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Basic Questions for JC2 Practice Paper
1.
Propan-2-ol is used as an extraction solvent in a science laboratory. It is an
isomer of propan-1-ol.
(a)
[Organic chemistry] Describe a series of simple chemical tests by which you
can distinguish between propanal, propanone, propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol. State
the observations that are expected. [7]
(b)
[Chemical Bonding] Explain with reference to the bonding why propan-2-ol is
soluble in water while ethene is not soluble in water. [4]
(c)
[Chemical Bonding] Explain why propan-2-ol has a higher boiling point than
propanone. [3]
(d)
[Gases] 56 g of propan-2-ol and 56 g of oxygen gas are mixed in a 10 dm 3
flask at 200oC.
(i)

Assuming all gases behave ideally, calculate the total pressure of the mixture.

(ii)
If the mixture is ignited and cooled to room temperature, what will be the final
pressure? Write a chemical equation for any reaction that happens. [6]
[Total : 20 marks]
2(a) [Carboxylic acids] Ethanoyl chloride, CH3COCl is used widely in chemical
synthesis.
Explain in terms of bonding why ethanoyl chloride is more reactive than ethanoic
acid. [3]
(b)
[Carboxylic acids] Draw the displayed formula of the organic product obtained
when ethanoyl chloride reacts with ethylamine. [2]
(c)
[Nitrogen compounds] Outline a synthetic route for the conversion of
ethylamine into alanine. [4]

Alanine
(d)
[Organic chemistry] Suggest a chemical test to distinguish between
ethylamine and alanine. State the observations expected. [3]

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(e)
[Ionic equilibria] A solution of ethanoic acid is titrated with aqueous ammonia.
Suggest why no suitable indicator can be found to detect the end point. [2]
(f)
[Chemical Equilibria] The esterification of ethanoic acid and ethanol is given
by the reaction below:
C2H5OH(aq) + CH3COOH(aq)  CH3COOC2H5(aq) + H2O(l)
When 1.00 mol of ethanol was mixed with 2.00 mol of acid in a 1.00 dm3 flask, 0.86
mol of ester was formed at room temperature. What is the value of the equilibrium
constant, Kc? [4]
(Ans: 4.63)
(g)
[Carboxylic acid] Suggest how you can convert ethanoic acid into ethanol.
State the reagents and conditions. [2]
[Total : 20 marks]
3(a)

Buffers are important in physiological systems.

Calculate the pH of a solution containing 1 dm3 of 0.20 mol dm-3 of ethanoic acid and
0.40 mol dm-3 of sodium ethanoate. [Ka of ethanoic acid = 1.80 x 10-5 mol dm-3] [2]
(b)

Calculate the change in pH (assuming no change in volume) when

(i)

0.020 mol of solid sodium hydroxide is added to 1.0 dm 3 of the solution in (a).

(ii)

0.020 mol of solid sodium hydroxide is added to 1.0 dm3 of water. [5]

(c)
Suggest a buffer system in the human body which helps to regulate the pH of
blood. [2]
(d)

Calculate the pH of 1.00 x 10-7 mol dm-3 ethanoic acid. [3]

(e)
[Carboxylic Acids] HO-CH2CHClCH2CH2-COOH can undergo a reaction by
itself to form a single organic product. Suggest the name of the reaction. Draw the
displayed formula of the product.
[3]
(f)
[Organic Chemistry] Suggest how you can convert ethanoic acid into
chloroethane. [3]
(g)
[Carboxylic Acids] Explain briefly which has a lower pH, ethanoyl chloride or
ethanoic acid in water. [2]
[Total : 20 marks]

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4(a) [Energetics] A teacher dissolved 2.0 g of sodium chloride in 250 g of water.
Given the following data, calculate the final temperature of the water if the initial
temperature of the solution is 25oC. Assume that the specific heat capacity of sodium
chloride solution is 4.2 J g-1 K-1.

Lattice energy of NaCl
Enthalpy change of hydration of ClEnthalpy change of hydration of Na+

-722 kJ mol-1
-334 kJ mol-1
-390 kJ mol-1
[4]

(b)
[Chemical Bonding] Explain how you would expect the numerical value of
enthalpy change of hydration of the fluoride ion to compare with that of the chloride
ion. [2]
(c)
[Energetics] CH2=CHCOOH (l) + H2 (g)  CH3CH2COOH (l)
kJ mol-1

ΔH = -380

(i)
Given that the absolute value of ΔS for the above reaction is 68 J mol -1 K-1.
Predict the sign of ΔS, stating your reasons.
(ii)

Hence determine the temperature for the reaction to be non-spontaneous.

(iii)

Describe the spontaneity of the reaction as temperature increases. [6]

(d)

[Energetics] Given the standard enthalpy changes for the reactions

H2 (g)  2H (g)
ΔH = 436 kJ mol-1
Br2 (g)  2Br (g)
ΔH = 193 kJ mol-1
H (g) + Br (g)  HBr (g) ΔH = -367 kJ mol-1
Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction
H2 (g) + Br2 (g)  2HBr (g)
[5]
Ans: -104 kJ
(e)
[Group VII] Astatine is a radioactive element which is below iodine in Group
VII of the Periodic Table. Ignoring the radioactive nature of astatine, predict what
happens when:
(i)

chlorine is mixed with potassium astatide.

(ii)

concentrated sulfuric acid is added to solid potassium astatide. [3]

5(a) Manganese(IV) oxide is used in dry cell batteries which are found in
consumer markets. A particular dry cell, consisting of a sodium anode and a graphite

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cathode immersed in a suitable polymer electrolyte, has been developed. The
graphite electrode is coated with manganese(IV) oxide which is converted to
MnO(OH) solid and hydroxide ions during discharge.
(i)
Write the half equations for the reactions which occur at the anode and
cathode.
(ii)
The voltage of this sodium-graphite dry cell is found to be 1.00 V. Estimate
approximately the standard electrode potential of the manganese half cell. [4]

(c)
[Carbonyl compounds] Describe a simple chemical test to distinguish between
these two ketones:
C6H5CH2COCH3

C6H5CH2CH2CH2COCH2CH3 [3]

(d)
Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is a hormone. It increases heart rate
and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the central and parasympathetic
nervous system. Ancient hunters have an increase in epinephrine when they see a
ferocious animal and they take flight.

Epinephrine
[Organic chemistry] Draw the organic product when epinephrine reacts with
(i)

methanoic acid [2]

(ii)

chloromethane in excess [2]

(iii)

bromine in CCl4 [2]

(iv) [Amines]

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Norepinephrine
The above molecule is norepinephrine, also a hormone.
Explain why the pKb of epinephrine and norepinephrine differ slightly. [2]
(v)
[Alcohols] Draw the displayed formula of the organic product formed when
norepinephrine reacts with thionyl chloride, SOCl2. [2]
[Total : 20 marks]

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