (widthxheight)

A4
[Eng] A common ISO 'A' series size of about 8-¼ by 11-¾ inches
or 210x297 mm or 595x842 points. Used as the standard cut-
paper size outside of the United States. The US equivalent is a
letter size (8.5 x 11 inch) paper.

A5
[Eng] An ISO 'A' series paper size - 148x210 mm or 5.83x8.27
inches or 420x595 points (widthxheight)

A6
[Eng] An ISO 'A' series paper size - 105x148 mm or 4.13x5.83
inches or 298x420 points (widthxheight)

A7
[Eng] An ISO 'A' series paper size - 74x105mm or 2.91x4.13
inches or 209x298 points (widthxheight)

ABCD Scheme
[Eng] An initiative in the UK designed to classify the type and
amount of recycled fiber in a paper product.
The scheme grades four types of waste used in paper

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manufacturing, as follows:
A - Woodfree, approved own mill waste (waste that has not left the
mill. i.e. mill broke).
B - Woodfree unprinted waste (waste that has left the mill but not
reached the consumer, typically from the printer or converter).
C - Woodfree printed waste (post consumer waste, collected from
homes, offices etc).
D - Printed mechanical waste (post consumer waste, typically
newspapers).
To be classified as recycled, the grade has to contain no less than
50% of the total fiber from any combination of the above sources,
with the percentages given for each..

Abrasion Resistance
[Eng] A measure of paper's durability when subjected to abrasive
action.

Abrasive Papers
[Eng] Papers covered on one or both sides with abrasive powder,
e.g. emery, sandpaper etc

Abrasiveness
[Eng] A property of paper causing it to scratch the surface it
contacts.

Absolute Moisture
[Eng] The absolute moisture of the air is the maximum amount of
water vapor, the air can contain before the excess water is
released as dew. Absolute moisture is measured in grams per cubic
meter.

Absorbable Organic Halogen (AOX)


[Eng] A measure of the amount of chlorine that is chemically
bound to the soluble organic matter in the effluent.

Absorbency
[Eng] The extent to which a paper will take up and hold a liquid.

Absorbent Core
[Eng] The principal fluid-holding component of disposable hygiene
products. Absorbent cores usually contain a combination of
absorbent cellulose fibers (fluff pulps) and super-absorbent
polymers composed of polyacrylates. Advanced cores can contain
very specialized absorbent cellulose fibers, synthetic fibers and
super-absorbent polymers as well as fluff pulps.

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Absorbent Paper
[Eng] Papers having the specific characteristic of absorbing liquids
such as water and ink.
These papers are soft, loosely felted, unsized and bulky e.g.
blotting paper.

Accelerated Aging
[Eng] Exposing paper at elevated temperature usually at 110C in
an oven or on a hot plate. The purpose of accelerated aging is to
simulate the effect of aging in the laboratory.

Accept
[Eng] Accepted portion of pulp after cleaning and or screening
operation

Accordion Fold
[Eng] A term for two or more parallel folds that result in the sheet
opening like a fan. Accordion folds are used on products such as
brochures and maps.

Acetate Pulp
[Eng] A highly purified (high alpha cellulose) pulp made especially
to be dissolved in acetic acid, acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid to
make acetate rayon and acetate fiber.

Achromatic
[Eng] Material that is white, gray and black and have no color or
hue.

Acid Free Paper


[Eng] A type of paper, which does not contain any acidic substance
that may affect acid sensitive material. Acid free paper is anti rust
and is used for metal wrapping.

Acid Migration
[Eng] The transfer of acid from an acidic material to a less acidic or
neutral-pH material. Occurs when neutral materials are exposed to
atmospheric pollutants or when two paper materials come in
contact.
Acid can also migrate from adhesives, boards, endpapers,
protective tissues, paper covers, acidic art supplies, and
memorabilia.

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Acid Paper
[Eng] A type of paper that has clay as the predominant filler and
an acidic rosin-aluminum mixture as the internal sizing agent.

Acid Proof Paper


[Eng] A paper that is not affected by acid physically or chemically.
This paper is used with substance containing acid.

Acid Size
[Eng] Rosin size containing a large proportion of emulsified, free,
or uncombined rosin.

Acid Sizing
[Eng] Internal sizing carried out in acidic pH range (0-7). Rosin and
alum sizing is acid sizing.

Acidity
[Eng] Degree of acid found in a given paper measured by the pH
factor. Paper can become acidic from the ingredients used in its
manufacture, from the environment or both.

Actinic Rays
[Eng] Light exposure that affects chemical changes in paper.

Activated Carbon
[Eng] A highly absorbent powdered or granular carbon used for
purification by adsorption.

Activated Sludge Treatment


[Eng] The biomass produced by rapid oxygenation of effluent.

Active Alkali (AA)


[Eng] Caustic (NaOH) and Sodium sulfide (Na2S) expressed as
Na2O in alkaline pulping liquor.

Actual Weight
[Eng] Accurate weight of a given quantity of paper, which is
different from the same paper's nominal weight.

Additive Colors
[Eng] In photographic reproduction, the primary colors of red,
green, and blue which are mixed to form all other colors.

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Additives
[Eng] Clay, fillers, dyes, sizing and other chemicals added to pulp
to give the paper greater smoothness, color, fibered appearance or
other desirable attributes.

Aerate
[Eng] Refers to a process in which an air stream is blown onto
paper sheets to separate the sheets as they are fed to the printing
press.

Aerated Lagoon
[Eng] A biological wastewater treatment method in which air
(oxygen) fed into an aeration basin reduces the effluent load.

Aerogramme
[Eng] A single sheet of paper folded and gummed on three sides.
Bears international preprinted air postage and the word
“aerogramme" Intended for airmail correspondence to other
countries.

AF&PA
[Eng] American Forest & Paper Association, established in 1993,
merged the activities of the American Paper Institute (API),
National Forest Products Assn. (NFPA), and American Forest
Council (AFC).

Against the Grain


[Eng] Cutting, folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain
or machine direction of the paper.

Aging
[Eng] Irreversible alteration, generally deterioration, of the
properties of paper in course of time. Aging also causes reduction
in brightness and yellowing effect.

Agitator
[Eng] Equipment used to keep content of a tank or chest in motion
and well mixed.

Air Blade Coating


[Eng] Coating subjected to a thin jet of air. Air jet removes excess
coating and smoothes surface of freshly coated paper. (Same as
air knife coating)

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Air Brush Coater
[Eng] A coater, which uses the pressurized air to atomize the
coating mixture and spray it on the paper.

Air Dry (AD)


[Eng] Refers to the weight of dry pulp/paper in equilibrium with the
atmosphere. Though the amount of moisture in dry pulp/paper will
depend on the atmospheric condition of humidity and temperature
but as a convention 10% moisture is assumed in air dry
pulp/paper.

Air Drying
[Eng] Using hot air to dry pulp or paper sheets.

Air Filter Paper


[Eng] A type of paper used for filtration of air to remove suspended
particles. (car air filter, vacuum bag etc.)

Air Knife Coater


[Eng] A device that applies an excess coating to the paper and
then removes the surplus by impinging a flat jet of air upon the
fluid coating, leaving a smooth, metered film on the paper.

Air Knife Coating


[Eng] A method of coating using an air-knife which acts on the
principle of a doctor blade and uses a thin, flat jet of air for
removing the excess coating from a wet, freshly coated sheet of
paper.

Air Mail Paper


[Eng] It is lightweight, high opacity, good quality writing/printing
type paper used for letters, flyers and other printed matter to be
transported by airlines

Air Permeability
[Eng] Commonly referred to as "porosity." The ease with which
pressurized air can flow through a paper's thickness. Typically
measure by the Gurley or the Sheffield porosity tests, which
measure the volumetric flow of air through the paper thickness.

Air Pollution
[Eng] The contamination of air around the plant due to the
emission of gases, vapors and particulate material in the

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atmosphere.

Airbrush
[Eng] A compressed air tool that dispenses a fine midst of paint or
ink; used in illustration and photo retouching.

Air-Dried Pulp
[Eng] Pulp is described technically as air-dried when its moisture
content is in equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere.
Commercially, pulp is usually described as air-dried when the
moisture content of the pulp is 10%.

Albion Press
[Eng] A hand operated printing press made of iron.

Album Paper
[Eng] A paper with an antique finish used for pages of photo
albums.

Albumen Plate
[Eng] Offset printing plate coated with light-sensitive albumen. It
has a photosensitive coating.

Albumin Paper
[Eng] A coated paper used in photography; the coating is made of
albumen (egg whites) and ammonium chloride.

Algae
[Eng] Micro organic plant life that forms in paper mill water
supplies.

Alkali Blue
[Eng] Also called reflex blue. A pigment used in carbon black inks
and varnishes to improve luster.

Alkali Proof
[Eng] Paper that resists discoloration through contact with alkaline
substances, such as soap. Glassine and waxed papers are used for
such purposes.

Alkali Resistance
[Eng] Freedom of paper from a tendency to become stained or
discolored or to undergo a color change when brought in contact
with alkaline products such as soap and adhesives.

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Alkaline Paper
[Eng] Paper manufactured under operating conditions with a pH
greater than 7.0. Such papers have calcium carbonate as the filler
and a synthetic material, compatible with the alkaline process, as a
sizing agent. This process increases the longevity, bulk brightness,
opacity, and printing characteristics of the paper without added
cost.

Alkaline Papermaking
[Eng] Paper manufactured under alkaline conditions, using
additives, basic fillers like calcium carbonate and neutral size. The
anti-aging properties in alkaline paper make it a logical choice for
documents where permanence is essential.

Alkaline Pulping
[Eng] Pulping by alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide, with or
without sodium sulfide. Without sodium sulfide it is called soda
process and with sodium sulfide it is known as Kraft or sulfate
process.

Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA)


[Eng] ASA is a sizing agent designed to increase resistance to
water penetration in the case of paper formed under neutral or
alkaline conditions. ASA is especially used in cases where full cure
is desired before the size press and where it is important to
maintain a high frictional coefficient in the paper product. ASA can
improve paper machine runnability and preserve paper's
dimensional stability by limiting penetration of size-press solution
into the sheet.

Alpha Pulp
[Eng] A specially processed, high alpha cellulose content, chemical
pulp. It is also called dissolving pulp.

Alternative Fiber
[Eng] Alternative pulps to wood pulps used in papermaking.

Alum
[Eng] The paper maker alum is hydrated Aluminum Sulfate
{Al2(SO4)3}. It is used to adjust the pH of the mill water or as a
sizing chemical in combination with rosin size.

Aluminum Foil Lamination


[Eng] The combination of thin Aluminum foil with a paper backing
used as a positive moisture barrier. Normal combination is kraft

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backing with Aluminum foil laminated to the kraft by means of
asphalt, adhesive, or polyethylene. The Aluminum foil can also be
coated with polyethylene.

Aluminum Paper
[Eng] Packaging paper made by mixing aluminum powder into the
furnish or by coating or laminating the sheet with aluminum
powder

Anaerobic Reactor System


[Eng] An effluent treatment system that uses microbes in the
absence of oxygen to break down effluent constituents into
methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide.

Anaerobic Treatment
[Eng] An effluent treatment system that uses microbes in the
absence of oxygen to break down organic matter into methane,
carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide.

Aniline
[Eng] Oil based solvent (quick drying) used in the preparation
process of dyes and inks.

Animal Size
[Eng] Glue and gelatin extracted from animal hides and used as a
papermaking size.

Animal Sized
[Eng] A technique of paper making which hardens the surface by
passing the paper through a bath of animal glue or gelatin.

Announcements
[Eng] Folded cards or envelopes that are generally used as
stationery for social announcements.

Annual Renewable
[Eng] Annually harvested crops such as hemp, esparto, bamboo,
and cotton for use in papermaking.

Annual Vegetable Fiber or Agricultural Residue Fiber


[Eng] A source of fiber for pulp and papermaking, including, for
example, wheat or rice straw or other fibrous by-products of
agriculture.

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Anthra Quinone (AQ)
[Eng] A quinoid compound added to white liquor (alkaline cooking
liquor) to improve pulp yield and to increase the rate of
delignification.

Anti Rust Paper


[Eng] Paper containing added substances which give it the property
of protecting the surfaces of ferrous metals against rusting.

Anti Tarnish Paper


[Eng] Paper capable of protecting bright metallic surfaces against
tarnishing.

Anti-foam or Defoamer
[Eng] Chemical additives used at wet end to reduce or eliminate
tendencies of the machine white water to foam.

Antiquarian
[Eng] The largest available handmade paper (53 x 31 inches).

Antique Finish
[Eng] A term describing the surface, usually on book and cover
papers, that have a natural rough finish.

Antique Glazed
[Eng] A paper, which has a high finish on one side and an antique
finish on the other.

Antique Paper
[Eng] A printing paper with a rough finish but good printing
surface, used in book printing for its high volume characteristics.
Antique papers having good bulk and opacity with rough or matte
surface.

Apparent Density
[Eng] Weight per unit volume of a sheet of paper obtained by
dividing the basis weight by the caliper (thickness). Typical values
of apparent density range from 0.75 (in loosely formed or less
dense papers) to 1.20 for highly bonded sheets.

Approach Flow System


[Eng] The stock flow system from Fan pump to headbox slice.

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Apron
[Eng] Sheet of oiled cloth, leather, or rubber, which bridges the
gap between the breast box and the moving wire on a Fourdrinier
machine.

Aqueous Coating
[Eng] A water-based coating applied after printing, either while the
paper is still on press ("in line"), or after it's off press. An aqueous
coating usually gives a gloss, dull, or matte finish and helps
prevent the underlying ink from rubbing off. Unlike a UV coating or
a varnish, an aqueous coating will accept ink-jet printing, making it
a natural choice for jobs that require printing addresses for mass
mailings

Archival Paper
[Eng] A paper with long-standing qualities, acid free, lignin and
sulfur-free, usually with good color retention. Most commonly used
for historic documents. The archival paper must be long lasting
without causing deterioration to itself or other materials it may
come into contact with.

Archival Paper
[Eng] A paper that is made to last for long time and used for long
lasting records.

Art Paper
[Eng] High quality and rather heavy two-side coated printing paper
with smooth surface. The reproduction of fine screen single- and
multicolor pictures ("art on paper") requires a paper that has an
even, well closed surface and a uniform ink absorption.

Artificial Parchment
[Eng] Wood free paper that is produced by fine and extended
grinding of certain chemical pulps and/or the admixture of special
additives. As a result of the "smeary" grinding, the fiber structure
closes homogeneously. It is used e.g. for wrapping meat and
sausages or as corrugating medium for biscuit packaging

Artist's Paper
[Eng] A high-grade paper for drawing, made with a close weave.

Art-Lined Envelope
[Eng] A colored or patterned envelope that is lined with an extra

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fine paper.

Ash
[Eng] The mineral residue left after burning a sample of paper to
determine the percentage of filler it contains.

Ash Content
[Eng] The residue left after complete combustion of paper at high
temperature. It is generally expressed as percent of original test
sample and represents filler content in the paper.

Asphalt Laminated Paper


[Eng] Two sheets of natural kraft paper laminated in a single ply by
means of asphalt. This is used as a moisture barrier; also to resist
action of weak acids and alkalis.

Auto chrome Paper


[Eng] Coated papers that are regarded as exceptional for multi-
colored printing jobs.

Automatic Packaging System


[Eng] Term applicable to any one of several available systems for
open mouth and valve bag packaging where bags are automatically
applied to filler spout, filled, weighed, closed (if open mouth),
palletized, and shrink wrapped.

Azure
[Eng] The light blue color used in the nomenclature of "laid" and
"wove" papers.

Azure Laid Paper


[Eng] A laid paper usually blue in color having a good writing
surface.

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B
B0
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 1000x1414 mm or
39.37x55.67 inches or 2835x4008 points (widthxheight)

B1
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 707x1000 mm or 27.83x39.37
inches or 2004x2835 points (widthxheight)

B10
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 31x44 mm or 1.22x1.73 inches
or 88x125 points (widthxheight)

B2
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 500x707 mm or 19.69x27.83
inches or 1417x2004 points (widthxheight)

B3
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 353x500 mm or 13.90x19.69
inches or 1001x1417 points (widthxheight)

B4
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 250x353 mm or 9.84x13.90
inches or 709x1001 points (widthxheight)

B5
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 176x250 mm or 6.93x9.84
inches or 499x709 points (widthxheight)

B6
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 125x176 mm or 4.92x6.93
inches or 354x499 points (widthxheight)

B7
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 88x125 mm or 3.46x4.92
inches or 249x354 points (widthxheight)

B8
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 62x88 mm or 2.44x3.46 inches
or 176x249 points (widthxheight)

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B9
[Eng] An ISO 'B' series paper size - 44x62 mm or 1.73x2.44 inches
or 125x176 points (widthxheight)

Back
[Eng] Marks left in a sheet of handmade paper, which has been
dried over ropes.

Back Liner
[Eng] The back side layer in a multi-ply paperboard. Normally back
liner is made out of inferior grade pulp compared to top liner.

Back Lining
[Eng] The fixing of a material, either paper or cloth, to the back of
a book before it is bound.

Back Water
[Eng] See White Water.

Backing up
[Eng] Printing the reverse or back side of a sheet that has already
been printed on one side.

Backlining Paper
[Eng] Smooth finish, hard-sized paper varying in thickness from
.009 to .011 of an inch.

Back-To-Back
[Eng] Print applied to both sides of a sheet of paper.

Bag House
[Eng] An air pollution control device that captures particulate in
filter bags.

Bag Paper
[Eng] Any paper made to be used in the manufacturing of bags.

Bagasse
[Eng] Sugarcane residue left after extracting the juice.

Bagasse Pulp
[Eng] Pulp obtained by chemical means from bagasse, the residue
after extracting the juice from sugar cane.

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Baking
[Eng] A term given to the procedure of drying coatings on paper
surface.

Bale
[Eng] A large rectangular shaped compressed package of waste
paper, rag, pulp etc. Bale dimensions and weight varies widely
depending on the baling material and handling capabilities.

Baling Plant
[Eng] Part of a pulp mill where pulp sheets are converted into
bales.

Bamboo
[Eng] A plant of grass family grown in Asian countries and used for
papermaking fibers.

Bamboo Pulp
[Eng] Pulp obtained by chemical means from the stems of bamboo,
a type of grass common to Asiatic countries.

Banding (Strapping)
[Eng] Steel, plastic, fiber or other bands used to secure or protect
rolls, sheets, loads, etc.

Bank Paper
[Eng] A thin, uncoated paper used for making carbon copies.

Banknote or Currency Paper


[Eng] Used for printing currency. De-facto highest grade of paper.
Very high folding endurance, permanency, tensile strength,
suitable for 4-colour printing, with watermark and other
falsification safeguards such as embedded metal strip. Often
contains cotton fibers.

Bark Steam Boiler


[Eng] A boiler that burns mainly bark and other biofuels to produce
steam.

Bark Waste
[Eng] A main source of energy for pulp mills. The tree stem is
debarked before chipping, the bark is recovered and burnt at a
steam power plant.

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Barker or Debarker
[Eng] An equipment used to remove bark from wood.

Barking
[Eng] Removing bark from wood.

Barn Doors
[Eng] A device with two sets of thin metal doors (horizontal and
vertical) placed before a light source to control the direction of
light.

Barograph Paper
[Eng] Red thin paper coated on one side with a white wax, so that
the needle of the barograph leaves a red line on a white ground,
sold in rolls and coils and to suit the type of barograph.

Barrier Coat
[Eng] A coating that is applied onto the non-printing side of paper
to increase the opacity of the paper.

Baryta Paper
[Eng] A coated stock (barium sulfate compound) used for text
impressions on typesetting machines.

Base Board
[Eng] Board intended for coating, laminating, etc.

Base Paper
[Eng] Refers to paper that will be subsequently be treated, coated
or laminated in other ways.

Base Stock
[Eng] Paper that will be further processed as in coating or
laminating.

Basic Dye
[Eng] Dye that have a positive charge due to amine groups and
have a strong affinity for the surfaces of high-yield fibers.

Basic Size
[Eng] Specific, standard sheet size from which the basis weight of
a given grade is determined.

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Basis Weight
[Eng] Weight per 500 sheets of paper (one ream) of different
paper grades weighed by their designated basic sheet size.

Basis Weight
[Eng] In English system of units, basis weight is the weight in
pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a basic size. (Basic
size differs from category to category of the paper. Basic size for
Bond and Ledger is 20"x26", book, offset and text paper have
basic size of 25"x38").
In metric system of units, basis weight is the weight in grams of a
single sheet of area one square meter. Basis weight is also called
as substance and grammage in metric system of units.

Bast
[Eng] Fibres located in the inner bark layer of trees and in outer
portions of other fibrous, woody plants.

Bast Fibers
[Eng] Fibers derived from the bark of some annual plants such as
flax, gampi, hemp, jute, kozo and mitsumata etc. Main
characteristic of these fiber is long length.

Batch Cooking
[Eng] A chemical pulping process in which a discrete quantity of
fibrous raw material is individually process.

Batik
[Eng] A method of treating fabric or paper with wax before dyeing,
so the treated area does not pick up color.

BCTMP
[Eng] Bleached Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping.

Beatability
[Eng] The ease with which pulp can be beaten to achieve the
desired properties.

Beater
[Eng] An equipment used for beating, refining and mixing pulps.

Beater Additive
[Eng] Starch, gum, or resin added to the papermaking stock in the
beater to improve the utilitarian quality of the paper.

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Beater Colored
[Eng] A method of dyeing paper stock by adding coloring to the
pulp in the beater.

Beater Dye
[Eng] Dye added to the beater to color the pulp.

Beater Loading
[Eng] Addition of a filler to the pulp in the beater.

Beater Roll
[Eng] Cylinder or drum set with knives set against a bedplate to
cut up rags in a beater trough.

Beating or Refining
[Eng] The mechanical treatment of the fibers in water to increase
surface area, flexibility and promote bonding when dried.

Bending Chip
[Eng] Paperboards using a recovered paper furnish to make folding
cartons.

Bending Resistance/Flexural Stiffness


[Eng] Corrugated board's ability to resist bending, along with its
edge crush resistance, relates to the top-to-bottom compression
strength and general performance of corrugated containers.

Beta Radiography
[Eng] Beta radiography is a technique using beta rays to measure
thickness, moisture, density, and basis weight etc of paper.

BF
[Eng] An abbreviation for boldface, used to determine where
boldface copy is to be used.

Bible Paper
[Eng] Thin white opaque heavily loaded, used for printing bibles.
Not suitable for pen and ink, because of its absorbency.

Binder
[Eng] Materials, which cause coating pigments to bond. The most
frequently used binder is starch, but synthetic binders are also
used to give improved performance.

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Binder (Coating)
[Eng] A natural or synthetic compound used to adhere coating to
the paper surface.

Binder Migration
[Eng] A coated paper defect where specks give a grainy or
textured appearance to the coated surface.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)


[Eng] When effluent containing biodegradable organic matter is
released into a receiving water, the biodegradation of the organic
matter consumes dissolved oxygen from the water. The BOD of an
effluent is an estimate of the amount of oxygen that will be
consumed in 5 days following its release into a receiving water;
assuming a temperature of 20°C.

Biocide
[Eng] A biological control chemical such as fungicide or a
bactericide used in papermaking.

Biodegradable
[Eng] Capable of destruction by biological action.

Bioenergy
[Eng] Energy generated from renewable biomass e.g. Plants and
plant components

Biofuels
[Eng] Renewable fuels for example from wood and bark.

Biological Waste Water Treatment


[Eng] A method of cleaning up waste water using living micro-
organisms such as bacteria.

Biomass Boiler or Hogged Fuel Boiler


[Eng] Biomass boilers burn bark, saw mill dust, primary clarifier
sediment and other solid waste, and other wood-related scrap not
usable in product production. Also called "hogged fuel" boilers,
biomass boilers make steam and heat for mill use.

Bio-sludge
[Eng] Sludge formed (in the aeration basin) during biological waste
water treatment or other biological treatment process.

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Bisulfate Pulp
[Eng] Pulp made by the bisulfate cooking process using bisulfate
cooking liquor.

Bisulphite Pulp, Sulphite Pulp


[Eng] Chemical pulp produced by cooking chips in a solution of
sulphur dioxide and ammonium-, calcium-, sodium- or magnesium-
sulphite

Black Liquor
[Eng] The liquor that exits the digester with the cooked chips at
the end of the Kraft cook is called "black" liquor.

Black Photo Paper


[Eng] A black paper used to protect photosensitive materials.

Black Printer
[Eng] Refers to the film portion of the color separation process that
prints black; increases the contrast of neutral tones.

Blackening
[Eng] Defect associated with calendered paper occurring as
unintended local areas of apparently darker or grayer colour due,
for example, to the paper being too damp when passed through
the calender.

Blackening
[Eng] Defect associated with calendered paper where local areas of
paper are apparently darker or greyer color due to the paper being
too damp when passed through the calender.

Blade Coated Paper


[Eng] Paper coated by a process in which the freshly applied
coating film is smoothed and the excess removed by a thin, flexible
metal blade.

Blade Coater
[Eng] A device that first applies a surplus coating to paper and
then remove extra color after evenly leveling by means of a flexible
steel blade.

Blade Coating
[Eng] A widely used coating method in which excess coating color
is scraped off by a blade

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Blade Mark
[Eng] Caused by a foreign piece of material caught under the
coating blade, resulting in a scratch or streak that causes the paper
surface to appear less opaque under a low angle light. Also known
as a blade scratch or blade streak.

Blank Book Paper


[Eng] Bond, writing, news manila writing. Grade depends upon the
purpose for which the blank book will be used.

Blank or Black Box


[Eng] A flat sheet of corrugated or solid fiberboard that has been
cut, slotted and scored so that, when folded along the score lines
and joined, it will take the form of a box.

Blanket
[Eng] A surface material (rubber) covering the printing cylinder
that transfers the ink from the plate to the paper.

Blanket-To-Blanket
[Eng] A printing method in which a sheet of paper is passed
through two blanket cylinders and is printed on both sides.

Blanks
[Eng] Heavyweight paperboard that range from 15 points to 48
points in thickness. Can be coated, uncoated, or colored.

Bleach
[Eng] A chlorine solution used to whiten pulp in papermaking.

Bleach Plant
[Eng] Section of a pulp mill where pulp is bleached.

Bleached Pulp
[Eng] Pulp that has been bleached by means of chemical additives
to make it suitable for white paper production.

Bleaching
[Eng] A chemical process used to whiten and purify the pulp.
Bleaching also adds to the sheet's strength and durability.

Bleaching Sequences
[Eng] Series of subsequent bleaching stages, typically described by
abbreviation such as CEHH (Chlorination, Extraction Hypochlorite,

21
Hypochlorite.

Bleed
[Eng] The feathered edge of inks caused by absorption into un-
sized paper.

Bleed (corrugation)
[Eng] The penetration of laminating agents, such as asphalt,
through the kraft plies making up the combination.

Bleed Through
[Eng] When printing on one side of a sheet of paper shows through
to the other side.

Blind Emboss
[Eng] A design impression that is made without using inks or metal
foils.

Blind Folio
[Eng] A page that is counted in the overall counting of pages, but
the number is not printed on the page.

Blind Image
[Eng] A problem that arises in the lithography process when an
image loses its ink receptivity and fails to print.

Blister
[Eng] Defect on a paper surface often shaped like a human blister.
It is due to delamination of a limited portion of paper without
breaking either surface.

Blister Pack
[Eng] This term describes a packaging system, which is a
combination of board and plastics. The product is sealed to the
board by a transparent plastics film. This system is often used for
small products of difficult shapes and sizes.

Blistering
[Eng] The process of separation of the paper’s coating from its
surface, which appears in the form of eruptions. Usually caused by
high drying temperatures, high paper moisture, or low internal
bond strength.

Block
[Eng] Illustrations or line art etched onto zinc or copper plates and

22
used in letterpress printing.

Blocking
[Eng] The adhesion of one coated sheet to another, causing paper
tears or particles of the coating to shed away from the paper
surface.

Blotting Paper
[Eng] An un-sized paper used generally to absorb excess ink from
freshly written manuscripts, letters and signatures.

Blow
[Eng] It is the discharging of the pressure and contents of the
digester in to blow tank.

Blow Heat Recovery System


[Eng] The system used to recover heat from the flash steam
generated while digester is blown in to blow tank.

Blow Tank
[Eng] The tank in which cooked chips and spent liquor is blown
from digester at the end of the cooking cycle.

Blow-Through Drying Process


[Eng] A system using dry steam or hot air that blows through the
wire. The blow-through drying process enabled tissue products to
be dried in much less time.

Blue Angel
[Eng] A German eco-label. To achieve this, paper has to contain
100% post-consumer waste.

Board
[Eng] Thick and stiff paper, often consisting of several plies, widely
used for packaging or box making purposes. Its grammage
normally is higher than 150 g/m2 or thickness is more than 9 point
(thousandth of an inch).

Body Stock
[Eng] Base stock, or coating raw stock for plain or decorated
papers.

Bogus
[Eng] Product made from wastepaper or other inferior materials in

23
an imitation of higher-quality grades.

Bolts
[Eng] The edges of folded sheets of paper, which are trimmed off
in the final stages of production.

Bond Paper
[Eng] The name "bond" was originally given to a paper, which was
used for printing bonds and stock certificates. It is now used in
referring to paper used for letterheads and many printing
purposes. Important characteristics are finish, strength, freedom
from fuzz, and rigidity.

Bonding Strength
[Eng] The internal strength of a paper; the ability of the fibers
within a paper to hold to one another. Bonding strength measures
the ability of the paper to hold together on the printing press or
other converting processing machines. Good bonding strength
prevents fibers from coming loose ("picking").
Bonding strength of fiber is improved by beating/refining and/or
adding bonding agent.

Bone Dry
[Eng] Moisture free or zero moisture.

Book Block
[Eng] A term given the unfinished stage of bookmaking when the
pages are folded, gathered, and stitched-in but not yet, cover
bound.

Book Paper
[Eng] A general term used to define a class or group of papers
having in common A paperboard used in the manufacture of light
non-corrugated container.

Bottle Labeling Paper


[Eng] A special body paper coated with an adhesive mixture. Must
resist blocking under humid conditions.

Bound Galleys
[Eng] The bound galley is used for promotional purposes and is
frequently sent to book reviewers prior to printing the book.

Box
[Eng] A rigid container having closed faces and completely

24
enclosing its contents.

Box Cover Paper


[Eng] A wide variety of white, colored, coated, uncoated, flint
glazed or embossed lightweight paper used expressly for covering
paper boxes.

Box Enamel Paper


[Eng] A glossy coated paper used to cover paper boxes.

Box Liners
[Eng] A coated paper used on the inside of boxes, which are used
for food.

Box Paper
[Eng] Plain or coated papers usually colored and embossed.

Boxboard
[Eng] A class of board frequently lined on one or both sides, with
good folding properties and used for making box and cartons.

Braille Paper
[Eng] A smooth and high strength paper suitable for the production
of raised dots needed to manufacture reading material for the
blind.

Break
[Eng] Total rupture of a web of paper during the manufacturing of
printing process, which results in a tear from edge to edge.

Breaker
[Eng] Reduces rags to smaller pieces for beating in a Hollander.

Breaking Length
[Eng] The length beyond which a strip of paper of uniform width
would break under its own weight if suspended from one end.
Usually expressed in meters.

Breast Box
[Eng] The part of the paper machine whose primary function is to
deliver a uniform dispersion of fibers in water at the proper speed
through the slice opening to the paper machine wire.

25
Breast Roll
[Eng] A medium size metal or plastic/fiberglass/granite covered roll
located at the headbox side of the paper machine to support the
wire.

Brightening
[Eng] Addition of optical brighteners to the stock to make the pulp
appear whiter.

Brightness
[Eng] The reflectance or brilliance of the paper when measured
under a specially calibrated blue light. Not necessarily related to
color or whiteness. Brightness is expressed in %.

Bristol
[Eng] A stiff, heavy paper with a caliper of 0.006” and more.
Examples include bogus, folding, index, printing and wedding
bristol, bristol covers, postcard and coated postcard.

Bristol Board
[Eng] A fine quality cardboard made by pasting several sheets
together, the middle sheets usually of inferior grade.

Brittleness
[Eng] Property of paper causing it to break while bending.

Broad Fold
[Eng] A term given to the fold whereby paper is folded with the
short side running with the grain.

Brocade
[Eng] A type of heavily embossed paper.

Brochure
[Eng] A pamphlet that is bound in booklet form.

Broke
[Eng] Paper that is unusable because of damage or non-conformity
to the specifications. It is put back in to the pulping system.

Broken Carton
[Eng] A quantity of paper less than a full carton.

26
Broken Edges
[Eng] Damaged edges of paper.

Broken Ream
[Eng] Less than a full ream (500 sheets) of paper.

Bronzing
[Eng] A printing method whereby special ink is applied to sheets
and then a powder is applied producing a metallic effect.

Brown Pulp
[Eng] A mechanical pulp made from wood, which is steamed before
grinding. The color-bearing, non-cellulosic components of the wood
remain with the pulp. The pulp is generally used for wrapping and
bag paper.

Brown Stock
[Eng] The unbleached chemical pulp.

Brush Coated Paper


[Eng] Paper that has been coated by off-machine brushes.

Brush Coating
[Eng] A Coating method in which the freshly applied coating color
is regulated and smoothed by means of brushes, some stationary
and some oscillating, before drying.

Brush Finish
[Eng] A high polish given to paper. It is obtained by running the
dried or partially dried coated paper over a revolving drum
provided with six or more rapidly revolving cylinder brushes, which
contact the coated surface of the sheet.

Brush Glazing
[Eng] Glazing of coated paper with the aid of brushes.

Brush Marks
[Eng] Brush marks on the surface of brush coated paper due to
improper application of the coating.

Buckle
[Eng] An area of paper rolls where the paper is overly compressed
and creates a buckle when it is wrapped.

27
Buckram
[Eng] A coarse sized cloth used in the bookbinding process.

Buffering
[Eng] The neutralizing of acids in paper by adding an alkaline
substance (usually calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate)
into the paper pulp. The buffer acts as a protection from the acid in
the paper or from pollution in the environment.

Bulk
[Eng] Reverse of density, expressed as cubic centimeter per gram.

Bulk Product
[Eng] A mass-produced product sold in large volumes without
individual specifications, usually in compliance with a standard. For
example, newsprint.

Bulking Board
[Eng] Non-calendered board, lighter in weight per point of
thickness.

Bulking Thickness
[Eng] The thickness of a pack of sheets divided by the number of
sheets in the pack.

Bulky Mechanical
[Eng] A mechanical paper made to a specific caliper as opposed to
a fixed grammage. This type of paper is used mainly for mass
market paperback books.

Burnout
[Eng] The loss of color during drying.

Burnt Paper
[Eng] Paper, which has been discolored and is brittle, but
otherwise intact.

Burst
[Eng] An irregular separation or rupture through the paper or
package.
Air Shear burst: Burst caused by air trapped in the winding roll
producing rupture of the web along the machine direction.
Caliper shear burst. Cross Machine tension burst that generally
occurs between an area or relatively high and low caliper extending
for some distance in the machine direction; due to non uniform nip

28
velocities between hard and soft sections of the roll.
Core burst: Inter-layer slippage just above the core, often over the
key way, which terminates an Air Shear Burst.
Core bursts are most often seen on core-supported unwinds and
winders.

Burst Factor
[Eng] The ratio of the bursting strength (expressed in g/cm2 ) and
the substance of paper/paperboard (expressed in g/m2)
determined by standard methods of test.

Burst Index
[Eng] The ratio of the bursting strength (expressed in kilo Pascal )
and the substance of paper/paperboard (expressed in g/m2)
determined by standard methods of test.

Burst Ratio
[Eng] The ratio of the bursting strength (expressed in lb/inch2 )
and the substance of paper/paperboard (expressed in lb/ream)
determined by standard methods of test.

Burst Resistance
[Eng] The resistance to bursting of a sheet of paper, paperboard of
package when subject to impact or pressure normal to the surface.

Bursting Strength
[Eng] The resistance of paper to rapture as measured by the
hydrostatic pressure required to burst it when a uniformly
distributed and increasing pressure is applied to one of its side.

Business Communications Paper


[Eng] Paper for use in stationery, business forms, checks, copier
papers, duplicating papers.

Business Form
[Eng] Paper prepared to facilitate the entry of written information
in a pre-determined format. Usually contains repetitive information
to save preparation and reference time.

29
C
C1S
[Eng] Coated on one side of the paper.

C2S
[Eng] Coated on both sides of the paper.

Cable Paper
[Eng] A strong paper used to wrap electrical cables.

Cadmium Yellow
[Eng] A pigment made from cadmium sulfide and cadmium
selenide.

Calcium Carbonate
[Eng] CaCO3, a naturally occurring substance found in a variety of
sources, including chalk, limestone, marble, oyster shells, and
scale from boiled hard water. Used as a filler in the alkaline paper
manufacturing process, calcium carbonate improves several
important paper characteristics, like smoothness, brightness,
opacity, and affinity for ink; it also reduces paper acidity. It is a
key ingredient in today's paper coatings.

Calendar Board
[Eng] A high-strength paperboard used for calendars and displays.

Calendar Rolls
[Eng] A series of polished cast iron rolls at the end of a paper
machine where the paper is passed between the rolls to increase
its smoothness and gloss.

Calender
[Eng] A stack of highly polished metal cylinders at the end of a
paper machines that smoothes and shines the paper surface as
sheets pass through.

Calender Barring or Marks


[Eng] Irregularly shaped bands across the paper web caused by
damaged calender rolls.

Calender Blackening
[Eng] Coverage of calendered paper web with glazed translucent
spots due to excessive calender roll heat, calender pressure, poor

30
and/or excessive and uneven moisture.

Calender Crushed
[Eng] Paper that has been crushed in the calendering process.

Calender Dyed
[Eng] Paper or paperboard that has been colored or stained at the
calender stack.

Calender Finish
[Eng] Finish imparted to paper by the calendering process.

Calender Finished
[Eng] Paper and paperboard that has been passed through a
calendar to improve surface characteristics by application of
pressure, friction, and moisture.

Calender Marks
[Eng] Marks left on the paper during the calendaring process.
Calender blackening and barring are the two most common
examples.

Calender Sizing
[Eng] Sizing chemicals applied to paper sheet during the
calendering process.

Calender Stack
[Eng] A series of horizontal cast iron rolls at the end of a paper
machine where the paper is passed between the rolls to increase
its smoothness and gloss.

Calender Vellum Finish


[Eng] Extra smooth vellum on paper surface imparted by calender
rolls.

Calendered Paper
[Eng] Paper that has been smoothed and compacted between the
rolls of a calender and is thus more or less glossy (sharp or matt
calendered). The effect produced in the calender unit is the result
of friction combined with temperature and pressure.

Calendering
[Eng] Operation carried out by means of calenders for improving
the paper finish by increasing gloss and smoothness.

31
Caliper
[Eng] The thickness of paper usually expressed in thousandths of
an inch in English system of units and in millimeter in Metric
system of units.

Canadian Standard Freeness (CSF)


[Eng] It is a measure of pulp freeness. The unit of measurement is
mlCSF.

Canvas Board
[Eng] A paperboard (used for painting) with a surface of simulated
canvas.

Capacity
[Eng] In paper industry, the capacity of a machine or mill is usually
stated in terms of tons per day or tons per year.

Capacity Utilization Rate


[Eng] The production rate a plant or machine is operating with
respect to design capacity.
Also in some cases it indicates the efficiency (%) at which a plant
or machine is operating.

Carbon Paper
[Eng] A low basis weight paper (8 to 15 g/m2) with very low air
permeability, free of pin holes and with a waxy coating, that is
used to produce carbon copies on typewriters or other office
equipment.

Carbonless Copy Paper


[Eng] Paper that permits making multiple copies without
intervening layers of carbon paper. The paper translates pressure
into a dye reaction which transfers the image to the copy.
Carbonless copy papers are mainly used for continuous form sets,
for cov-ered pay slips, for vouchers to be dispatched by post and
for payment forms. In the US and some other countries, carbonless
copy paper is also called NCR paper (= Non Carbon Required).

Carbonless Paper
[Eng] A paper that uses a chemical reaction between two different
contacting coatings to transfer image when pressure is applied.

Cardboard
[Eng] A thin, stiff paperboard made of pressed paper pulp or
sheets of paper pasted together. Used for playing cards, greeting

32
cards, etc.

Carton
[Eng] A folding box made from boxboard, used for consumer
quantities of product. A carton is not recognized as a shipping
container.

Cartridge Paper
[Eng] Tough, slightly rough surfaced paper used for a variety of
purposes such as envelopes; the name comes from the original use
for the paper which formed the tube section of a shotgun shell.

Cast Coater
[Eng] A device that applies a wet coating color to a paper web
before it contacts a heated drum having a highly polished surface,
which cast the coating in to an image of the smooth, mirror-like
drum surface.

Cast-Coated Paper
[Eng] Cast-coated papers are coated papers that have obtained
their high gloss by moulding on a highly polished, chromium plated
drying cylinder.

Causticizing
[Eng] It is the process in which Green Liquor is converted in to
White Liquor. Technically speaking it is the process of converting
sodium carbonate in to sodium hydroxide.

Cellulose
[Eng] It is a high molecular weight, stereoregular, and linear
polymer of repeating beta-D-glucopyranose units. Simply speaking
it is the chief structural element and major constituents of the cell
wall of trees and plants.

Cellulose Fiber
[Eng] An elongated, tapering, thick walled cellular unit, which is
the main structural component of woody plants. Fibers in the
plants are cemented together by lignin. In British English Fiber is
spelled as Fiber.

Check or Cheque Paper


[Eng] A strong, durable paper made for the printing of bank checks
or cheques.

33
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
[Eng] The amount of oxygen consumed in complete chemical
oxidation of matter present in waste water; indicates the content of
slowly degradable organic matter present. COD is easier to
measure compared to BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand).

Chemical Pulp
[Eng] Pulp obtained from the chemical cooking or digestion of
wood or other plant material.

Chemical Recovery
[Eng] It is the process in which cooking chemicals are recovered.

Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (CTMP)


[Eng] Mechanical pulp produced by treating wood chips with
chemicals (usually sodium sulfite) and steam before mechanical
defibration.

China Clay
[Eng] Natural mineral, consisting essentially of hydrated silicate of
alumina, used as a filler or as a component in a coating color. (Also
see clay).

Chip
[Eng] Wood chips produced by a chipper; used to produce pulp,
fiberboard and particle board, and also as fuel.

Chipboard/Grey Board
[Eng] A paperboard, thicker than cardboard, used for backing
sheets on padded writing paper, partitions within boxes,
shoeboxes, etc.

Chipper
[Eng] The machine that converts wood logs in to chips.

Chlorine Number
[Eng] A test method to determine the bleach requirement of a
pulp. It indicates the number of grams of chlorine consumed by
100 g of pulp under specified conditions.

Chromo
[Eng] A term used to describe both papers and boards used for
subsequent brush coating. The various qualities are determined
both by the actual grade of base material used and the quality of
the coating, which may be gummed. Coating may be applied to

34
one or both sides, depending on end use.

Cigarette Paper
[Eng] This light weight, unsized paper (grammage 18 to 24g/m2),
converted to improve glowing. It normally has approx. 30%
calcium carbonate as filler to control the burning rate and match it
with tobacco burning rate. Very long fiber such as jute, cotton etc
is used to achieve high strength and porosity.

Clarifier
[Eng] Basin where sludge is removed from treated effluent by
settling.

Clay
[Eng] A natural substance used as both a filler and coating
ingredient to improve a paper's smoothness, brightness, opacity
and/ or affinity for ink.

Clay Coated Boxboard


[Eng] A grade of paperboard that has been clay coated on one or
both sides to obtain whiteness and smoothness. It is characterized
by brightness, resistance to fading, and excellence of printing
surface. Colored coatings may also be used and the body stock for
coating may be any variety of paperboard.

Cleaners
[Eng] A conical or partly cylindrical device with no moving parts,
designed to remove grit from thin-stock furnish by the centrifugal
action of rotating liquid.

Closed System
[Eng] Papermaking system wherein white water is mainly re-
circulated and not discharged as effluent.

Clot
[Eng] Thick element composed of several entangled fibers. Its
presence is harmful to the production process and needs to be
eliminated.

Coarse Paper (also Industrial Paper)


[Eng] Various grades of papers used for industrial application
(abrasive, filter etc.) rather than cultural purposes (writing,
printing etc.)

35
Coat Weight
[Eng] The amount of coating applied to base paper, expressed as
pounds of air-dried coating on the surface of a 25X38 in ream or
grams per meter square.

Coated Paper
[Eng] Term that applies to paper which has a special coating
applied to its surface.
Material such as clay, casein, bentonite, talc, applied by means of
roller or brush applicators; or plastics applied by means of roll or
extrusion coaters.

Coated White Top Liner


[Eng] White liner that is coated to produce superior printability.

Coating
[Eng] Process by which paper or board is coated with an agent to
improve its brightness and/or printing properties.

Coating Color
[Eng] Mixture used to coat paper and board: contains pigment,
binder, special additives and water.

Coating Color Kitchen


[Eng] Section of Coating Plant where coating colour is prepared
and mixed

Coating Lump
[Eng] A piece of dried coating redeposited onto the web of paper.

Coating Mottle
[Eng] Variation in gloss of a coated calender sheet. A good-coated
sheet has relatively uniform gloss after calendering.

Coating Pick
[Eng] The process of lifting or removal of coating particles from the
base sheet during calendering or printing.

Coating Piling
[Eng] Piling caused by loose particles separating from a coated
sheet of paper.

Coating Pits
[Eng] Coating pits refer to the microscopic holes in the coating air

36
bubbles.

Coating Skip
[Eng] Irregularly shaped areas on a sheet of paper where the
coating layer is absent.

Coating Splash
[Eng] Spots of excess coating on a coated sheet of paper.

Cobb Test
[Eng] Measures paper's water absorption rate and is expressed as
the amount of water pick-up per unit surface area of paper by
Tappi method T441. The test duration must be specified to
properly know the absorption rate. United Nations (UN) and Code
of Federal Regulations require the 30-minute pick-up must be 155
grams per square meter or less for containerboard used in
hazardous material transport.

Cockle
[Eng] A rippling effect in paper caused by drying at a lower
tension. It can be created as a desired effect or can be an
unwanted result of improper drying

Cockle (Crinkle)
[Eng] Formation of ripples on a sheet of paper caused by uneven
moisture or tension during the drying process.

Cockle Finish
[Eng] Produced by air drying paper with controlled tension. This
uneven surface is available in bond papers.

Cockling
[Eng] When the surface of the paper has wave like appearance.

Cogeneration
[Eng] It is the process to generate electricity from high pressure
steam and using low and/or medium pressure steam in the mill
process.

Cold Blow
[Eng] Pressure ejection of cooked pulp from batch or continuous
digesters after the pulp has been cooled to below 100oC. The
cooling step reduces damage to the fibers.

37
Cold Pressed
[Eng] Textured surface produced by pressing the paper through
unheated rollers.

Cold Spot Carbonizing Ink


[Eng] Material coated on the back of forms selectively. It's an ink,
which can be applied cold to normal printing equipment.

Cold-Set Inks
[Eng] Inks that are in solid state but melt in the hot press and
solidify when they come in contact with paper.

Collate
[Eng] To gather sheets or signatures together in their correct
order.

Collotype Paper
[Eng] A printing paper, which is durable enough to withstand
excess moisture from the collotype printing process.

Color Fastness
[Eng] Capacity of dyed paper to retain its original color or to resist
fading under influence of heat and light.

Color Lump
[Eng] Impressed mark on paper caused by a defect, which appears
on calender rolls.

Color Match
[Eng] Color quality when there is no significant difference in color
hue between two samples when viewed under standard
illumination.

Color Progression
[Eng] The order in which different color inks are laid down on the
paper.

Color Separation
[Eng] Process of separating each of the three primary colors by
optically filtering the image.

Color Strength
[Eng] A term referring to the relative amount of pigmentation in an
ink.

38
Colored Kraft
[Eng] Natural or bleached kraft paper to which a dye or pigment
has been added.

Colored Pigments
[Eng] These are water insoluble colored materials. They belongs in
the category of fillers and loading material but are colored and
used in small quantity.
Pigments has no affinity to fiber and must be used in conjunction
with alum or a cationic retention aid in order to retain them.

Color-fast Papers
[Eng] Colored papers that will not run when wet or fade under
bright light.

Colorimetry
[Eng] Using Colorimeter, a given solid color may be quantified by
analyzing physical color data.

Combination Board
[Eng] Cylinder-made, multi-layered paperboard with layers from
different pulps.

Combined Deinking
[Eng] Deinking process combining flotation and washing.

Commercial Match
[Eng] Manufacturing a paper to meet the specifications of a sample
of paper provided to the manufacturer.

Commercial Register
[Eng] Color registration measured within plus or minus one row of
dots.

Commodity Papers
[Eng] A generic term used to classify average quality paper grades
(such as bond and offset) produced in high volume on big paper
machines.

Communication Papers
[Eng] A term used to describe paper grades (such as bond, writing
and xerographic) used by printers and publishers in production of
books, magazines, newspapers, etc.

39
Compressibility
[Eng] Compressibility describes a paper's capacity to be squeezed
(upon flat surfaces) and returned to its prior state. It is an
important property of paper when stacks of paper are placed under
compression. It is also known as Cushion.

Compression Strength (CD or MD)


[Eng] Can be referred to as ring crush or "STFI (stiffy)". The
amount of force needed to crush paper resting on its edge.
Compression testers hold and support the paper specimen so as to
emulate its position and orientation in the walls of a corrugated
container. Due to the corrugated board making process, paper
must support compressive loads orthogonal to their grain (a CD
orientation).
The test is unidirectional so the paper orientation during testing
must be known.

Computer Output Paper


[Eng] A grade of writing paper with strength and good printing
surface. It's also known as "form bond”.

Conditioned Paper
[Eng] Paper which has been treated in the mill by exposure to hot,
moist air to increase the moisture content of the paper for
achieving achieve an optimum flatness and stability.

Conditioning
[Eng] Allowing paper adjust to the surrounding atmosphere until its
moisture content is equal to atmospheric moisture content. This
process provides for optimum performance on printing presses.

Coniferous
[Eng] Trees, which are usually evergreen and classified as
softwood, such as pines and firs.

Coniferous Trees
[Eng] Cone bearing and evergreen trees. Also known as soft wood
trees. e.g. pine, spruce etc.

Consistency
[Eng] The percentage of bone dry solids by weight in pulp or stock.

Construction Paper
[Eng] Sheathing paper, roofing, floor covering, automotive, sound

40
proofing, industrial, pipe covering, refrigerator, and similar felts.

Contact Print
[Eng] A print made from contact of a sensitive surface to a
negative or positive photograph.

Containerboard
[Eng] The paperboard components (linerboard, corrugating
material and chipboard) used to manufacture corrugated and solid
fiberboard. The raw materials used to make containerboard may be
virgin cellulose fiber, recycled fiber or a combination of both.

Contaminant
[Eng] Any material that reduces the quality of paper for recycling
or makes it unrecyclable. Contaminants include metal, stickies, foil,
glass, plastic, food, hazardous waste, and synthetic fabrics.

Continuous Cooking
[Eng] A method used in chemical pulping in which raw material is
fed continuously into the digester, while at the same time pulp and
black liquor are removed (cf. batch cooking).

Continuous Pulping
[Eng] Production of pulp in continuous digester as compared to a
batch digester.

Contraries
[Eng] Unsuitable material found in wastepaper which must be
removed from the pulp before making it into paper, e.g. paperclips,
string, plastics.

Contrast
[Eng] The degree of difference between light and dark areas in an
image. Extreme lights and darks give an image high contrast. An
image with a narrow tonal range has lower contrast.

Conversion Coating
[Eng] Off-machine coating is sometimes referred to as conversion
coating.

Converter
[Eng] A company that converts paper from its original form to
usable products such as adding machine rolls, coated papers, and
envelopes etc.

41
Converting
[Eng] The operation of treating, modifying, or otherwise
manipulating the finished paper and paperboard so that it can be
made into end-user products.

Converting Paper
[Eng] Paper converted from its original state into a new product
such as adding machine rolls, coated papers, envelopes, notebooks
etc.

Cooking
[Eng] Reacting fibrous raw material with chemical under pressure
and temperature to soften and or remove lignin to separate fibers.

Cooking Liquor
[Eng] Liquor made up of selected chemicals and used for cooking
pulp. e.g. cooking liquor in kraft pulping mainly consist of NaOH
and Na2S.

Cooling Cylinders or Cooling Drums


[Eng] Water cooled cylindrical metal vessel over which dry paper
web after dryers is passed to cool the paper before calendering..

Copier Paper or Laser Paper


[Eng] Lightweight grades of good quality and dimensionally stable
papers used for copying correspondence and documents.

Copper Number
[Eng] It is the measure of degree of fiber degradation. It is weight
of copper in grams reduced to cuprous state by 100 grams of pulp.

Copying Paper
[Eng] Copying paper is an uncoated woodfree or a mechanical
grade white or colored paper usually available in A4 and A3 size.

Cord
[Eng] Volume measurement of pulpwood indicating a pile
measuring 4 ft. x 4 ft. x 8 ft., equaling 128 ft.

Core
[Eng] Fibrous tube used to wound paper for shipment.

Core Cards
[Eng] A record of specifications included by the manufacturer in

42
each shipment of paper.

Core Damage (Core burn out)


[Eng] Mechanical damage to the ends of a core, which has resulted
from the core chucks tearing into the core ends.

Core Damage (Crushed Core)


[Eng] A compressed core that is no longer round.

Core Plug
[Eng] Metal, wood, particleboard, or other material plugs which are
driven into the ends of the paper core of finished roll to prevent
crushing of the core.

Core Slippage
[Eng] Displacement of the core from its intended position relative
to the rolled paper.

Core Waste
[Eng] Core waste is the paper left on a roll after most of the paper
has been used.

Coreboard
[Eng] Board manufactured from recovered papers to produce paper
cores.

Corewood
[Eng] Wood located in the centre of the trunk and often darker in
color than the surrounding wood

Corner Marks
[Eng] Marks on a final printed sheet that indicates the trim lines or
register.

Corner Stub
[Eng] Used primarily on continuous forms to assist in manual
carbon extraction when the form has been burst.

Correspondence Envelope
[Eng] A flat case, rectangular in shape and made from one sheet of
paper. The sheet is folded to provide a plain front and back
consisting of four overlapping flaps.

43
Correspondence Papers
[Eng] Refers to writing papers with attractive finish.

Corrugated Board
[Eng] Usually a nine-point board after if has passed through a
corrugating machine. When this corrugated board is pasted to
another flat sheet of board, it becomes single-faced corrugated
board; if pasted on both sides, it becomes double-faced corrugated
board or corrugated (shipping) containerboard.

Corrugated Board – Double Wall


[Eng] The structure formed by three flat facings and two
intermediate corrugated medium.

Corrugated Board – Single Face


[Eng] The structure formed by one corrugated member glued to
one flat facing.

Corrugated Board – Single Wall


[Eng] The structure formed by one corrugated inner member glued
between two flat facings. It's also known as Double Face.

Corrugated Cardboard
[Eng] Layers of paper glued together with a ruffled or grooved
inner liner. This is the material, which makes corrugated cardboard
boxes.

Corrugated Container
[Eng] Containers made with corrugating medium and linerboard.

Corrugated Fiberboard
[Eng] Consists of one or more sheets of fluted paper stuck to a flat
sheet(s) of paper.

Corrugated Medium or Media


[Eng] The wavy center of the wall of a corrugated container, which
cushions the product from shock during shipment (see flute).
Media can contain up to 100% post-consumer recycled fiber
content without reducing its ability to protect the product.

Corrugating Medium
[Eng] Paperboard made from chemical and semi-chemical pulp, or
waste paper, that is converted to a corrugated board by passing it
through corrugating cylinders.

44
Corrugator
[Eng] Machine that presses medium into flutes, applies glue to the
medium and affixes sheets of linerboard to form corrugated board.

Cotton
[Eng] Cotton is the purest form of cellulose produced in nature and
it requires the least amount of processing before it can be used.
Cotton fibers are strong and flexible and suitable for producing fine
papers.

Cotton Content Paper


[Eng] Papers utilizing cotton fabrics and cotton linters as a raw
material.

Cotton Fiber
[Eng] Cotton is a natural fiber and is one of the strongest and most
durable fibers known to man. Papers manufactured of cotton fiber
will last longer and hold up better under repeated handling and
variant environmental conditions than paper made from wood pulp.
Generally, given reasonable care, one can expect one year of
usable life for every 1% of cotton contained in the sheet.
Typically cotton fiber papers are made of either all cotton fiber
(100% cotton) or a blend of cotton and wood pulp .

Cotton Linters
[Eng] hort cotton fibers remaining on cotton seed after the ginning
process. Cotton linters are used as raw material to produce pulp for
papers.

Cotton Paper or Rag Paper


[Eng] Paper made with a minimum of 25% cotton fiber. Cotton
paper is also called rag paper.

Couch Marks
[Eng] Defects or shadows appearing in a regular pattern on paper.
Couch marks are caused by the irregular removal of water on the
wet-end of the paper machine.

Couch Pit
[Eng] This is the pit below the couch roll. It collects water draining
from this section, wet wire trim and any wet broke generated due
to the paper break at the wire part. Couch pit has agitator (s).

Couch Roll
[Eng] Couch roll serves the following functions 1) Main drive for

45
the wire, 2) Transfer the wet sheet from wire part to press part
and 3) Removes water (if suction type couch roll). Couch roll can
be solid or suction type.

Coucher
[Eng] A person who transfers the newly-formed sheets of paper
from hand moulds to felt blankets.

Cover Paper
[Eng] Any wide variety of fairly heavy plain or embellished papers,
which are converted into, covers for books, catalogs, brochures,
pamphlets, etc. Good folding qualities, printability, and durability
characterize it.

Crack
[Eng] 1. A defect in coated paper, caused by the separation of the
coating layer on the formation of fissures in the surface of the
coating due to printing or other converting process.
2. Crack at fold: Fissures in the crease when any paper is folded
along a fold line. May be due to separation of coating or separation
of fibers. More prevalent when the paper has been over-dried. In
boards it may occur along score-folds even though the scoring has
been done to minimize cracking at the fold. The term is also
applied when coatings crack without fiber failure during a folding
operation.

Crackle
[Eng] The noise produced from a sheet of paper when it is shaken.

Crash Finish
[Eng] Paper embossed at the mill to resemble coarse linen.

Crash Perforation
[Eng] Perforation cut through plies of a collated set of business
forms. It's normally done on a collator.

Crayon Paper
[Eng] Paper used for crayons or watercolor. Crayon paper is a
heavy board with a glazed surface on one side and rough finish on
the other.

Crease
[Eng] 1. Deformation remaining from a fold over.
2. Cross direction wrinkles( Washboard): Fold over of a web in the
cross machine direction, giving a crease running in the machine

46
direction.
3. Blade crease: A crease essentially in the machine direction
devoid of coating in the creased area.
4. Calender Crease: Usually a sharp crease caused by passage
through the Calender of a crease or of a fold generated at the
Calender; often cut through when it is preferable to call it a
Calender out.
5. Smoothed crease: A flattened-out crease running mainly in the
machine direction. Can occur at the wet press section, dryer (dryer
wrinkles), size press, winder or sheeter.

Crepe Paper
[Eng] Crêpe paper is a type of thin paper resembling the fabric
crape often used to make cheap paper decorations or streamers.

Creping
[Eng] The operation of crinkling a sheet of paper to increase its
stretch and softness.

Crimping
[Eng] Creasing the bindery edges of ledger sheets to help them
open more freely.

Critical Load
[Eng] Highest pollutant load that, in the long term, does not
damage essential characteristics in an ecosystem.

Crocking
[Eng] Rubbing off the dye from the surface of a paper.

Cropping
[Eng] Trimming original photographs to smaller size.

Cross
[Eng] A T-shaped wooden tool used to remove paper from ropes in
a drying loft.

Cross Direction (CD)


[Eng] Direction at right angle to the flow on a paper machine. It's
also known as the direction across the grain. Paper is weaker and
more sensitive to changes in relative humidity in the cross direction
than the grain or machine direction.

Cross Grain Fold


[Eng] A fold at a right angle to the direction of the grain (or the

47
machine direction) in the paper.

Cross Perforations
[Eng] In continuous forms, perforations cutting at right angles to
the web direction.

Cross-Machine Direction
[Eng] A direction perpendicular to the direction of web travels
through the paper machine.

Crushed Roll
[Eng] Defective roll as a result of stacking rolls on end in an
excessively high pile, which causes the lower ends of the lower
rolls to fail in the axial direction.

Crystallization
[Eng] A condition of a dried ink film, which repels another ink
printed on top of it.

Crystallography
[Eng] This is a science of analyzing crystalline structure of
materials. In the paper industry, it usually refers to the study of
cellulose. A high crystalline structure means less swelling of the
fibers.

CTMP
[Eng] Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping is a pressurized refining
process, which is preceded by the addition of sulphite. Bleached
CTMP pulp is known as BCTMP.

Cunit
[Eng] A term used in the measurement of pulpwood, i.e. 100 cubic
feet of solid wood, bark excluded. One cunit corresponds to 2.83
cubic meter of wood..

Cupstock
[Eng] Plastic-coated board for paper cup production, suitable for
cold or hot beverages.

Curl
[Eng] Tendency of paper by itself to bend or partly wrap around
the axis of one of its directions.

Currency or Banknote Paper


[Eng] Used for printing currency. De-facto highest grade of paper.

48
Very high folding endurance, permanency, tensile strength,
suitable for 4-colour printing, with watermark and other
falsification safeguards such as embedded metal strip. Often
contains cotton fibers.

Cut
[Eng] Rupture of sheet in a defined region, not extending to tear
the sheet into two pieces.

Cut Sheet
[Eng] Paper cut in sheets (letter, legal, A, B or any other standard
size) to be used in printer, photocopier, fax machines etc.

Cut-Off
[Eng] A term used in web press printing to describe the point at
which a sheet of paper is cut from the roll.

Cut-Size
[Eng] Fine paper cut to specific end-use dimensions on a guillotine
or rotary type paper trimmer. Usually it refers to business or
writing papers that have been cut to dimensions of 8-1/2 x 11 and
8-1/2 x 14 or 11 x 17 inches.

Cutter Broke
[Eng] Waste and trimmed paper edges from the cutting operation.
This broke is reused as pulp for manufacturing paper.

Cutter Dust
[Eng] Small loose paper particles which chip out of the edges of a
sheet of papers as it is cut by the chopping blade and/or disc
knives on a sheet cutter.

Cutter or Sheeter
[Eng] Machine for cutting the paper web into sheets.

Cutting (Refining)
[Eng] A refining or beating action that splits the fibers in to two or
more pieces.

Cut-to-register
[Eng] A term used for watermark papers to indicate that the paper
has been cut to allow the watermark to appear in a predetermined
position on the finished sheet.

49
Cyan
[Eng] One of the subtractive primary colors, the hue of which is
used for cyan process ink, one of the four-color process inks. Cyan
reflects blue and green light and absorbs red light.

Cylinder
[Eng] A term usually applied to different types of rolls or drums on
a paper machine such as dryers.

Cylinder Board
[Eng] Paperboard made on a cylinder machine.

Cylinder Dried
[Eng] Describes the paper, which is dried by passing it against the
heated iron rolls.

Cylinder Gap
[Eng] The gap in the cylinders of a press where the grippers or
blanket clamps is housed. In printing, space between the ends of a
plate wrapped around the press cylinders.

Cylinder Mould or Cylinder Machine


[Eng] It is a type of papermaking machine. Wire-covered cylinders
are rotated through a vat of pulp, and paper is formed as the water
drains from the cylinder. Cylinder machines are used primarily to
manufacture paperboard. Multi-cylinder machines produce multi-
layered paperboard (one layer for each cylinder).

Cylindrical Casting
[Eng] Stereotyped cast into a curved mat to produce a casting
suitable for use on a rotary press.

CYMK
[Eng] Colors used in printing to reproduce color photos. The colors
are Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black (or Key Color).

50
D
Dahlgren
[Eng] A dampening system for printing presses, which utilizes
more alcohol (25%), and less water and reduces the amount of
paper that is spoiled.

Damask Paper
[Eng] Writing paper with a finish resembling linen.

Damp Streaks
[Eng] Streaks caused by uneven pressing or drying.

Dampeners
[Eng] In lithography, cloth-covered parchment paper or rubber
rollers that distribute the dampening to the press plate.

Dampening
[Eng] An essential part of the printing process in which a cloth
covered rubber rollers distributes the dampening solution to the
plate.

Damping
[Eng] The process of keeping the non-image areas of lithographic
plates to be ink repellent by applying aqueous Fountain solution to
the plate from the Dampening system.

Damping Roller
[Eng] The roller on a printing machine, which applies the moisture
directly to the printing plate.

Dancer Rolls
[Eng] A weighted roller that rides on the web between the roll of
paper and the meeting unit to take up slack and keep the web at
uniform tension. It is also know as rider roller.

Dandy Roll
[Eng] A hollow wire covered roll that rides on the paper machine
wire and compacts the newly formed wet web to improve the
formation and if required to impart watermark or laid finish the
paper.

51
Daphne
[Eng] A plant known as the 'Nepal paper plant' used as a source of
fiber for papermaking.

Debarker or Barker
[Eng] An equipment used to remove bark from wood.

Debarking
[Eng] A process in which most or all of the bark is removed from
the logs before feeding the logs into the chipper, or into the
grinder.

Debarking Drum
[Eng] Large rotating cylinder in which pulpwood logs are tumbled
against one another to remove the bark.

Debossing
[Eng] Pressing letters or illustrations into a sheet of paper using a
metal or plastic die to create a depressed (debossed) image.

Decalcomania Paper
[Eng] A transfer paper designed to permit transfer of printed
surface to objects such as china, glass, etc. Also known as a decal.

Deciduous
[Eng] Tree species that annually sheds its leaves during the Fall
season. Hardwoods such as maple, chestnut, birch, and poplar are
the examples of deciduous trees.

Deciduous Trees
[Eng] Broad leafed or hardwood trees which lose their leaves in fall
such as birch, maple etc.

Decker
[Eng] A drum type filter used for pulp thickening.

Deckle
[Eng] The width of the wet sheet as it comes off the wire of a
paper machine. Also defied as the wood frame resting on or hinged
to the edges of the mould that defines the edges of the sheet in
handmade papermaking or strap or board on the wet end of a
paper machine that determines the width of the paper web.

52
Deckle Edge
[Eng] The untrimmed, feathery edges of paper formed where the
pulp flows against the deckle.

Deckle Fill
[Eng] Also known as machine fill. The maximum width of paper
machine taken up for making paper. For economic reasons, it
should approach as far as possible -- to the maximum trimmed
width of the machine.

Deckle Frame
[Eng] A wooden frame that rests on the top of a mold during the
papermaking process. It acts as a barrier to keep the pulp with in
the mold.

Deckle Slip
[Eng] Strip of wood fixed to the underside of the deckle to stop the
pulp from creeping.

Deckle Stain
[Eng] Paper that is colored or tinted along the deckle edge.

Decor Paper
[Eng] Woodfree, white or single-colour paper, often printed with
various patterns, e.g. wood grains. The final product consists of
laminated boards or directly coated particle boards used for
furniture production.

Deculator
[Eng] A device that removes entrained and dissolved air from
dilute stock furnish by applying vacuum as the stock is sprayed
into an open chamber, usually at the outlet of cleaners.

Defects
[Eng] Irregularities in finished paper that reduce the appearance or
cause weaknesses in the sheet.

Defibration
[Eng] Separation of wood fibers by mechanical and/or chemical
means.

Defoamer
[Eng] A defoamer is a chemical added to a liquid to reduce or
eliminate the foaming tendency of the liquid.

53
Defoliation
[Eng] Premature loss of leaves due to airborne pollution or other
factors interfering with vital processes in trees.

Degree of Polymerization (DP)


[Eng] As applied to cellulose, refers to the average number of
glucose unit in each cellulose molecule of a pulp sample. Usually
determined by the CED viscosity test.

Deinkability
[Eng] Suitability of recovered paper for deinking; depends on
paper grade, printing process used, age of paper, and other
factors.

De-Inked Paper Stock


[Eng] Recycled paper from which the ink has been removed by
chemical and mechanical means to produce clean fibers.

De-Inked Pulp
[Eng] A waste paper pulp prepared by a combination of mechanical
disintegration and chemical treatment to remove ink from recycled
paper.

Deinked Pulp (DIP)


[Eng] Paper pulp produced by deinking of recovered paper

Deinking
[Eng] The process of removing inks, coatings, sizing, adhesives
and/ or impurities from waste paper before recycling the fibers into
a new sheet.

Deinking Loss
[Eng] Unwanted loss of solid material from pulp during deinking
(usually 10-40%).

Delamination
[Eng] The separation of the layers of a multiplex
paper/paperboard.

Delignification
[Eng] The removal of lignin, the material that binds wood fibers
together, during the chemical pulping process.

54
Deliquescent
[Eng] Material that has the ability to absorb enough moisture from
the surrounding atmosphere to revert it to a liquid form. Examples
of deliquescent include calcium chloride and ammonium nitrate.

Demy
[Eng] A term for a standard sized printing paper measuring 17.5 x
22.5 in.

Densimeter
[Eng] Equipment used to analyze the porosity of paper.

Densitometer
[Eng] A sensitive photoelectric instrument that measures the
density of photographic images or of colors. Used in quality control
to accurately determine the consistency of color throughout the
run.

Density
[Eng] Density or specific gravity of paper is it weight per unit
volume, obtained by dividing the basis weight by caliper. Paper
density (in g/cm2) expresses how compact the paper is.

Deposit
[Eng] Mass of airborne pollutants deposited on a unit area of land
or water in a given time, e.g. grams per square metre per year
(g/m2/a).

Deresination
[Eng] Reducing the resin (pitch) content of wood prior to cooking
either by storage or using bleaching chemicals to reduce the resin
content in pulp.

Descender
[Eng] A term that describes that portion of lower case letters which
extends below the main body of the letter, as in "p".

Desensitize
[Eng] Coating surface of a carbonless paper with desensitizing ink
to inhibit image transfer.

Devil
[Eng] Machine for removing dust and dirt from rags or esparto
grass (also known as a willow).

55
Diazo
[Eng] A light-sensitive coal tar product used as a coating on
presensitized plates as well as overlay proofs.

Die
[Eng] An engraved stamp used for impressing an image or design.

Die Cuttability
[Eng] Suitability of paper or paperboard for die cutting into blanks
of a given shape.

Die Cutting
[Eng] A method of using sharp steel ruled stamps or rollers to cut
various shapes i.e. labels, boxes, image shapes. Male and female
dies are used to cut paper or board in desired shapes.

Die Stamping
[Eng] An intaglio process for printing from images engraved into
copper or steel plates.

Die Wiping Paper


[Eng] A type of paper used to clean surface of printing plates in the
intaglio process.

Die-Cut
[Eng] A cut made with a special punching blade instead of with a
conventional rotary knife.

Die-Cut Paper
[Eng] Paper cut with a special punching blade rather than a
conventional rotary blade.

Dielectric Papers
[Eng] A type of paper, which is free of any metallic elements that
might conduct electricity.

Dielectric Strength
[Eng] The degree to which paper resists penetration of an electric
charge.

Digest
[Eng] A common size in publication (about 5 1/2" x 8 1/2" in size).

56
Digester
[Eng] The reaction vessel in which wood chips or other plant
materials are cooked with chemical to separate fiber by dissolving
lignin.

Digester House
[Eng] That part of a chemical pulp mill where cooking takes place.

Digital Printing
[Eng] 1. Printing by imaging systems that are fed imaging
information as digital data from pre-press systems.
2. Computer –to-plate Systems, which use printing plates, or other
images carriers that do not require intermediate films.
3. Computer-to-print (Plateless): Systems that produce
reproductions directly on the substrate without the need for
intermediate films or plates
A. Electronic printers: Electrophotographic printers, for black or
single color, used for short-run variable information and on-
demand book publishing.
B. Color copiers: Usually Electrophotographic printers, for spot or
four color process printing, used for making one or several copies
of spot or four color process subjects.
C. Electronic printing systems: Electrophotographic,
magnetographic, monographic, field effect, ink jet or thermal
transfers printing. For One-colour, four color process or up to six-
color printing. Used for some degree of variable information, on-
demand. Examples of use are direct mail, temporary product labels
for trade shows, billboard posters and the like.

Digital Printing Machine


[Eng] Printing machine that prints direct from a computer data file
onto paper, using the same image transfer techniques as are used
in copiers and printers.

Digital Printing Paper


[Eng] Paper or board specially designed to be used in digital
printing machines.

Digital Proof
[Eng] Color separation data is digitally stored and then exposed to
color photographic paper creating a picture of the final product
before it is actually printed.

Dimensional Stability
[Eng] The ability of paper or paperboard to maintain size. It is the

57
resistance of paper to dimensional change with change in moisture
content or relative humidity. Dimensional stability is essential for
keeping forms in registration during printing and keeping sheets
from jamming or wrinkling on press or in laser printers.

Din 6738
[Eng] An international standard that guarantees the paper for
permanence with a life expectancy of at least 100 years.

Dioxin
[Eng] A group of 75 chlorinated compounds. Dioxins are formed in
a complex process, where chlorine combines with other additives
during bleaching..

DIP
[Eng] Deinked Pulp - a pulp produced from deinked wastepaper.

Diploma
[Eng] A fine paper made specifically for the printing of diplomas,
certificates, and documents. Its main properties are durability and
permanence.

Diploma Parchment
[Eng] Paper made from cotton fibers. It resembles animal
parchment and is surface sized with high quality animal glue.

Direct Cooking
[Eng] Batch cooking in which digester contents are heated by
blowing steam directly into the digester.

Direct Dye
[Eng] Dye molecules that are sufficiently large and planar that they
tend to remain on a fiber surface without need of a fixative.

Directionality
[Eng] Dependency of a given paper property on the orientation of
the fiber in paper e.g. CD or MD.

Directory Papers
[Eng] A lightweight and uncoated groundwood paper used for
printing telephone directories and catalogues.

Dirt
[Eng] Foreign material, which has a color in contrast to that of the
paper. An instrument, The Papric Counter, is used in laboratories to

58
identify dirt specks.

Dirt Count
[Eng] The average amount of dirt specks in a specific size of paper
area. Both virgin sheets and recycled sheets have "dirt," although
recycled paper usually has a slightly higher dirt count than virgin
paper. However, it rarely affects recycled paper's quality and use.

Disc Refiner
[Eng] A machine, which uses rotating discs or plates for refining
pulp during the stock preparation process.

Dished
[Eng] A pile or stack of paper lying concave rather than flat.

Disperging
[Eng] Disperging is used in the treatment of recycled fibers. It
reduces impurities in recycled paper to such a small size that they
are no longer detrimental to paper quality.

Dispersants
[Eng] Substances such as phosphates or acrylates that cause finely
divided particles to come apart and remain separate from each
other in suspension.

Dispersion
[Eng] Following the deinking process of waste papers, residual ink
particles are dispersed into tiny bits that are usually invisible to the
eye. Bleaching the fibers helps to remove the last of the inks and
improve paper brightness.

Display Board
[Eng] Paperboard used for display advertising.

Display Type
[Eng] Any type that stands out from the rest of the type on a page,
which attracts attention of the reader.

Dissolving Pulp
[Eng] A high purity special grade pulp made for processing in to
cellulose derivatives including rayon and acetate.

Distribution Rollers
[Eng] In the printing process, the rubber coated rollers responsible

59
for the distribution of ink from the fountain to the ink drum.

Distributor
[Eng] A company, which purchases paper from a paper mill for
resale to end-users.

Doctor
[Eng] A blade-like device, which scrapes off excess liquid or fibers
off a roller to help maintain a smooth surface.

Doctor Blade
[Eng] Thin metal plate or scraper in contact with a roll along its
entire length to keep it clean. Blades are also used for creping.

Document Paper
[Eng] Document paper is paper with a high ageing resistance. It is
woodfree but may also contain rags or be fully made from rags and
is used for documents that have to be preserved for a longer
period.

Dog Ear
[Eng] A small fold that occurs on the corner of the paper during the
papermaking or converting process.

Dot Gain
[Eng] A printing problem where dots print larger than desired,
creating darker tones, or color imbalances.

Dot Matrix Printing


[Eng] Impact printing where each character is made up of a
pattern of dots synchronized by computer control. During printing
the print head strikes against a ribbon to print on the paper
surface.

Dots Per Inch (DPI)


[Eng] A reference for the resolution of a printed or screened image.
Higher numbers mean higher resolution or more dots composing
an image.

Double Calendered
[Eng] A type of paper passed through two calenders.

Double Cap
[Eng] Trade term for size 17" x 28" available in business papers.

60
Double Coated
[Eng] A sheet that has been coated twice on the same side. Not to
be confused with a paper sheet coated on both sides.

Double Coating
[Eng] Coating of paper or paperboard twice on one or both sides.

Double Deckle
[Eng] Machine-made papers having a deckle edge on two edges of
the sheet.

Double Fold
[Eng] Resistance of paper to repeated folding/unfolding. Folding
endurance is important for currency, blue print, record papers,
ledger, map etc where resistance against repeated
folding/unfolding is required.

Double Imprint Unit


[Eng] Two sets of printing cylinders that permit imprint to be
altered as press continues to run at full speed.

Double Sizing
[Eng] The process of applying size a second time after first sizing
has been dried.

Double Wall Corrugated Board


[Eng] A type of corrugated board, which has two layers of fluting
and three facings.

Doubling
[Eng] The unintentional printing of two images slightly out of
register.

Down Cycling
[Eng] Every time cellulose fibers are recycled they deteriorate
slightly and become contaminated, so the new product is of lower
quality than the original product which went to form the waste; the
progressive deterioration of fibers means that there is a limit to the
number of times they can be recycled, thus the term down cycling
is used as a more accurate description of recycling.

Downtime
[Eng] When a paper machine is stopped for repairs, it is referred
as 'down'. Downtime can occur due to mechanical failure, change

61
of grades in production etc.

Drain
[Eng] Volume of wood removed from the forest in a given time.

Drainage Foils
[Eng] Drainage foils are tapered foils placed under the wire at a
slight angle so that when the wire runs over them at high speeds,
suction is created and the water from the wet stock is separated
efficiently.

Drainage or Dewatering
[Eng] Removal of water from wet web during formation of paper
sheet.

Draw
[Eng] Difference in speed between two adjacent section of the
paper machine.

Draw-Down
[Eng] A method used by ink makers to determine the color,
quality, and tone of ink. The method involves an application of a
thin film of ink using a spatula or blade to measure the ink's color
shade and characteristics.

Drawing Paper
[Eng] The range of drawing papers includes woodfree and
mechanical grades with proper-ties that are tailored for specific
drawing techniques. They have a low opacity and are erasure proof
and often also wash-fast.

Dregs
[Eng] The solids which settle down in the clarifiers in the
Causticizing process.

Drier
[Eng] A term that describes additives to ink which speed up the
drying process.

Drill
[Eng] The actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb
binding.

Drop Out
[Eng] In printing, halftone with no screen dots in the highlights or

62
background.

Drumhead Manila
[Eng] A type of rope papers. Usually available in 24" x 36" size.

Dry Coating
[Eng] Coating method in which a binder is applied to the paper
surface followed by dry coating pigment.

Dry Creping
[Eng] Creping of a paper web when it's dry.

Dry Cylinder Machine


[Eng] In a dry cylinder machine, pulp is poured onto the surface of
the cylinder and the water drains away through the cover on the
cylinder.

Dry End
[Eng] That part of the paper machine where the paper is dried,
surface sized, calendered and reeled.

Dry Finish
[Eng] Paper and paperboard get a dry finish when calendered
without the use of water.

Dry Line
[Eng] The dry line is the location on a Fourdrinier paper machine
forming section where the appearance of the wet web of paper
changes abruptly. Before the dry line the furnish has a glossy, wet
appearance. After the dry line the wet web appears dull. The
optical change is related to the effect of fibers poking through the
air-water interface. On a well-adjusted paper machine the dry line
ought to be straight.
Increased refining and lower freeness of the pulp tend to move the
dry line in the direction of the couch.
Chemicals that promote drainage tend to move the dry line in the
direction of the slice.

Dry Offset
[Eng] A method of printing from a relief plate without the use of
any fountain solution.

Dry Solids
[Eng] Mass of dried sample as a percentage of mass of original

63
sample.

Dry Strenght
[Eng] Mechanical strength of a dry paper sheet (includes tensile
strength, tearing resistance and folding endurance).

Dry-end
[Eng] The part of a paper making machine where the paper passes
through steam-heated drying cylinders. The dry end can also
consist of calenders, cutters, slitter, and reels.

Dryer Felt
[Eng] A continuous cotton and or synthetic belt and used in the
dryer section of a paper machine to press and maintain positive
contact of the web against the surface of the dryer cylinder.

Dryer Screen
[Eng] A type of dryer felt made of synthetic material, with very
high open area to provide easy escape to vapors formed due to
water evaporation. Dryer screens are used in the later part of dryer
section where paper is >60% dry to avoid any screen impression.

Dryers
[Eng] A series of large cylindrical steam-heated rolls that dry the
paper web.

Drying
[Eng] This is the final stage of water removal from wet web of the
paper formed on wire. After pressing the moisture content of the
web is apprx. 40-45%. The remaining water (up to 95% dryness)
is removed by evaporation . This is done by moving the web
around a series of steam heated iron drums in the dry end of the
paper machine.

Drying Loft
[Eng] A large airy room in which sheets of handmade paper are
hung or laid to dry.

Dual Distributor, Dual House, or Dual Merchant


[Eng] A paper distribution firm, which deals in fine and industrial
papers.

Ductor Roller
[Eng] The roller between the inking and the dampening rollers.

64
Dull Coated
[Eng] Paper is said to be dull coated when it registers a gloss test
reading of less than 55%. Characteristically, dull coated or finished
paper has a smooth surface and is low in gloss. Dull coated paper
is also known as dull finish paper.

Dull Finish
[Eng] Paper is said to be dull coated or matte finish when it
registers a gloss test reading of less than 55%. Dull coated papers
have a smooth surface a low gloss. Dull coated paper is also known
as dull finish paper.

Dummy
[Eng] A page or a set of pages assembled in the exact position,
form and style desired for the finished piece of printed work. Used
as a model or sample for the printer.

Duotone
[Eng] A two-color halftone reproduction generated from a one-
color photo.

Duplex Bag
[Eng] Two-ply bags.

Duplex Board
[Eng] Paperboard made with two plies or layers. Normally two
layers are formed and joined together at wire part.

Duplex Coating
[Eng] The process of coating both sides of a paper sheet at the
same time.

Duplex Cutting
[Eng] The process of converting a web of paper into sheets on a
cutting machine so that two different lengths of sheet can be cut at
the same time.

Duplex Paper
[Eng] Paper made with two plies or layers. Normally two layers are
formed and joined together at wire part.

Duplexed
[Eng] When paper is printed on both sides of the sheet.

65
Duplicating Stencil Paper
[Eng] A thin, strong, lightweight paper made from long-fibred
stock, suitably impregnated or coated such as with oil. This paper
is used for preparation of Stencil.

Duplicator
[Eng] A machine for making copies with the aid of a specially
prepared duplicating master.

Durability
[Eng] The degree to which paper retains its original qualities.

Dust
[Eng] Loose flecks of fiber, filler and/or coating on the paper that
sometimes sticks to the printing blanket and prevents ink from
reaching the paper surface.

Dutch
[Eng] Any deckle edged paper, originally produced in the
Netherlands.

Dye
[Eng] A chemical compound having the ability to absorb visible
light over a certain range of wavelengths so that the diffusely
reflected light appears colored. Dye can be basic, acidic or direct.

Dye Based Ink


[Eng] Any ink that acquires its color by the use of aniline pigments
or dyes.

66
E
Edge Crush Resistance
[Eng] The amount of force needed to crush on-edge of combined
board is a primary factor in predicting the compression strength of
the completed box. When using certain specifications in the carrier
classifications, minimum edge crush values must be certified.

Edge Cutter
[Eng] Device comprising two jets of water which are adjustable
across the wire and which divide the wet web on the wire
lengthwise so that the edges may be removed, generally at the
couch. In this way they control the width of the web going forward
from the wire part and give it comparatively clean edges.

Effective Alkali
[Eng] Caustic (NaOH) and one half of Sodium sulfide (05*Na2S)
expressed as Na2O in alkaline pulping liquor.

Elastic Strength
[Eng] The ability of paper or board to resist stress acting in the
plane of the sample

Electrical Grade Paper


[Eng] Strong, pin-hole free paper, sometimes impregnated with
synthetic resins and made from unbleached Kraft pulp. Electrical
insulating paper must neither contain fillers nor conductive
contaminants (metals, coal, etc.) nor salts or acids. Lava stone
bars are used on rotor and stator to avoid any metal
contamination. Cable papers, that are wound around line wires in a
spiral-like fashion, are electrical insulating papers with a
particularly high strength in machine direction. Electrical grade
papers include cable papers, electrolytic papers and capacitor
paper.

Electrical Insulating Paper


[Eng] Strong, pore-free paper, sometimes impregnated with
synthetic resins, made from chemical pulp. Electrical insulating
paper must neither contain fillers nor conductive contaminants
(metals, coal, etc.) nor salts or acids. Cable papers, that are wound
around line wires in a spiral-like fashion, are electrical insulating
papers with a par-ticularly high strength in machine direction.
Electrical insulating papers also include electrolytic papers and

67
capacitor paper.

Electro photography
[Eng] A printing process that uses principles of electricity and
electrically charged particles to create images - e.g., photocopiers
and laser printers.

Electronic Printing
[Eng] Photocopiers, ink jet, laser printers and other similar printing
methods that create images using electrostatic charges rather than
a printing plate.

Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)


[Eng] Used to clean up flue and process gases. Removes 99.5-
99.8% of dust particles emitted from recovery boilers, lime kilns
and bark-fired boilers.

Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF)


[Eng] ECF papers are made exclusively with pulp that uses chlorine
dioxide rather than elemental chlorine gas as a bleaching agent.
This virtually eliminates the discharge of detectable dioxins in the
effluent of pulp manufacturing facilities.

Embossing
[Eng] Pressing a shape into a sheet of paper with a metal or plastic
die, creating a raised (embossed) image.

Emulsion Coating
[Eng] Coating of paper with an emulsion containing plastic or resin.

Enamel
[Eng] A general term referring to coated paper that has a higher
basis weight than coated publication (magazine) paper but a lower
basis weight and caliper than coated cover paper.

Engine Sizing
[Eng] Old term used for beater sizing when sizing chemicals used
to be added in Engine or Beater.

English Finish
[Eng] A smooth-finished, machine made and calendered book
paper. It is soft, dull and pliable. Normally used for letterpress
printed magazines.

68
Engraving
[Eng] A printing process using intaglio, or recessed, plates. Made
from steel or copper, engraved plates cost more than plates used
in most other printing processes, such as lithography. Ink sits in
the recessed wells of the plate while the printing press exerts force
on the paper, pushing it into the wells and onto the ink. The
pressure creates raised letters and images on the front of the page
and indentations on the back. The raised lettering effect of
engraving can be simulated using a less costly process called
thermography.

Entrained Air
[Eng] Entrained air consists of bubbles that are small enough (say
less than 1 mm) to move along with the fibers.

Envelop Paper
[Eng] The paper made specifically for die cutting and folding of
envelopes on high-speed envelop machine.

Environmentally Preferable Paper (EPP)


[Eng] EPP should have at least two of the following three
characteristics:
1. 30% or more Post Consumer Recycled Content
2. TCF Bleaching
3. Forest Stewardship Council certified Forest Management for
virgin fiber sources.

Enzyme
[Eng] A protein that has the ability to direct or catalyze a chemical
reaction.

Enzyme Bleaching
[Eng] Bleaching technique in which cooked and oxygen-delignified
chemical pulp is treated with enzymes prior to final bleaching.
Allows pulp to be bleached without chlorine chemicals.

Equilibrium Moisture Content


[Eng] The moisture content of a paper that has reached a balance
with the atmosphere surrounding it, i.e. in a condition in which it
will neither give up nor absorb moisture.

Equivalent Black Area


[Eng] Of a dirt speck is defined as the area of a round black spot
on a white background of the TAPPI Dirt Estimation Chart which
makes the same visual impression on its background as does the

69
dirt speck on the particular background in which it is embedded.

Esparto
[Eng] A grass from North Africa which makes a soft, ink receptive
sheet.

Ethers Pulp
[Eng] Generally these are high purity, high viscosity pulps that are
swollen in sodium hydroxide initially, followed by reaction with
organic epoxides or chlorides like ethylene oxide or methyl chloride
to form an organic polymer called cellulose ethers (methyl
cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, etc.).
Cellulose ethers are used for thickening of fluids such as
toothpaste, ketchup, shampoos, diet drinks and hundreds of other
applications.

Evaporation Plant
[Eng] Unit used at pulp mills to concentrate spent liquor to make it
suitable for burning and chemicals recovery.

Extended Cooking
[Eng] Method of cooking pulp to low lignin content, thereby
reducing the need for bleaching chemicals.

Extensible Kraft
[Eng] Very strong virgin Kraft papers which stretches
(approximately 6%) more in MD and tears less easily than regular
Kraft paper.

External Fibrillation
[Eng] A refining action that results in partial detachment of fibrils
from outer layer of a fiber.

70
F

Fan Pump
[Eng] A high flow rate, low head pump used to pump diluted stock
to paper machine headbox.

Feathering
[Eng] The tendency of liquid ink to spread along the paper fibers so
that the image produced does not have sharp, clean edges.

Felt
[Eng] A woven cloth used to carry the web of paper between press
and dryer rolls on the paper machine.

Felt Finish
[Eng] Surface characteristics of paper formed at the wet end of a
paper machine, using woven wool or synthetic felts with distinctive
patterns to create a similar texture in the finish sheets.

Felt Mark
[Eng] Imprint left on the paper by one or more of the felts used in
making the paper. The mark may be wanted or unwanted and
special effects can be introduced in this way.

Felt Side
[Eng] The side of the paper which does not touch the wire on the
paper machine. The "top side" or felt side is preferred for printing
because it retains more fillers.

Fiber Axis Ratio


[Eng] Ratio of fiber width to fiber thickness.

Fiber Coarseness
[Eng] Weight per unit length of fiber.

Fiber Cut
[Eng] A fiber cut is a short, straight cut located on the edge of the
web, caused by a fiber imbedded in the web of paper.

Fiber Debris
[Eng] Pieces of material which has been separated from the main

71
body of the fiber..

Fiber Floc
[Eng] Fibers that have agglomerated as a result of poor formation.

Fiber or Fibre
[Eng] The slender, thread-like cellulose structures that forms the
main part of tree trunk and from separated and suitably treated,
cohere to form a sheet of paper.

Fiberboard
[Eng] Board made from defibrated wood chips, used as a building
board.

Fibre Loss
[Eng] Loss of fibre material in pulp and paper processing.

Fibrillation
[Eng] A structural change occurring in the walls of chemical pulp
fibers during beating.

Fibrils
[Eng] Thread like element in the wall of the fiber.

Filler
[Eng] Any inorganic substance added to the pulp during
manufacturing of paper.

Filler Content
[Eng] Percentage of filler in a paper.

Filter Paper
[Eng] Unsized paper made from chemical pulp, in some cases also
with an admixture of rags, sometimes with a wet strength finish.
Filtration rate and selectivity, which are both dependent on the
number and the size of the pores, can be controlled by specific
grinding of the pulps and creping.

Filtrate
[Eng] The effluent from the washing or filtering process.

Fine Papers
[Eng] Uncoated writing and printing grade paper including offset,
bond, duplicating and photocopying.

72
Fines
[Eng] Small particles fiber defined arbitrarily by classification.

Finish
[Eng] The surface characteristic of a sheet created by either on-
machine or off-machine papermaking processes. Popular text and
cover finishes include smooth, vellum, felt, laid, and linen.

Finishing
[Eng] The trimming, winding, rewinding and packing of paper rolls
or trimming, cutting, counting and packing of paper sheets from
parent roll.

First Pass Retention


[Eng] First-pass retention gives a practical indication of the
efficiency by which fine materials are retained in a web of paper as
it is being formed. First-pass retention values can be calculated
from just two consistency measurements, the headbox
consistency, and the white water consistency.
There is a very wide diversity of first-pass retention on different
paper machines, from less than 50% to almost 100%. The key
rules that papermakers follow are that (a) first-pass retention
should have a steady value, and (b) that value should be high
enough to avoid operational problems or an excessively two-sided
sheet. Some operational problems that can be caused by low
values of first-pass retention are increased frequency of deposit
problems, filling of wet-press felts, poor drainage, and unsteady
drainage rates and sheet moistures.

Flame Resistant Paper


[Eng] Treatment applied to kraft paper to make it resistant to
catching on fire (not fire proof—will char but not burst into flame).

Flashing
[Eng] Spontaneous boiling and cooling of a liquid caused by the
reduction of pressure below the vapor pressure of the liquid.
Flashing occurs in blow tank during blowing.

Flat Crush of Corrugated Board


[Eng] A laboratory test (Tappi T808 or T825) of a single wall
combined board specimen to measure its resistance to crushing
forces from conversion and handling. Test can also be an indicator
of flute formation and the presence of crushed or leaning flutes.

73
Flexography
[Eng] A form of rotary letterpress using flexible rubber or
photopolymer plates.

Flexural Rigidity
[Eng] The measurement of a combined board resistance to flexing.
Combined with ECT box perimeter and flute type, it is key to
predicting box compression resistance or static load resistance
(Tappi T566).

Flong Paper
[Eng] A pulp-like, coated-type paper.

Flotation Cell
[Eng] Main equipment of Flotation Deinking, Large number of tiny
air bubbles are injected into the cleaned pulp, the free ink particles
attach themselves to these bubbles and float to the surface where
it is skimmed off and removed.

Flotation Deinking
[Eng] Using flotation method for removing ink from paper during
the de-inking process.

Flotation Dryer
[Eng] Non contacting dryer used in pulp drying or coating
applications, drying is achieved by passing sheet between two
dryer hoods where hot dry air is impinged onto the sheet and the
moisture is evaporated and removed by an air system.

Flow Box
[Eng] The part of the paper machine whose primary function is to
deliver a uniform dispersion of fibers in water at the proper speed
through the slice opening to the paper machine wire.

Flue Gas Scrubber


[Eng] Equipment for removing impurities from flue gases by
dissolving them in aqueous solution.

Fluff Pulp
[Eng] A chemical, mechanical or combination of
chemical/mechanical pulp, usually bleached, used as an absorbent
medium in disposable diapers, bed pads and hygienic personal
products. Also known as "fluffing" or "comminution" pulp

74
Fluorescent Dye
[Eng] A coloring agent added to pulp to increase the brightness of
the paper. It may give a slight blue or green cast to the sheet.

Fluorescent Inks
[Eng] Printing inks that emit and reflect light. Generally, they are
brighter and more opaque than traditional inks, but they are not
color fast, so they will fade in bright light over time. Their metallic
content will also affect dot gain and trapping.

Fluorescent Whitening Agent


[Eng] Also referred to as an "optical brightener." A chemical
compound when expose to a light containing an ultraviolet
component will absorb and re-emit light in the blue spectrum or in
other words fluoresce. FWA's will enhance brightness and blueness
quality of white paper.

Flute
[Eng] One of the wave shapes pressed into corrugated medium.
Flutes are categorized by the size of the wave. A, B, C, E and F are
common flute types, along with a variety of much larger flutes and
smaller flutes.

Fluted Edge Crush


[Eng] Measures the edgewise compression strength of corrugating
medium using a fluted test specimen per Tappi T824.

Fodder Pulp
[Eng] Protein produced from pulp mill spent liquors and sometimes
mixed with animal feeds.

Foil of Hydrafoil
[Eng] The flat strip used to support wire. Only the leading edge of
the wire touches the foil. Foil helps in removing water by creating
gentle suction and also doctor the water removed in previous
section.

Folding
[Eng] Doubling up a sheet of paper so that one part lies on top of
another. Folding stresses the paper fibers. To create a smooth,
straight fold, heavy papers like cover stocks and Bristol need to be
scored before they're folded.

Folding Boxboard
[Eng] Single or multi-layer paperboard made from primary and/or

75
secondary fibers, sometimes with a coated front, used to make
consumer packaging (cartons).

Folding Strength or Folding Endurance


[Eng] Folding strength is most important in currency paper.
Multiple fold strength is also important for paper used in books,
maps, and pamphlets. It's far less important in one-fold greeting
cards or envelopes, where fold cracking is the vital consideration.
Folding endurance or strength is measured and reported in
numbers.

Formation
[Eng] The dispersion of fibers in a sheet of paper. The more
uniform and tightly bound the fibers, the better the sheet will print
and look.

Fountain Roller
[Eng] The roller on a printing machine which initiates the supply of
moisture to the damping system.

Four-color Printing Process


[Eng] A printing method that uses dots of magenta (red), cyan
(blue), yellow, and black to simulate the continuous tones and
variety of colors in a color image. Reproducing a four-color image
begins with separating the image into four different halftones by
using color filters of the opposite (or negative) color. For instance,
a red filter is used to capture the cyan halftone, a blue filter is used
to capture the yellow halftone, and a green filter is used to capture
the magenta halftone. Because a printing press can't change the
tone intensity of ink, four-color process relies on a trick of the eye
to mimic light and dark areas.
Each halftone separation is printed with its process color (cyan,
magenta, yellow, and black). When we look at the final result, our
eyes blend the dots to recreate the continuous tones and variety of
colors we see in a color photograph, painting, or drawing.

Fourdrinier
[Eng] Named after its inventor, the Fourdrinier papermaking
machine is structured on a continuously moving wire belt on to
which a watery slurry of pulp is spread. As the wire moves, the
water is drained off and pressed out, and the paper is then dried.

Fourdrinier Wire
[Eng] Horizontally moving metal or plastic mesh belt (wire) on
which the paper web is formed.

76
Fraction
[Eng] A component of a mixture that can be separated on the basis
of some property or properties.

Free Stock
[Eng] Unrefined stock. Stock that, when drained under gravity,
parts easily with the water of suspension.

Freeness
[Eng] A term used to define how quickly water is drained from the
pulp. The opposite of freeness is slowness. Freeness or slowness is
the function of beating or refining. Freeness and slowness reported
in ml CSF and degree SR respectively are also the measurement of
degree of refining or beating.

Freesheet
[Eng] Paper that is free of mechanical wood pulp, which is true of
virtually all fine printing papers.

Fully Bleached Pulp


[Eng] Pulp that has been bleached to the highest brightness
attainable (> 90 ISO).

Furnish
[Eng] A blend of fibers, pigments, dyes, fillers and other materials
that are fed to the wet end of the paper machine.

Fuzz
[Eng] Fibrous projections on the surface of a sheet of paper,
caused by excessive suction, insufficient beating or lack of surface
sizing. Lint appears in much the same manner but is not attached
to the surface.

77
G

Gatefold
[Eng] Two or more parallel folds on a sheet of paper with the end
flaps folding inward.

Glassine Paper
[Eng] A translucent paper made from highly beaten chemical pulp
and subsequently supercalendered.

Glazed Paper
[Eng] Paper with high gloss or polish, applied to the surface either
during the process of manufacture or after the paper is produced,
by various methods such as friction glazing, calendering, plating or
drying on a Yankee drier.

Glazing
[Eng] First calendering, in which paper is passed through a roll nip
to give it a smoother surface.

Gloss
[Eng] The property that's responsible for a paper's shiny or
lustrous appearance; also the measure of a sheet's surface
reflectivity. Gloss is often associated with quality: higher quality
coated papers exhibit higher gloss.

Gloss Mottle
[Eng] Blotchiness or non-uniformity in the paper's gloss (unprinted
or printed). Typically only visible at certain viewing angles. Usually
attributable to poor formation and heavy calendering.

Grade
[Eng] Papers are differentiated from each other by their grade.
Different grades are distinguished from each other on the basis of
their content, appearance, manufacturing history, and/or their end
use.

Grain
[Eng] The direction in which most fibers lie in a sheet of paper. As
the pulp slurry moves forward on the papermaking machine's
formation wires, the fibers tend to align themselves in the direction
of movement. Binding books parallel to the grain allows for a

78
smoother fold then working across the grain. Grain direction of
sheet fed papers is usually indicated by underlining the number,
e.g., 23" X -35". On a web press, the grain direction should run
along the length of the paper web.

Grain Long
[Eng] Grain running lengthwise along a sheet of paper.

Grain Short
[Eng] Grain running widthwise along a sheet of paper.

Grammage
[Eng] Weight in grams of one square meter of paper or board
(g/m2); also basis weight.

Gravure
[Eng] A printing process that uses intaglio, or recessed, image
carriers. The image carrier, which is flat or cylindrical, moves
through an ink pool. A blade scrapes excess ink off the plane of the
plate, leaving ink in the recessed wells. A second cylinder presses
the paper onto the plates, where it picks up ink from the wells. The
high speed of gravure presses and the durability of the metal
intaglio plates make gravure an economical printing method
suitable for large print runs (more than two million copies).

Gravure Paper
[Eng] Paper for gravure printing that has very low print roughness
and good wettability of gravure inks.

Gray Board
[Eng] A homogeneous board made usually of mixed waste papers
with or without screenings and mechanical pulp on a continuous
board machine, in thickness less then 1 mm.

Greaseproof Paper
[Eng] A protective wrapping paper made from chemical wood
pulps, which are highly hydrated in order that the resulting paper
may be resistant to oil and grease.

Green House Gases


[Eng] Gases that provide an insulating effect in the earth's
atmosphere, potentially leading to global climate change. These
gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and
water vapor.

79
Green Liquor
[Eng] The liquor that results when the inorganic smelt from the
recovery furnace is dissolved in water is called "green" liquor.

Green Paper
[Eng] Immature paper which has not been conditioned or had the
opportunity to mature naturally.

Greenfield Mill
[Eng] Mill or production facility built on undeveloped site.

Grinder
[Eng] A machine in which logs are defibrated against a revolving
grindstone.

Groundwood Mill
[Eng] An installation for producing mechanical pulp by grinding.

Groundwood Papers
[Eng] A general term applied to a variety of papers made with
substantial proportions of mechanical wood pulp together with
bleached or unbleached chemical wood pulps (generally sulfite), or
a combination of these, and used mainly for printing and
converting purposes.

Groundwood Pulps
[Eng] A mechanically prepared (by grinding wood logs against a
rough surfaced roll rotating at very high speed) coarse wood pulp
used in newsprint and other low cost book grades where it
contributes bulk, opacity, and compressibility. Groundwood pulp is
economical since all the wood is used; however, it contains
impurities that can cause discoloration and weakening of the
paper.

Guar Gum
[Eng] A natural polymer that is used as a dry-strength additive,
often as a cationic derivative.

Guillotine
[Eng] A machine used to trim stacks of paper, which works the
same way the original French guillotine worked. A cutting blade
moves between two upright guides and slices the paper uniformly
as it moves downward.

80
Gumming
[Eng] Paper with a coating of an adhesive which becomes sticky
when wet.

Gurley Porosity
[Eng] A method to measure the air permeability of paper by TAPPI
method T536. See "Air permeability."

81
H

Half Tone
[Eng] Picture with gradations of tone, formed by dots of varying
sizes in one color.

Handmade Paper
[Eng] A sheet of paper, made individually by hand, using a mould
and deckle.

Hard Cook
[Eng] Undercooked pulp with respect to target conditions.

Hard Pulp
[Eng] A commonly used term to describe chemical pulp with a high
lignin content.

Hard Sized Paper


[Eng] Paper treated with high degree of internal sizing.

Hardwood
[Eng] Wood from trees of angiosperms class, usually with broad
leaves. Trees grown in tropical climates are generally hardwood.
Hardwood grows faster than softwood but have shorter fibers
compared to softwood.

Hardwood Chemical Pulp


[Eng] Chemical pulp made from hardwood.

Head Box or Flow Box or Breast Box


[Eng] Chamber at the beginning of a paper machine that dispenses
pulp stock evenly onto a moving wire.

Heart Wood
[Eng] The dark colored , center of a tree trunk, consisting of
dormant wood.

Heat Transfer Paper


[Eng] The paper used in Thermal transfer printing (Sublimation
printing).

82
Hemicellulose
[Eng] A constituent of woods that is, like cellulose, a
polysaccharide, but less complex and easily hydrolysable.

Hickey
[Eng] An irregularity in the ink coverage of a printed page. Hickeys
are caused by paper or pressroom dust, dirt, or pick out on the
printing blanket, all of which prevent the ink from adhering to the
paper surface.

High Finish
[Eng] Smooth finish applied to paper to improve the printing
surface.

Hold Out
[Eng] Resistance of paper surfaces to the absorption of ink. High
Hold Out offers higher resistance to ink absorption. Regular Hold
Out allows greater ink absorption.

Holey Roll
[Eng] Hollow perforated roll in headbox used for even out the flow
of fibers and prevent settling of fibers in headbox by providing
gentle agitation.

Hood
[Eng] A hood covering the paper machine drying section and
designed for moist air removal.

Hot Groundwood Pulp


[Eng] Mechanical pulp produced by grinding logs that have been
pre-treated with steam.

Hot Screening
[Eng] Pulp cleaning at elevated temperature using pressure
screens.

Humus
[Eng] Dead organic material derived from decomposition of plant
and microbial wastes.

Hydration
[Eng] The prolonged beating or refining of cellulose pulp in water
to reduce it to a semi-gelatinous mass.

83
Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching
[Eng] A method in which pulp is bleached in an alkaline
environment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), sometimes using
oxygen reinforcement. The method considerably reduces the need
for chlorine-containing chemicals in the final bleaching of chemical
pulps.

Hydrophilic
[Eng] Having strong affinity for water.

Hydrophobic
[Eng] Lacking affinity for water.

Hydropulper
[Eng] An equipment used to slush broke/paper in to pulp.

Hygroscopic
[Eng] Having the property to absorb water vapor from the
surrounding atmosphere. Most of the papers (except glassine,
greaseproof or wet strength etc.) are hygroscopic in nature.

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I

Imbibition
[Eng] The absorption of liquid by a fiber without a corresponding
increase in volume.

Immission
[Eng] The level of a particular pollutant in the environment. Widely
used for air emissions and noise.

Impregnation
[Eng] Process of treating a sheet of paper with a chemical or wax
so that the treatment penetrates into the paper.

Impression Cylinder
[Eng] The cylinder or flat bed of a printing press that holds paper
while an inked image from the blanket is pressed upon it.

Impression Watermark
[Eng] Semi-genuine watermark made in the paper machine press
section using engraved rolls while the web is still wet.

Index Board
[Eng] Woodfree and mechanical board for office and administration
purposes.

Index Paper
[Eng] A stiff, inexpensive paper with a smooth finish. The high bulk
but low weight of this paper makes it a popular choice for business
reply cards.

Industrial Papers
[Eng] A very general term, which is used to indicate papers
manufactured for industrial uses as opposed to cultural purposes.
Thus, building papers, insulating papers, wrapping papers,
packaging papers, etc. would be considered industrial papers.

Ink
[Eng] Printing inks are made up of pigment, pigment carrier and
additives formulated to reduce smudging, picking and other
printing problems associated with ink. The choice of ink depends

85
on the type of paper and printing process.

Ink Absorption
[Eng] A paper's capacity to accept or absorb ink.

Ink Coverage
[Eng] The portion of the total surface area of the paper which is
covered by ink. The portion of the coverage usually is expressed in
terms of percent of ink coverage.

Ink Holdout
[Eng] The way the ink pigment sits on the surface of the paper.
Strong ink holdout results in a sharp, bright image.

Ink Jet Printing


[Eng] Printing process of an image or text by small ink particles
projected onto the paper surface.

Ink Tack
[Eng] The body or cohesiveness of ink. The measure of tack as the
force required to split an ink film.

Insect Resistant
[Eng] Paper treated with insecticide compounds to make it
resistant to insect attack.

Insider Liner
[Eng] The liner bonded to the medium at the single facer. Called
inside liner because it is the inside facing of a corrugated box. Also
called the single face liner.

Insulating Board
[Eng] A type of board composed of some fibrous material, such as
wood or other vegetable fiber, sized throughout, and felted or
pressed together in such a way as to contain a large quantity of
entrapped or "dead" air. It is made either by cementing together
several thin layers or forming a non-laminated layer of the required
thickness. It is used in plain or decorative finishes for interior walls
and ceilings in thickness of 0.5 and 1 inch (in some cases up to 3
inches) and also as a water-repellent finish for house sheathing.
Desirable properties are low thermal conductivity, moisture
resistance, fire resistance, permanency, vermin and insect
resistance, and structural strength. No single material combines all
these properties but all should be permanent and should be treated

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to resist moisture absorption.

Intaglio
[Eng] A method of printing in which an image or letter is cut into
the surface of wood or metal, creating tiny wells. Printing ink sits in
these wells, and the paper is pressed onto the plate and into the
wells, picking up the ink.

Integrated Mill
[Eng] A mill which starts with logs or wood chips and first produces
wood pulp which it then processes to make paper or board.

Intermittent Board Machine


[Eng] A machine for producing sheets of thick board by winding the
web formed on a Fourdrinier wire or cylinder mould (s) around a
making roll to form a sheet consisting of several layers. When the
thickness is sufficient the layers are cut, so forming a sheet which
is removed from the machine for drying and any further
processing.

Internal Bonding Strength


[Eng] Determines how strongly the coating is fused to the body
stock. Caused by long periods of hydration, paper with high
internal bonding strength resists picking during the printing
process.

Internal Fibrillation
[Eng] Loosening of internal bond within a fiber.

Internal Sizing
[Eng] Occurs when sizing materials are added to the water
suspension of pulp fibers in the papermaking process. Also known
as Beater, or Engine sizing.

International Paper and Board Sizes


[Eng] Also known as ISO sizes are widely used in metric countries.
ISO standards are based on a rectangle whose sides have a ratio of
one to the square root of 2 (1.414).
No matter how many times a sheet of these proportions is halved,
each will retain the same constant proportions. There are three
ISO series A, B, and C.
The A Series: The A series is for general printed matter including
stationary and publications.
The B series: The B series is about half way between two A sizes.
It is intended as an alternative to the A series, used primarily for

87
posters and wall charts.
The C series: The C series is used for folders, post cards and
envelopes. C series envelope is suitable to insert A series sizes.

ISO Brightness
[Eng] The brightness of paper and board measured at a
wavelength of 457 nanometers under standard conditions.

Ivory Board
[Eng] High-quality board made in white or colors with a bright,
clear appearance, particularly used for visiting cards and similar
high-class printed work. Original Ivory Board was and still is made
in Holland, although the grade is made in many countries.

88
J

Jet to Wire Speed Ratio


[Eng] Papermakers adjust the jet-to-wire speed ratio to fine-tune
the paper structure. The "jet" is the narrow stream of dilute stock
that comes out of the headbox slice opening. The "wire" is the
continuous belt of forming fabric. Often it is possible to improve
the uniformity of paper by running jet-to-wire speed ratio as one.
"Rushing the sheet" means that the jet speed is higher than the
wire speed. "Dragging the sheet" means that the wire speed is
higher than the jet speed. Especially in the case of dragging,
increasing values of jet-to-wire speed ratio tend to align fibers in
the machine direction. For square sheet (paper which has same
strength properties in CD and MD), jet to wire ratio should be kept
as close to one as possible.

Jog
[Eng] To shake a stack of papers, either on a machine or by hand,
so that the edges line up. Finisher jog the paper to remove any
improperly cut sheet. Printers jog the paper to get rid of any dust
or particles and to ensure proper feeding into the press.

Jumbo Roll
[Eng] A roll of paper, direct from the paper machine, wound on a
machine winder spool as distinct from rolls that have been slit and
rewound on cores.

89
K

Kaolin
[Eng] White clay used as an additive and filler in paper and coating
made up chiefly of minerals of the kaolinite type.

Kappa Number
[Eng] A term used to define the degree of delignification. Modified
permanganate test value of pulp which has been corrected to 50
percent consumption of the chemical. Kappa number has the
advantage of a linear relationship with lignin content over a wide
range. Kappa Number x 0.15% = % lignin in pulp.

Kenaf
[Eng] An annual agricultural plant, native of India, which has along
fiber in the bark that, is suitable for papermaking.

Kiss Impression
[Eng] The lightest impression (anilox and plate to substrate)
possible to properly reproduce the image on paper.

Kitchen Wipes
[Eng] Kitchen wipes consist of creped paper made from chemical or
waste paper pulp. They are used in private households or in trade
and industry.

Knotter
[Eng] Vibratory screens used for separating knots, uncooked chips
and shives from the pulp at the blow tank.

Knotter Pulp
[Eng] Pulp made from the rejects from chemical pulp screening.

Kozo
[Eng] The most common fiber used in Japanese papermaking, it
comes from the mulberry tree. It is a long, tough fiber that
produces strong absorbent sheets.

Kraft Bag Paper


[Eng] A paper made of sulfate pulp and used in the manufacture of
paper bags. It normally has a greater bulk and a rougher surface

90
than the usual kraft wrapping paper.

Kraft Paper
[Eng] A paper of high strength made from sulfate pulp. Kraft
papers vary from unbleached Kraft used for wrapping purposes to
fully bleached Kraft used for strong Bond and Ledger papers.

Kraft Pulp
[Eng] Chemical wood pulp produced by digesting wood by the
sulfate process (q.v.). Originally a strong, unbleached coniferous
pulp for packaging papers, kraft pulp has now spread into the
realms of bleached pulps from both coniferous and deciduous
woods for printing papers.

Kraftliner
[Eng] Paperboard of grammages of 120g and more, generally
made from bleached or unbleached sulfate pulp and used as an
outer ply in corrugated board.

91
L

Label
[Eng] A separate slip or sheet of paper affixed to a surface for
identification or description. For fiberboard boxes, includes: Full
Label, Mailing or shipping Label, Spot Label and UPC (Universal
Product Code) Label.

Label Papers
[Eng] Mostly one-side coated papers which must be printable in 4-
colour offset and gravure printing. These papers are usually
suitable for varnishing, bronzing and punching and sometimes also
feature wet strength and alkali resistance (See "Wet strength and
alkali resistant paper") in order to en-sure the removal of the
labels e.g. in the bottle rinsing machines of breweries.

Lacquering
[Eng] Application of lacquer to give paper greater gloss and
stiffness (brochures and some magazine covers).

Laid
[Eng] A finished produced with a dandy roll having closely spaced
wires.

Laid Lines
[Eng] A continuous watermark consisting of very close parallel
lines, generally associated with spaced lines (chain lines) at right
angles to these.

Laminate
[Eng] Material used to bond together two or more layers of paper,
board, etc.; also a laminated product.

Laminated Linerboard
[Eng] Two or more plies of linerboard adhered to one another for
increased structural stability.

Laminated Paper
[Eng] A paper built up to a desired thickness or a given desired
surface by joining together two or more webs or sheets. The
papers thus joined may be alike or different; a totally different

92
material, such as foil, may be laminated with paper.

Lamination
[Eng] Laminating paper or board with foil, plastics etc.

Laminator
[Eng] A machine that adheres multiple plies of paper or fiberboard.
May be used to adhere full labels to a facing, or, for enhanced
structural properties, multiple facings, corrugating mediums or
sheets of combined board.

Laser Printing
[Eng] Xerographic printing where a modulated laser ray is
projected on to a photoconductive cylinder or belt by a rotating
mirror. The laser serves to product the electrostatic latent image,
which is developed with toners.

Leachate
[Eng] Water that has as a component of dissolved matter
accumulated as a result of passing through material. e.g. rain
water passing through waste dump.

Ledger Paper
[Eng] A strong paper usually made for accounting and records. It is
similar to Bond paper in its erasure and pen writing characteristics.

Letter Press
[Eng] A process of printing in which raised images are coated with
ink and pressed directly onto a paper or paperboard surface.

Lick Coating
[Eng] A light form of mineral coating, achieved by supplying the
surface sizing press of the paper making machine with coating
material instead of normal surface sizing solution.

Light Weight Coating (LWC)


[Eng] Coating applied at 7-10 g/m2 on one or both sides of the
paper.

Light Weight Paper


[Eng] Papers having a grammage (basis weight) normally less than
40 g/m2.

Lightfastness
[Eng] The speed at which a pigment or colored paper fades in

93
sunlight.

Light-Weight Printing Paper


[Eng] Light-weight paper has a low grammage and is made from
rags and bleached kraft pulp and is used e. g. for advertising
material (catalogues, leaflets, mailings etc.), commercial and/or
jobbing work (magazines, brochures, instruction leaflets, forms
etc.).

Lignin
[Eng] A complex constituent of the wood that cement the cellulose
fibers together. Lignin is brown in color. Lignin is largely
responsible for the strength and rigidity of plants, but its presence
in paper is believed to contribute to chemical degradation. To a
large extent, lignin can be removed during manufacturing.

Like-Sided
[Eng] Paper that has the same appearance and characteristics on
both sides.

Lime Kiln
[Eng] Used to reburn lime sludge (CaCO3) to form calcium oxide
(CaO), which can be reused.

Lime Sludge or Sludge


[Eng] Sludge of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed during
preparation of white liquor in the chemical recovery process.

Linen Finish
[Eng] A finished paper that has an overall embossed pattern on the
surface resembling the look and feel of linen cloth, and one
manufactured with engraved embossing rolls.

Liner
[Eng] A creased fiberboard sheet inserted as a sleeve in a
container and covering all side walls. Used to provide extra
stacking strength or cushioning. Also used as a short hand for
"linerboard" or facing."

Linerboard
[Eng] The inner and outer layers of paper that form the wall of a
corrugated board.

Lines Per Inch (LPI)


[Eng] The number of lines in an inch, as found on the screens that

94
create halftones and four-color process images (for example,
"printed 175-line screen"). The more lines per inch, the more
detailed the printed image will be. With the demand for computer-
generated imagery, the term "dots per inch" (which refers to the
resolution of the output), is replacing the term "lines per inch."

Lint
[Eng] Loosely bonded fibers at the paper surface that attached to
the plate or blanket of the printing machine.

Litho
[Eng] A generic term for any printing process in which the image
area and the non-image area exist on the same plate and are
separated by a chemical repulsion. Usually oil based offset printing.

Loading
[Eng] Addition of fillers

Look Through
[Eng] The appearance of the paper when held up to transmitted
light. It discloses whether the formation is even and uniform or
lumpy and ‘wild’. For book publishing papers, a regular, even look
through is desirable, indicating a well made, uniform sheet

LWC
[Eng] Lightweight coated.

LWC Paper
[Eng] Light weight, two-side coated mechanical reel printing paper
with a grammage of less than 72g. It is used for magazines, mail-
order catalogues etc. that are mostly produced in gravure or web
offset printing (See "Coated paper")

95
M

M Weight
[Eng] The weight of one thousand sheets of paper, any size; or
double the ream weight.

Machine Chest
[Eng] Usually the last large chest or tank that contains thick-stock
pulp before it is made into paper.

Machine Clothing or Paper Machine Clothing


[Eng] Fabrics of various types employed on the paper machine to
carry the web and perform other functions. It includes the machine
wire, dandy roll cover, press felts and dryer felts etc., which may
be composed of natural or synthetic materials.

Machine Crepe
[Eng] Crepe paper produced on the paper machine, and not as a
secondary option.

Machine Creping
[Eng] Creping of paper on the paper machine using a large drying
cylinder known as a Yankee

Machine Direction
[Eng] The direction of the web through the paper machine.

Machine Finish
[Eng] Finished produced on the paper as it leaves either the
machine or the calender stack. For increased printability, or
smoothness when used as a liner, etc.

Machine Finished MF
[Eng] Machine finished. Smooth paper calendered on the paper
machine.

Machine Glazed MG
[Eng] Machine glazed. Paper with a glossy finish on one side
produced on the paper machine by a Yankee cylinder.

Machine Stack
[Eng] Used for first calendering (glazing) of paper on the paper

96
machine.

Machine Width
[Eng] Width of the paper web in the paper machine.

Machine Wire or Wire


[Eng] The moving "screen" at the wet end of a paper machine
where the sheet is formed.

Magazine Paper
[Eng] The selection of the magazine printing paper is mainly
dependent on the print run and the demands on the print quality
(image reproduction, outer appearance, advertising appeal). High
runs are mostly produced in rotogravure, rotary offset printing or
rotary letterpress printing on uncoated or coated reel printing
papers (mainly SC and LWC. See "SC" and "LWC"). Magazines with
medium or smaller circulation are generally produced in sheet-fed
offset or sheet-fed letterpress printing.

Manifold Paper
[Eng] A light weight bond paper used for making carbon or
manifold copies or for airmail correspondence.

Manila
[Eng] A semi-bleached chemical sulfate paper. Not as strong as
Kraft, but have better printing qualities.

Manufacturing Order
[Eng] Also known as making order. A quantity of paper
manufactured to custom specifications, such as a special weight,
color, or size not available as a standard stocking item.

Marbling
[Eng] Addition of strongly stained fibres to the stock to give the
paper a marbled appearance.

Market Pulp
[Eng] Pulp which is made to be used elsewhere for the production
of paper. Usually dried to reduce freight costs but may be "wet lap"
( 50% water).

Matt Finish
[Eng] A dull finish given to the surface of paper and board.

97
Matte Finish
[Eng] A dull, clay-coated paper without gloss or luster.

Maximum Trimmed Width


[Eng] The greatest width of usable paper that is possible to make
on a given paper making machine, i.e. the full width less the
necessary trim to give clean edges. There is 3-10% width
shrinkage (depending on freeness of stock) in dryers. It is not
possible to specify sizes which, in aggregate, exceed this width.

Mechanical Paper
[Eng] This paper contains mechanical pulp, thermomechanical pulp
(TMP) or chemithermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) and also chemical
pulp. The shares of chemical and mechanical pulp vary depending
on the application. Highly mechanical papers such as newsprint
tend to yellow more rapidly if exposed to light and oxygen than
woodfree papers so that they are mainly used for short-lived
products. In printing papers the mechanical pulp improves opacity.

Mechanical Pulp
[Eng] Pulp produced by mechanically grinding logs or wood chips.
It is used mainly for newsprint and as an ingredient of base stock
for lower grade printing papers.

Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)


[Eng] A composite panel made from wood fibers and resin and
formed under pressure and heat. MDF has a smooth surface and
good machinability, and is used for furniture, cabinetry and
millwork.

Metamerism
[Eng] The tendency of color to appear different under different
light sources such as fluorescent or natural sunlight.

MF
[Eng] Machine finished. Smooth paper calendered on the paper
machine.

MG Machine
[Eng] A paper machine incorporating a Yankee or a MG drying
cylinder in the drying section to produce MG paper.

Micro Crystalline Cellulose Pulp


[Eng] Like Ethers Pulps, these pulps are used in thickening and
pharmaceutical applications, particularly in construction of tablets

98
and other non-capsular pills.

Micro-Creping
[Eng] A way of improving the extensibility of paper by pressing a
wet mesh against the paper web.

Mill
[Eng] The physical site where paper is manufactured; also refers to
a company that manufactures paper.

Mill Broke
[Eng] Paper generated at the paper mill prior to completion of the
manufacturing process. Wet mill broke originates at the wet end of
the papermaking machine, while dry mill broke comes from the dry
end of the papermaking machine.

Millboard
[Eng] A thick, dense, homogeneous board, for book production,
made generally from wastepaper, on a special board making
machine one sheet at a time. Used in binding case bound books,
ledgers etc. as binders’ boards.

Mineral Filler
[Eng] Materials such as chalk and china clay that are added to
paper in order to change its density or improve its surface and
optical properties.

Moisture Content
[Eng] The amount of moisture or water in a sheet of paper,
expressed in percent. 6 to 7% is desirable.

Moisture Resistant
[Eng] Paper Treated with asphalt, wax, plastic, etc. to control
penetration of moisture.

Mottle
[Eng] A random non-uniformity in the visual density, color or gloss
of a printed area; also known as orange peel, back-trap mottle,
wet-trap mottle, pigment flocculation, striations, etc.

Mullen
[Eng] Measurement of the force required, in pounds per square
inch, to rupture a sheet of kraft paper. Also known as bursting
strength.

99
Multi-Layer Web Forming
[Eng] Usually applied to a board machine on which several webs
are combined into one.

Multiply Board Machine


[Eng] A machine in which a number of plies of paper can be
combined together in the wet state to produce thick paperboard..

Multiply Paper Making Process


[Eng] A paper/board making process in which different layers of
fibers are deposited one over the other to form the sheet. The
multiply process is used to make the optimum use of various type
of fibers available. It is also used to make heavy basis weight
papers.

Multi-Stage Cooking
[Eng] Chemical pulping process in which the alkalinity of the
cooking liquor is varied by charging the alkali in several stages.

100
N

Newsprint
[Eng] A paper manufactured mostly from mechanical pulps
specifically for the printing of newspaper.

Nip
[Eng] Point where two rolls on the paper machine come in contact.

Nitration Pulps
[Eng] High purity pulps that are reacted with nitric acid to form a
class of chemical derivatives called cellulose nitrates. Cellulose
nitrates are used in applications ranging from solvents to
smokeless (gunpowder) propellants.

Nitrogen Emission
[Eng] Emission of nitrogen compounds which, as nutrients, cause
eutrophication and acidification in water systems.

Non-Wood Fibers
[Eng] Papermaking fibers derived from plants other than trees
such as cotton, hemp, bagasse, jute, bamboo or straws.

Non-Wood Pulp
[Eng] Pulp made from materials other than wood, for example
straw, grasses, bagasse etc.

Nonwoven
[Eng] Fabric-like material made from long fibers, bonded together
by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment.

101
O

Off-machine Coating
[Eng] Coating of paper on a separate coating machine.

Off-machine Creping
[Eng] A method whereby paper is creped in a separate operation
rather than by the paper machine's Yankee cylinder.

Offset Paper
[Eng] Also known as book paper. General description of any paper
primarily suited for offset printing. Can be coated or uncoated.
Characterized by strength, dimensional stability, lack of curl and
freedom from foreign surface material. Finish can be vellum or
smooth.

Offset Printing
[Eng] Also know as web offset or lithography. Offers highest
degree of precision, clarity, and quality.

Old Corrugated Container (OCC)


[Eng] Brown boxes that have been used for their intended purpose,
then collected for recycling.

On-Machine Coating
[Eng] Application of coating to the paper off the paper machine, or
as a separate operation to the papermaking.

Opacity
[Eng] That properties of paper which minimizes the "show-
through" of printing from the backside or the next sheet.

Optical Brightener
[Eng] Fluorescent dyes added to paper to enhance the visual
brightness; the dye absorbs ultraviolet light and re-emits it in the
visual spectrum.

Optical Characteristics
[Eng] Characteristics of the appearance of paper or board. Most
important are colour, brightness, opacity and gloss.

102
Orange Peel
[Eng] A type of sheet surface that looks like orange.

Out Turn Sheet


[Eng] A sheet of paper, taken during manufacture, serving as a
reference for the mill or client.

Oven Dry Moisture Content


[Eng] The percentage loss in weight of a paper specimen when
dried to constant weight in an oven maintained at the temperature
of 105 +/- 2 C.

Oxygen Bleaching
[Eng] A process in which pulp is initially treated with oxygen
followed by 4-5 bleaching stages.

Oxygen Delignification
[Eng] A process in which oxygen gas and sodium hydroxide are
used to remove lignin from brown stock.

Ozone (O3)
[Eng] A highly reactive gas with molecules made up of three
oxygen atoms.

Ozone Bleaching
[Eng] A process that uses ozone to whiten cellulose fibers following
the Kraft pulping and oxygen delignification processing.

103
P

Packaging Paper
[Eng] A paper or paperboard used for wrapping or packing good.

Pallet
[Eng] A platform with a slatted bottom, used to hold and ship
cartons of paper stacked on top of each other.

Paper
[Eng] A homogeneous sheet formed by irregularly interviewing
cellulose fibers.

Paper Cut
[Eng] The excruciating, often unforeseeable, and usually invisible-
to-the-naked-eye cut received when skin slides along the edge of a
piece of paper at just the wrong angle.

Paperboard
[Eng] A heavy weight, thick, rigid and single or multi-layer sheet.
What differentiates paperboard from paper is the weight of the
sheet. If paperboard is very heavy it is called Board. Paper heavier
than 150 gram per meter square are normally called Paperboard
and paperboard heavier than 500 gram per meter square are called
board.

Paper-ink Affinity
[Eng] The tendency for paper and ink to attract and stay attracted
to each other. This keeps the ink on the paper and off the reader's
hands or the next sheet. An incompatibility between ink and paper
can cause printing problems.

Papermaking (Picking)
[Eng] Invented in China by T'sai Lun some 2,000 years ago,
papermaking still follows the same basic procedures. Today wood
chips are cooked with chemicals to release cellulose fibers and
dissolve lignin, then washed to remove impurities. Most printing
papers are then bleached to lighten the color of the pulp. Pulp is
mechanically and chemically treated to impart certain desired
characteristics such as strength, smoothness and sizing. Large
quantity of water is added to uniformly distribution of fibers and

104
additives. The resulting slurry, which is 99 to 99.5% water, is
cascaded onto the continuously moving forming fabric of the
Fourdrinier paper machine. Side-to-side shaking distributes the
slurry, forming a tangled web of fiber as the water drains off. A
wire mesh roll called a dandy roll, moves over the surface to
modulate the turbulence and smooth the topside of the paper. A
felt blanket absorbs more water from the paper and sends the
sheet on through a channel of hot metal drums that dry and press
the paper at the same time to give it a more even-sided finish. At
this point the paper is fully dry and ready for off-machine
processes such as coating, embossed finishes and
supercalendering.

Papyrus
[Eng] The Egyptians used this aquatic plant to create a writing
sheet by peeling apart the plant's tissue-thin layers and stacking
them in overlapping, crosshatched pieces to form a sheet. Despite
giving us the word "paper," papyrus is not a true paper.

Parchment
[Eng] Animal skins or linings stretched and prepared as
writing/painting surfaces. Produces a smooth, buttery surface.

Particulate
[Eng] Airborne solid impurities such as those present in gaseous
emissions (sodium sulfate, lime, calcium carbonate, soot).

Peel Strength
[Eng] The amount of normal force required to delaminate a
multiply paper. Strength measured by TAPPI useful method UM808
or other similar methods.

Perfecting Press
[Eng] A printing press that simultaneously prints both sides of a
sheet of paper as it passes through the press. On other presses,
printing both sides means running the sheet through the press to
print one side, allowing the ink to dry, turning the paper over, and
then running the sheet through the press again to print the other
side.

Permanence
[Eng] The degree to which paper resists deterioration over time.

Permanent Paper
[Eng] A paper that can resist large chemical and physical changes

105
over and extended time (several hundred years). This paper is
generally acid-free with alkaline reserve and a reasonably high
initial strength.

Permanganate Number (K Number)


[Eng] Chemical test performed on pulp to determine the degree of
delignification.

Permeability
[Eng] Degree to which a fluid (gas or liquid) permeates or
penetrate a porous substance such as paper or fabric.

Pernicious Contraries
[Eng] Any material present in waste paper that is difficult to see or
detect and which might be detrimental to the paper being
manufactured from the wastepaper or which might either damage
paper making equipment or render repulping difficult.

Peroxide Bleaching or Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching


[Eng] Method of bleaching pulp with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to
remove lignin; reduces or avoids the need for chlorine dioxide in
final bleaching.

pH (Hydrogen Ion Concentration)


[Eng] A measure of the acidity (or alkalinity) of a solution. Range
from 0-14 with 7 being neutral, less than 7 being acid; higher than
7 being alkaline.

Photographic Paper
[Eng] The base paper used for the production of photographic
papers is a dimensionally stable, chemically neutral chemical pulp
paper with wet strength properties, that must be free from
contaminants. Today papers are coated on both sides with a thin
polyethylene film. The cooking prevents chemicals and water
entering the paper during development. This also permits shorter
rinsing and drying cycles.

Pick Out
[Eng] A problem on press caused by unevenly sealed paper, or
paper with low bonding strength. The ink "picks" off weak areas of
the paper, lifting coating from a coated stock or lifting fibers from
an uncoated stock, and transferring them to the printing blanket.
These fibers will eventually be transferred back onto the sheets
being printed, causing inking and surface inconsistencies.

106
Pick Resistance
[Eng] The ability of paper fibers to hold together during the
printing process.

Picking (Papermaking)
[Eng] To transfer the wet sheet from wire part to press part. If the
sheet moves unsupported is called "poor man pick up". If a
solid/suction roll is used to lick/pick the sheet, it is referred as
closed transfer.

Picking Resistance
[Eng] Ability of a paper surface to resist picking by tacky printing
inks.

Pick-Up
[Eng] Roll which lifts the wet paper or board web off the wire
before the drying section.

Pigment
[Eng] An ingredient added to pulp to increase the brightness and
opacity of white paper or dye the pulp to create a colored sheet.

Pigmentizing
[Eng] Coating of paper with a chemical agent (pigment) to reduce
surface porosity and increase opacity.

Pin Holes
[Eng] Imperfections in paper which appear as minute holes upon
looking through the sheet. They originate from foreign particles,
which are pressed through the sheet.

Piping
[Eng] Defect in reels, consisting of ridges running around the
circumference, due to moisture take-up by the surface layers or
uneven binding or hard and soft spots.

Pitch
[Eng] Resinous material present in wood (mainly softwood) that
carry over into the pulping and papermaking system to form
insoluble deposits.

Plasticizer
[Eng] Agent mixed into coating colour to give a more flexible
coating.

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Ply
[Eng] The separate webs, which make up the sheet formed on a
multi-cylinder machine. Each cylinder adds one web or ply, which
is pressed to the other, the plies adhering firmly upon drying.

Point
[Eng] A unit of paper or paperboard thickness measuring one-
thousandth of an inch.

Polymer
[Eng] A chemical term for several classes of organic or carbon
containing chemicals where a monomer or single chemical
molecule is connected to itself in repeating units to form a chemical
"chain." An example of a polymer is cellulose, a repeating chain of
glucose (sugar). Other examples are polyesters, nylons, viscose,
lyocell, polyolefins and polystyrenes.

Polymer
[Eng] Organic chemical compounds consisting of repeating
structural units. Cellulose is a polymer.

Polyvinyl alcohol
[Eng] Resin used as a binder in coating colour formulations, which
has good adhesive strength and may enhance the effect of optical
brightening agents.

Porosity
[Eng] The property of paper that allows the permeation of air, an
important factor in ink penetration.

Postcard Board
[Eng] Postcard board is either slightly mechanical or woodfree and
calendered.

Post-Consumer Waste Paper


[Eng] Waste paper materials recovered after being used by
consumers.

Poster Paper
[Eng] Poster paper is a highly mechanical, highly filled, mostly
coloured paper that has been made weather resistant by sizing.

Precision Sheeting
[Eng] Converting rolls of paper into finished sheet sizes in a single

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operation.

Pre-Consumer Waste Paper


[Eng] Paper recovered after the papermaking process, but before
used by a consumer.

Press
[Eng] A combination of two or more rolls used to press out water
from wet paper web. Following are some of the types of the press.

Press (Grooved)
[Eng] In this type of press, one roll is grooved. The squeezed water
is hold in the groves and removed by doctoring or sucking out on
the return run of the roll.

Press (Plain)
[Eng] This is the simplest and the oldest type of press which is now
a days rarely used except on very slow speed machine. The solid
press consist of two solid rolls covered with rubber and or granite.
The top roll is somewhat offset for the squeezed out water to flow
by gravity.

Press (Solid)
[Eng] This is the simplest and the oldest type of press which is now
a days rarely used except on very slow speed machine. The solid
press consist of two solid rolls covered with rubber and or granite.
The top roll is somewhat offset for the squeezed out water to flow
by gravity.

Press (Suction)
[Eng] In this type of press, one roll is drilled and shell of the drilled
roll rotates over a suction box. The squeezed water is sucked out
through the felt.

Press Nip
[Eng] On a paper machine, a pair of rotating rolls between which
the paper web passes.

Press Part or Press Section


[Eng] The section of the paper machine which contains press (es).
It is usually located between wire part and dryer part.

Pressure Sensitive Coated Paper


[Eng] Paper coated with a self-adhesive material which in dry form
(solvent free) is permanently tacky at room temperature. A bond

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with the receiving surface may be formed by the application of
pressure (e.g. by the finger or hand). A permanent adhesive is
characterized by relatively high ultimate adhesion and a removable
adhesive by low ultimate adhesion. Until the time of application,
the adhesive surface should be covered by a suitable release
coated paper.

Pressurized Groundwood Pulp (PGW)


[Eng] Mechanical pulp produced by treating logs with steam before
defibration against a grindstone under externally applied pressure.

Printability
[Eng] The overall performance of the paper on press.

Printing
[Eng] The transfer of ink onto paper or other materials to
reproduce words and images.

Printing Paper
[Eng] Printing paper is a collective term for all printable mechanical
or woodfree papers that may serve as the medium for printed
information. In addition to uniform and fast ink trapping and drying
(printability) as well as dimensional stability, sufficient opacity (no
show through of the back print) and smoothness, such papers
require a certain degree of strength and stiffness, so that the paper
may run through the printing machine fast and without any
problems (runnability). Many printing papers are coated to improve
printability (See "Coated paper").

Process Flowchart
[Eng] Layout showing process equipment and material flows.

Pulp
[Eng] A suspension of cellulose fibers in water.

Pulp Board
[Eng] Also known as Printers’ Board, this grade is made from a
single web of pulp on a paper making machine, and is produced in
various substances. Used for index cards and other general
products, these boards may be white or coloured.

Pulper
[Eng] Unit for defibrating (slushing) pulps and paper machine
broke, usually at the wet end of the paper machine.

110
Puncture Resistance
[Eng] The puncture resistance of combined board indicates the
ability of the finished container to withstand external and internal
point pressure forces and to protect the product during rough
handling.

111
P

Rag
[Eng] The term “rag” is often used interchangeably with “cotton
fiber content” and harkens to a period of time when paper was
actually made using cotton rags which were cleaned and then
broken down into fibers which were then used to manufacture
paper. In a sense it could be stated that the fine paper business
has been engaged in recycling materials for production since its
very beginning. Today paper is no longer made from rags and the
term “rag” is falling in disfavor by the industry in lieu of the phrase
“cotton fiber content”.

Rag Paper
[Eng] Today rag paper is mostly made from vegetable fibers
consisting of cellulose, such as cotton, linen, hemp and ramie.
Rags are the most precious raw material for the papermaker. Rag
papers and rag-containing papers with admixtures of chemical pulp
are used for banknotes, deeds, documents, books of account,
maps and copperplate engravings and as elegant writing papers.
They are also used for special technical applications.

Rag Pulp
[Eng] Papermaking pulp made from textile waste, cotton, hemp or
flax..

Rattle
[Eng] That combination of properties such as stiffness, density etc.
which is responsible for noise when the sheet is shaken or flexed.

Ream
[Eng] 500 Sheets of paper.

Recovered Paper
[Eng] Paper recovered for recycling into new paper products.
Recovered paper can be collected from industrial sources (scraps,
transport packaging, unsold newspapers...) or from household
collections (old newspapers and magazines, household packaging).

Recovered Paper Grades


[Eng] Recovered paper sorted by types in order to be recycled by
paper mills. Specific grades are used by paper mills, in order to

112
produce different types of paper and boards.

Recovery Boiler
[Eng] Boiler used to burn black liquor from chemical pulping for
recovery of inorganic chemicals as well as for energy production.

Recovery Fibre
[Eng] Fibre obtained from recovered paper; also secondary fibre
(cf. virgin fibre).

Recovery Fibre Pulp


[Eng] Pulp produced from recovered paper to be used in
papermaking.

Recovery Rate
[Eng] Volume of paper recovered as a percentage of volume of
paper consumed.

Recovery Rate (Chemical)


[Eng] Amount of chemical recovered in chemical recovery process
as a percentage of chemical used in pulping. Chemical loss is
compensated my make up chemicals.

Recovery Rate (Paper)


[Eng] Amount of paper recovered as a percentage of amount of
paper consumed.

Rectifier Roll
[Eng] Hollow perforated roll in headbox used for even out the flow
of fibers and prevent settling of fibers in headbox by providing
gentle agitation.

Recycled Fiber
[Eng] Fiber obtained from recovered paper; also secondary fiber
(cf. virgin fiber).

Recycled Fiber Pulp


[Eng] Pulp produced from recovered paper to be used in
papermaking.

Recycling
[Eng] Use of recovered waste paper and board by paper mills to
produce paper and boards.

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Reel
[Eng] A continuous sheet of paper wound on a core.

Refiner
[Eng] An equipment used to give mechanical treatment to the
fibers.

Refiner Mechanical Pulp (RMP)


[Eng] Mechanical pulp produced by passing wood chips between
the plates of a refiner.

Refiner Sawdust Pulp


[Eng] Mechanical pulp produced from sawmill dust.

Refining
[Eng] Mechanical treatment of fibers to enhance bonding.

Reflectivity
[Eng] Ability of paper or board to reflect light; a measure of gloss.

Refractiveness
[Eng] A measure of how much a sheet of paper deflects the light
that hits it. The more light a sheet deflects, the greater its
refractiveness, allowing a printed image to be more brilliant and
detailed.

Registration
[Eng] Putting two or more images together so that they are exactly
aligned and the resulting image is sharp.

Reinforcement
[Eng] Method for strengthening paper with an insert or surface
layer of glass or other synthetic fiber or metal.

Reinforcement Pulp
[Eng] Softwood chemical pulp added to give paper greater strength
and to improve runnability on the paper machine or printing press.

Reject
[Eng] Material removed and discarded during the cleaning and
screening of pulp/stock.

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Release Paper
[Eng] Release paper is used to prevent the sticking of glue, paste
or other adhesive substances. Coating paper with silicone yields
papers with a surface that prevents adhesion of most substances.
Application: cover material for self-adhesive papers or films, e.g. in
label production.

Relief
[Eng] A method for printing ink on paper, using type or images
that rise above the surface of the printing plate. Ink sits on top of
these raised surfaces, and as the paper is pressed onto them it
picks up ink.
Letterpress, flexography, and rubber stamps all use relief plates. In
letterpress, intense pressure can cause images to be slightly
debossed or depressed below the surface of the paper.

Residual Fibers
[Eng] Fibers derived from sawmills scraps, plywood plants and
other timber management activities.

Resilience
[Eng] A paper's ability to return to its original form after being
stretched, bent or compressed during the printing and bindery
process.

Retention
[Eng] The amount of filler or other material which remain in the
finished paper expressed as a percentage that added to the furnish
before sheet formation. Retention can occur by various
mechanisms. The simplest of these is mechanical sieving by the
forming fabric. Once a fiber mat begins to form, the mat itself
usually can act as a much more effective and finer sieve than the
forming fabric.
But even then, particles less than about 10 micrometers in size are
not effectively retained by sieving.
Rather, retention of fine particles requires the action of colloidal
forces, including polymeric bridging or a charged patch
mechanism.
Retention aid chemicals can be effective either by attaching fine
particles to fiber fines or fibers or by agglomerating them so that
they can be sieved more effectively.

Retention Aid
[Eng] Chemical additives, especially high molecular weight
copolymers of acrylamide, designed to increase the retention

115
efficiency of fine materials during paper formation.

Rewinder, Winder
[Eng] Machine for cutting the paper web longitudinally into
narrower webs, which are then wound to reels; also slitter-winder.

Rice Paper
[Eng] A common misnomer applied to lightweight Oriental papers.
Rice alone cannot produce a sheet of paper. Rice or wheat straw is
used occasionally mixed with other fibers in paper making. The
name may be derived from the rice size (starch) once used in
Japanese papermaking.

Ridges
[Eng] Roll defect where there are raised bands or rings of material
around the circumference of the roll.

Ring Crush Test (RCT)


[Eng] A test method for measuring the edgewise crush resistance
by forming the paper into a cylinder and applying a crushing force
to the edge. (TAPPI T818)

Roe Number
[Eng] Measure of the amount of chlorine required for bleaching
pulp.

Roll Coating
[Eng] A process in which the coating is applied by roll and
subsequently smoothed by means of reverse rolls contacting the
freshly coated surface.

Roofing Paper
[Eng] Board that is impregnated with tar, bitumen and/or natural
asphalt.

Rosin
[Eng] Rosin, a natural resin from pine trees in combination with
alum, is used for internal sizing of paper in acidic paper making.
The chemical formula of rosin is C19H29COOH.

Rosin Size
[Eng] Partially or completely saponified (neutralized) rosin. The
chemical formula of rosin is C19H29CONa.

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Rotary Shear
[Eng] A sheet-metal cutting machine having two rotary-disk
cutters mounted on parallel shafts and driven in unison.

Rotogravure
[Eng] The opposite of letterpress printing in that the design areas
are recessed into the plate instead of being a relief. It is web-fed
and prints thin, quick drying ink to produce multiple colors.
Used in corrugated packaging.

Rough
[Eng] Heavily textured surfaces produced by minimal pressing after
sheet formation.

Rough Finish
[Eng] Paper having an exceptionally rough or coarse textured
surface.

Runnability
[Eng] The ease with which a paper moves through a printing press
or converting machine. This is primarily determined by the paper's
strength, tear resistance, dimensional stability, bonding strength
and water resistance.

117
S

Sack
[Eng] The term is used interchangeably with the word "bag"
applied to a non-rigid container made from paper or other flexible
material.

Sack Paper
[Eng] See "Kraft paper"

Safety Paper
[Eng] Papers with a special protection against abusive imitation.
The safeguards used during the production of the paper - some of
them chemicals are secret.

Salt Cake
[Eng] Or sodium sulfate added to the black liquor to compensate
for the soda loss.

Sanitary Papers
[Eng] The group of sanitary papers includes cellulose wadding,
tissue and crepe paper, made from waste paper and/or chemical
pulp - also with admixtures of mechanical pulp. As a consequence
of the importance of tissue today, this name is now used
internationally as a collective term for sanitary papers. These
grades are used to make toilet paper and numerous other sanitary
products such as handkerchiefs, kitchen wipes, towels and
cosmetic tissues.

Sanitary Tissue Paper


[Eng] Tissue is a sanitary paper made from chemical or waste
paper pulp, sometimes with the admixture of mechanical pulp. It
has a closed structure and is only slightly creped. It is so thin that
it is hardly used in a single layer. Depending on the requirements
the number of layers is multiplied. Creping is made at a dryness
content of more than 90 %. The dry creping (unlike with sanitary
crepe papers) and the low grammage of a single tissue layer result
in a high softness of the tissue products. For consumer products it
is normally combined in two or more layers. The flexible and highly
absorbent product [is mainly produced from chemical pulp and/or
DIP - sometimes also with admixture of groundwood pulp] can also
be provided with wet strength. Applications: facial tissues, paper

118
handkerchiefs, napkins, kitchen rolls, paper towels, toilet paper.

Sap Wood
[Eng] The fluid part of the tree that moves up from the roots
through the outer portion of the trunk and branches and
contributes to its growth.

Satin Finish
[Eng] A smooth, satin-like, semi-glossy finish of paper or Bristol.

Save-All
[Eng] Equipment used to reclaim fibers from white water.

SC
[Eng] See Supercalendered

SC Paper
[Eng] SC stands for supercalendered. This is a calendered,
uncoated mechanical paper with fillers

Score
[Eng] To impress or indent a mark with a string or rule in the
paper to make folding easier.

Scott Bond
[Eng] An internal bond test that measures the force needed to
separate fibers within a single ply by TAPPI method.

Screen
[Eng] Device used to remove large solids particles such as fiber
bundles and flakes from stock. In good old days screen used to be
open type and could deal with thin stock only.
Modern screen are closed (pressurized) and can handle low,
medium and even high consistency stock. Perforation in screen
basket can be circular, counter shrink or slotted. The screen used
just before headbox not only remove large particles but also align
fibers in the direction of stock flow.

Scuff Resistance
[Eng] Linerboard's ability to resist abrasion in the shipping
environment may affect external appearance.

Secondary Fibers
[Eng] Fibers recovered from waste paper and utilized in making

119
paper or paperboard.

Secondary Fibre
[Eng] See Recycled fibre

Security paper
[Eng] Paper which includes identification features such as metallic
strips and watermarks to assist in detecting fraud and to prevent
counterfeiting.

Self Adhesive paper


[Eng] Used essentially for labeling purposes, this grade has a self-
adhesive coating on one side and a surface suitable for printing on
the other. The adhesive is protected by a laminate which enables
the sheet to be fed through printers or printing machines, the
laminate subsequently being stripped when the label is applied.

Semi-Alkaline Pulp (SAP)


[Eng] Sulfite pulp cooked at slightly alkaline pH (normal sulfite
pulp is cooked at acid pH). SAP is superior in strength to normal
sulfite pulp. Used mainly in printing papers.

Semi-Bleached Pulp
[Eng] Pulp bleached to a brightness somewhere between that of
unbleached and fully bleached pulp.

Semi-Chemical Pulp
[Eng] Pulp produced by chemical treatment followed by mechanical
treatment.

Settleable Solids
[Eng] Suspended solids that will settle out of an effluent during
mechanical treatment

Shade
[Eng] The color depth and hue in comparison to papers that are
the same color; also used to describe the color achieved by adding
dye to pulp slurry. There is a wide shade variety in white papers,
as well as in colored papers.

Sheeter
[Eng] Machine for cutting the paper web into sheets.

Sheffield Porosity
[Eng] A test used to measure the smoothness of paper by

120
measuring the rate of air flow over the surface of the sheet. The
lower the number, the smoother the sheet.

Shives
[Eng] Small bundles of fibers that have not been separated
completely during pulping.

Short Fibre
[Eng] Applies to paper or pulp containing a high proportion of short
wood fibres.

Show Through
[Eng] The degree to which a printed film is visible through paper
due to the low opacity of the paper.

Side Run
[Eng] (1) A narrow reel removed from a web during processing,
the width of which is less than the size ordered, but is large
enough to permit its use for purposes other than re-pulping.
(2) An additional part of an order placed in order to better utilize
the maximum trimmed machine width of the making machine.

Size Press
[Eng] Section of paper machine where surface treatments are
applied to the sheet of paper to give it special qualities. Normally
comprised of a pair of rolls towards the end of the dryer train
between which the dry or partially dry web is passed, and into the
nip of which a liquid, usually starch, is applied to impart strength to
the sheet. Sometimes a chemical may be added to produce a
water-resistant sheet

Sized Paper
[Eng] Sizing reduces the water absorbency of the paper and thus
creates the condition for the writability with ink. Sized paper is also
used for many other purposes (printing, coating, gluing, etc.), and
the sizing agents must fulfill a wide range of tasks. For instance,
they control the water absorbency and increase the ability to retain
water and ink (pick resistance).

Sizing
[Eng] The treatment of paper which gives it resistance to the
penetration of liquids (particularly water) or vapors.
Sizing improves ink holdout.

121
Slide Resistance
[Eng] The ability of containers to resist sliding in unit loads can be
predicted for the coefficient of friction of the combined board. A low
coefficient demonstrates containers slipping from the load.

Slime Holes
[Eng] A hole in paper, characterized by brownish translucent
material around the edges. Caused by a lump of slime which has
formed in stock system from the growth microorganisms, then
becoming detached and flowing onto the paper machine wire with
the fiber to form a non-fibrous area.

Slimes
[Eng] Fungus or other bacteriological growth. If not controlled in
papermaking system, may cause process and quality problems.

Slitter
[Eng] Rotary knife used to slit or trim a paper web into specified
width.

Slitter-Winder
[Eng] Machine for cutting the paper web longitudinally into
narrower webs, which are then wound to reels.

Slitting
[Eng] Dividing a web of paper in the lengthwise direction into two
or more narrower webs.

Slowness
[Eng] Measure of pulp drainage. Has an inverse relationship to
freeness.

Sludge
[Eng] Sludge of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed during
preparation of white liquor in the chemical pulping process.

Sludge Handling
[Eng] Compaction and dewatering of sludge separated from treated
effluent.

Smelt
[Eng] Inorganic chemicals obtained in molten form from the
recovery furnace.

122
Smooth Finish
[Eng] A highly calendered or machine-finished sheet.

Smoothness
[Eng] The surface uniformity of paper. Sheets that are flat and
even provide better ink dot formation and sharper images.

Soda Pulping
[Eng] An alkaline pulping process that uses a simple, sulfur- free
sodium hydroxide as cooking liquor.

Soft Cook
[Eng] Over-cooked pulp.

Soft Nip Calendar


[Eng] A machine device consisting of two or more pairs of steel
and composition rolls; it is designed to achieve much of the quality
of a Supercalender, with much of the production advantage of
being on machine, but without the severe operating difficulties of
an on-machine Supercalender.

Softboard
[Eng] Softboards are soft, bulky boards with a felt-like character.
They are used for protective covers, roofing papers, beer mat
boards, packaging boards and flongs.

Softwood
[Eng] Woods obtained from coniferous trees. Generally grown in
cold climates. Softwood grows slower than hardwood but have
longer fibers compared to hardwood.

Solid Fibre Board


[Eng] Collective term for all solid board grades.

Special Pulps
[Eng] Chemical pulps used for purposes other than ordinary
papermaking (e.g. in textile production).

Specialty Paper
[Eng] The group of specialty papers comprises numerous paper
grades, each characterized by particular properties. These
properties often require special raw materials.

123
,Specialty Pulp
[Eng] Chemical pulps used for purposes other than ordinary
papermaking (e.g. in textile production).

Specific Energy (Refining)


[Eng] Energy applied per unit weight on oven dry basis (KWH/MT)
during refining.

Specific Surface (Fiber)


[Eng] Fiber surface area per unit weight (OD basis).

Specific Surface Load (Refining)


[Eng] Specific edge load divided by refiner bar width factor (Watt-
Sec/m2).

Speck
[Eng] A small defect of foreign substance with contrasting
appearance to the surrounding paper.

Spent Liquor
[Eng] Liquor recovered from cooked pulp.

Splice
[Eng] Formed by overlapping webs and joining with a strip of
double-faced adhesive tape. Used for lighter-weight grades of
paper.

Spread Coating
[Eng] A method of coating a web of paper by means of a vertical
plate restraining a pond of viscous coating material, for example
resins, plastics or adhesives, which is drawn through an adjustable
gap between the plate and the paper by the forward movement of
the web over a horizontal support.

Stampers
[Eng] The wooden hammers used in a watermill to pulp rags in
order to separate the fibers.

Standard Test Conditions


[Eng] Atmospheric conditions of temperature and humidity in
which laboratories agree to conduct tests, eliminating those
variables in comparing results.

124
Starch
[Eng] A natural product from corn, potatoes, tapioca, etc., and
used for dry strength. Cationic starch is added at the paper
machine wet end.

Steam Calendering
[Eng] See steam finishing.

Steam Finishing
[Eng] A way of treating paper before calendering to improve its
density and surface smoothness.

Steaming
[Eng] Wood chips are often treated with steam prior to pulping;
used in thermo-mechanical pulping. Also injection of steam in
direct or indirect cooking digester for chip packing and or cooking.

Stencil
[Eng] A sheet of plastic, paper, or other material with letters or an
image cut out of it. When placed on a surface and inked, it
reproduces the cut-away images onto the material behind it.

Stickies
[Eng] Sticky materials in recycled papermaking pulp, often
resulting from pressure-sensitive labels.

Stiffness
[Eng] The ability of paper or paperboard to resist an applied
bending force and to support its own weight while being handled. A
sheet that is too limp can cause feeding and transport problems in
copiers and printers. An adequate degree of stiffness is important
to avoid distortion of the paper due to the pull of ink during offset
printing. Stiffness is critical to many converting operations for
forms and envelope grades.

Stock
[Eng] A term used to define pulp after mechanical (refining or
beating) and /or chemical treatment (sizing, loading, dying etc.) in
the paper making process. A pulp ready to make paper.

Stock Preparation
[Eng] Collective term for all treatment necessary for the
preparation of the stock before it reaches the paper machine.

125
Straw Pulp
[Eng] Pulp that is made from the straw of grains such as rice
straw. It is cooked by soda process.

Strawboard
[Eng] Board made from partially cooked straw, bagasse or grass or
a mixture of these.

Strength
[Eng] Ability of paper or board to withstand mechanical stress.

Stretch
[Eng] The maximum tensile strain developed in paper before
rupture. The stretch or percentage elongation is expressed as a
percentage.

Strike-through
[Eng] The penetration of ink through paper.

Substrate
[Eng] The base material on which a substance (such as ink,
adhesive, coating) is applied.

Suitcase Board
[Eng] Sized, high-density and strong board which generally is
water repellent on both sides as a result of surface finishing. It
may be pressed, folded, moulded, bent, riveted and sowed.
Thickness 1 - 3 mm.

Sulfate Pulping
[Eng] Alkaline process of cooking pulp.

Sulfite Pulping
[Eng] Acid process of cooking pulp.

Sulphate Pulp
[Eng] Chemical pulp produced by cooking wood in a liquor
containing sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide.

Sulphite Pulp
[Eng] Chemical pulp produced by cooking wood in a liquor
containing sodium, magnesium, ammonium or calcium bisulphite.

126
Supercalender
[Eng] A stack of alternating steel and fiber-covered rolls at the end
of the paper machine which is used to increase a sheet's gloss and
smoothness.

Supercalendered (SC)
[Eng] Paper treated in a supercalender, usually separate from the
paper machine; uncoated magazine paper.

Supercalendering
[Eng] Treatment of paper on an off-machine supercalender to
improve smoothness and gloss.

Surface Roughness
[Eng] For coated boards, Parker Print Surf (PPS) roughness tester
is used where the test result is expressed as an average of the
surface profiles in micrometers ( mm ) low results show smooth
surface while high results indicate poor surface. For coated board,
Bendtsen method readings given as total leakage of air in ml/min.
Smoother surface has lower readings.

Surface Smoothness
[Eng] The smoothness of the linerboard surface may affect printing
quality because slight depressions may not receive complete ink
coverage. Surface smoothness may also affect the coefficient of
friction, gloss and coating absorption.

Surface Strength Test


[Eng] The method consists of printing a strip of paper in a print
tester at an accelerating rate. The method is preferable to Wax
Pick.

Surface Treatment
[Eng] Treating the surface of paper or board with size or coating
colour.

Surface-Sized Paper
[Eng] Paper that has been sized on the surface, generally using a
size press inside the paper machine.

Suspended Solids
[Eng] Bark, fibre and other wood-based material released into
water during debarking and pulping; filler and coating colour
residues from paper mills; solid impurities formed during waste
water treatment. Solids can be removed from waste water by

127
settling or filtration.

Swelling
[Eng] An increase in volume of fiber due to the absorption of liquid.

Synthetic Fibre (Fiber) Paper


[Eng] Papers made from synthetic fibres such as polyamide and
polyester, from viscose staple fibre or sometimes also with fillers.
The fibres are mainly held together by binders. The durable
synthetic fibre papers are used for maps and highly important
documents such as driving licences or vehicle registration books.

128
T

Table Roll
[Eng] The small diameter rolls used to support the wire.

Tack or Stickiness
[Eng] Tack is a critical property of the ink used in lithography.
Because the ink sits on a flat surface, it needs internal cohesion; in
other words, it needs to stick to itself so that it doesn't run all over
the plate. However, too much tack can cause it to pull the paper
apart.

Tag Paper
[Eng] A heavy utility grade of paper used to print tags, such as the
store tags on clothing. Tag paper must be strong and durable, yet
have good affinity for printing inks.

Talc
[Eng] Mineral used in papermaking as a filler and coating pigment.

Tear Index
[Eng] Tear index = tearing resistance/basis weight.

Tear Resistance
[Eng] The mean force required to continue the tearing of paper
from an initial cut under standardized conditions.

Tear Strength
[Eng] A measure of how likely a paper will continue to tear once
started. Tear strength will differ with and against the grain.

Tearing Resistance
[Eng] Force needed to tear a sheet of paper under specified
conditions.

Tensile Energy Absorption (TEA)


[Eng] It is the work done when a paper specimen is stressed to
rupture in tension under prescribed conditions as measured by the
integral of tensile strength over the range of tensile strain from 0
to maximum.

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Tensile Index
[Eng] Tensile index = tensile strength (N/m) /basis weight (g/m2).

Tensile Strength
[Eng] A measure of how likely a paper is to break when pulled at
opposite ends. This is very important when running through high-
speed web presses.

Testliner
[Eng] Mainly produced from waste paper used as even facing for
corrugated board or as liner of solid board. They are often
produced as duplex (two-layer) paper. The grammage is higher
than 125 gsm.

Text Paper
[Eng] Text papers are defined as fine, high quality uncoated
papers. Typically, they are made in various colors, with numerous
textures and a variety of surface finishes. Text papers are made
from high-grade bleached wood pulp, cotton fibers, or tree-free
pulp such as bamboo. Recycled sheets include high quality recycled
waste paper and post-consumer waste pulp, in addition to bleached
wood pulp, tree-free pulp or cotton fibers.

Thermal Paper
[Eng] Any paper with a heat-sensitive coating on which an image
can be produced by the application of heat.

Thermal Transfer Printing


[Eng] Printing whereby a design image is first printed on heat
transfer paper using inks with sublimable dispersed dyes.

Thermo Mechanical Pulping (TMP)


[Eng] Mechanical pulp made by steaming wood chips under
pressure prior to and during refining, producing a higher yield and
stronger pulp than regular stone groundwood or regular refiner
wood pulp.

Thin Paper
[Eng] Includes carbonizing, cigarette, bible, air mail and similar
papers.

Thinning
[Eng] A practice in which certain trees are removed from a dense
stand to allow the remaining trees adequate sunlight, nutrients and

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moisture to grow at an even rate.

Three-layer Paperboard
[Eng] Paperboard consisting of three layers: front liner made from
chemical pulp and/or waste paper pulp, middle made from waste
paper pulp and back made from mechanical and/or chemical
and/or waste paper pulp.

Tint
[Eng] To vary a color by adding white. Also, a very light or delicate
variation of a color.

Tissue
[Eng] A low weights and thin sheet. Normally a paper sheet
weighing less than 40 gram per meter square is called tissue.
1) At-Home products: Also known as Consumer Products, these are
the tissue products you purchase in the grocery store and
convenience store for use in your home and include toilet paper
and facial tissue, napkins and paper towels, and other special
sanitary papers.
2) Away-from-Home products: Also known as Commercial &
Industrial Tissue, these are the products that serve markets such
as hospitals, restaurants, businesses, institutions, and janitorial
supply firms.
3) Specialty: These types of tissue papers are often high-end,
decorative papers that are glazed, unglazed, or creped, and include
wrapping tissue for gifts and dry cleaning, as well as crepe paper
for decorating.
4) Facial tissue: The class of soft, absorbent papers in the sanitary
tissue group. Originally used for removal of creams, oil, and so on,
from the skin, it is now used in large volume for packaged facial
tissue, toilet paper, paper napkins, professional towels, industrial
wipes, and for hospital items. Most facial tissue is made of
bleached sulfite or sulfate pulp, sometimes mixed with bleached
and mechanical pulp, on a single-cylinder or Fourdrinier machine.
Desirable characteristics are softness, strength, and freedom from
lint.

Tissue Paper
[Eng] Collective term for papers of a grammage of less than 30
gsm that differ in applica-tion and composition but have the
common feature of being thin. They are mainly used to wrap
delicate items, as tissue for bottle wrapping, as fruit tissue
wrappers for oranges or as wet strength flower tissue. They are
also used as base paper for the carbon paper production, as lining
tissue for envelopes and as lining paper (e.g. as a composite with

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aluminium foil in cigarette packaging). The extremely thin
Japanese tissue papers are sometimes produced in grammages as
small as 6 to 8g.

Titanium Dioxide
[Eng] An opaque and expensive compound used as a white
pigment and opacifier in papermaking. Elemental titanium is a
lustrous, lightweight, white metal with exceptional strength.

Tolerance
[Eng] Permissible degree of variation from a pre-set standard.

Ton on Tonne
[Eng] Metric ton or Metric Tonne is equal to 1000 kgs. or 2240 lbs.
English tons are as defined. Long Ton = 2240 lbs is similar to
metric ton. Standard English ton is 2200 lbs. Short ton is 2000 lbs.

Top Side
[Eng] Side of the paper opposite to the wire side.

Total Alkali
[Eng] NaOH + Na2S + Na2CO3 + 0.5*Na2SO3 all expressed as
Na2O in alkaline pulping liquor.

Totally Chlorine-Free Paper (TCF)


[Eng] Totally chlorine free applies to virgin fiber papers that are
unbleached or processed with a sequence that includes no chlorine
or chlorine derivatives. (Also see ECF).

Translucent Drawing Paper


[Eng] A paper suitable for drawing office use; sufficiently
translucent for an image on it to be reproduced by processes using
transmitted light and for a design to be traced on it from an
original placed beneath it. Such processes include blueprint and
diazo.

Transparent Paper
[Eng] Extended and particularly careful grinding of high quality
fibers (hard chemical pulps, rags) yields a raw material permitting
the production of transparent paper.

Treated Paper
[Eng] Papers which have functional characteristics added through
special treatment. Among the most common are insect resistant,

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mold resistant, clay coated, and flame retardant.

Trim
[Eng] To cut true to exact size, by cutting away the edges of paper
in the web or sheet.

Tub Sizing
[Eng] The operation of surface sizing paper by passing it through a
bath of a suitable solution such as gelatin.

Twin-Wire Machine
[Eng] A papermaking machine with two continuous forming wires,
rather than just one. Twin-wires were designed to create a less
two-sided paper than paper manufactured on a Fourdrinier paper
machine.
Other techniques for reducing two-sidedness have since been
developed, enabling paper manufacturers to create paper on
single-wire machines with little side-to-side variation.

Two-Sidedness
[Eng] The property denoting a difference in appearance and
printability between its top (felt) and wire sides.

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U

Unglazed Paper (UG)


[Eng] Un-calendered paper.

Union Kraft
[Eng] A packaging material comprising two layers of Kraft paper
bonded together by means of a laminate that is resistant to the
transmission of water in liquid or vapor form. E.g. bitumen or
plastic.

Un-Sized Paper
[Eng] A paper which has not been sized.

Urban Forest
[Eng] A description of towns and cities which are the source of
wastepaper as one of the raw materials used for paper making.

Urban Wood
[Eng] Used pallets, wooden shipping crates and clean construction
wood diverted from the waste stream and chipped for use in
making particleboard and medium density board.

UV Coating
[Eng] A very glossy, slick coating applied to the printed paper
surface and dried on press with ultraviolet (UV) light. UV coating
can cause slight variations in match colors, so consult an ink
manufacturer or printer for best results.

UV Ink
[Eng] An ink specially formulated to dry quickly with ultraviolet
light while still on press. Fast UV drying eliminates the need to wait
for the first side to dry before printing the second side.

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V

V Fold
[Eng] V-fold has one fold which creates two panels.

Vat Machine
[Eng] A paper or board making machine comprising one open
ended cylinder, or more than one open ended cylinder in series,
covered with fine mesh wire, which revolves in a vat of stock.
Water draining through the wire leaves a mat of fibers on its
surface and the ultimate thickness of the product may be
determined by the number of cylinders used. The resultant web is
removed from the last cylinder and then passed through
conventional pressing and drying sections.

Vegetable Parchment
[Eng] Paper that has acquired, by the action of sulfuric acid, a
continuous texture. It offers high resistance to disintegration by
water and grease.

Vehicle
[Eng] The liquid part of the ink, giving it the flow properties that
enable it to be applied to a surface.

Vellum Paper
[Eng] (1) Paper finish that exhibits a toothy surface similar to
eggshell or antique and is relatively absorbent for fast ink
penetration.
(2) A high-grade paper made to resemble parchments originally
made from calf’s skin.
(3) Social and personal stationery is often called vellum.

Virgin Fibre
[Eng] Fiber that has never been used before in the manufacture of
paper or other products.

Virgin Forest
[Eng] Forest in its natural state, untouched by man.

Viscose Pulp
[Eng] Dissolving pulp intended for the manufacture of viscose.

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Viscosity
[Eng] A measurement of the fluidity of ink. A higher viscosity is the
thicker, and the lower viscosity is thinner.

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W

Wall Base Paper


[Eng] Collective term for papers that are suitable for wallpaper
production. These papers may be monolayer or multilayer
(simplex/duplex), woodfree or mechanical, uncoated or coated,
and can also be laminated, pre-pasted or peelable.

Wall Paper
[Eng] A paper used for wall covering. Also known as hanging
paper.

Washer Room
[Eng] Pulp mill department where pulp is washed free of cooking
chemicals.

Washing
[Eng] A process of separating spent cooking or bleaching chemicals
from pulp fibers.

Washing Deinking
[Eng] Deinking in which solid particles are separated on the basis
of their size by washing. Also see Flotation Deinking and
Combination Deinking.

Waste Paper
[Eng] Paper after it has been used. Most can be recycled into new
paper products. Known also as recovered paper and secondary
fibre.

Water Finished Paper


[Eng] A high glazed paper produced by moistening the sheet with
water or steam during calendering.

Water Resistant Paper


[Eng] Paper which has been impregnated, coated or laminated to
resist the penetration of water.

Water Retention Value (WRV)


[Eng] The water retention value test provides an indication of
fibers' ability to take up water and swell. The WRV is also highly

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correlated to the bonding ability of kraft fibers.

Water Vapor Transmission


[Eng] The rate of water vapor transmission through containerboard
indicates the ability of the finished container to protect its contents
from undesirable effects of high humidly or moisture loss of the
product.

Water-Colour Paper
[Eng] A medium weight, hard sized, coarse surface paper, suitable
for painting with water based colors.

Waterleaf
[Eng] A paper with little or no sizing, like blotter, making it very
absorbent If dampening is desired, this paper can be sprayed with
an atomizer.

Watermark
[Eng] The image impressed into the formation of paper by the
dandy roll on the wet end of the paper machine; can be seen by
holding the watermarked sheet up to the light. Can be either a wire
mark or a shaded image.

Waviness
[Eng] A form of paper curl resulting when the sheet edges in the
pile absorb moisture that the center of the pile cannot absorb; or
the sheet edges surrendering moisture while the center remains
moist.

Wavy Edges
[Eng] Warping effect in paper that is the result of the edges of the
sheet having picked up moisture and expanded. Will normally
happen only in a pile that prevents the center of the sheets from
picking up the same amount of moisture and leveling out or
cockling. It is usually a warm weather problem caused by improper
balance between moisture content of the paper or too high
humidity in the air.

Wax Coating Machine


[Eng] (graphic arts) A machine that applies a pressure-sensitive
coating of wax to the backs of proofs, stats, photos, overlays, and
other materials.

Wax Pick
[Eng] A process that measures the ability of inks to pick fibers or

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particles from the surface of paper as a manner of testing the
surface strength of paper stocks.

Waxed Paper
[Eng] Nearly woodfree papers that are impregnated with paraffin,
wax or wax/paraffin/plastic mixtures. With the appropriate
saturation agent and process the product may be tailored for
specific applications, e.g. packaging of bread or sweets or wrapping
razor blades.

Waxing
[Eng] Coating or impregnating of paper or board with paraffin or
wax.

Web
[Eng] Term used for the full width of the paper sheet in the process
of being formed, pressed, dried, finished and/or converted.

Web Break
[Eng] A tear in a web during the printing process.

Wet Break
[Eng] A paper break at the wet end (on wire or press) during
papermaking process.

Wet End
[Eng] First part of the paper machine consisting of wire part and
press part.

Wet Strenght And Alkali Resistant Paper


[Eng] Adding alkali resistant wet strength agents to the fibre
suspension yields papers that have a remarkable strength even
when wet.

Wet Strength Paper


[Eng] A chemically treated paper strong enough to withstand tear,
rupture or falling apart when saturated with water.

Wet Tensile Strength


[Eng] The measure of the force necessary to break a one inch strip
if paper after it has been immersed in water.

Wetting Agent
[Eng] Substance that increases the wettability of a surface for a

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liquid.

White Liquor
[Eng] White liquor is the aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide &
sodium sulfide used as the cooking liquor in Kraft pulping.

White Top Liner


[Eng] A two-ply sheet comprised of one bleached and one
unbleached layer.

White Water
[Eng] The filtrate from the wet end of the paper machine.

White Water System


[Eng] Flow circuit for paper machine white water (includes pipes,
storage tanks, cleaning equipment, water from forming section and
return feed).

Whiteness
[Eng] Whiteness of pulp and paper is generally indicated by its
brightness, which is the reflectance of a wavelength of blue light.
So-called white papers have a definite hue. Most are made with a
blue white tint.

Wicking
[Eng] The bleeding of ink from the ink jet printing process into
unwanted areas of the paper, causing a blurring effect of the
printed character or image.

Winder, Rewinder
[Eng] Machine for cutting the paper web longitudinally into
narrower webs, which are then wound to reels; also slitter-winder.

Winding
[Eng] Operation whereby a web of paper or board is wound into
one or more reels.

Wire
[Eng] The moving "screen" at the wet end of a paper machine
where the sheet is formed.

Wire Guide Roll


[Eng] The small diameter roll used for guiding (keeping on track)
the wire. One end of the roll is adjusted to compensate any

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misalignment.

Wire or Machine Wire


[Eng] The moving "screen" at the wet end of a paper machine
where the sheet is formed.

Wire Return Roll (s)


[Eng] The small diameter rolls used at the return run (Couch roll to
Breast roll) of the wire.

Wire Side
[Eng] The side of a sheet next to the wire in manufacturing;
opposite from the felt or top side; usually not as smooth as the felt
or topside.

Wire Tension Roll


[Eng] The small diameter rolls used at the return run (Couch roll to
Breast roll) of the wire to adjust the tension of the wire.

Wood Containing
[Eng] Paper containing a certain proportion of mechanical pulp.

Wood Pulp
[Eng] Mechanical or chemical pulp made from wood (cf. Non-wood
pulp).

Wood-Free Paper
[Eng] Pulp furnish without mechanical pulp.

Wove
[Eng] The Paper having a uniform surface and no discernible
marks. Soft, smooth finish, most widely used writing, printing,
book and envelope paper. Relatively low opacity, brightness and
bulk.

Wrapper
[Eng] The materials, consisting usually of paper or paperboard,
sometimes with treatment for moisture barrier properties, which
are used to protect the roll or pile form damage.

Wrinkle
[Eng] Blade Wrinkle: Blade coating defect, an irregular line on the
coated surface, essentially in the machine direction. Winder
Wrinkle: Ridges at an angle to the machine direction, caused by

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hard sport in the reel.

Writing Paper
[Eng] Uncoated paper that is suitable for writing with ink on both
sides. The writing must neither bleed nor strike through. Writing
paper is always fully sized (See "Sized paper") and also suitable for
printing. It can be woodfree or mechanical, depending on the
intended purpose. The admixture of fillers makes it less
translucent.

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X

Xerography
[Eng] The printing process used by photocopying machines.
Electric charge creates the image on an eloctro-photographic
surface that works as a plate. This surface is cleared after each
copy is made, and used over again for the next copy.

Xylan
[Eng] A type of hemi-cellulose in wood.

Xylanase
[Eng] Enzyme used for hydrolysis of xylan in pulp bleaching.

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Y

Yankee Machine
[Eng] A type of Fourdrinier paper machine employing a single dryer
of large circumference with highly polished surface.

Yellowing
[Eng] Or brightness reversion is the discoloration of white paper
primarily due to aging.

Yield
[Eng] Ratio of product output and raw material input, expressed in
percentage.

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Z

Z-Direction
[Eng] The direction perpendicular to the plane of a sheet of paper.

Z-Direction Tensile Strength


[Eng] The tensile strength measured in Z-direction.

Z-Fold
[Eng] A paper fold represented by back and forth folds into three
panels.

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